Science.gov

Sample records for affect brain activity

  1. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  2. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  3. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  4. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  5. Brain Activity, Personality Traits and Affect: Electrocortical Activity in Reaction to Affective Film Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makvand Hosseini, Sh.; Azad Fallah, P.; Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei, S. K.; Ghannadyan Ladani, S. H.; Heise, C.

    We studied the patterns of activation over the cerebral cortex in reaction to affective film stimuli in four groups of extroverts, introverts, neurotics and emotionally stables. Measures of extraversion and neuroticism were collected and resting EEG was recorded from 40 right handed undergraduate female students (19-23) on one occasion for five 30s periods in baseline condition and in affective states. Mean log-transformed absolute alpha power was extracted from 12 electrode sites and analyzed. Patterns of activation were different in personality groups. Different patterns of asymmetries were observed in personality groups in reaction to affective stimuli. Results were partly consistent with approach and withdrawal model and provided supportive evidence for the role of right frontal asymmetry in negative affects in two groups (introverts and emotionally stables) as well as the role of right central asymmetry (increase on right and decrease on left) in active affective states (anxiety and happiness) in all personality groups. Results were also emphasized on the role of decrease activity relative to baseline in cortical regions (bilaterally in frontal and unilaterally in left parietal and temporal regions) in moderating of positive and negative emotion.

  6. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance.

  7. MEG brain activities reflecting affection for visual food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Shinya; Miyamura, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the modulation of alpha rhythm in response to food pictures with distinct affection values. We examined the method to discriminate subject's state, i.e., whether he/she liked the article of food or not, from MEG signals detected over the head. Pictures of familiar foods were used as affective stimuli, while those pictures with complementary color phase were used as non-affective stimuli. Alpha band signals in a narrow frequency window around the spectral peak of individual subjects were wavelet analyzed and phase-locked component to the stimulus onset was obtained as a complex number. The amplitude of the phase-locked component was averaged during 0-1 s after stimulus onset for 30 epochs in a measurement session and across 76 channels of MEG sensor. In statistical test of individual subjects, significant difference was found in the real part of the averaged phase-locked amplitude between the normal-color and reverse-color pictures. These results suggest that affective information processing of food pictures is reflected in the synchronized component of narrow band alpha rhythm. PMID:21096510

  8. Gaze fixations predict brain activation during the voluntary regulation of picture-induced negative affect.

    PubMed

    van Reekum, Carien M; Johnstone, Tom; Urry, Heather L; Thurow, Marchell E; Schaefer, Hillary S; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have identified a distributed network of brain regions thought to support cognitive reappraisal processes underlying emotion regulation in response to affective images, including parieto-temporal regions and lateral/medial regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). A number of these commonly activated regions are also known to underlie visuospatial attention and oculomotor control, which raises the possibility that people use attentional redeployment rather than, or in addition to, reappraisal as a strategy to regulate emotion. We predicted that a significant portion of the observed variance in brain activation during emotion regulation tasks would be associated with differences in how participants visually scan the images while regulating their emotions. We recorded brain activation using fMRI and quantified patterns of gaze fixation while participants increased or decreased their affective response to a set of affective images. fMRI results replicated previous findings on emotion regulation with regulation differences reflected in regions of PFC and the amygdala. In addition, our gaze fixation data revealed that when regulating, individuals changed their gaze patterns relative to a control condition. Furthermore, this variation in gaze fixation accounted for substantial amounts of variance in brain activation. These data point to the importance of controlling for gaze fixation in studies of emotion regulation that use visual stimuli.

  9. Sex differences in how stress affects brain activity during face viewing.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara; Lighthall, Nichole R; Nga, Lin; Gorlick, Marissa A

    2010-10-01

    Under stress, men tend to withdraw socially whereas women seek social support. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates that stress also affects brain activity while viewing emotional faces differently for men and women. Fusiform face area response to faces was diminished by acute stress in men but increased by stress in women. Furthermore, among stressed men viewing angry faces, brain regions involved in interpreting and understanding others' emotions (the insula, temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus) showed reduced coordination with the fusiform face area and the amygdala, whereas the functional connectivity among these regions increased with stress for women. These findings suggest that stress influences emotional perception differently for men and women.

  10. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  11. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  12. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  13. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory. PMID:27508865

  14. Progranulin Mutations Affects Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fronto-Temporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide V.; Benussi, Luisa; Fostinelli, Silvia; Ciani, Miriam; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin (PGRN) has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD) as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non-carriers in patients with overt FTD. Materials and Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations. PMID:26973510

  15. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions.

  16. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  17. Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks. PMID:19707539

  18. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  19. Spatial memory extinction differentially affects dorsal and ventral hippocampal metabolic activity and associated functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; González-Pardo, Héctor; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L; Conejo, Nélida M

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies showed the involvement of brain regions associated with both spatial learning and associative learning in spatial memory extinction, although the specific role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and the extended hippocampal system including the mammillary body in the process is still controversial. The present study aimed to identify the involvement of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, together with cortical regions, the amygdaloid nuclei, and the mammillary bodies in the extinction of a spatial memory task. To address these issues, quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied as a metabolic brain mapping method. Rats were trained in a reference memory task using the Morris water maze, followed by an extinction procedure of the previously acquired memory task. Results show that rats learned successfully the spatial memory task as shown by the progressive decrease in measured latencies to reach the escape platform and the results obtained in the probe test. Spatial memory was subsequently extinguished as shown by the descending preference for the previously reinforced location. A control naïve group was added to ensure that brain metabolic changes were specifically related with performance in the spatial memory extinction task. Extinction of the original spatial learning task significantly modified the metabolic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the amygdala and the mammillary bodies. Moreover, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral mammillary body and the retrosplenial cortex were differentially recruited in the spatial memory extinction task, as shown by group differences in brain metabolic networks. These findings provide new insights on the brain regions and functional brain networks underlying spatial memory, and specifically spatial memory extinction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Spatial memory extinction differentially affects dorsal and ventral hippocampal metabolic activity and associated functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; González-Pardo, Héctor; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L; Conejo, Nélida M

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies showed the involvement of brain regions associated with both spatial learning and associative learning in spatial memory extinction, although the specific role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and the extended hippocampal system including the mammillary body in the process is still controversial. The present study aimed to identify the involvement of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, together with cortical regions, the amygdaloid nuclei, and the mammillary bodies in the extinction of a spatial memory task. To address these issues, quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied as a metabolic brain mapping method. Rats were trained in a reference memory task using the Morris water maze, followed by an extinction procedure of the previously acquired memory task. Results show that rats learned successfully the spatial memory task as shown by the progressive decrease in measured latencies to reach the escape platform and the results obtained in the probe test. Spatial memory was subsequently extinguished as shown by the descending preference for the previously reinforced location. A control naïve group was added to ensure that brain metabolic changes were specifically related with performance in the spatial memory extinction task. Extinction of the original spatial learning task significantly modified the metabolic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the amygdala and the mammillary bodies. Moreover, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral mammillary body and the retrosplenial cortex were differentially recruited in the spatial memory extinction task, as shown by group differences in brain metabolic networks. These findings provide new insights on the brain regions and functional brain networks underlying spatial memory, and specifically spatial memory extinction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102086

  1. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  2. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  3. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fatigue-inducing mental task session. Results After the 0-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right angular gyrus and increased levels in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right medial frontal gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left inferior parietal and superior parietal lobules, right parahippocampal gyrus, right uncus, left postcentral gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. For beta power, increased power following the 0-back test was indicated in the left middle temporal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left precentral gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased power was suggested in the left superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule. Some of these brain regions might be associated with task performance during the fatigue-inducing trials. Conclusions Two types of mental fatigue may produce different alterations of the spontaneous oscillatory MEG activities. Our findings would provide new perspectives on the neural mechanisms underlying mental fatigue. PMID:23305089

  4. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  5. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  6. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  7. Lithium affects REM sleep occurrence, autonomic activity and brain second messengers in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christine Ann; Perez, Emanuele; Amici, Roberto; Luppi, Marco; Baracchi, Francesca; Cerri, Matteo; Dentico, Daniela; Zamboni, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    The effects of a single intraperitoneal administration of lithium, a drug used to prevent the recurrence of mania in bipolar disorders, were determined in the rat by studying changes in: (i) the wake-sleep cycle; (ii) autonomic parameters (hypothalamic and tail temperature, heart rate); (iii) the capacity to accumulate cAMP and IP(3) in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic region (PO-AH) and in the cerebral cortex (CC) under an hypoxic stimulation at normal laboratory and at low ambient temperature (T(a)). In the immediate hours following the injection, lithium induced: (i) a significant reduction in REM sleep; (ii) a non-significant reduction in the delta power density of the EEG in NREM sleep; (iii) a significant decrease in the concentration of cAMP in PO-AH at normal laboratory T(a); (iv) a significant increase of IP(3) concentration in CC following exposure to low T(a). The earliest and most sensitive effects of lithium appear to be those concerning sleep. These changes are concomitant with biochemical effects that, in spite of a systemic administration of the substance, may be differentiated according to the second messenger involved, the brain region and the ambient condition.

  8. Functional activity of the cannabinoid 1 receptor is not affected by opioid antagonists in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background WIN55212-2 is a synthetic cannabinoid agonist and selective to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, which are distributed mainly in the central nervous system. Opioid receptors and CB1 receptors have several similarities in terms of their intracellular signal transduction mechanisms, distributions, and pharmacological action. Several studies have therefore sought to describe the functional interactions between opioids and cannabinoids at the cellular and behavioral levels. The present study investigated agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding by WIN55212-2 in rat brain membranes and determined the antagonism by selective opioid antagonists at the level of receptor-ligand interaction and intracellular signal transduction. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (male, n = 20) were euthanized for the preparation of brain membranes. In agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding by WIN55212-2, the values of EC50 and maximum stimulation (% over basal) were determined in the absence or presence of the µ, κ and δ opioid receptor antagonists naloxone (20 nM), norbinaltorphimine (3 nM), and naltrindole (3 nM), respectively. Ke values for opioid antagonist inhibition in the absence or presence of each opioid receptor antagonist were calculated using the following equation: [nanomolar antagonist] / (dose ratio of EC50 - 1). Results In WIN55212-2-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the rat brain membranes, the values of EC50 and maximum stimulation (% over basal) were 154 ± 39.5 nM and 27.6 ± 5.3% over basal, respectively. Addition of selective opioid antagonists did not produce a significant rightward shift in the WIN55212-2 concentration-response curve, and Ke values were not applicable. Conclusions Our results suggest that the functional activity of WIN55212-2-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding was not affected by opioid antagonists in the rat brain membranes. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, our results may partially elucidate their actions. PMID:23560193

  9. Frequencies of Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Differentially Affect Brain Activity: Positive and Negative Hypersonic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  10. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  11. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  12. Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups' neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal. PMID:21861686

  13. Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups' neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal.

  14. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms. PMID:25745389

  15. Study-Test Congruency Affects Encoding-Related Brain Activity for Some but Not All Stimulus Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Eva M.; Otten, Leun J.

    2012-01-01

    Memory improves when encoding and retrieval processes overlap. Here, we investigated how the neural bases of long-term memory encoding vary as a function of the degree to which functional processes engaged at study are engaged again at test. In an incidental learning paradigm, electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy…

  16. ADHD- and Medication-Related Brain Activation Effects in Concordantly Affected Parent-Child Dyads with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Casey, B. J.; Tonev, Simon T.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M.; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Spicer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological…

  17. Low brain histamine content affects ethanol-induced motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Raatesalmi, Kristiina; Sallmen, Tina; Anichtchik, Oleg; Karlstedt, Kaj; Kaslin, Jan; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R; Panula, Pertti

    2002-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on motor performance in humans is well established but how neural mechanisms are affected by ethanol action remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the brain histaminergic system is important in it, we used a genetic model consisting of rat lines selectively outbred for differential ethanol sensitivity. Ethanol-sensitive rats had lower levels of brain histamine and lower densities of histamine-immunoreactive fibers than ethanol-insensitive rats, although both rat lines showed no changes in histamine synthesizing neurons. Lowering the high brain histamine content of the ethanol-insensitive rats with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine before ethanol administration increased their ethanol sensitivity in a behavioral motor function test. Higher H3 receptor ligand binding and histamine-induced G-protein activation was detected in several brain regions of ethanol-naive ethanol-sensitive rats. Brain histamine levels and possibly signaling via H3 receptors may thus correlate with genetic differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment.

  18. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  19. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal's housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  20. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  1. Affective brain-computer music interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Kirke, Alexis; Weaver, James; Malik, Asad; Hwang, Faustina; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. We aim to develop and evaluate an affective brain-computer music interface (aBCMI) for modulating the affective states of its users. Approach. An aBCMI is constructed to detect a user's current affective state and attempt to modulate it in order to achieve specific objectives (for example, making the user calmer or happier) by playing music which is generated according to a specific affective target by an algorithmic music composition system and a case-based reasoning system. The system is trained and tested in a longitudinal study on a population of eight healthy participants, with each participant returning for multiple sessions. Main results. The final online aBCMI is able to detect its users current affective states with classification accuracies of up to 65% (3 class, p\\lt 0.01) and modulate its user's affective states significantly above chance level (p\\lt 0.05). Significance. Our system represents one of the first demonstrations of an online aBCMI that is able to accurately detect and respond to user's affective states. Possible applications include use in music therapy and entertainment.

  2. Diagnosing pseudobulbar affect in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, William; Hammond, Flora M; Malec, James F

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined by episodes of involuntary crying and/or laughing as a result of brain injury or other neurological disease. Epidemiology studies show that 5.3%–48.2% of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have symptoms consistent with (or suggestive of) PBA. Yet it is a difficult and often overlooked condition in individuals with TBI, and is easily confused with depression or other mood disorders. As a result, it may be undertreated and persist for longer than it should. This review presents the signs and symptoms of PBA in patients with existing TBI and outlines how to distinguish PBA from other similar conditions. It also compares and contrasts the different diagnostic criteria found in the literature and briefly mentions appropriate treatments. This review follows a composite case with respect to the clinical course and treatment for PBA and presents typical challenges posed to a provider when diagnosing PBA. PMID:25336956

  3. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  4. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  5. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  6. Affective state and community integration after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Juengst, Shannon B; Arenth, Patricia M; Raina, Ketki D; McCue, Michael; Skidmore, Elizabeth R

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship between affective state and community integration have focused primarily on the influence of depression and anxiety. In addition, they have focused on frequency of participation in various activities, failing to address an individual's subjective satisfaction with participation. The purpose of this study was to examine how affective state contributes to frequency of participation and satisfaction with participation after traumatic brain injury among participants with and without a current major depressive episode. Sixty-four community-dwelling participants with a history of complicated mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury participated in this cross-sectional cohort study. High positive affect contributed significantly to frequency of participation (β = 0.401, P = 0.001), and both high positive affect and low negative affect significantly contributed to better satisfaction with participation (F2,61 = 13.63, P < 0.001). Further investigation to assess the direction of these relationships may better inform effective targets for intervention. These findings highlight the importance of assessing affective state after traumatic brain injury and incorporating a subjective measure of participation when considering community integration outcomes.

  7. Brain regions and genes affecting postural control.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2007-01-01

    Postural control is integrated in all facets of motor commands. The role of cortico-subcortical pathways underlying postural control, including cerebellum and its afferents (climbing, mossy, and noradrenergic fibers), basal ganglia, motor thalamus, and parieto-frontal neocortex has been identified in animal models, notably through the brain lesion technique in rats and in mice with spontaneous and induced mutations. These studies are complemented by analyses of the factors underlying postural deficiencies in patients with cerebellar atrophy. With the gene deletion technique in mice, specific genes expressed in cerebellum encoding glutamate receptors (Grid2 and Grm1) and other molecules (Prkcc, Cntn6, Klf9, Syt4, and En2) have also been shown to affect postural control. In addition, transgenic mouse models of the synucleinopathies and of Huntington's disease cause deficiencies of motor coordination resembling those of patients with basal ganglia damage.

  8. Flibanserin, a drug intended for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women, affects spontaneous motor activity and brain neurochemistry in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ferger, Boris; Shimasaki, Makoto; Ceci, Angelo; Ittrich, Carina; Allers, Kelly A; Sommer, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Flibanserin, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, is being developed for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in pre-menopausal women. Here, we investigated the effects of acute administration of flibanserin (15 and 45 mg/kg, p.o.) and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on neurotransmitter levels in brain areas of female rats. Specifically, levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and neurotransmitter metabolites were examined in prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. In addition, spontaneous motor activity was determined in an automated motor activity system. Flibanserin (45 mg/kg) but not (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly reduced motor activity, when compared to vehicle controls. Specifically, the DA turnover was significantly increased (279%) in the PFC after flibanserin treatment but less pronounced (159%) after 8-OH-DPAT administration. Serotonin tissue levels were not altered in any of the investigated brain regions upon flibanserin treatment. However, flibanserin produced a significant decrease of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 5-HT turnover in the PFC, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem similar to (+)-8-OH-DPAT. In conclusion, the present study indicates that flibanserin is able to modulate dopaminergic and serotonergic activity in distinct brain areas. The observed effects in the PFC on dopaminergic markers are different from those induced by (+)-8-OH-DPAT and may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy in HSDD. The effects of flibanserin on spontaneous motor behaviour are in agreement with its receptor profile and underscore that flibanserin is devoid of any locomotor hyperactivity inducing properties.

  9. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

  10. Brain Activities and Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riza, Emel

    2002-01-01

    There are close relationships between brain activities and educational technology. Brain is very important and so complicated part in our bodies. From long time scientists pay attention to that part and did many experiments, but they just reached little information like a drop in the sea. However from time to time they gave us some light to…

  11. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  12. Fueling and imaging brain activation.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron-astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  13. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  14. Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2011-11-10

    Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.

  15. Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) affect behavior and brain serotonergic activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Perspectives on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Øverli, Øyvind; Nordgreen, Janicke; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Janczak, Andrew M; Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida B; Horsberg, Tor E

    2014-06-10

    Scientific research and public debate on the welfare of animals in human custody is increasing at present. Fish are in this context mentioned with particular attention to the high numbers of individuals reared in aquaculture. Research on fish has also contributed to the understanding of individual variation in the ability to cope with stress and disease. One mediator of such variation is the brain serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, which conveys physiological and behavioral responses to stress and sub-optimal rearing conditions. Here we study links between the 5-HT response, melanin-based skin pigmentation, and behavior in laboratory-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infested with ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Lice numbers were more variable in less pigmented fish, while the neurochemical response to ectoparastic lice-increased levels of the main 5-HT catabolite 5-HIAA in the brain stem-did not differ between pigmentation groups. A strong depression of growth and locomotor activity was seen in all infested fish but less pigmented fish grew better than fish with more skin melanization regardless of infestation status. The observed combination of neurochemical and behavioral effects clearly suggest that animal welfare concerns can be added to the list of negative effects of ectoparasitic sea lice.

  16. Down, But Not Out: Partial Elimination of Androgen Receptors in the Male Mouse Brain Does Not Affect Androgenic Regulation of Anxiety or HPA Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh V; Brummet, Jennifer L; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that androgen receptor (AR) activity mediates two effects of T in adult male mice: reduction of anxiety-like behaviors and dampening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress. To determine whether brain ARs mediate these effects, we used the Cre/loxP technology seeking to disable AR throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Female mice carrying the floxed AR allele (ARlox) were crossed with males carrying cre recombinase transgene controlled by the nestin promoter (NesCre), producing cre in developing neurons and glia. Among male offspring, four genotypes resulted: males carrying ARlox and NesCre (NesARko), and three control groups (wild types, NesCre, and ARlox). Reporter mice indicated ubiquitous Cre expression throughout the CNS. Nevertheless, AR immunocytochemistry in NesARko mice revealed efficient knockout (KO) of AR in some brain regions (hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]), but not others. Substantial AR protein was seen in the amygdala and hypothalamus among other regions, whereas negligible AR remained in others like the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and dorsal periaqueductal gray. This selective KO allowed for testing the role of AR in hippocampus and mPFC. Males were castrated and implanted with T at postnatal day 60 before testing on postnatal day 90-100. In contrast with males with global KO of AR, T still modulated anxiety-related behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in NesARko males. These results leave open the possibility that AR acting in the CNS mediates these effects of T, but demonstrate that AR is not required in the hippocampus or mPFC for T's anxiolytic effects.

  17. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.

  18. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing. PMID:20336685

  19. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC. PMID:23900312

  20. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Francis, Andrew D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davis, James M; Davidson, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.

  1. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  2. Brain network analysis reveals affected connectome structure in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Collin, Guusje; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Abramovic, Lucija; Vreeker, Annabel; de Reus, Marcel A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    The notion that healthy brain function emerges from coordinated neural activity constrained by the brain's network of anatomical connections--i.e., the connectome--suggests that alterations in the connectome's wiring pattern may underlie brain disorders. Corroborating this hypothesis, studies in schizophrenia are indicative of altered connectome architecture including reduced communication efficiency, disruptions of central brain hubs, and affected "rich club" organization. Whether similar deficits are present in bipolar disorder is currently unknown. This study examines structural connectome topology in 216 bipolar I disorder patients as compared to 144 healthy controls, focusing in particular on central regions (i.e., brain hubs) and connections (i.e., rich club connections, interhemispheric connections) of the brain's network. We find that bipolar I disorder patients exhibit reduced global efficiency (-4.4%, P =0.002) and that this deficit relates (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) to reduced connectivity strength of interhemispheric connections (-13.0%, P = 0.001). Bipolar disorder patients were found not to show predominant alterations in the strength of brain hub connections in general, or of connections spanning brain hubs (i.e., "rich club" connections) in particular (all P > 0.1). These findings highlight a role for aberrant brain network architecture in bipolar I disorder with reduced global efficiency in association with disruptions in interhemispheric connectivity, while the central "rich club" system appears not to be particularly affected.

  3. Decoding patterns of human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Frank; Pratte, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Considerable information about mental states can be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activity patterns can reveal what a person is seeing, perceiving, attending to, or remembering. Moreover, multidimensional models can be used to investigate how the brain encodes complex visual scenes or abstract semantic information. Such feats of "brain reading" or "mind reading," though impressive, raise important conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues. What does successful decoding reveal about the cognitive functions performed by a brain region? How should brain signals be spatially selected and mathematically combined to ensure that decoding reflects inherent computations of the brain rather than those performed by the decoder? We highlight recent advances and describe how multivoxel pattern analysis can provide a window into mind-brain relationships with unprecedented specificity, when carefully applied. However, as brain-reading technology advances, issues of neuroethics and mental privacy will be important to consider.

  4. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  5. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  6. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  7. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease.

  8. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character Through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Aranyi, Gabor; Pecune, Florian; Charles, Fred; Pelachaud, Catherine; Cavazza, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Affective brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this article, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent’s facial expressions, in which action units (AUs) are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent’s responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment. PMID:27462216

  9. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character Through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Aranyi, Gabor; Pecune, Florian; Charles, Fred; Pelachaud, Catherine; Cavazza, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Affective brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this article, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent's facial expressions, in which action units (AUs) are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent's responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment. PMID:27462216

  10. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  11. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  12. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    PubMed

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  13. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  14. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function.

  15. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. PMID:26068849

  16. [Brain, psyche and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Hollmann, W; Strüder, H K

    2000-11-01

    Modern technical and biochemical methods allow investigation of hemodynamic and metabolic responses of the human brain during muscular work. Following a general introduction to the topic results from selected studies on endogenous opioid peptides, pain sensitivity and psyche, regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral glucose metabolism, amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier, impact of physical work on the serotonergic system, influence of oxygen partial pressure on neurotransmitters and hormones during exercise, role of the brain as performance limiting factor as well as age-related changes in cerebral blood flow and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/-gonadal axis function will be presented. PMID:11149280

  17. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  18. Recording of brain activity across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C M; Bosman, C A; Fries, P

    2015-06-01

    Brain activity reveals exquisite coordination across spatial scales, from local microcircuits to brain-wide networks. Understanding how the brain represents, transforms and communicates information requires simultaneous recordings from distributed nodes of whole brain networks with single-cell resolution. Realizing multi-site recordings from communicating populations is hampered by the need to isolate clusters of interacting cells, often on a day-to-day basis. Chronic implantation of multi-electrode arrays allows long-term tracking of activity. Lithography on thin films provides a means to produce arrays of variable resolution, a high degree of flexibility, and minimal tissue displacement. Sequential application of surface arrays to monitor activity across brain-wide networks and subsequent implantation of laminar arrays to target specific populations enables continual refinement of spatial scale while maintaining coverage. PMID:25544724

  19. Activities That Build the Young Child's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellens, Suzanne R.

    This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…

  20. Use of deep brain stimulation for major affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Kuanqing

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial etiology of major affective disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder, poses a challenge for identification of effective treatments. In a substantial number of patients, psychopharmacologic treatment does not lead to effective continuous symptom relief. The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant patients is an investigational approach that has recently produced promising results. The recent development of safer stereotaxic neurosurgery, and the combination with functional neuroimaging to map the affected brain circuits, have led to the investigation of DBS as a potential strategy to treat major mood disorders. Several independent clinical studies have recently shown that chronic DBS treatment leads to remission of symptoms in a high number of treatment-resistant patients for major depression and bipolar disorder. In conclusion, the existing proof-of-principle that DBS can be an effective intervention for treatment-resistant depression opens new avenues for treatment. However, multicenter, randomized and blind trials need to confirm efficacy and be approved after the most recent failures. Patient selection and surgical-related improvements are key issues that remain to be addressed to help deliver more precise and customized treatment.

  1. Use of deep brain stimulation for major affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Kuanqing

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial etiology of major affective disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder, poses a challenge for identification of effective treatments. In a substantial number of patients, psychopharmacologic treatment does not lead to effective continuous symptom relief. The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant patients is an investigational approach that has recently produced promising results. The recent development of safer stereotaxic neurosurgery, and the combination with functional neuroimaging to map the affected brain circuits, have led to the investigation of DBS as a potential strategy to treat major mood disorders. Several independent clinical studies have recently shown that chronic DBS treatment leads to remission of symptoms in a high number of treatment-resistant patients for major depression and bipolar disorder. In conclusion, the existing proof-of-principle that DBS can be an effective intervention for treatment-resistant depression opens new avenues for treatment. However, multicenter, randomized and blind trials need to confirm efficacy and be approved after the most recent failures. Patient selection and surgical-related improvements are key issues that remain to be addressed to help deliver more precise and customized treatment. PMID:27698736

  2. Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces As Enabling Technology for Responsive Psychiatric Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Widge, Alik S.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing clinical need for responsive neurostimulators, which sense a patient’s brain activity and deliver targeted electrical stimulation to suppress unwanted symptoms. This is particularly true in psychiatric illness, where symptoms can fluctuate throughout the day. Affective BCIs, which decode emotional experience from neural activity, are a candidate control signal for responsive stimulators targeting the limbic circuit. Present affective decoders, however, cannot yet distinguish pathologic from healthy emotional extremes. Indiscriminate stimulus delivery would reduce quality of life and may be actively harmful. We argue that the key to overcoming this limitation is to specifically decode volition, in particular the patient’s intention to experience emotional regulation. Those emotion-regulation signals already exist in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and could be extracted with relatively simple BCI algorithms. We describe preliminary data from an animal model of PFC-controlled limbic brain stimulation and discuss next steps for pre-clinical testing and possible translation. PMID:25580443

  3. Understanding the brain by controlling neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Kristine; Salzman, C. Daniel; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Causal methods to interrogate brain function have been employed since the advent of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Initially, randomly placed electrodes and stimulation of parts of the living brain were used to localize specific functions to these areas. Recent technical developments have rejuvenated this approach by providing more precise tools to dissect the neural circuits underlying behaviour, perception and cognition. Carefully controlled behavioural experiments have been combined with electrical devices, targeted genetically encoded tools and neurochemical approaches to manipulate information processing in the brain. The ability to control brain activity in these ways not only deepens our understanding of brain function but also provides new avenues for clinical intervention, particularly in conditions where brain processing has gone awry. PMID:26240417

  4. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L.; Olsson, Craig A.; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K.; Patton, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology. PMID:25678548

  5. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L; Olsson, Craig A; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-09-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology.

  6. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  7. Anabolic androgenic steroid affects competitive behaviour, behavioural response to ethanol and brain serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Ann-Sophie; Johansson-Steensland, Pia; Nyberg, Fred; Fahlke, Claudia

    2002-06-15

    The present study investigated whether anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment (daily subcutaneous injections during 2 weeks with nandrolone decanoate; 15 mg/kg) affects competitive behaviour, and locomotor activity response to a sedative dose of ethanol (0.5 g ethanol/kg). In addition, levels of brain monoamines were assessed. The results showed that AAS treated animals exhibited enhanced dominant behaviour in the competition test compared to controls. The AAS groups' locomotor activity was not affected by ethanol in contrast to the controls who showed a sedative locomotor activity. AAS animals had significant lower levels of serotonin in basal forebrain and dorsal striatum compared to controls. These findings further strengthen the fact that AAS affects behaviour, as well as biochemical parameters. Based on previous studies and results from the present study, we hypothesize that AAS abuse may constitute a risk factor for disinhibitory behaviour, partly by affecting the serotonergic system.

  8. Phosphorylation and actin activation of brain myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Barylko, B; Sobieszek, A

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining brain myosin that shows significant actin activation, after phosphorylation with chicken gizzard myosin light chain kinase. Myosin with this activity could be obtained only via the initial purification of brain actomyosin. The latter complex, isolated by a method similar to that used for smooth muscle, contained actin, myosin, tropomyosin of the non-muscle type and another actin-binding protein of approximately 100,000 daltons. From the presence of a specific myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase in brain tissue it is suggested that the regulation of actin-myosin interaction operates via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:11894951

  9. CNS-disease affecting the heart: brain-heart disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-10-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS-disorders are epilepsy, stroke, subarachanoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis, and head injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest as arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, or autonomic dysfunction. Rarer cardiac complications of CNS disorders include heart failure, systolic or diastolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension. Cardiomyopathy induced by hereditary CNS disease mainly include stress-induced myocardial dysfunction, known as Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes epilepsy, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid bleeding, or PRES syndrome. Arrhythmias induced by hereditary CNS disease include supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias leading to palpitations, dizziness, vertigo, fainting, syncope, (near) sudden cardiac death, or sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Appropriate management of cardiac involvement in CNS-disorders is essential to improve outcome of affected patients. PMID:25034054

  10. How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic…

  11. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas

    PubMed Central

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L.; Naumann, Eva A.; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E.; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M.B.; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open source atlas containing molecular labels and anatomical region definitions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/MAPK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This MAP-Mapping (Mitogen Activated Protein kinase – Mapping) assay is technically simple, fast, inexpensive, and data analysis is completely automated. Since MAP-Mapping is performed on fish that are freely swimming, it is applicable to nearly any stimulus or behavior. We demonstrate the utility of our high-throughput approach using hunting/feeding, pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors. PMID:26778924

  12. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Naumann, Eva A; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M B; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-11-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open-source atlas containing molecular labels and definitions of anatomical regions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole-brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP)-mapping assay is technically simple, and data analysis is completely automated. Because MAP-mapping is performed on freely swimming fish, it is applicable to studies of nearly any stimulus or behavior. Here we demonstrate our high-throughput approach using pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli, as well as hunting and feeding. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors. PMID:26778924

  13. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  14. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  15. Surface visualization of electromagnetic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Badea, Alexandra; Kostopoulos, George K; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2003-08-15

    Advances in hardware and software have made possible the reconstruction of brain activity from non-invasive electrophysiological measurements over a large part of the brain. The appreciation of the information content in the data is enhanced when relevant anatomical detail is also available for visualization. Different neuroscientific questions give rise to different requirements for optimal superposition of structure and function. Most available software deal with scalar measures of activity, especially hemodynamic changes. In contrast, the electrophysiological observables are generated by electrical activity, which depends on the synchrony of neuronal assemblies and the geometry of the local cortical surface. We describe methods for segmentation and visualization of spatio-temporal brain activity, which allow the interplay of geometry and scalar as well as vector properties of the current density directly in the representations. The utility of these methods is demonstrated through displays of tomographic reconstructions of early sensory processing in the somatosensory and visual modality extracted from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The activation course characteristic to a specific area could be observed as current density or statistical maps independently and/or contrasted to the activity in other areas or the whole brain. MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations were simultaneously visualized. Integrating and visualizing complementary functional data into a single environment helps evaluating analysis and understanding structure/function relationships in normal and diseased brain.

  16. The impoverished brain: disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound.

    PubMed

    Skoe, Erika; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-30

    Despite the prevalence of poverty worldwide, little is known about how early socioeconomic adversity affects auditory brain function. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are underexposed to linguistically and cognitively stimulating environments and overexposed to environmental toxins, including noise pollution. This kind of sensory impoverishment, we theorize, has extensive repercussions on how the brain processes sound. To characterize how this impoverishment affects auditory brain function, we compared two groups of normal-hearing human adolescents who attended the same schools and who were matched in age, sex, and ethnicity, but differed in their maternal education level, a correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). In addition to lower literacy levels and cognitive abilities, adolescents from lower maternal education backgrounds were found to have noisier neural activity than their classmates, as reflected by greater activity in the absence of auditory stimulation. Additionally, in the lower maternal education group, the neural response to speech was more erratic over repeated stimulation, with lower fidelity to the input signal. These weaker, more variable, and noisier responses are suggestive of an inefficient auditory system. By studying SES within a neuroscientific framework, we have the potential to expand our understanding of how experience molds the brain, in addition to informing intervention research aimed at closing the achievement gap between high-SES and low-SES children. PMID:24174656

  17. The impoverished brain: disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound.

    PubMed

    Skoe, Erika; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-30

    Despite the prevalence of poverty worldwide, little is known about how early socioeconomic adversity affects auditory brain function. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are underexposed to linguistically and cognitively stimulating environments and overexposed to environmental toxins, including noise pollution. This kind of sensory impoverishment, we theorize, has extensive repercussions on how the brain processes sound. To characterize how this impoverishment affects auditory brain function, we compared two groups of normal-hearing human adolescents who attended the same schools and who were matched in age, sex, and ethnicity, but differed in their maternal education level, a correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). In addition to lower literacy levels and cognitive abilities, adolescents from lower maternal education backgrounds were found to have noisier neural activity than their classmates, as reflected by greater activity in the absence of auditory stimulation. Additionally, in the lower maternal education group, the neural response to speech was more erratic over repeated stimulation, with lower fidelity to the input signal. These weaker, more variable, and noisier responses are suggestive of an inefficient auditory system. By studying SES within a neuroscientific framework, we have the potential to expand our understanding of how experience molds the brain, in addition to informing intervention research aimed at closing the achievement gap between high-SES and low-SES children.

  18. Affective State and Community Integration after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Juengst, Shannon B.; Arenth, Patricia M.; Raina, Ketki D.; McCue, Michael; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship between affective state and community integration have focused primarily on the influence of depression and anxiety. Additionally, they have focused on frequency of participation in various activities, failing to address an individual's subjective satisfaction with participation. The purpose of this study was to examine how affective state, contributes to frequency of participation and satisfaction with participation after TBI among participants with and without a current major depressive episode. Sixty-four community-dwelling participants with a history of complicated mild to severe TBI participated in this cross-sectional cohort study. High positive affect contributed significantly to frequency of participation (β=.401, p=.001), and both high positive affect and low negative affect significantly contributed to better satisfaction with participation (F2,61=13.63, p<.001). Further investigation to assess the direction of these relationships may better inform effective targets for intervention. These findings highlight the importance of assessing affective state after TBI and incorporating a subjective measure of participation when considering community integration outcomes. PMID:25133618

  19. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  20. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  1. Heritability of working memory brain activation.

    PubMed

    Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; McMahon, Katie L; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J

    2011-07-27

    Although key to understanding individual variation in task-related brain activation, the genetic contribution to these individual differences remains largely unknown. Here we report voxel-by-voxel genetic model fitting in a large sample of 319 healthy, young adult, human identical and fraternal twins (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 1.8 years) who performed an n-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a high magnetic field (4 tesla). Patterns of task-related brain response (BOLD signal difference of 2-back minus 0-back) were significantly heritable, with the highest estimates (40-65%) in the inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri, left supplementary motor area, precentral and postcentral gyri, middle cingulate cortex, superior medial gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, including precuneus, and superior occipital gyri. Furthermore, high test-retest reliability for a subsample of 40 twins indicates that nongenetic variance in the fMRI brain response is largely due to unique environmental influences rather than measurement error. Individual variations in activation of the working memory network are therefore significantly influenced by genetic factors. By establishing the heritability of cognitive brain function in a large sample that affords good statistical power, and using voxel-by-voxel analyses, this study provides the necessary evidence for task-related brain activation to be considered as an endophenotype for psychiatric or neurological disorders, and represents a substantial new contribution to the field of neuroimaging genetics. These genetic brain maps should facilitate discovery of gene variants influencing cognitive brain function through genome-wide association studies, potentially opening up new avenues in the treatment of brain disorders. PMID:21795540

  2. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making

    PubMed Central

    van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants’ brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty’s felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. PMID:23685774

  3. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making.

  4. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. PMID:23685774

  5. Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

    2012-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

  6. Genetic defects in folate and cobalamin pathways affecting the brain.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2013-01-01

    Folate and cobalamin are necessary for early brain development and function. Deficiency of folate or cobalamin during pregnancy can cause severe malformation in the central nervous system such as neural tube defects. After birth, folate and cobalamin deficiency can cause anemia, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, psychiatric and neurological symptoms. The folate and the homocysteine metabolic pathways interact at a central step where 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates its methyl group to homocysteine to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate. Methyl cobalamin and folate interact at this critical step. Both nutrients have a crucial role in DNA synthesis and in delivering S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor. Severe and mild inherited disorders in folate and cobalamin pathways have been described. The two groups of disorders share some similarities, but differ in the molecular mechanism, metabolic dysregulation, and disease management. This review summarizes selected disorders, including rare and common mutations that affect folate and cobalamin absorption, transport, or dependent enzymes. When the mutations are discovered early enough, many of the described disorders are easily treatable by B vitamin supplementation, which often prevents or reverses the manifestation of the disease. Therefore, the screening for mutations is recommended and should be carried out as early as possible: after occurrence of the first symptoms or when a certain constellations of the folate and cobalamin related markers are measured, such as elevated homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid. PMID:23183749

  7. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  8. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  9. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574316

  10. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. ); Singh, M. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-01-01

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  11. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R.; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J.; Singh, M.

    1991-12-31

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  12. Complex networks in brain electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, C.; Ruffini, G.; Marco-Pallarés, J.; Fuentemilla, L.; Grau, C.

    2007-08-01

    This letter reports a method to extract a functional network of the human brain from electroencephalogram measurements. A network analysis was performed on the resultant network and the statistics of the cluster coefficient, node degree, path length, and physical distance of the links, were studied. Even given the low electrode count of the experimental data the method was able to extract networks with network parameters that clearly depend on the type of stimulus presented to the subject. This type of analysis opens a door to studying the cerebral networks underlying brain electrical activity, and links the fields of complex networks and cognitive neuroscience.

  13. Competitive brain activity in visual attention.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J; Humphreys, G; Ward, R

    1997-04-01

    Visual attention can be considered from the perspective of distributed brain activity engendered by visual input. We propose that visual objects compete for representation in multiple brain systems, sensory and motor, cortical and subcortical. Competition is integrated, however, such that multiple systems converge, working on the different properties and action implications of a selected object. Top-down priming biases competition towards objects relevant to current behaviour. Recent single-unit studies have shown widespread suppression of ignored-object representations in extrastriate cortex, and patterns of spatial and nonspatial priming by task relevance. Human and monkey lesion studies have demonstrated the strong integration tendency of different spatial and nonspatial systems, also revealed in recent studies of normal behaviour. In many cases, no unitary brain system may be responsible for unitary cognitive events such as attention. Such events may emerge as distinct systems converge to work on common cognitive problems.

  14. Prenatal caffeine intake differently affects synaptic proteins during fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Marques, Daniela M; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Rocha, Andréia S; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Costa, Marcelo S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. However, little is known about its effects during fetal brain development. In this study, adult female Wistar rats received caffeine in drinking water (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during the active cycle in weekdays, two weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus from embryonic stages 18 or 20 (E18 or E20, respectively) were collected for immunodetection of the following synaptic proteins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB receptor, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) and Synaptosomal-associated Protein 25 (SNAP-25). Besides, the estimation of NeuN-stained nuclei (mature neurons) and non-neuronal nuclei was verified in both brain regions and embryonic periods. Caffeine (1.0 g/L) decreased the body weight of embryos at E20. Cortical BDNF at E18 was decreased by caffeine (1.0 g/L), while it increased at E20, with no major effects on TrkB receptors. In the hippocampus, caffeine decreased TrkB receptor only at E18, with no effects on BDNF. Moderate and high doses of caffeine promoted an increase in Shh in both brain regions at E18, and in the hippocampus at E20. Caffeine (0.3g/L) decreased GAP-43 only in the hippocampus at E18. The NeuN-stained nuclei increased in the cortex at E20 by lower dose and in the hippocampus at E18 by moderate dose. Our data revealed that caffeine transitorily affect synaptic proteins during fetal brain development. The increased number of NeuN-stained nuclei by prenatal caffeine suggests a possible acceleration of the telencephalon maturation. Although some modifications in the synaptic proteins were transient, our data suggest that caffeine even in lower doses may alter the fetal brain development. PMID:24862851

  15. Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

  16. Disentangling the brain networks supporting affective speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Razafimandimby, Annick; Vigneau, Mathieu; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2012-07-16

    Areas involved in social cognition, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) appear to be active during the classification of sentences according to emotional criteria (happy, angry or sad, [Beaucousin et al., 2007]). These two regions are frequently co-activated in studies about theory of mind (ToM). To confirm that these regions constitute a coherent network during affective speech comprehension, new event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired, using the emotional and grammatical-person sentence classification tasks on a larger sample of 51 participants. The comparison of the emotional and grammatical tasks confirmed the previous findings. Functional connectivity analyses established a clear demarcation between a "Medial" network, including the mPFC and TPJ regions, and a bilateral "Language" network, which gathered inferior frontal and temporal areas. These findings suggest that emotional speech comprehension results from interactions between language, ToM and emotion processing networks. The language network, active during both tasks, would be involved in the extraction of lexical and prosodic emotional cues, while the medial network, active only during the emotional task, would drive the making of inferences about the sentences' emotional content, based on their meanings. The left and right amygdalae displayed a stronger response during the emotional condition, but were seldom correlated with the other regions, and thus formed a third entity. Finally, distinct regions belonging to the Language and Medial networks were found in the left angular gyrus, where these two systems could interface.

  17. Altered resting-state activity in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Nissilä, Juuso; Liettu, Anu; Remes, Jukka; Jokelainen, Jari; Takala, Timo; Aunio, Antti; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Zang, Yu-Feng; Tervonen, Osmo; Timonen, Markku; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    At present, our knowledge about seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is based mainly up on clinical symptoms, epidemiology, behavioral characteristics and light therapy. Recently developed measures of resting-state functional brain activity might provide neurobiological markers of brain disorders. Studying functional brain activity in SAD could enhance our understanding of its nature and possible treatment strategies. Functional network connectivity (measured using ICA-dual regression), and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were measured in 45 antidepressant-free patients (39.78 ± 10.64, 30 ♀, 15 ♂) diagnosed with SAD and compared with age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. After correcting for Type 1 error at high model orders (inter-RSN correction), SAD patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity in 11 of the 47 identified RSNs. Increased functional connectivity involved RSNs such as visual, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. Moreover, our results revealed that SAD patients compared with HCs showed significant higher ALFF in the visual and right sensorimotor cortex. Abnormally altered functional activity detected in SAD supports previously reported attentional and psychomotor symptoms in patients suffering from SAD. Further studies, particularly under task conditions, are needed in order to specifically investigate cognitive deficits in SAD.

  18. Active Affective Learning for Accelerated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Robert B.

    This paper provides the groundwork for Active Affective Learning and teaching adapted to the needs of the disadvantaged, at-risk students served by the Accelerated Schools Movement. One of the "golden rules" for the practice of Accelerated Learning, according to psychiatrist Georgi Lozanov, has been to maintain an "up-beat" classroom presentation…

  19. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  20. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-07-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  1. Telomerase deficiency affects normal brain functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Jo, Yong Sang; Sung, Young Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Hyuk; Kim, Song-Yi; Yi, Sun Shin; Choi, June-Seek; Sun, Woong; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Han-Woong

    2010-02-01

    Telomerase maintains telomere structures and chromosome stability, and it is essential for preserving the characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. In the brain, the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs are continuously supplied with neural stem and progenitor cells that are required for adult neurogenesis throughout the life. Therefore, we examined whether telomerase plays important roles in maintaining normal brain functions in vivo. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression was observed in the hippocampus, the olfactory bulbs, and the cerebellum, but the telomerase RNA component (TERC) was not detected in hippocampus and olfactory bulbs. Interestingly, TERT-deficient mice exhibited significantly altered anxiety-like behaviors and abnormal olfaction measuring the functions of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs, respectively. However, the cerebellum-dependent behavior was not changed in these mutant mice. These results suggest that TERT is constitutively expressed in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs, and that it is important for regulating normal brain functions. PMID:19685288

  2. HFE polymorphisms affect survival of brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Y; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Sheehan, Jonas M; Zhu, Junjia; Muscat, Joshua E; Glantz, Michael; Connor, James R

    2015-03-01

    The HFE (high iron) protein plays a key role in the regulation of body iron. HFE polymorphisms (H63D and C282Y) are the common genetic variants in Caucasians. Based on frequency data, both HFE polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk in a number of cancers. The prevalence of the two major HFE polymorphisms in a human brain tumor patient populations and the impact of HFE polymorphisms on survival have not been studied. In the present study, there is no overall difference in survival by HFE genotype. However, male GBM patients with H63D HFE (H63D) have poorer overall survival than wild type HFE (WT) male GBM (p = 0.03). In GBM patients with the C282Y HFE polymorphism (C282Y), female patients have poorer survival than male patients (p = 0.05). In addition, female metastatic brain tumor patients with C282Y have shorter survival times post diagnosis than WT patients (p = 0.02) or male metastatic brain tumor patients with C282Y (p = 0.02). There is a tendency toward a lower proportion of H63D genotype in GBM patients than a non-tumor control group (p = 0.09) or other subtypes of brain tumors. In conclusion, our study suggests that HFE genotype impacts survival of brain tumor patients in a gender specific manner. We previously reported that glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines with HFE polymorphisms show greater resistance to chemo and radiotherapy. Taken together, these data suggest HFE genotype is an important consideration for evaluating and planning therapeutic strategies in brain tumor patients.

  3. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  4. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition.

  5. Influence of endocrine active compounds on the developing rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B; Polston, Eva K

    2008-03-01

    Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. Therefore, an experimental approach that simultaneously assesses anatomical, physiological and behavioral endpoints is required when developing risk assessment models for EAC exposure. Using this more comprehensive approach we have demonstrated that the disruption of nuclear volume does not necessarily coincide with disruption of cellular phenotype or neuroendocrine function in two sexually dimorphic brain nuclei: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (AVPV) and the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN). These results demonstrate that nuclear volume is likely not an appropriate biomarker for EAC exposure. We further demonstrated that neonatal exposure to the EACs genistein (GEN) and Bisphenol-A (BPA) can affect sexually dimorphic brain morphology and neuronal phenotypes in adulthood with regional and cellular specificity suggesting that effects observed in one brain region may not be predictive of effects within neighboring regions. Finally, developmental EAC exposure has been shown to affect a variety of sexually dimorphic behaviors including reproductive behavior. These effects are likely to have a broad impact as maladaptive behavior could translate to decreased fitness of entire populations. Collectively, these findings emphasize the need to employ a comprehensive approach that addresses anatomical, functional and behavioral endpoints when evaluating the potential effects of EAC exposure.

  6. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  7. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  8. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    PubMed

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. PMID:21596060

  9. Brain activity during stepping: a novel MRI-compatible device.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Vallery, Heike; Wolf, Peter; Dietz, Volker; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert

    2011-09-30

    Little is known about the impact of supraspinal centers on the control of human locomotion. Analyzing brain activity can help to clarify their impact and to improve the effects of locomotor training. A fMRI-compatible pneumatic robotic device is presented that can generate freely programmable, highly repetitive periodic active and passive leg movements comprised by hip, knee, and ankle joint displacements. Forces of up to 400N can be applied to each foot while the subject is lying in a supine position. Magnetic interference of the device with the magnetic field of the scanner is measurable, but does not affect the image quality as obtained by a usual image analysis procedure. In a first experiment, brain activity of one healthy subject was acquired during nine different gait-like movement conditions. Brain activity in the somatosensory and motor function related areas increased more when the subject actively moved the legs than when the legs were passively moved by the device. In almost all conditions, mean head motion could be limited to 2mm within the duration of one fMRI scan by a specifically developed head and trunk fixation system. Based on these results, it is concluded that our device will significantly contribute to a better understanding of human locomotor control and related therapeutic effects in spinal cord injured and stroke patients, and thereby, to improve training approaches. PMID:21827788

  10. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  11. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing. PMID:26966964

  12. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  13. Cholinesterase inhibitors affect brain potentials in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Irimajiri, Rie; Michalewski, Henry J; Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an isolated episodic memory disorder that has a high likelihood of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Auditory sensory cortical responses (P50, N100) have been shown to be increased in amplitude in MCI compared to older controls. We tested whether (1) cortical potentials to other sensory modalities (somatosensory and visual) were also affected in MCI and (2) cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), one of the therapies used in this disorder, modulated sensory cortical potentials in MCI. Somatosensory cortical potentials to median nerve stimulation and visual cortical potentials to reversing checkerboard stimulation were recorded from 15 older controls and 15 amnestic MCI subjects (single domain). Results were analyzed as a function of diagnosis (Control, MCI) and ChEIs treatment (Treated MCI, Untreated MCI). Somatosensory and visual potentials did not differ significantly in amplitude in MCI subjects compared to controls. When ChEIs use was considered, somatosensory potentials (N20, P50) but not visual potentials (N70, P100, N150) were of larger amplitude in untreated MCI subjects compared to treated MCI subjects. Three individual MCI subjects showed increased N20 amplitude while off ChEIs compared to while on ChEIs. An enhancement of N20 somatosensory cortical activity occurs in amnestic single domain MCI and is sensitive to modulation by ChEIs. PMID:17320833

  14. Recovery of brain and plasma cholinesterase activities in ducklings exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to dicrotophos and fenthion. Recovery rates of brain ChE did not differ between ducklings administered a single oral dose vs. a 2-week dietary dose of these organophosphates. Exposure to the organophosphates, followed by recovery of brain ChE, did not significantly affect the degree of brain ChE inhibition or the recovery of ChE activity at a subsequent exposure. Recovery of brain ChE activity followed the general model Y = a + b(logX) with rapid recovery to about 50% of normal, followed by a slower rate of recovery until normal ChE activity levels were attained. Fenthion and dicrotophos-inhibited brain ChE were only slightly reactivated in vitro by pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide, which suggested that spontaneous reactivation was not a primary method of recovery of ChE activity. Recovery of brain ChE activity can be modeled for interpretation of sublethal inhibition of brain ChE activities in wild birds following environmental applications of organophosphates. Plasma ChE activity is inferior to brain ChE activity for environmental monitoring, because of its rapid recovery and large degree of variation among individuals.

  15. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  16. Scale-free brain activity: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    He, Biyu J

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, 'scale-free'). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. Although scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance, and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights into, and analytical tools for, cognitive neuroscience.

  17. Electrodermal activity analysis during affective haptic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Bianchi, Matteo; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how the autonomic nervous system dynamics, quantified through the analysis of the electrodermal activity (EDA), is modulated according to affective haptic stimuli. Specifically, a haptic display able to convey caress-like stimuli is presented to 32 healthy subjects (16 female). Each stimulus is changed according to six combinations of three velocities and two forces levels of two motors stretching a strip of fabric. Subjects were also asked to score each stimulus in terms of arousal (high/low activation) and valence (pleasant/unpleasant), in agreement with the circumplex model of affect. EDA was processed using a deconvolutive method, separating tonic and phasic components. A statistical analysis was performed in order to identify significant differences in EDA features among force and velocity levels, as well as in their valence and arousal scores. Results show that the simulated caress induced by the haptic display significantly affects the EDA. In detail, the phasic component seems to be inversely related to the valence score. This finding is new and promising, since it can be used, e.g., as an additional cue for haptics design. PMID:26737605

  18. Brain regions and genes affecting limb-clasping responses.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2011-06-24

    Adult rodents picked up by the tail and slowly descending towards a horizontal surface extend all four limbs in anticipation of contact. Mouse mutants with pathologies in various brain regions and the spinal cord display instead a flexion response, often characterized by paw-clasping and a bat-like posture. These phenotypes are observed in mice with lesions in cerebellum, basal ganglia, and neocortex, as well as transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanism appears to include cerebello-cortico-reticular and cortico-striato-pallido-reticular pathways, possibly triggered by changes in noradrenaline and serotonin transmission.

  19. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an "invisible brain"? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an "invisible brain" or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  20. Brain responses during sentence reading: visual input affects central processes.

    PubMed

    Gunter, T C; Friederici, A D; Hahne, A

    1999-10-19

    The effect of visual contrast on sentence reading was investigated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Under the low contrast condition semantic integration as reflected in the N400 ERP component was delayed to some degree. The left anterior negativity (LAN) reflecting initial syntactic processes, in contrast, seemed to change its characteristics as a function of visual input. In the high contrast condition the LAN preceded the P200 component whereas in the low contrast condition it was present after this component. These ERP-data from word-by-word sentence reading together with prior results from sentence listening suggest that the physical characteristics of the input must fall within a certain optimal range to guarantee ERP-effects of fast initial syntactic processes.

  1. Pathological display of affect in patients with depression and right frontal brain damage. An alternative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ross, E D; Stewart, R S

    1987-03-01

    Two patients are reported with the acute onset of pathological crying following right inferior frontal brain damage. Both had severe endogenous depression and neither had pseudobulbar palsy. These and other cases argue that two organic brain diseases--one structural and the other "physiopharmacological"--may interact to produce pathological display of affect that cannot be accounted for by traditional neurological explanations. A pharmacological mechanism for the rapid amelioration of pathological affect by tricyclic medications and its possible relationship to the newly discovered descending motor systems of the brain that use norepinephrine and serotonin as neurotransmitters is offered. These cases also suggest that pathological affect is a valuable clinical indicator of an underlying major depression in some brain-injured patients. PMID:3819712

  2. Brain activities during synchronized tapping task.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Akiho; Mao Gto; Yokouchi, Hisatake

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how people process information about other people to determine a response during human-to-human cooperative work. As a preliminary study, the mechanism of cooperative work was examined using interaction between a machine and a human. This machine was designed to have an "other person" model that simulates an emotional model of another person. The task performed in the experiment was a synchronized tapping task. Two models were prepared for this experiment, a simple model that does not employ the other person model and a synchronized model that employs the other person model. Subjects performed cooperative work with these machines. During the experiment, brain activities were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that the left inferior frontal gyrus was activated more with the synchronized model than the simple model. PMID:26737670

  3. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  4. Effects of motor fatigue on human brain activity, an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Hiske; Renken, Remco; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of motor fatigue on brain activation in humans, using fMRI. First, we assessed brain activation that correlated with muscle activity during brief contractions at different force levels (force modulation). Second, a similar analysis was done for sustained contractions inducing motor fatigue. Third, we studied changes in brain activation due to motor fatigue over time. And fourth, we investigated cross-over effects of fatigue by comparing brain activation before and after the fatiguing condition during simple and high-order motor tasks (reaction time tasks). Several motor areas in the brain showed increased activity with increased muscle activity, both during force modulation and motor fatigue. Interestingly, the cerebellum showed a smaller increase in activation, during compensatory activation due to fatigue, while additional activation was found in the pre-supplementary motor area and in a frontal area. During motor fatigue, there was a decrease in force production, an increase in force variability, and an increase in muscle activity. Brain areas comparable with the aforementioned areas also showed stronger activation over time. After fatigue, reaction time task performance remained the same (compared to before fatigue), while increased activation in orbitofrontal areas was found. Furthermore, there was a reduction in subjects' maximal voluntary contraction force, accompanied by a decrease in activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA). These results suggest that especially the activity in the SMA and frontal areas is affected by motor fatigue.

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  6. Brain systems for assessing the affective value of faces.

    PubMed

    Said, Christopher P; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive neuroscience research on facial expression recognition and face evaluation has proliferated over the past 15 years. Nevertheless, large questions remain unanswered. In this overview, we discuss the current understanding in the field, and describe what is known and what remains unknown. In §2, we describe three types of behavioural evidence that the perception of traits in neutral faces is related to the perception of facial expressions, and may rely on the same mechanisms. In §3, we discuss cortical systems for the perception of facial expressions, and argue for a partial segregation of function in the superior temporal sulcus and the fusiform gyrus. In §4, we describe the current understanding of how the brain responds to emotionally neutral faces. To resolve some of the inconsistencies in the literature, we perform a large group analysis across three different studies, and argue that one parsimonious explanation of prior findings is that faces are coded in terms of their typicality. In §5, we discuss how these two lines of research--perception of emotional expressions and face evaluation--could be integrated into a common, cognitive neuroscience framework.

  7. Tracheal decannulation protocol in patients affected by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-04-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  8. Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  9. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    PubMed

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  10. Binge drinking differentially affects adolescent male and female brain morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Sorg, Scott F.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adolescent binge drinking is concerning, as important neurodevelopments occur during this stage. Previous research suggests that binge drinking may disrupt typical brain development, and females may be particularly vulnerable. Objectives We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine cortical thickness in adolescent females and males with and without histories of binge drinking. Methods Participants (N=59) were 16–19-year-old adolescents recruited from local schools. Recent binge drinkers (n=29, 48% female) were matched to non-drinkers (n=30, 50% female) on age, gender, pubertal development, and familial alcoholism. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and MRI session. Cortical surfaces were reconstructed with FreeSurfer. Results Binge × gender interactions (p<.05) were seen for cortical thickness in four left frontal regions: frontal pole, pars orbitalis, medial orbital frontal, and rostral anterior cingulate. For all interactions, female bingers had thicker cortices than female controls, while male bingers had thinner cortices than male controls. Thicker left frontal cortices corresponded with poorer visuospatial, inhibition, and attention performances for female bingers (r=−0.69 to 0.50, p<0.05) and worse attention for male bingers (r=−0.69, p=0.005). Conclusions Adolescent females with recent binge drinking showed ~8% thicker cortices in left frontal regions than demographically similar female non-drinkers, which was linked to worse visuospatial, inhibition, and attention performances. In contrast, adolescent binge-drinking males showed ~7% thinner cortices in these areas than non-drinking males. These cross-sectional data suggest either different gray matter risk factors for males as for females toward developing heavy drinking, or differential adverse sequelae. PMID:21952669

  11. PPG neurons of the lower brain stem and their role in brain GLP-1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Stefan; Cork, Simon C

    2015-10-15

    Within the brain, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects central autonomic neurons, including those controlling the cardiovascular system, thermogenesis, and energy balance. Additionally, GLP-1 influences the mesolimbic reward system to modulate the rewarding properties of palatable food. GLP-1 is produced in the gut and by hindbrain preproglucagon (PPG) neurons, located mainly in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and medullary intermediate reticular nucleus. Transgenic mice expressing glucagon promoter-driven yellow fluorescent protein revealed that PPG neurons not only project to central autonomic control regions and mesolimbic reward centers, but also strongly innervate spinal autonomic neurons. Therefore, these brain stem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Electrical recordings from PPG neurons in vitro have revealed that they receive synaptic inputs from vagal afferents entering via the solitary tract. Vagal afferents convey satiation to the brain from signals like postprandial gastric distention or activation of peripheral GLP-1 receptors. CCK and leptin, short- and long-term satiety peptides, respectively, increased the electrical activity of PPG neurons, while ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, had no effect. These findings indicate that satiation is a main driver of PPG neuronal activation. They also show that PPG neurons are in a prime position to respond to both immediate and long-term indicators of energy and feeding status, enabling regulation of both energy balance and general autonomic homeostasis. This review discusses the question of whether PPG neurons, rather than gut-derived GLP-1, are providing the physiological substrate for the effects elicited by central nervous system GLP-1 receptor activation.

  12. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  13. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

  14. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

    2012-03-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD.

  15. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  16. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Gildengers, Ariel G; Butters, Meryl A

    2013-03-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread, there is also some specificity, such that prefrontal and hippocampal areas appear to be more influenced than other areas of the brain. The specificity of these effects, we argue, provides a biological basis for understanding the capacity for physical activity to influence neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. We conclude that physical activity is a promising intervention that can influence the endogenous pharmacology of the brain to enhance cognitive and emotional function in late adulthood.

  17. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  18. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Michael T.; Swaddle, John P.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  19. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats.

  20. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Michael T.; Swaddle, John P.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats.

  1. Structural brain correlates of unconstrained motor activity in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Hunter, Michael D; Wilkinson, Iain D; Green, Russell D J; Spence, Sean A

    2005-11-01

    Avolition affects quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between unconstrained motor activity and the volume of key executive brain regions in 16 male patients with schizophrenia. Wristworn actigraphy monitors were used to record motor activity over a 20 h period. Structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were parcellated and individual volumes for anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extracted. Patients'total activity was positively correlated with volume of left anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that the volume of specific executive structures may affect (quantifiable) motor behaviours, having further implications for models of the 'will' and avolition.

  2. Supervised learning for neural manifold using spatiotemporal brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Po-Chih; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Determining the means by which perceived stimuli are compactly represented in the human brain is a difficult task. This study aimed to develop techniques for the construction of the neural manifold as a representation of visual stimuli. Approach. We propose a supervised locally linear embedding method to construct the embedded manifold from brain activity, taking into account similarities between corresponding stimuli. In our experiments, photographic portraits were used as visual stimuli and brain activity was calculated from magnetoencephalographic data using a source localization method. Main results. The results of 10 × 10-fold cross-validation revealed a strong correlation between manifolds of brain activity and the orientation of faces in the presented images, suggesting that high-level information related to image content can be revealed in the brain responses represented in the manifold. Significance. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to investigation into the inherent patterns of brain activity.

  3. CFH Variants Affect Structural and Functional Brain Changes and Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Jin; Wu, Huan; Cui, Yue; Bi, Rui; Zhou, He-Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Li, Tao; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Tianzi; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The immune response is highly active in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of genetic risk contributed by immune genes to AD may provide essential insight for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we performed a genetic screening for AD-related top immune genes identified in Europeans in a Chinese cohort, followed by a multiple-stage study focusing on Complement Factor H (CFH) gene. Effects of the risk SNPs on AD-related neuroimaging endophenotypes were evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the effects on AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and CFH expression changes were measured in aged and AD brain tissues and AD cellular models. Our results showed that the AD-associated top immune genes reported in Europeans (CR1, CD33, CLU, and TREML2) have weak effects in Chinese, whereas CFH showed strong effects. In particular, rs1061170 (P(meta)=5.0 × 10(-4)) and rs800292 (P(meta)=1.3 × 10(-5)) showed robust associations with AD, which were confirmed in multiple world-wide sample sets (4317 cases and 16 795 controls). Rs1061170 (P=2.5 × 10(-3)) and rs800292 (P=4.7 × 10(-4)) risk-allele carriers have an increased entorhinal thickness in their young age and a higher atrophy rate as the disease progresses. Rs800292 risk-allele carriers have higher CSF tau and Aβ levels and severe cognitive decline. CFH expression level, which was affected by the risk-alleles, was increased in AD brains and cellular models. These comprehensive analyses suggested that CFH is an important immune factor in AD and affects multiple pathological changes in early life and during disease progress.

  4. CFH Variants Affect Structural and Functional Brain Changes and Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Jin; Wu, Huan; Cui, Yue; Bi, Rui; Zhou, He-Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Li, Tao; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Tianzi; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The immune response is highly active in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of genetic risk contributed by immune genes to AD may provide essential insight for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we performed a genetic screening for AD-related top immune genes identified in Europeans in a Chinese cohort, followed by a multiple-stage study focusing on Complement Factor H (CFH) gene. Effects of the risk SNPs on AD-related neuroimaging endophenotypes were evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the effects on AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and CFH expression changes were measured in aged and AD brain tissues and AD cellular models. Our results showed that the AD-associated top immune genes reported in Europeans (CR1, CD33, CLU, and TREML2) have weak effects in Chinese, whereas CFH showed strong effects. In particular, rs1061170 (P(meta)=5.0 × 10(-4)) and rs800292 (P(meta)=1.3 × 10(-5)) showed robust associations with AD, which were confirmed in multiple world-wide sample sets (4317 cases and 16 795 controls). Rs1061170 (P=2.5 × 10(-3)) and rs800292 (P=4.7 × 10(-4)) risk-allele carriers have an increased entorhinal thickness in their young age and a higher atrophy rate as the disease progresses. Rs800292 risk-allele carriers have higher CSF tau and Aβ levels and severe cognitive decline. CFH expression level, which was affected by the risk-alleles, was increased in AD brains and cellular models. These comprehensive analyses suggested that CFH is an important immune factor in AD and affects multiple pathological changes in early life and during disease progress. PMID:26243271

  5. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. PMID:26203003

  6. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.

  7. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. PMID:26203003

  8. Altered brain activity during pain processing in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Burgmer, Markus; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Gaubitz, Markus; Wessoleck, Erik; Heuft, Gereon; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2009-01-15

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread pain. Studies with functional neuroimaging support the hypothesis of central pain augmentation in FMS. We tested this in our study with a novel paradigm of tonic pain induced by a single stimulus. Tonic pain, in contrast to phasic pain, seems to be a more appropriate experimental approach to study adaptive mechanisms of pain processing in FMS. We hypothesized that brain areas related to the "medial" pain system and the amygdalae will present different activation in patients compared to healthy subjects. An fMRI-block design before, during and after an incision was made in patients with FMS and in healthy controls. Acute pain caused by the incision was measured during the course of the experiment. A 2 factorial model of BOLD-signal changes was designed to explore significant differences of brain activation between both groups during the pain stimulus. Additionally the first Eigenvariates in those areas which show an interaction between both factors were determined over the time course of pain stimulation. Differences of activation in the fronto-cingulate cortex, the supplemental motor areas, and the thalamus were found between both groups with distinct differences in BOLD-signals changes over the time course of pain stimulation, even during anticipation of pain. Our results support the hypothesis that central mechanisms of pain processing in the medial pain system, favourable cognitive/affective factors even during the anticipation of pain, may play an important role for pain processing in patients with FMS. PMID:18848998

  9. Sentence context affects the brain response to masked words.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Seana; Brang, David

    2010-06-01

    Historically, language researchers have assumed that lexical, or word-level processing is fast and automatic, while slower, more controlled post-lexical processes are sensitive to contextual information from higher levels of linguistic analysis. Here we demonstrate the impact of sentence context on the processing of words not available for conscious report by recording ERPs as sentences ended congruously or incongruously. Sentence final words were either masked to prevent their conscious identification, or were unmasked. For both masked and unmasked words, congruous completions elicited less negative ERPs than incongruous ones between 300 and 500ms after word onset (N400). Relative to the unmasked words, congruity effects in masked words were much smaller, began slightly later, and displayed a more anterior distribution. Results suggest contextual priming effects indexed by the N400 component reflect both automatic and controlled processes. Data are interpreted as suggesting a link between the neural generators of the N400 and conceptual short-term memory, a dynamic process for conceptual activation and structuring that is triggered by perceptual input.

  10. Optical Topography of Evoked Brain Activity during Mental Tasks Involving Whole Number Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Students start to memorize arithmetic facts from early elementary school mathematics activities. Their fluency or lack of fluency with these facts could affect their efforts as they carry out mental calculations as adults. This study investigated participants' levels of brain activation and possible reasons for these levels as they solved…

  11. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an “invisible brain” or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  12. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  13. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  14. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  15. The Sad, the Angry, and the Asymmetrical Brain: Dichotic Listening Studies of Negative Affect and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…

  16. Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D.; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2012-01-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another’s thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

  17. Discussion of Developmental Plasticity: Factors Affecting Cognitive Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; McKinnon, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses psychobiological factors that affect recovery after traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents, including biological pathophysiology of the injury, the cognitive stage of the child at injury, the amount of time after injury, the challenge level of tasks, and the child's reserve of psychosocial resources. (Contains…

  18. Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-07-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

  19. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  20. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions.

  1. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to "comfort zones" that support survival, and negative affects reflect "discomfort zones" that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living--evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice.

  2. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to “comfort zones” that support survival, and negative affects reflect “discomfort zones” that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living - evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  3. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to "comfort zones" that support survival, and negative affects reflect "discomfort zones" that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living--evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  4. Prenatal immune challenge affects growth, behavior, and brain dopamine in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Jan; Duncko, Roman; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Pirnik, Zdeno; Kiss, Alexander; Jezova, Daniela

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible consequences for offspring from chronic inflammation during pregnancy. Chronic inflammation was simulated by treatment with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to dams on days 15 through 19 of pregnancy. Attempts were made to prevent possible negative alterations by keeping animals in an enriched environment (EE). Maternal exposure to LPS resulted in a significant reduction of body weight of male offspring during the weaning period. This difference remained until the age of 63 days in controls (C), but not in animals reared in EE. The content of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens was found to be lower in prenatally stressed (PS) adult males. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge was associated with lower locomotor activity in elevated plus maze and increased number of skips in the beam-walking test, as observed in female offspring. No differences in ACTH and corticosterone concentrations with regard to prenatal treatment were found; however, both groups kept in EE showed increased levels of corticosterone as well as enlarged adrenal glands. Thus, immune activation during pregnancy may induce long-term changes in brain catecholamines and behavior, but it is not harmful to basal hormone secretion in the offspring. PMID:15240379

  5. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  6. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  7. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  8. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  9. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  10. Hidden Stages of Cognition Revealed in Patterns of Brain Activation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Pyke, Aryn A; Fincham, Jon M

    2016-09-01

    To advance cognitive theory, researchers must be able to parse the performance of a task into its significant mental stages. In this article, we describe a new method that uses functional MRI brain activation to identify when participants are engaged in different cognitive stages on individual trials. The method combines multivoxel pattern analysis to identify cognitive stages and hidden semi-Markov models to identify their durations. This method, applied to a problem-solving task, identified four distinct stages: encoding, planning, solving, and responding. We examined whether these stages corresponded to their ascribed functions by testing whether they are affected by appropriate factors. Planning-stage duration increased as the method for solving the problem became less obvious, whereas solving-stage duration increased as the number of calculations to produce the answer increased. Responding-stage duration increased with the difficulty of the motor actions required to produce the answer. PMID:27440808

  11. Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: fMRI evidence

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; White, Richard; Omari, Amro; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Diwadka, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. Attention-driven Go No-Go and X-CPT (continuous performance test) protocols, using positive, negative and neutral Ekman faces, targeted the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. A stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, using images from the International Affective Pictures System, targeted the hippocampus (HIP). Participants comprised 23 women with BPD, who were compared with 15 healthy controls. When Negative>Positive faces were compared in the Go No-Go task, BPD subjects had hyper-activation relative to controls in areas reflecting task-relevant processing: the superior parietal/precuneus and thebasal ganglia. Decreased activation was also noted in the OFC, and increased activation in the amygdala (AMY). In the X-CPT, BPD subjects again showed hyper-activation in task-relevant areas: the superior parietal/precuneus and the ACC. In the stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, BPD subjects had decreased activation relative to controls in the HIP, ACC, superior parietal/precuneus, and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (for encoding), and the ACC, dPFC, and HIP for retrieval of Negative>Positive pictures, reflecting impairment of task-relevant functions. Negative affective interference with cognitive processing in BPD differs from that in healthy controls and is associated with functional abnormalities in brain networks reported to have structural or metabolic

  12. Intrinsic Brain Activity in Altered States of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Boly, M.; Phillips, C.; Tshibanda, L.; Vanhaudenhuyse, A.; Schabus, M.; Dang-Vu, T.T.; Moonen, G.; Hustinx, R.; Maquet, P.; Laureys, S.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain–behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positron emission tomography studies showed that states of extremely low or high brain activity are often associated with unconsciousness. However, this relationship is not absolute, and the precise link between global brain metabolism and awareness remains yet difficult to assert. In contrast, voxel-based analyses identified a systematic impairment of associative frontoparieto–cingulate areas in altered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, coma, vegetative state, epileptic loss of consciousness, and somnambulism. In parallel, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified structured patterns of slow neuronal oscillations in the resting human brain. Similar coherent blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) systemwide patterns can also be found, in particular in the default-mode network, in several states of unconsciousness, such as coma, anesthesia, and slow-wave sleep. The latter results suggest that slow coherent spontaneous BOLD fluctuations cannot be exclusively a reflection of conscious mental activity, but may reflect default brain connectivity shaping brain areas of most likely interactions in a way that transcends levels of consciousness, and whose functional significance remains largely in the dark. PMID:18591474

  13. The regulation of catalase activity by PPAR γ is affected by α-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, Eugenia; Kisos, Haya; Kulik, Willem; Grigoletto, Jessica; Wanders, Ronald J A; Sharon, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Objective While evidence for oxidative injury is frequently detected in brains of humans affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in relevant animal models, there is uncertainty regarding its cause. We tested the potential role of catalase in the oxidative injury that characterizes PD. Methods Utilizing brains of A53T α-Syn and ntg mice, and cultured cells, we analyzed catalase activity and expression, and performed biochemical analyses of peroxisomal metabolites. Results Lower catalase expression and lower activity levels were detected in A53T α-Syn brains and α-Syn-expressing cells. The effect on catalase activity was independent of disease progression, represented by mouse age and α-Syn mutation, suggesting a potential physiological function for α-Syn. Notably, catalase activity and expression were unaffected in brains of mice modeling Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, we found that α-Syn expression downregulate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, which controls catalase transcription. Importantly, activation of either PPARγ2, PPARα or retinoic X receptor eliminated the inhibiting effect of α-Syn on catalase activity. In addition, activation of these nuclear receptors enhanced the accumulation of soluble α-Syn oligomers, resulting in a positive association between the degree of soluble α-Syn oligomers and catalase activity. Of note, a comprehensive biochemical analysis of specific peroxisomal metabolites indicated no signs of dysfunction in specific peroxisomal activities in brains of A53T α-Syn mice. Interpretation Our results suggest that α-Syn expression may interfere with the complex and overlapping network of nuclear receptors transcription activation. In result, catalase activity is affected through mechanisms involved in the regulation of soluble α-Syn oligomers. PMID:25356396

  14. Social Comparison Affects Brain Responses to Fairness in Asset Division: An ERP Study with the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Zhou, Yuqin; van Dijk, Eric; Leliveld, Marijke C.; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual’s fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator–recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were offered less than the other recipients, especially when the offers were highly unequal. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that highly unequal offers elicited more negative-going medial frontal negativity than moderately unequal offers in an early time window (270–360 ms) and this effect was not significantly modulated by social comparison. In a later time window (450–650 ms), however, the late positive potential (LPP) was more positive for moderately unequal offers than for highly unequal offers when the other recipients were offered less than the participants, whereas this distinction disappeared when the other recipients were offered the same as or more than the participants. These findings suggest that the brain activity in evaluating fairness in asset division entails both an earlier (semi-) automatic process in which the brain responds to fairness at an abstract level and a later appraisal process in which factors related to social comparison and fairness norms come into play. PMID:22087088

  15. Traumatic brain injury decreases AMP-activated protein kinase activity and pharmacological enhancement of its activity improves cognitive outcome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia L; Kobori, Nobuhide; Zhao, Jing; Rozas, Natalia S; Hylin, Michael J; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2016-10-01

    Prolonged metabolic suppression in the brain is a well-characterized secondary pathology of both experimental and clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor that, when activated, regulates various metabolic and catabolic pathways to decrease ATP consumption and increase ATP synthesis. As energy availability after TBI is suppressed, we questioned if increasing AMPK activity after TBI would improve cognitive outcome. TBI was delivered using the electromagnetic controlled cortical impact model on male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-300 g) and C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g). AMPK activity within the injured parietal cortex and ipsilateral hippocampus was inferred by western blots using phospho-specific antibodies. The consequences of acute manipulation of AMPK signaling on cognitive function were assessed using the Morris water maze task. We found that AMPK activity is decreased as a result of injury, as indicated by reduced AMPK phosphorylation and corresponding changes in the phosphorylation of its downstream targets: ribosomal protein S6 and Akt Substrate of 160 kDa (AS160). Increasing AMPK activity after injury using the drugs 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide or metformin did not affect spatial learning, but significantly improved spatial memory. Taken together, our results suggest that decreased AMPK activity after TBI may contribute to the cellular energy crisis in the injured brain, and that AMPK activators may have therapeutic utility. Increased phosphorylation of Thr172 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) under conditions of low cellular energy availability. This leads to inhibition of energy consuming, while activating energy generating, processes. Hill et al., present data to indicate that TBI decreases Thr172 phosphorylation and that its stimulation by pharmacological agents offers neuroprotection and improves memory. These results suggest that decreased AMPK phosphorylation after

  16. Waterborne lead affects circadian variations of brain neurotransmitters in fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, R.E.; Russo, A.C.; Weber, D.N.

    1995-09-01

    Lead is a potent neurotoxin affecting brain levels of a number of vertebrate neurotransmitters. Reports on these effects are, however, not consistent either among or within species. For example, with lead-intoxicated rats there are reports of decreased acetylcholine (ACh) release and decreased ACh brain levels as well as reports of increased levels or no change in levels. Also, with rats there are reports of increased levels, decreased levels, or no change in brain catecholamines, with lead producing similar changes in both norephinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in some cases and differences in response between the two in others. Although most early reports dealt with whole brain levels, reports on neurotransmitter levels in specific brain regions can be equally conflicting. Similar sorts of discrepancies exist among studies with fishes. Much of the variation among studies on lead effects on neurotransmitters is, no doubt, due to differences among the studies in variables such as: species, age, dosage and duration, route of administration. However, lead can apparently affect circadian locomotor rhythms of both rats and fishes. Therefore, another possible cause for the variation among studies is that there is an interaction among dosage, sampling time and endogenous rhythms. A lead-produced phase shift or disruption in endogenous neurotransmitter rhythms could in turn elicit a host of varying results and interpretations depending on the circadian time of sampling. We elected to examine this possibility in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a freshwater species widely used for toxicity studies. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Novel DTI Methodology to Detect and Quantify Injured Regions and Affected Brain Pathways in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manbir; Jeong, Jeongwon; Hwang, Darryl; Sungkarat, Witaya; Gruen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop and apply DTI based normalization methodology for the detection and quantification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the impact of injury along specific brain pathways in: a) individual TBI subjects, and b) a TBI group. Materials and Methods Normalized DTI tractography was conducted in the native space of 12 TBI and 10 age-matched control subjects using the same number of seeds in each subject, distributed at anatomically equivalent locations. Whole-brain tracts from the control group were mapped onto the head of each TBI subject. Differences in the Fractional Anisotropy (FA) maps between each TBI subject and the control group were computed in a common space using a t-test, transformed back to the individual TBI subject's head-space, and thresholded to form Regions of Interest (ROIs) that were used to sort tracts from the control group and the individual TBI subject. Tract-counts for a given ROI in each TBI subject were compared to group mean for the same ROI to quantify impact of injury along affected pathways. Same procedure was used to compare TBI group to control group in a common space. Results Sites of injury within individual TBI subjects and affected pathways included hippocampal/fornix, inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and splenium), cortico-spinal tracts and the uncinate fasciculus. Most of these regions were also detected in the group study. Conclusions The DTI normalization methodology presented here enables automatic delineation of ROIs within the heads of individual subjects (or in a group). These ROIs not only localize and quantify the extent of injury, but also quantify the impact of injury on affected pathways in an individual or a group of TBI subjects. PMID:19608369

  18. Active microwave computed brain tomography: the response to a challenge.

    PubMed

    Almirall, H; Broquetas, A; Jofre, L

    1991-02-01

    The potential application of active microwave techniques to brain imaging is studied by numerical simulations and experimentally using a recently developed cylindrical microwave scanner. The potential advantages and limitations of this method in static and dynamic brain imaging are presented and compared with other imaging techniques. PMID:2062119

  19. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    PubMed Central

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rooney, William D.; Scharf, Bruce A.; Backus, W. Walter; Izrailtyan, Igor; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (∼100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide evidence that cocaine use by a pregnant mother will also affect the function of the fetal brain. We are also unique in showing that cocaine’s effects in brain glucose metabolism differed in pregnant (increased) and nonpregnant (decreased) animals, which suggests that the psychoactive effects of cocaine are influenced by the state of pregnancy. Our findings have clinical implications because they imply that the adverse effects of prenatal cocaine exposure to the newborn child include not only cocaine’s deleterious effects to the placental circulation, but also cocaine’s direct pharmacological effect to the developing fetal brain. PMID:20080687

  20. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  1. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  2. Low spatial frequency filtering modulates early brain processing of affective complex pictures.

    PubMed

    Alorda, Catalina; Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Campos-Bueno, J Javier; Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Montoya, Pedro

    2007-11-01

    Recent research on affective processing has suggested that low spatial frequency information of fearful faces provide rapid emotional cues to the amygdala, whereas high spatial frequencies convey fine-grained information to the fusiform gyrus, regardless of emotional expression. In the present experiment, we examined the effects of low (LSF, <15 cycles/image width) and high spatial frequency filtering (HSF, >25 cycles/image width) on brain processing of complex pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral scenes. Event-related potentials (ERP), percentage of recognized stimuli and response times were recorded in 19 healthy volunteers. Behavioral results indicated faster reaction times in response to unpleasant LSF than to unpleasant HSF pictures. Unpleasant LSF pictures and pleasant unfiltered pictures also elicited significant enhancements of P1 amplitudes at occipital electrodes as compared to neutral LSF and unfiltered pictures, respectively; whereas no significant effects of affective modulation were found for HSF pictures. Moreover, mean ERP amplitudes in the time between 200 and 500ms post-stimulus were significantly greater for affective (pleasant and unpleasant) than for neutral unfiltered pictures; whereas no significant affective modulation was found for HSF or LSF pictures at those latencies. The fact that affective LSF pictures elicited an enhancement of brain responses at early, but not at later latencies, suggests the existence of a rapid and preattentive neural mechanism for the processing of motivationally relevant stimuli, which could be driven by LSF cues. Our findings confirm thus previous results showing differences on brain processing of affective LSF and HSF faces, and extend these results to more complex and social affective pictures.

  3. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  4. Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher M; Smith, Michael B; Turner, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Experimental results for changes in brain temperature during functional activation show large variations. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a careful numerical model for such changes. Here, a three-dimensional model of temperature in the human head using the bioheat equation, which includes effects of metabolism, perfusion, and thermal conduction, is employed to examine potential temperature changes due to functional activation in brain. It is found that, depending on location in brain and corresponding baseline temperature relative to blood temperature, temperature may increase or decrease on activation and concomitant increases in perfusion and rate of metabolism. Changes in perfusion are generally seen to have a greater effect on temperature than are changes in metabolism, and hence active brain is predicted to approach blood temperature from its initial temperature. All calculated changes in temperature for reasonable physiological parameters have magnitudes <0.12 degrees C and are well within the range reported in recent experimental studies involving human subjects.

  5. Resveratrol affects differently rat liver and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress in vitro: investigation of the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana C; Silva, Ana M; Santos, Maria S; Sardão, Vilma A

    2013-03-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans stilbene) is commonly recognized by its antioxidant properties. Despite its beneficial qualities, the toxic effects of this natural compound are still unknown. Since mitochondria are essential to support the energy-dependent regulation of several cell functions, the objective of this study was to evaluate resveratrol effects on rat brain and liver mitochondrial fractions from male and females regarding oxidative stress and bioenergetics. No basal differences were observed between mitochondrial fractions from males and females, except in liver mitochondria, the generation of H(2)O(2) by the respiratory chain is lower for female preparations. Resveratrol inhibited lipid peroxidation in preparations from both genders and organs. Furthermore, brain mitochondria in both gender groups appeared susceptible to resveratrol as seen by a decrease in state 3 respiration and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential fluctuations during ADP phosphorylation. As opposed, liver mitochondria were less affected by resveratrol. Our data also demonstrates that resveratrol inhibits complex I activity in all mitochondrial preparations. The results suggest that brain mitochondria appear to be more susceptible to resveratrol effects, and gender appears to play a minor role. It remains to be determined if resveratrol effects on brain mitochondria contribute to deterioration of mitochondrial function or instead to mediate hormesis-mediated events.

  6. Metabolic pathways and activity-dependent modulation of glutamate concentration in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico; Dinuzzo, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Glutamate is one of the most versatile molecules present in the human brain, involved in protein synthesis, energy production, ammonia detoxification, and transport of reducing equivalents. Aside from these critical metabolic roles, glutamate plays a major part in brain function, being not only the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter, but also the precursor for γ-aminobutyric acid, the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter. Regulation of glutamate levels is pivotal for normal brain function, as abnormal extracellular concentration of glutamate can lead to impaired neurotransmission, neurodegeneration and even neuronal death. Understanding how the neuron-astrocyte functional and metabolic interactions modulate glutamate concentration during different activation status and under physiological and pathological conditions is a challenging task, and can only be tentatively estimated from current literature. In this paper, we focus on describing the various metabolic pathways which potentially affect glutamate concentration in the brain, and emphasize which ones are likely to produce the variations in glutamate concentration observed during enhanced neuronal activity in human studies.

  7. Mutations affecting enzymatic activity in liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Vockley, J.G.; Tabor, D.E.; Goodman, B.K.

    1994-09-01

    The hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea is catalyzed by arginase in the last step of the urea cycle. We examined a group of arginase deficient patients by PCR-SSCP analysis to characterize the molecular basis of this disorder. A heterogeneous population of nonsense mutations, microdeletions, and missense mutations has been identified in our cohort. Microdeletions which introduce premature stop codons downstream of the deletion and nonsense mutations result in no arginase activity. These mutations occur randomly along the gene. The majority of missense mutations identified appear to occur in regions of high cross-species homology. To test the effect of these missense mutations on arginase activity, site-directed mutagenesis was used to re-create the patient mutations for in vivo expression studies in a prokaryotic fusion-protein expression system. Of 4 different missense mutations identified in 6 individuals, only one was located outside of a conserved region. The three substitution mutations within the conserved regions had a significant effect on enzymatic activity (0-3.1 nmole/30min, normal is 1300-1400 nmoles/30min, as determined by in vitro arginase assay), while the fourth mutation, a T to S substitution, did not. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to create mutations not in residues postulated to play a significant role in the enzymatic function or active site formation in manganese-binding proteins such as arginase. We have determined that the substitution of glycine for a histidine residue, located in a very highly conserved region of exon 3, and the substitution of a histidine and an aspartic acid residue within a similarly conserved region in exon 4, totally abolishes enzymatic activity. Mutations substituting glycine for an additional histidine and aspartic acid residue in exon 4 and two aspartic acid residues in exon 7 have also been created. We are currently in the process of characterizing these mutations.

  8. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  9. Early Risk, Attention, and Brain Activation in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…

  10. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth L; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (ANPS), described here. The ANPS was conceptualized as a potential clinical research tool, which would help experimentalists and clinicians situate subjects and clients in primary-process affective space. These emotion systems are reviewed in the context of a multi-tiered framing of consciousness spanning from primary affect, which encodes biological valences, to higher level tertiary (thought mediated) processing. Supporting neuroscience research is presented along with comparisons to Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Suggestions are made for grounding the internal structure of the FFM on the primal emotional systems recognized in affective neuroscience, which may promote substantive dialog between human and animal research traditions. Personality is viewed in the context of Darwinian "continuity" with the inherited subcortical brain emotion systems being foundational, providing major forces for personality development in both humans and animals, and providing an affective infrastructure for an expanded five factor descriptive model applying to normal and clinical human populations as well as mammals generally. Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed.

  11. Impairment in cognitive and affective empathy in patients with brain lesions: anatomical and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Tomer, R; Goldsher, D; Berger, B D; Aharon-Peretz, J

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairment in cognitive and affective empathy among patients with focal brain lesions, and the contribution of specific cognitive abilities (such as cognitive flexibility and processing of emotional information), to empathy. The cognitive and affective empathic response of patients with localized prefrontal lesions (n=36) was compared to responses of patients with parietal lesions (n=15) and healthy control subjects (n=19). Results indicate that patients with prefrontal lesions (especially those with lesions involving the orbitoprefrontal and medial regions) were significantly impaired in both cognitive and affective empathy as compared to parietal patients and healthy controls. When the damage was restricted to the prefrontal cortex, either left- or right-hemisphere lesions resulted in impaired empathy. However, when the lesion involved the right hemisphere, patients with parietal lesions were also impaired. The pattern of relationships between cognitive performance and empathy suggested dissociation between the cognitive correlates of affective and cognitive empathy. PMID:15590464

  12. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    PubMed

    Heldmann, Marcus; Berding, Georg; Voges, Jürgen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Galazky, Imke; Müller, Ulf; Baillot, Gunther; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc) on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2)[(15)O]-PET (positron emission tomography) in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control. PMID:22629317

  13. Active transport of 131I across the blood—brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Davson, Hugh; Hollingsworth, Jillian R.

    1973-01-01

    The ventricular space of rabbits was perfused with a low-viscosity silicone oil for the purpose of (1) collecting freshly secreted cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) uninfluenced by diffusional exchanges with the brain and (2) studying passage of solutes from the blood into the brain, uncomplicated by exchanges with c.s.f. The freshly secreted c.s.f. appeared as fine droplets suspended in the less dense silicone, and accumulated at the bottom of the collected silicone. Studies on the penetration of 24Na from blood into this fluid indicated that considerable exchanges with the brain had occurred between its secretion and collection, in spite of this method of collection. The second objective was attained, in that the exchanges between the freshly secreted fluid and the brain were quantitatively insufficient to affect the measure of kinetics of uptake by brain from the blood. In consequence, it was possible to demonstrate unequivocally that the increased uptake by brain of 131I, when treated with perchlorate, was due to inhibition of an active process occurring across the blood—brain barrier. Other studies, involving ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with artificial c.s.f., lent further support to this concept. 131I distribution is some 32% of the brain weight, a figure close to the `chloride-space'. PMID:4355804

  14. A palatable hyperlipidic diet causes obesity and affects brain glucose metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that either the continuous intake of a palatable hyperlipidic diet (H) or the alternation of chow (C) and an H diet (CH regimen) induced obesity in rats. Here, we investigated whether the time of the start and duration of these feeding regimens are relevant and whether they affect brain glucose metabolism. Methods Male Wistar rats received C, H, or CH diets during various periods of their life spans: days 30-60, days 30-90, or days 60-90. Experiments were performed the 60th or the 90th day of life. Rats were killed by decapitation. The glucose, insulin, leptin plasma concentration, and lipid content of the carcasses were determined. The brain was sliced and incubated with or without insulin for the analysis of glucose uptake, oxidation, and the conversion of [1-14C]-glucose to lipids. Results The relative carcass lipid content increased in all of the H and CH groups, and the H30-60 and H30-90 groups had the highest levels. Groups H30-60, H30-90, CH30-60, and CH30-90 exhibited a higher serum glucose level. Serum leptin increased in all H groups and in the CH60-90 and CH30-90 groups. Serum insulin was elevated in the H30-60, H60-90, CH60-90, CH30-90 groups. Basal brain glucose consumption and hypothalamic insulin receptor density were lower only in the CH30-60 group. The rate of brain lipogenesis was increased in the H30-90 and CH30-90 groups. Conclusion These findings indicate that both H and CH diet regimens increased body adiposity independent treatment and the age at which treatment was started, whereas these diets caused hyperglycemia and affected brain metabolism when started at an early age. PMID:21943199

  15. Prenatal sodium arsenite affects early development of serotonergic neurons in the fetal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Senuma, Mika; Mori, Chisato; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Kuwagata, Makiko

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal arsenite exposure has been associated with developmental disorders in children, including reduced IQ and language abnormalities. Animal experiments have also shown that exposure to arsenite during development induced developmental neurotoxicity after birth. However, the evidence is not enough, and the mechanism is poorly understood, especially on the exposure during early brain development. This study assessed effects of sodium (meta) arsenite shortly after exposure on early developing fetal rat brains. Pregnant rats were administered 50 mg/L arsenite in their drinking water or 20 mg/kg arsenite orally using a gastric tube, on gestational days (GD) 9-15. Fetal brains were examined on GD16. Pregnant rats administered 20 mg/kg arsenite showed reductions in maternal body weight gain and food consumption during treatment, but not with 50 mg/L arsenite. Arsenite did not affect fetal development, as determined by body weight, mortality and brain size. Arsenite also did not induce excessive cell death or affect neural cell division in any region of the fetal neuroepithelium. Thyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed no difference in the distribution of catecholaminergic neurons between fetuses of arsenite treated and control rats. However, reductions in the number of serotonin positive cells in the fetal median and dorsal raphe nuclei were observed following maternal treatment with 20mg/kg arsenite. Image analysis showed that the serotonin positive areas decreased in all fetal mid- and hind-brain areas without altering distribution patterns. Maternal stress induced by arsenite toxicity did not alter fetal development. These results suggest that arsenite-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity involves defects in the early development of the serotonin nervous system.

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  17. Effects of dopaminergic modulation on electrophysiological brain response to affective stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Nijs, Ilse; Pepplinkhuizen, Lolke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Several theoretical accounts of the role of dopamine suggest that dopamine has an influence on the processing of affective stimuli. There is some indirect evidence for this from studies showing an association between the treatment with dopaminergic agents and self-reported affect. Materials and methods We addressed this issue directly by examining the electrophysiological correlates of affective picture processing during a single-dose treatment with a dopamine D2 agonist (bromocriptine), a dopamine D2 antagonist (haloperidol), and a placebo. We compared early and late event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that have been associated with affective processing in the three medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind crossover design amongst healthy males. In each treatment condition, subjects attentively watched neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures while ERPs were recorded. Results Results indicate that neither bromocriptine nor haloperidol has a selective effect on electrophysiological indices of affective processing. In concordance with this, no effects of dopaminergic modulation on self-reported positive or negative affect was observed. In contrast, bromocriptine decreased overall processing of all stimulus categories regardless of their affective content. Discussion The results indicate that dopaminergic D2 receptors do not seem to play a crucial role in the selective processing of affective visual stimuli. PMID:17891382

  18. Decreased Zinc Availability Affects Glutathione Metabolism in Neuronal Cells and in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Yo; Salvador, Gabriela A.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    A deficit in zinc (Zn) availability can increase cell oxidant production, affect the antioxidant defense system, and trigger oxidant-sensitive signals in neuronal cells. This work tested the hypothesis that a decreased Zn availability can affect glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the developing rat brain and in neuronal cells in culture, as well as the capacity of human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells to upregulate GSH when challenged with dopamine (DA). GSH levels were low in the brain of gestation day 19 (GD19) fetuses from dams fed marginal Zn diets throughout gestation and in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCL), the first enzyme in the GSH synthetic pathway, was altered by Zn deficiency (ZD). The protein and mRNA levels of the GCL modifier (GCLM) and catalytic (GCLC) subunits were lower in the Zn-deficient GD19 fetal brain and in IMR-32 cells compared with controls. The nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which controls GCL transcription, was impaired by ZD. Posttranslationally, the caspase-3-dependent GCLC cleavage was high in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. Cells challenged with DA showed an increase in GCLM and GCLC protein and mRNA levels and a consequent increase in GSH concentration. Although Zn-deficient cells partially upregulated GCL subunits after exposure to DA, GSH content remained low. In summary, results show that a low Zn availability affects the GSH synthetic pathway in neuronal cells and fetal brain both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This can in part underlie the GSH depletion associated with ZD and the high sensitivity of Zn-deficient neurons to pro-oxidative stressors. PMID:23377617

  19. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  20. Microglial activation and progressive brain changes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, L E; Di Biase, M A; Everall, I; Chana, G; Christopoulos, A; Skafidas, E; Cropley, V L; Pantelis, C

    2016-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that typically begins in adolescence and is characterized by perceptual abnormalities, delusions, cognitive and behavioural disturbances and functional impairments. While current treatments can be effective, they are often insufficient to alleviate the full range of symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities including grey and white matter volume loss and impaired connectivity. Recent findings suggest these abnormalities follow a neuroprogressive course in the earliest stages of the illness, which may be associated with episodes of acute relapse. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying these brain changes, with evidence of increased density and activation of microglia, immune cells resident in the brain, at various stages of the illness. We review evidence for microglial dysfunction in schizophrenia from both neuroimaging and neuropathological data, with a specific focus on studies examining microglial activation in relation to the pathology of grey and white matter. The studies available indicate that the link between microglial dysfunction and brain change in schizophrenia remains an intriguing hypothesis worthy of further examination. Future studies in schizophrenia should: (i) use multimodal imaging to clarify this association by mapping brain changes longitudinally across illness stages in relation to microglial activation; (ii) clarify the nature of microglial dysfunction with markers specific to activation states and phenotypes; (iii) examine the role of microglia and neurons with reference to their overlapping roles in neuroinflammatory pathways; and (iv) examine the impact of novel immunomodulatory treatments on brain structure in schizophrenia. PMID:26455353

  1. Brain activity: connectivity, sparsity, and mutual information.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Ben; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

    2015-04-01

    We develop a new approach to functional brain connectivity analysis, which deals with four fundamental aspects of connectivity not previously jointly treated. These are: temporal correlation, spurious spatial correlation, sparsity, and network construction using trajectory (as opposed to marginal) Mutual Information. We call the new method Sparse Conditional Trajectory Mutual Information (SCoTMI). We demonstrate SCoTMI on simulated and real fMRI data, showing that SCoTMI gives more accurate and more repeatable detection of network links than competing network estimation methods.

  2. Alzheimer's disease: relevant molecular and physiopathological events affecting amyloid-β brain balance and the putative role of PPARs.

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Juan M; Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Santos, Manuel J; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia. With the expected aging of the human population, the estimated morbidity of AD suggests a critical upcoming health problem. Several lines of research are focused on understanding AD pathophysiology, and although the etiology of the disease remains a matter of intense debate, increased brain levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) appear to be a critical event in triggering a wide range of molecular alterations leading to AD. It has become evident in recent years that an altered balance between production and clearance is responsible for the accumulation of brain Aβ. Moreover, Aβ clearance is a complex event that involves more than neurons and microglia. The status of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus, along with hepatic functionality, should be considered when Aβ balance is addressed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of metals, such as copper, could both directly affect these secondary structures and act as a seeding or nucleation core that facilitates Aβ aggregation. Recently, we have addressed peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-related mechanisms, including the direct modulation of mitochondrial dynamics through the PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) axis and the crosstalk with critical aging- and neurodegenerative-related cellular pathways. In the present review, we revise the current knowledge regarding the molecular aspects of Aβ production and clearance and provide a physiological context that gives a more complete view of this issue. Additionally, we consider the different structures involved in AD-altered Aβ brain balance, which could be directly or indirectly affected by a nuclear receptor (NR)/PPAR-related mechanism.

  3. Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2013-01-01

    A widely held assumption is that spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity sum linearly, such that the recorded brain response in each single trial is the algebraic sum of the constantly changing ongoing activity and the stereotypical evoked activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals acquired from normal humans, we show that this assumption is invalid. Across widespread cortices, evoked activity interacts negatively with ongoing activity, such that higher prestimulus baseline results in less activation or more deactivation. As a consequence of this negative interaction, trial-to-trial variability of cortical activity decreases following stimulus onset. We further show that variability reduction follows overlapping but distinct spatial pattern from that of task activation/deactivation and it contains behaviorally relevant information. These results favor an alternative perspective to the traditional dichotomous framework of ongoing and evoked activity – one that views the brain as a nonlinear dynamical system whose trajectory is tighter when performing a task; further, incoming sensory stimuli modulate the brain’s activity in a manner that depends on its initial state. We propose that across-trial variability may provide a new approach to brain mapping in the context of cognitive experiments. PMID:23486941

  4. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Cheng, Yuqi; Lai, Aiyun; Lv, Zhaoping; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Chunrong; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE). Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD) and white matter (WMD) were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA), and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL) or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients. PMID:26090505

  5. Deletion of TRAAK Potassium Channel Affects Brain Metabolism and Protects against Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Laigle, Christophe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Viola, Angèle

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K+ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak−/− mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak−/− mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak+/+ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak−/− mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak+/+ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak−/− mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke. PMID:23285272

  6. Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Haynes, John-Dylan; Rees, Geraint

    2006-07-01

    Recent advances in human neuroimaging have shown that it is possible to accurately decode a person's conscious experience based only on non-invasive measurements of their brain activity. Such 'brain reading' has mostly been studied in the domain of visual perception, where it helps reveal the way in which individual experiences are encoded in the human brain. The same approach can also be extended to other types of mental state, such as covert attitudes and lie detection. Such applications raise important ethical issues concerning the privacy of personal thought.

  7. Telomerase Activity is Downregulated Early During Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Abbas; Hanson, Peter S.; Morris, Christopher M.; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hTERT splice variant expression have been proposed to facilitate the decrease of telomerase activity during fetal development in various human tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression of telomerase RNA (hTR), wild type and α-spliced hTERT in developing human fetal brain (post conception weeks, pcw, 6–19) and in young and old cortices using qPCR and correlated it to telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay. Decrease of telomerase activity occurred early during brain development and correlated strongest to decreased hTR expression. The expression of α-spliced hTERT increased between pcw 10 and 19, while that of wild type hTERT remained unchanged. Lack of expression differences between young and old cortices suggests that most changes seem to occur early during human brain development. Using in vitro differentiation of neural precursor stem cells (NPSCs) derived at pcw 6 we found a decrease in telomerase activity but no major expression changes in telomerase associated genes. Thus, they do not seem to model the mechanisms for the decrease in telomerase activity in fetal brains. Our results suggest that decreased hTR levels, as well as transient increase in α-spliced hTERT, might both contribute to downregulation of telomerase activity during early human brain development between 6 and 17 pcw. PMID:27322326

  8. Exploiting Complexity Information for Brain Activation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Jiali; Lin, Qiang; Hu, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    We present a complexity-based approach for the analysis of fMRI time series, in which sample entropy (SampEn) is introduced as a quantification of the voxel complexity. Under this hypothesis the voxel complexity could be modulated in pertinent cognitive tasks, and it changes through experimental paradigms. We calculate the complexity of sequential fMRI data for each voxel in two distinct experimental paradigms and use a nonparametric statistical strategy, the Wilcoxon signed rank test, to evaluate the difference in complexity between them. The results are compared with the well known general linear model based Statistical Parametric Mapping package (SPM12), where a decided difference has been observed. This is because SampEn method detects brain complexity changes in two experiments of different conditions and the data-driven method SampEn evaluates just the complexity of specific sequential fMRI data. Also, the larger and smaller SampEn values correspond to different meanings, and the neutral-blank design produces higher predictability than threat-neutral. Complexity information can be considered as a complementary method to the existing fMRI analysis strategies, and it may help improving the understanding of human brain functions from a different perspective. PMID:27045838

  9. Eeg Imaging Of Brain Activity: Methods And Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Richard

    1984-08-01

    Currently there are several methods for creating images that relate to either the anatomy or function of the human brain. Static pictures of anatomical structures are produced by computerized axial tomography (CAT) and the presently evolving methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NM P). These images give excellent resolution of various degrees of structures but do not reveal any aspects of function. A variety of radioactive labeling and detection techniques are available that produce images related to brain activity.

  10. Effect of second language exposure on brain activity for language processing among preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Michiyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Konno, Akitsugu; Maruyama, Suguru; Gyoba, Jiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Koizumi, Masatoshi

    2012-05-01

    We investigated brain activity in 3-5-year-old preschoolers as they listened to connected speech stimuli in Japanese (first language), English (second language), and Chinese (a rarely exposed, foreign language) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Unlike the younger preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 1 year, brain activity in the bilateral frontal regions of the older preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 2 years was higher for Japanese and English speech stimuli than for Chinese. This tendency seemed to be similar to that observed in adults who had learned English for some years. These results indicate that exposure to a second language affects brain activity to language stimuli among preschoolers.

  11. Increased brain activation during working memory processing after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Daniel R.; West, John D.; Bailey, Jessica N.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kersey, Patrick A.; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neural substrate of post-concussive symptoms following the initial injury period after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in pediatric populations remains poorly elucidated. This study examined neuropsychological, behavioral, and brain functioning in adolescents post-mTBI to assess whether persistent differences were detectable up to a year post-injury. Methods Nineteen adolescents (mean age 14.7 years) who experienced mTBI 3–12 months previously (mean 7.5 months) and 19 matched healthy controls (mean age 14.0 years) completed neuropsychological testing and an fMRI auditory-verbal N-back working memory task. Parents completed behavioral ratings. Results No between-group differences were found for cognition, behavior, or N-back task performance, though the expected decreased accuracy and increased reaction time as task difficulty increased were apparent. However, the mTBI group showed significantly greater brain activation than controls during the most difficult working memory task condition. Conclusion Greater working memory task-related activation was found in adolescents up to one year post-mTBI relative to controls, potentially indicating compensatory activation to support normal task performance. Differences in brain activation in the mTBI group so long after injury may indicate residual alterations in brain function much later than would be expected based on the typical pattern of natural recovery, which could have important clinical implications. PMID:26684070

  12. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  13. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  14. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-10-15

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a 'social' (detective) and once a 'non-social' (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions--most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex--when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment.

  15. Fluctuations in Neuronal Activity: Clues to Brain Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis

    2005-08-01

    Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as "noise". Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the "meaningful" neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.

  16. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  17. Chronic social isolation affects thigmotaxis and whole-brain serotonin levels in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The popularity of the zebrafish has been growing in behavioral brain research. Previously utilized mainly in developmental biology and genetics, the zebrafish has turned out to possess a complex behavioral repertoire. For example, it is a highly social species, and individuals form tight groups, a behavior called shoaling. Social isolation induced changes in brain function and behavior have been demonstrated in a variety of laboratory organisms. However, despite its highly social nature, the zebrafish has rarely been utilized in this research area. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic social isolation (lasting 90 days) on locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in an open tank. We also examine the effect of chronic social isolation on levels of whole-brain serotonin and dopamine and their metabolites. We found that long-term social deprivation surprisingly decreased anxiety-related behavious during open-tank testing but had no effect on locomotor activity. We also found that serotonin levels, decreased significantly in socially isolated fish, but levels of dopamine and metabolites of these neurotransmitters 5HIAA and DOPAC, respectively, remained unchanged. Our results imply that the standard high density housing employed in most zebrafish laboratories may not be the optimal way to keep these fish, and open a new avenue towards the analysis of the biological mechanisms of social behavior and of social deprivation induced changes in brain function using this simple vertebrate model organism.

  18. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision—the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized. PMID:26240420

  19. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  20. Photoperiod affects distribution of dynorphin A in the brain of Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Meyza, Ksenia Z; Sotowska-Brochocka, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Dynorphin A1-77 (DYN A1-17) acting in the CNS is known to affect thermoregulation, water and energy balance in the short time scale. In this study a long-term alteration of these functions induced by changes of day length in the highly photoperiodic species, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) was studied using immunohistochemistry for DYN A1-17. We found that in the long day (LD, L:D 16 h:8 h) more brain areas express DYN A1-17 peptide than in the short day (SD, L:D 8 h:16 h) conditions. Structures of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis as well as cells of the ependyma, subcomissural organ and choroid plexus of the lateral and third brain ventricles are immunoreactive to anti-dynorphin IgG only in the LD. This might indicate a seasonal regulatory role of DYN A1-17 in physiological adaptations to severe climate changes.

  1. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals.

  2. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  3. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people’s actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  4. Brain acetycholinesterase activity in botulism-intoxicated mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.

  5. Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2016-01-01

    The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the system's trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays. PMID:26745874

  6. Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors and Na+,K+-ATPase in rats.

    PubMed

    Christian, Brandon; McConnaughey, Kenneth; Bethea, Elena; Brantley, Scott; Coffey, Amy; Hammond, Leigha; Harrell, Shelly; Metcalf, Kasee; Muehlenbein, Danielle; Spruill, Willie; Brinson, Leslie; McConnaughey, Mona

    2004-05-01

    This study demonstrated that chronic aspartame consumption in rats can lead to altered T-maze performance and increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor densities in certain brain regions. Control and treated rats were trained in a T-maze to a particular side and then periodically tested to see how well they retained the learned response. Rats that had received aspartame (250 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water for 3 or 4 months showed a significant increase in time to reach the reward in the T-maze, suggesting a possible effect on memory due to the artificial sweetener. Using [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) (1 nM) to label muscarinic cholinergic receptors and atropine (10(-6) M) to determine nonspecific binding in whole-brain preparations, aspartame-treated rats showed a 31% increase in receptor numbers when compared to controls. In aspartame-treated rats, there was a significant increase in muscarinic receptor densities in the frontal cortex, midcortex, posterior cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of 80%, 60%, 61%, 65%, 66% and 60%, respectively. The midbrain was the only area where preparations from aspartame-treated rats showed a significant increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. It can be concluded from these data that long-term consumption of aspartame can affect T-maze performance in rats and alter receptor densities or enzymes in brain.

  7. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  9. Working memory training: improving intelligence--changing brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography - EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy - NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design, respondents of the working memory group after 30 h of training significantly increased performance on all tests of fluid intelligence. By contrast, respondents of the active control group (participating in a 30-h communication training course) showed no improvements in performance. The influence of WM training on patterns of neuroelectric brain activity was most pronounced in the theta and alpha bands. Theta and lower-1 alpha band synchronization was accompanied by increased lower-2 and upper alpha desynchronization. The hemodynamic patterns of brain activity after the training changed from higher right hemispheric activation to a balanced activity of both frontal areas. The neuroelectric as well as hemodynamic patterns of brain activity suggest that the training influenced WM maintenance functions as well as processes directed by the central executive. The changes in upper alpha band desynchronization could further indicate that processes related to long term memory were also influenced.

  10. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life.

  11. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  12. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  13. Developmental Changes in Infant Brain Activity During Naturalistic Social Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Earl, Rachel K.; Webb, Sara Jane

    2015-01-01

    Between 6 and 12 months, typically developing infants undergo a socio-cognitive ‘revolution’. The Interactive Specialization (IS) theory of brain development predicts that these behavioral changes will be underpinned by developmental increases in the power and topographic extent of socially selective cortical responses. To test this hypothesis, we used EEG to examine developmental changes in cortical selectivity for ecologically valid dynamic social versus non-social stimuli in a large cohort of 6- and 12-month-old infants. Consistent with the Interactive Specialization model, results showed that differences in EEG theta activity between social and non-social stimuli became more pronounced and widespread with age. Differences in EEG activity were most clearly elicited by a live naturalistic interaction, suggesting that measuring brain activity in ecologically valid contexts is central to mapping social brain development in infancy. PMID:26219834

  14. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  15. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  16. Topographic regulation of kinase activity in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2002-08-01

    At autopsy, a most distinctive pathology seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains is numerous abnormal neurons filled with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing stable complexes of hyperphosphorylated tau (PHF), neurofilaments and various kinases, among other proteins. Though these neuronal aggregates have been actively studied, their nature and origin are still poorly understood. Our studies of regulation of phosphorylation in neurons of the squid giant fiber system, using P13(suc1) affinity chromatography, suggest that neuronal phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins is compartmentalized into active axonal and inactive cell body-specific multimeric complexes of kinases, substrates and phosphatases. To determine whether such compartment-specific phosphorylation complexes are present in human brains, we separated gray matter (enriched in cell bodies) and white matter (enriched in axons) from normal and AD brains and studied the total kinase activities in lysates, pellets and P13(suc1) complexes. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to characterize the proteins associated with P13(suc1) multimeric complexes extracted from gray and white matter. We tested the hypothesis that P13 phosphorylation complexes were abnormally compartmentalized in AD neurons with the more active complexes shifted to cell bodies (gray matter) instead of axons (white matter). We found that (1) endogenous and exogenous substrate-dependent kinase activities of AD and control brain extracts were similar in both gray and white matter. (2) Long post mortem times tend to erase any differences in kinase activity between control and AD extracts. In contrast to shorter post mortem times (4.5-10 hrs), long post mortem times (13-34 hrs) significantly minimize the variances in kinase activities between control and AD brain extracts suggesting that cell death and proteolysis may eliminate any intrinsic differences in enzyme activities. (3) Except for the significantly higher level of histone

  17. Applications of electroencephalography to characterize brain activity: perspectives in stroke.

    PubMed

    Borich, Michael R; Brown, Katlyn E; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    A wide array of neuroimaging technologies are now available that offer unprecedented opportunities to study the brain in health and disease. Each technology has associated strengths and weaknesses that need to be considered to maximize their utility, especially when used in combination. One imaging technology, electroencephalography (EEG), has been in use for more than 80 years, but as a result of recent technologic advancements EEG has received renewed interest as an inexpensive, noninvasive and versatile technique to evaluate neural activity in the brain. In part, this is due to new opportunities to combine EEG not only with other imaging modalities, but also with neurostimulation and robotics technologies. When used in combination, noninvasive brain stimulation and EEG can be used to study cause-and-effect relationships between interconnected brain regions providing new avenues to study brain function. Although many of these approaches are still in the developmental phase, there is substantial promise in their ability to deepen our understanding of brain function. The ability to capture the causal relationships between brain function and behavior in individuals with neurologic disorders or injury has important clinical implications for the development of novel biomarkers of recovery and response to therapeutic interventions. The goals of this paper are to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of EEG; discuss past, present, and future applications of EEG in the clinical management of stroke; and introduce the technique of combining EEG with a form of noninvasive brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, as a powerful synergistic research paradigm to characterize brain function in both health and disease.Video Abstract available (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A87) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25522236

  18. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-12-03

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

  19. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-12-01

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an "expexted view of the world". Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from "excited" to "nonexcited". For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both—the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [1]. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers [2, 3]. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

  20. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mariko; Chakraborty, Goutam; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Saito, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain. PMID:27537918

  1. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mariko; Chakraborty, Goutam; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Saito, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain. PMID:27537918

  2. Modulation of the inter-hemispheric asymmetry of motor-related brain activity using brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michael; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Millan, Jose Del R

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation has shown promising results in neurorehabilitation for motor-impaired stroke patients, by rebalancing the relative involvement of each hemisphere in movement generation. Similarly, brain-computer interfaces have been used to successfully facilitate movement-related brain activity spared by the infarct. We propose to merge both approaches by using BCI to train stroke patients to rebalance their motor-related brain activity during motor tasks, through the use of online feedback. In this pilot study, we report results showing that some healthy subjects were able to learn to spontaneously up- and/or down-regulate their ipsilateral brain activity during a single session.

  3. Stress-induced asymmetric frontal brain activity and aggression risk.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Sadeh, Naomi; Curtin, John J

    2009-02-01

    Impersonal stressors, not only interpersonal provocation, can instigate aggression through an associative network linking negative emotions to behavioral activation (L. Berkowitz, 1990). Research has not examined the brain mechanisms that are engaged by different types of stress and serve to promote hostility and aggression. The present study examined whether stress exposure elicits more left than right frontal brain activity implicated in behavioral approach motivation and whether this lateralized brain activity predicts stress-induced aggression and hostile/aggressive tendencies. Results showed that (a) participants in the impersonal (assigned to stress by a computer) and interpersonal (assigned to stress by a provoking confederate) stress conditions both showed more left than right frontal electroencephalogram activity after condition assignment and stress exposure and (b) the 2 stress groups exhibited subsequent increases in aggression relative to the no-stress group. Importantly, left frontal asymmetry in response to stress exposure predicted increases in subsequent aggressive behavior, a finding that did not emerge in the no-stress condition. Thus, both the interpersonal and impersonal stressors impacted state changes in brain activity related to behavioral approach, suggesting that stress reactivity involving approach activation represents risk for behavioral dysregulation.

  4. Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea: a prospective study of brain activation changes and neurocognitive correlates

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Susan K.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Ahles, Tim A.; West, John D.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) often occurs in pre- and peri-menopausal BC patients, and while cancer/chemotherapy and abrupt estrogen loss have separately been shown to affect cognition and brain function, studies of the cognitive effects of CIA are equivocal, and its effects on brain function are unknown. Functional MRI (fMRI) during a working memory task was used to prospectively assess the pattern of brain activation and deactivation prior to and one month after chemotherapy in BC patients who experienced CIA (n=9), post-menopausal BC patients undergoing chemotherapy (n=9), and pre- and post-menopausal healthy controls (n=6 each). Neurocognitive testing was also performed at both time points. Repeated measures general linear models were used to assess statistical significance, and age was a covariate in all analyses. We observed a group-by-time interaction in the combined magnitudes of brain activation and deactivation (p = 0.006): the CIA group increased in magnitude from baseline to post-treatment while other groups maintained similar levels over time. Further, the change in brain activity magnitude in CIA was strongly correlated with change in processing speed neurocognitive testing score (r=0.837 p=0.005), suggesting this increase in brain activity reflects effective cognitive compensation. Our results demonstrate prospectively that the pattern of change in brain activity from pre- to post-chemotherapy varies according to pre-treatment menopausal status. Cognitive correlates add to the potential clinical significance of these findings. These findings have implications for risk appraisal and development of prevention or treatment strategies for cognitive changes in CIA. PMID:23793983

  5. The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting.

    PubMed

    Rinne, J O; Tommola, J; Laine, M; Krause, B J; Schmidt, D; Kaasinen, V; Teräs, M; Sipilä, H; Sunnari, M

    2000-11-17

    Brain activation was measured in professional interpreters during simultaneous interpreting (SI) vs. repetition (shadowing) of auditorily presented text by positron emission tomography (PET). SI into the native language (Finnish) elicited left frontal activation increases. SI into the non-native language (English) elicited much more extensive left-sided fronto-temporal activation increases. Our results indicate that SI activates predominantly left-hemispheric structures (particularly the left dorsolateral frontal cortex) previously related to lexical search, semantic processing and verbal working memory. Brain activation patterns were clearly modulated by direction of translation, with more extensive activation during translation into the non-native language which is often considered to a be more demanding task.

  6. What kind of noise is brain noise: anomalous scaling behavior of the resting brain activity fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    The study of spontaneous fluctuations of brain activity, often referred as brain noise, is getting increasing attention in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite important efforts, much of the statistical properties of such fluctuations remain largely unknown. This work scrutinizes these fluctuations looking at specific statistical properties which are relevant to clarify its dynamical origins. Here, three statistical features which clearly differentiate brain data from naive expectations for random processes are uncovered: First, the variance of the fMRI mean signal as a function of the number of averaged voxels remains constant across a wide range of observed clusters sizes. Second, the anomalous behavior of the variance is originated by bursts of synchronized activity across regions, regardless of their widely different sizes. Finally, the correlation length (i.e., the length at which the correlation strength between two regions vanishes) as well as mutual information diverges with the cluster's size considered, such that arbitrarily large clusters exhibit the same collective dynamics than smaller ones. These three properties are known to be exclusive of complex systems exhibiting critical dynamics, where the spatio-temporal dynamics show these peculiar type of fluctuations. Thus, these findings are fully consistent with previous reports of brain critical dynamics, and are relevant for the interpretation of the role of fluctuations and variability in brain function in health and disease. PMID:22934058

  7. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    PubMed

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  8. Repeated electrical stimulation of reward-related brain regions affects cocaine but not "natural" reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dino; Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shalev, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Cooper, Ayelet; Zangen, Abraham

    2007-12-19

    Drug addiction is associated with long-lasting neuronal adaptations including alterations in dopamine and glutamate receptors in the brain reward system. Treatment strategies for cocaine addiction and especially the prevention of craving and relapse are limited, and their effectiveness is still questionable. We hypothesized that repeated stimulation of the brain reward system can induce localized neuronal adaptations that may either potentiate or reduce addictive behaviors. The present study was designed to test how repeated interference with the brain reward system using localized electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle at the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or the prefrontal cortex (PFC) affects cocaine addiction-associated behaviors and some of the neuronal adaptations induced by repeated exposure to cocaine. Repeated high-frequency stimulation in either site influenced cocaine, but not sucrose reward-related behaviors. Stimulation of the LH reduced cue-induced seeking behavior, whereas stimulation of the PFC reduced both cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation for its consumption. The behavioral findings were accompanied by glutamate receptor subtype alterations in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, both key structures of the reward system. It is therefore suggested that repeated electrical stimulation of the PFC can become a novel strategy for treating addiction. PMID:18094257

  9. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that physical activity has a protective effect on brain functioning in older people. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that regular physical activity prevents dementia, but recent RCTs suggests an improvement of cognitive functioning in persons involved in aerobic programs, and evidence is accumulating from basic research. Future prevention of Alzheimer disease may depend on lifestyle habits such as physical activity.

  10. Flyception: imaging brain activity in freely walking fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Grover, Dhruv; Katsuki, Takeo; Greenspan, Ralph J

    2016-07-01

    Genetically encoded calcium sensors have enabled monitoring of neural activity in vivo using optical imaging techniques. Linking neural activity to complex behavior remains challenging, however, as most imaging systems require tethering the animal, which can impact the animal's behavioral repertoire. Here, we report a method for monitoring the brain activity of untethered, freely walking Drosophila melanogaster during sensorially and socially evoked behaviors to facilitate the study of neural mechanisms that underlie naturalistic behaviors. PMID:27183441

  11. Distribution of relaxin-3 and RXFP3 within arousal, stress, affective, and cognitive circuits of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig M; Shen, Pei-Juan; Banerjee, Avantika; Bonaventure, Pascal; Ma, Sherie; Bathgate, Ross A D; Sutton, Steven W; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2010-10-01

    Relaxin-3 (RLN3) and its native receptor, relaxin family peptide 3 receptor (RXFP3), constitute a newly identified neuropeptide system enriched in mammalian brain. The distribution of RLN3/RXFP3 networks in rat brain and recent experimental studies suggest a role for this system in modulation of arousal, stress, metabolism, and cognition. In order to facilitate exploration of the biology of RLN3/RXFP3 in complementary murine models, this study mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of the RLN3/RXFP3 system in mouse brain. Adult, male wildtype and RLN3 knock-out (KO)/LacZ knock-in (KI) mice were used to map the central distribution of RLN3 gene expression and RLN3-like immunoreactivity (-LI). The distribution of RXFP3 mRNA and protein was determined using [(35)S]-oligonucleotide probes and a radiolabeled RXFP3-selective agonist ([(125)I]-R3/I5), respectively. High densities of neurons expressing RLN3 mRNA, RLN3-associated beta-galactosidase activity and RLN3-LI were detected in the nucleus incertus (or nucleus O), while smaller populations of positive neurons were observed in the pontine raphé, the periaqueductal gray and a region adjacent to the lateral substantia nigra. RLN3-LI was observed in nerve fibers/terminals in nucleus incertus and broadly throughout the pons, midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus, septum, hippocampus, and neocortex, but was absent in RLN3 KO/LacZ KI mice. This RLN3 neural network overlapped the regional distribution of RXFP3 mRNA and [(125)I]-R3/I5 binding sites in wildtype and RLN3 KO/LacZ KI mice. These findings provide further evidence for the conserved nature of RLN3/RXFP3 systems in mammalian brain and the ability of RLN3/RXFP3 signaling to modulate "behavioral state" and an array of circuits involved in arousal, stress responses, affective state, and cognition.

  12. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Lelic, Dina; Brock, Birgitte; Dimcevski, Georg; Gregersen, Hans; Simrén, Magnus; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid electrostimulations, and brain activity was modeled by brain electrical source analysis. Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms (per the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorder Severity Symptom Index) and quality of life (SF-36 Short Form Survey) were collected. RESULTS Diabetic patients had autonomous neuropathy, evidenced by decreased electrocardiographic R-R interval (P = 0.03) and lower HRV (P = 0.008). Patients were less sensitive to painful stimulation (P = 0.007), had prolonged latencies of evoked potentials (P ≤ 0.001), and showed diminished amplitude of the N2–P2 component in evoked potentials (P = 0.01). There was a caudoanterior shift of the insular brain source (P = 0.01) and an anterior shift of the cingulate generator (P = 0.01). Insular source location was associated with HRV assessments (all P < 0.02), and the shift (expressed in mm) correlated negatively with physical health (P < 0.001) and positively with nausea (P = 0.03) and postprandial fullness (P = 0.03). Cingulate source shift was correlated negatively with physical health (P = 0.005) and positively with postprandial fullness (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence for interaction between autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved

  13. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W. Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT−) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quanitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI=85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI=38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F=0.044, p=0.833), or volume of blood measured F=0.179, p=0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  14. Ablation of the mTORC2 component rictor in brain or Purkinje cells affects size and neuron morphology.

    PubMed

    Thomanetz, Venus; Angliker, Nico; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Lustenberger, Regula M; Schweighauser, Manuel; Oliveri, Filippo; Suzuki, Noboru; Rüegg, Markus A

    2013-04-15

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multi-protein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. Whereas mTORC1 is known to regulate cell and organismal growth, the role of mTORC2 is less understood. We describe two mouse lines that are devoid of the mTORC2 component rictor in the entire central nervous system or in Purkinje cells. In both lines neurons were smaller and their morphology and function were strongly affected. The phenotypes were accompanied by loss of activation of Akt, PKC, and SGK1 without effects on mTORC1 activity. The striking decrease in the activation and expression of several PKC isoforms, the subsequent loss of activation of GAP-43 and MARCKS, and the established role of PKCs in spinocerebellar ataxia and in shaping the actin cytoskeleton strongly suggest that the morphological deficits observed in rictor-deficient neurons are mediated by PKCs. Together our experiments show that mTORC2 has a particularly important role in the brain and that it affects size, morphology, and function of neurons.

  15. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Language modulates brain activity underlying representation of kinship terms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Ge, Yue; Tang, Honghong; Luo, Yue-Jia; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2015-12-21

    Kinship terms have been found to be highly diverse across languages. Here we investigated the brain representation of kinship terms in two distinct populations, native Chinese and Caucasian English speakers, with a five-element kinship identification (FEKI) task. The neuroimaging results showed a common extensive frontal and parietal lobe brain activation pattern for different kinship levels for both Chinese and Caucasian English speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers had longer reaction times and elicited more fronto-parietal brain networks activation compared to English speakers in level three (e.g., uncle and nephew) and four (e.g., cousin), including an association between the middle frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobe, which might be associated with higher working memory, attention control, and social distance representation load in Chinese kinship system processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the representation of kinship terms in the two languages.

  17. Affective responses after different intensities of exercise in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Caxa, Luciana; Santolia, Patricia; Antunes, Hanna K. M.; Suriano, Italo; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. Methods: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate-intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects general linear model (GLM) analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses. Results: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d = 1.80), tension (d = 1.31), depression (d = 1.18), anger (d = 1.08), confusion (d = 1.70), psychological distress (d = 1.28), and physical symptoms (d = 1.42) disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. Conclusion: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury. PMID:26161074

  18. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  19. The relationship between brain cortical activity and brain oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex during hypergravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig; Goswami, Nandu; Robinson, Ryan; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Schneider, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Artificial gravity has been proposed as a method to counteract the physiological deconditioning of long-duration spaceflight; however, the effects of hypergravity on the central nervous system has had little study. The study aims to investigate whether there is a relationship between prefrontal cortex brain activity and prefrontal cortex oxygenation during exposure to hypergravity. Twelve healthy participants were selected to undergo hypergravity exposure aboard a short-arm human centrifuge. Participants were exposed to hypergravity in the +Gz axis, starting from 0.6 +Gz for women, and 0.8 +Gz for men, and gradually increasing by 0.1 +Gz until the participant showed signs of syncope. Brain cortical activity was measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and localized to the prefrontal cortex using standard low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Prefrontal cortex oxygenation was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A significant increase in prefrontal cortex activity (P < 0.05) was observed during hypergravity exposure compared with baseline. Prefrontal cortex oxygenation was significantly decreased during hypergravity exposure, with a decrease in oxyhemoglobin levels (P < 0.05) compared with baseline and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin levels (P < 0.05) with increasing +Gz level. No significant correlation was found between prefrontal cortex activity and oxy-/deoxyhemoglobin. It is concluded that the increase in prefrontal cortex activity observed during hypergravity was most likely not the result of increased +Gz values resulting in a decreased oxygenation produced through hypergravity exposure. No significant relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and oxygenation measured by NIRS concludes that brain activity during exposure to hypergravity may be difficult to measure using NIRS. Instead, the increase in prefrontal cortex activity might be attributable to psychological stress, which could pose a problem for the use of a

  20. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  1. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.

  2. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  3. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Patients and methods Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. Conclusion We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning. PMID:27555761

  4. Task-Driven Activity Reduces the Cortical Activity Space of the Brain: Experiment and Whole-Brain Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann, Patric; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    How a stimulus or a task alters the spontaneous dynamics of the brain remains a fundamental open question in neuroscience. One of the most robust hallmarks of task/stimulus-driven brain dynamics is the decrease of variability with respect to the spontaneous level, an effect seen across multiple experimental conditions and in brain signals observed at different spatiotemporal scales. Recently, it was observed that the trial-to-trial variability and temporal variance of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals decrease in the task-driven activity. Here we examined the dynamics of a large-scale model of the human cortex to provide a mechanistic understanding of these observations. The model allows computing the statistics of synaptic activity in the spontaneous condition and in putative tasks determined by external inputs to a given subset of brain regions. We demonstrated that external inputs decrease the variance, increase the covariances, and decrease the autocovariance of synaptic activity as a consequence of single node and large-scale network dynamics. Altogether, these changes in network statistics imply a reduction of entropy, meaning that the spontaneous synaptic activity outlines a larger multidimensional activity space than does the task-driven activity. We tested this model’s prediction on fMRI signals from healthy humans acquired during rest and task conditions and found a significant decrease of entropy in the stimulus-driven activity. Altogether, our study proposes a mechanism for increasing the information capacity of brain networks by enlarging the volume of possible activity configurations at rest and reliably settling into a confined stimulus-driven state to allow better transmission of stimulus-related information. PMID:26317432

  5. Task-Driven Activity Reduces the Cortical Activity Space of the Brain: Experiment and Whole-Brain Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; He, Biyu J; Hagmann, Patric; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-08-01

    How a stimulus or a task alters the spontaneous dynamics of the brain remains a fundamental open question in neuroscience. One of the most robust hallmarks of task/stimulus-driven brain dynamics is the decrease of variability with respect to the spontaneous level, an effect seen across multiple experimental conditions and in brain signals observed at different spatiotemporal scales. Recently, it was observed that the trial-to-trial variability and temporal variance of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals decrease in the task-driven activity. Here we examined the dynamics of a large-scale model of the human cortex to provide a mechanistic understanding of these observations. The model allows computing the statistics of synaptic activity in the spontaneous condition and in putative tasks determined by external inputs to a given subset of brain regions. We demonstrated that external inputs decrease the variance, increase the covariances, and decrease the autocovariance of synaptic activity as a consequence of single node and large-scale network dynamics. Altogether, these changes in network statistics imply a reduction of entropy, meaning that the spontaneous synaptic activity outlines a larger multidimensional activity space than does the task-driven activity. We tested this model's prediction on fMRI signals from healthy humans acquired during rest and task conditions and found a significant decrease of entropy in the stimulus-driven activity. Altogether, our study proposes a mechanism for increasing the information capacity of brain networks by enlarging the volume of possible activity configurations at rest and reliably settling into a confined stimulus-driven state to allow better transmission of stimulus-related information.

  6. Brain activation during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Gur, Ruben C; Schroeder, Lee; Turner, Travis; McGrath, Claire; Chan, Robin M; Turetsky, Bruce I; Alsop, David; Maldjian, Joseph; Gur, Raquel E

    2002-07-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have helped identify neural systems involved in cognitive processing and more recently have indicated limbic activation to emotional stimuli. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported increased amygdala response during exposure to emotional stimuli while others have not shown such activation. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that activation of the amygdala is related to the relevance of the emotional valence of stimuli. Healthy young participants (7 men, 7 women) were studied in a high-field (4 tesla) scanner using blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes in a blocked "box car" design. They viewed facial displays of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust as well as neutral faces obtained from professional actors and actresses of diverse ethnicity and age. Their task alternated between emotion discrimination (indicating whether the emotion was positive or negative) and age discrimination (indicating whether the poser was older or younger than 30). Blocks contained the same proportion of emotional and neutral faces. Limbic response was greater during the emotion than during the age discrimination conditions. The response was most pronounced in the amygdala, but was also present in the hippocampus and circumscribed voxels in other limbic regions. These results support the central role of the amygdala in emotion processing, and indicate its sensitivity to the task relevance of the emotional display.

  7. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  8. Prefrontal Brain Activity Predicts Temporally Extended Decision-Making Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Green, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance…

  9. Brain Activation during the Course of Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuta, Naho; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jobu; Akitsuki, Yuko; Iwata, Kazuki; Miura, Naoki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine, by functional magnetic resonance imaging, how the activated regions of the brain change as a Japanese sentence is presented in a grammatically correct order. In this study, we presented constituents of a sentence to Japanese participants one by one at regular intervals. The results showed that the left…

  10. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state. PMID:27275375

  11. Smart Moves: Powering up the Brain with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Marcus; Wilson, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize higher-order thinking, problem solving, and the creation, retention, and application of knowledge. Achieving these standards creates greater cognitive demands on students. Recent research suggests that active play and regular exercise have a positive effect on brain regions associated with executive…

  12. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  13. How mild traumatic brain injury may affect declarative memory performance in the post-acute stage.

    PubMed

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Vos, Pieter E; van der Werf, Sieberen; van Dijk, Gert; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-09-01

    Memory deficits are among the most frequently reported sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), especially early after injury. To date, these cognitive deficits remain poorly understood, as in most patients the brain is macroscopically intact. To identify the mechanism by which MTBI causes declarative memory impairments, we probed the functionality of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), within 6 weeks after injury in 43 patients from a consecutive cohort, and matched healthy controls. In addition to neuropsychological measures of declarative memory and other cognitive domains, all subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results showed poorer declarative memory performance in patients than controls, and decreasing performance with increasing duration of post-traumatic amnesia (a measure of injury severity). Task performance in the scanner was, as intended by the task and design, similar in patients and controls, and did not relate to injury severity. The task used reliably activated the MTL and PFC. Although we did not find significant differences in brain activity when comparing patients and controls, we revealed, in agreement with our neuropsychological findings, an inverse correlation between MTL activity and injury severity. In contrast, no difference in prefrontal activation was found between patients and controls, nor was there a relation with injury severity. On a behavioral level, injury severity was inversely related to declarative memory performance. In all, these findings suggest that reduced medial temporal functionality may contribute to poorer declarative memory performance in the post-acute stage of MTBI, especially in patients with longer post-traumatic amnesia.

  14. Effects of early life stress on brain activity: implications from maternal separation model in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Matsunaga, Wataru

    2013-01-15

    Adverse experiences in early life can affect the formation of neuronal circuits during postnatal development and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (RMS), an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this mini-review, we introduce various cases of maternal separation in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA-axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT), an end-product of the HPA-axis in rodents. We then present the characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including RMS and single time maternal separation (SMS) at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Furthermore, we introduce changes in behavioral aspects and gene expression in adult mice exposed to RMS.

  15. Seasonal brain acetylcholinesterase activity in three species of shorebirds overwintering in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; White, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    There was no seasonal variation in average brain AChE activity for the 3 species of wild birds collected between October and February. Further work needs to be done, however, covering an even broader time frame which includes the reproductive cycle. It appears that some birds feeding at the mouth of an agricultural drain, at some distance from the nearest pesticide applications, were affected by AChE inhibitors.

  16. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  17. VIP+ interneurons control neocortical activity across brain states.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jesse; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Karnani, Mahesh M; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    GABAergic interneurons are positioned to powerfully influence the dynamics of neural activity, yet the interneuron-mediated circuit mechanisms that control spontaneous and evoked neocortical activity remains elusive. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP+) interneurons are a specialized cell class which synapse specifically on other interneurons, potentially serving to facilitate increases in cortical activity. In this study, using in vivo Ca(2+) imaging, we describe the interaction between local network activity and VIP+ cells and determine their role in modulating neocortical activity in mouse visual cortex. VIP+ cells were active across brain states including locomotion, nonlocomotion, visual stimulation, and under anesthesia. VIP+ activity correlated most clearly with the mean level of population activity of nearby excitatory neurons during all brain states, suggesting VIP+ cells enable high-excitability states in the cortex. The pharmacogenetic blockade of VIP+ cell output reduced network activity during locomotion, nonlocomotion, anesthesia, and visual stimulation, suggesting VIP+ cells exert a state-independent facilitation of neural activity in the cortex. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that VIP+ neurons have a causal role in the generation of high-activity regimes during spontaneous and stimulus evoked neocortical activity. PMID:26961109

  18. Oxaloacetate activates brain mitochondrial biogenesis, enhances the insulin pathway, reduces inflammation and stimulates neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Harris, Janna L; Carl, Steven M; E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Eva Selfridge, J; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Koppel, Scott; Morris, Jill; Burns, Jeffrey M; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Brooks, William M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-12-15

    Brain bioenergetic function declines in some neurodegenerative diseases, this may influence other pathologies and administering bioenergetic intermediates could have therapeutic value. To test how one intermediate, oxaloacetate (OAA) affects brain bioenergetics, insulin signaling, inflammation and neurogenesis, we administered intraperitoneal OAA, 1-2 g/kg once per day for 1-2 weeks, to C57Bl/6 mice. OAA altered levels, distributions or post-translational modifications of mRNA and proteins (proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, PGC1 related co-activator, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor A of the mitochondria, cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, cAMP-response element binding, p38 MAPK and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) in ways that should promote mitochondrial biogenesis. OAA increased Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and P70S6K phosphorylation. OAA lowered nuclear factor κB nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and CCL11 mRNA. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, doublecortin mRNA, doublecortin protein, doublecortin-positive neuron counts and neurite length increased in OAA-treated mice. (1)H-MRS showed OAA increased brain lactate, GABA and glutathione thereby demonstrating metabolic changes are detectable in vivo. In mice, OAA promotes brain mitochondrial biogenesis, activates the insulin signaling pathway, reduces neuroinflammation and activates hippocampal neurogenesis.

  19. Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Amber M; Van Lare, Jennifer; Zielinski, Brandon; Halpern, Andrea R; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-02-25

    Music consists of sound sequences that require integration over time. As we become familiar with music, associations between notes, melodies, and entire symphonic movements become stronger and more complex. These associations can become so tight that, for example, hearing the end of one album track can elicit a robust image of the upcoming track while anticipating it in total silence. Here, we study this predictive "anticipatory imagery" at various stages throughout learning and investigate activity changes in corresponding neural structures using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anticipatory imagery (in silence) for highly familiar naturalistic music was accompanied by pronounced activity in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor areas. Examining changes in the neural bases of anticipatory imagery during two stages of learning conditional associations between simple melodies, however, demonstrates the importance of fronto-striatal connections, consistent with a role of the basal ganglia in "training" frontal cortex (Pasupathy and Miller, 2005). Another striking change in neural resources during learning was a shift between caudal PFC earlier to rostral PFC later in learning. Our findings regarding musical anticipation and sound sequence learning are highly compatible with studies of motor sequence learning, suggesting common predictive mechanisms in both domains. PMID:19244522

  20. Delayed and disorganised brain activation detected with magnetoencephalography after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Leodante; Robertson, Amanda; Bethune, Allison; MacDonald, Matt J; Shek, Pang N; Taylor, Margot J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness to neurocognitive issues after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is increasing, but currently no imaging markers are available for mTBI. Advanced structural imaging recently showed microstructural tissue changes and axonal injury, mild but likely sufficient to lead to functional deficits. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has high temporal and spatial resolution, combining structural and electrophysiological information, and can be used to examine brain activation patterns of regions involved with specific tasks. Methods 16 adults with mTBI and 16 matched controls were submitted to neuropsychological testing (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI); Conners; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); Generalised Anxiety Disorder Seven-item Scale (GAD-7); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); Symptom Checklist and Symptom Severity Score (SCAT2)) and MEG while tested for mental flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional set-shifting tasks). Three-dimensional maps were generated using synthetic aperture magnetometry beamforming analyses to identify differences in regional activation and activation times. Reaction times and accuracy between groups were compared using 2×2 mixed analysis of variance. Findings While accuracy was similar, patients with mTBI reaction time was delayed and sequence of activation of brain regions disorganised, with involvement of extra regions such as the occipital lobes, not used by controls. Examination of activation time showed significant delays in the right insula and left posterior parietal cortex in patients with mTBI. Conclusions Patients with mTBI showed significant delays in the activation of important areas involved in executive function. Also, more regions of the brain are involved in an apparent compensatory effort. Our study suggests that MEG can detect subtle neural changes associated with cognitive dysfunction and thus, may eventually be useful for capturing and tracking the onset and course of

  1. Brain Mechanisms for Processing Affective (and Nonaffective) Touch Are Atypical in Autism.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Martha D; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Gordon, Ilanit; Pretzsch, Charlotte; Beam, Danielle; Keifer, Cara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; McGlone, Francis; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents encode caress-like touch that supports social-emotional development, and stimulation of the CT system engages the insula and cortical circuitry involved in social-emotional processing. Very few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of touch processing in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often exhibit atypical responses to touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the hypothesis that children and adolescents with ASD would exhibit atypical brain responses to CT-targeted touch. Children and adolescents with ASD, relative to typically developing (TD) participants, exhibited reduced activity in response to CT-targeted (arm) versus non-CT-targeted (palm) touch in a network of brain regions known to be involved in social-emotional information processing including bilateral insula and insular operculum, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, bilateral temporoparietal junction extending into the inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus, right amygdala, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex including the inferior frontal and precentral gyri, suggesting atypical social brain hypoactivation. Individuals with ASD (vs. TD) showed an enhanced response to non-CT-targeted versus CT-targeted touch in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting atypical sensory cortical hyper-reactivity. PMID:26048952

  2. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70–71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions. PMID:27333203

  3. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: effects of training on brain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan G; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte S

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study, 57 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to (a) computer-based facial affect training that focused on affect discrimination and working memory in 20 daily 1-hour sessions, (b) similarly intense, targeted cognitive training on auditory-verbal discrimination and working memory, or (c) treatment as usual. Neuromagnetic activity was measured before and after training during a dynamic facial affect recognition task (5 s videos showing human faces gradually changing from neutral to fear or to happy expressions). Effects on 10-13 Hz (alpha) power during the transition from neutral to emotional expressions were assessed via MEG based on previous findings that alpha power increase is related to facial affect recognition and is smaller in schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. Targeted affect training improved overt performance on the training tasks. Moreover, alpha power increase during the dynamic facial affect recognition task was larger after affect training than after treatment-as-usual, though similar to that after targeted perceptual-cognitive training, indicating somewhat nonspecific benefits. Alpha power modulation was unrelated to general neuropsychological test performance, which improved in all groups. Results suggest that specific neural processes supporting facial affect recognition, evident in oscillatory phenomena, are modifiable. This should be considered when developing remediation strategies targeting social cognition in schizophrenia.

  4. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    PubMed

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  5. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  6. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  7. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  8. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  9. Mechanism of noradrenaline-induced stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity in the rat brain: implications on REM sleep deprivation-induced increase in brain excitability.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Sudhuman; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique phenomenon expressed in all higher forms of animals. Its quantity varies in different species and with ageing; it is also affected in several psycho-somatic disorders. Several lines of studies showed that after REM sleep loss, the levels of noradrenaline (NA) increase in the brain. The NA in the brain modulates neuronal Na-K ATPase activity, which helps maintaining the brain excitability status. The detailed mechanism of increase in NA level after REM sleep loss and the effect of NA on stimulation of Na-K ATPase in the neurons have been discussed. The findings have been reviewed and discussed with an aim to understand the role of REM sleep in maintaining brain excitability status.

  10. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  11. Active-contour-model-based edge restriction and attraction field regularization for brain MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, H.; Qi, Feihu

    2004-11-01

    Constructing 3D models of the object of interest from brain MRI is useful in numerous biomedical imaging application. In general, the construction of the 3D models is generally carried out according to the contours obtained from a 2D segmentation of each MR slice, so the equality of the 3D model strongly depends on the precision of the segmentation process. Active contour model is an effective edge-based method in segmenting an object of interest. However, its application, which segment boundary of anatomical structure of brain MRI, encounters many difficulties due to undesirable properties of brain MRI, for example complex background, intensity inhomogeneity and discontinuous edges. This paper proposes an active contour model to solve the problems of automatically segmenting the object of interest from a brain MRI. In this proposed algorithm, a new method of calculating attraction field has been developed. This method is based on edge restriction and attraction field regularization. Edge restriction introduces prior knowledge about the object of interest to free contours of being affected by edges of other anatomical structures or spurious edges, while attraction field regularization enables our algorithm to extract boundary correctly even at the place, where the edge of object of interest is discontinuous, by diffusing the edge information gotten after edge restriction. When we apply this proposed algorithm to brain MRI, the result shows this proposed algorithm could overcome those difficulties we mentioned above and convergence to object boundary quickly and accurately.

  12. Differential brain activation according to chronic social reward frustration.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes; Menrath, Ingo; Stöcker, Tony; Klein, Martina; Kellermann, Thilo; Shah, N Jon; Zilles, Karl; Schneider, Frank

    2005-11-28

    Neural correlates of reward frustration are increasingly studied in humans. In line with prediction error theory, omission of an expected reward is associated with relative decreases of cerebral activation in dopaminergic brain areas. We investigated whether a history of chronic work-related reward frustration influences this reward-dependent activation pattern by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Solving arithmetic tasks was followed by either monetary reward or omission of reward. Hyperactivations in the medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were observed in a group of healthy adults with high susceptibility to reward frustration as compared with a group with low susceptibility. Findings indicate a compromised ability of adapting brain activation among those suffering form chronic social reward frustration.

  13. Differential age-related changes in mitochondrial DNA repair activities in mouse brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Gredilla, Ricardo; Garm, Christian; Holm, Rikke; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2008-01-01

    Aging in the brain is characterized by increased susceptibility to neuronal loss and functional decline, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are thought to play an important role in these processes. Due to the proximity of mtDNA to the main sites of mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress is a major source of DNA mutations in mitochondria. The base excision repair (BER) pathway removes oxidative lesions from mtDNA, thereby constituting an important mechanism to avoid accumulation of mtDNA mutations. The complexity of the brain implies that exposure and defence against oxidative stress varies among brain regions and hence some regions may be particularly prone to accumulation of mtDNA damages. In the current study we investigated the efficiency of the BER pathway throughout the murine lifespan in mitochondria from cortex and hippocampus, regions that are central in mammalian cognition, and which are severely affected during aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. A regional specific regulation of mitochondrial DNA repair activities was observed with aging. In cortical mitochondria, DNA glycosylase activities peaked at middle-age followed by a significant drop at old age. However, only minor changes were observed in hippocampal mitochondria during the whole lifespan of the animals. Furthermore, DNA glycosylase activities were lower in hippocampal than in cortical mitochondria. Mitochondrial AP endonuclease activity increased in old animals in both brain regions. Our data suggest an important regional specific regulation of mitochondrial BER during aging. PMID:18701195

  14. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  15. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  16. Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100–200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001 PMID:24668169

  17. Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

    2014-03-25

    To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100-200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001.

  18. Contributions of Glycogen to Astrocytic Energetics during Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 mol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K+ level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound. PMID:24515302

  19. Contributions of glycogen to astrocytic energetics during brain activation.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2015-02-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 μmol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K(+) level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound.

  20. Corrugator activity confirms immediate negative affect in surprise.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  1. Corrugator activity confirms immediate negative affect in surprise

    PubMed Central

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes. PMID:25762956

  2. Affective Analgesia following Muscarinic Activation of the Ventral Tegmental Area in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kender, Robert G.; Harte, Steven E.; Munn, Elizabeth M.; Borszcz, George S.

    2009-01-01

    Cholinergic stimulation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) underlies activation of the brain reward circuitry. Activation of this circuit is proposed to preferentially suppress the affective reaction to noxious stimulation. Vocalization afterdischarges (VADs) are a validated model of the affective response of rats to noxious tailshock. The antinociceptive action of the acetylcholine agonist carbachol microinjected into the VTA on VAD threshold was compared to its effect on the thresholds of other tailshock-elicited responses (VDS = vocalizations during shock, and SMR = spinal motor reflexes). Whereas VADs are organized within the forebrain, VDSs and SMRs are organized at medullary and spinal levels of the neuraxis, respectively. Carbachol (1 μg, 2 μg, and 4 μg) injected into VTA produced dose-dependent increases in VAD and VDS thresholds, although increases in VAD threshold were significantly greater than increases in VDS threshold. Administration of carbachol into VTA failed to elevate SMR threshold. Elevations in vocalization thresholds produced by intra-VTA carbachol were reversed in a dose-dependent manner by local administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine sulfate (30 μg and 60 μg). These results provide the first demonstration of the involvement of the VTA in muscarinic-induced suppression of pain affect. Perspective Cholinergic activation of the brain reward circuit produced a preferential suppression of rats’ affective reaction to noxious stimulation. The neurobiology that relates reinforcement to suppression of pain affect may provide insights into new treatments for pain and its associated affective disorders. PMID:18387853

  3. Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Jan; Akhrif, Atae; Telkemeyer, Silke; Rossi, Sonja; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth; Neufang, Susanne

    2013-11-01

    Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6 years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that in the children's group, short-range coherence within frontal areas was stronger, and long-range coherence between frontal and parietal areas was weaker, compared to adults. Our findings show that in children aged from 4 to 6 years fronto-parietal brain maturation plays a crucial part in the cognitive development of response inhibition. PMID:23265620

  4. Tracking the dynamics of the social brain: ERP approaches for social cognitive and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Bartholow, Bruce D; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-03-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) approaches to social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) are not as widely used as other neuroimaging techniques, yet they offer several unique advantages. In particular, the high temporal resolution of ERP measures of neural activity make them ideally suited for studying the dynamic interplay of rapidly unfolding cognitive and affective processes. In this article, we highlight the utility of ERP methods for scientists investigating questions of SCAN. We begin with a brief description of the physiological basis of ERPs and discussion of methodological practices. We then discuss how ERPs may be used to address a range of questions concerning social perception, social cognition, attitudes, affect and self-regulation, with examples of research that has used the ERP approach to contribute important theoretical advances in these areas. Whether used alone or in combination with other techniques, the ERP is an indispensable part of the social and affective neuroscientist's methodological toolkit.

  5. Tracking the dynamics of the social brain: ERP approaches for social cognitive and affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, David M.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) approaches to social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) are not as widely used as other neuroimaging techniques, yet they offer several unique advantages. In particular, the high temporal resolution of ERP measures of neural activity make them ideally suited for studying the dynamic interplay of rapidly unfolding cognitive and affective processes. In this article, we highlight the utility of ERP methods for scientists investigating questions of SCAN. We begin with a brief description of the physiological basis of ERPs and discussion of methodological practices. We then discuss how ERPs may be used to address a range of questions concerning social perception, social cognition, attitudes, affect and self-regulation, with examples of research that has used the ERP approach to contribute important theoretical advances in these areas. Whether used alone or in combination with other techniques, the ERP is an indispensable part of the social and affective neuroscientist’s methodological toolkit. PMID:24319116

  6. Worry tendencies predict brain activation during aversive imagery.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Schäfer, Axel; Pignanelli, Roman; Vaitl, Dieter

    2009-09-25

    Because of its abstract nature, worrying might function as an avoidance response in order to cognitively disengage from fearful imagery. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of aversive imagery and their association with worry tendencies, as measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Nineteen healthy women first viewed, and subsequently imagined pictures from two categories, 'threat' and 'happiness'. Worry tendencies were negatively correlated with brain activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral, dorsomedial, ventrolateral), the parietal cortex and the insula. These negative correlations between PSWQ scores and localized brain activation were specific for aversive imagery. Moreover, activation in the above mentioned regions was positively associated with the experienced vividness of both pleasant and unpleasant mental pictures. As the identified brain regions are involved in emotion regulation, vivid imagery and memory retrieval, a lowered activity in high PSWQ scorers might be associated with cognitive disengagement from aversive imagery as well as insufficient refresh rates of mental pictures. Our preliminary findings encourage future imagery studies on generalized anxiety disorder patients, as one of the main symptoms of this disorder is excessive worrying. PMID:19545612

  7. Imaging brain activity in conscious monkeys following oral MDMA ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Brevard, Mathew E; Meyer, Jerrold S; Harder, Josie A; Ferris, Craig F

    2006-07-01

    Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA;"ecstasy") poses worldwide potential health problems. Clinical studies show that repeated exposure to low oral doses of MDMA has toxic effects on the brain, altering cognitive and psychosocial behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious marmoset monkeys was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the brain to an oral dose of MDMA (1 mg/kg). Following MDMA administration, the midbrain raphe nuclei and substantia nigra, major sources of serotonin and dopamine, were activated as were the hippocampus, hypothalamus and amygdala. The corticostriatal circuit of dorsal thalamus, sensorimotor cortex and basal ganglia showed a robust, coherent activation pattern. Two key reward areas, the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and most other cortical regions showed little activation. The visual cortex, however, showed intense activation without applied visual stimuli. These data identify brain areas and functional circuits sensitive to a recreational dose of MDMA, some of which may be vulnerable to long-term intermittent exposure to this drug.

  8. Brain activation during a social attribution task in adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, Randall S; Newsome, Mary R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; McClelland, Michelle M; Hanten, Gerri; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Cook, Lori G; Chu, Zili D; Vásquez, Ana C; Yallampalli, Ragini; Lin, Xiaodi; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    The ability to make accurate judgments about the mental states of others, sometimes referred to as theory of mind (ToM), is often impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and this deficit may contribute to problems with interpersonal relationships. The present study used an animated social attribution task (SAT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine structures mediating ToM in adolescents with moderate to severe TBI. The study design also included a comparison group of matched, typically developing (TD) adolescents. The TD group exhibited activation within a number of areas that are thought to be relevant to ToM, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal and parietal areas. The TBI subjects had significant activation within many of these same areas, but their activation was generally more intense and excluded the medial prefrontal cortex. Exploratory regression analyses indicated a negative relation between ToM-related activation and measures of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging, while there was also a positive relation between activation and lesion volume. These findings are consistent with alterations in the level and pattern of brain activation that may be due to the combined influence of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions.

  9. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

    PubMed

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the

  10. Testosterone is inversely related to brain activity during emotional inhibition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, Ans; Skilleter, Ashley J; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Weickert, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  11. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  12. Noise in brain activity engenders perception and influences discrimination sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; De Lucia, Marzia; Tzovara, Athina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Murray, Micah M; Spierer, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral and brain responses to identical stimuli can vary with experimental and task parameters, including the context of stimulus presentation or attention. More surprisingly, computational models suggest that noise-related random fluctuations in brain responses to stimuli would alone be sufficient to engender perceptual differences between physically identical stimuli. In two experiments combining psychophysics and EEG in healthy humans, we investigated brain mechanisms whereby identical stimuli are (erroneously) perceived as different (higher vs lower in pitch or longer vs shorter in duration) in the absence of any change in the experimental context. Even though, as expected, participants' percepts to identical stimuli varied randomly, a classification algorithm based on a mixture of Gaussians model (GMM) showed that there was sufficient information in single-trial EEG to reliably predict participants' judgments of the stimulus dimension. By contrasting electrical neuroimaging analyses of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to the identical stimuli as a function of participants' percepts, we identified the precise timing and neural correlates (strength vs topographic modulations) as well as intracranial sources of these erroneous perceptions. In both experiments, AEP differences first occurred ~100 ms after stimulus onset and were the result of topographic modulations following from changes in the configuration of active brain networks. Source estimations localized the origin of variations in perceived pitch of identical stimuli within right temporal and left frontal areas and of variations in perceived duration within right temporoparietal areas. We discuss our results in terms of providing neurophysiologic evidence for the contribution of random fluctuations in brain activity to conscious perception.

  13. Brain activity correlates with emotional perception induced by dynamic avatars.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Hagar; Christensen, Andrea; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A; Malach, Rafael

    2015-11-15

    An accurate judgment of the emotional state of others is a prerequisite for successful social interaction and hence survival. Thus, it is not surprising that we are highly skilled at recognizing the emotions of others. Here we aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of emotion recognition from gait. To this end we created highly controlled dynamic body-movement stimuli based on real human motion-capture data (Roether et al., 2009). These animated avatars displayed gait in four emotional (happy, angry, fearful, and sad) and speed-matched neutral styles. For each emotional gait and its equivalent neutral gait, avatars were displayed at five morphing levels between the two. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while classifying the emotions and the emotional intensity levels expressed by the avatars. Our results revealed robust brain selectivity to emotional compared to neutral gait stimuli in brain regions which are involved in emotion and biological motion processing, such as the extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the amygdala (AMG). Brain activity in the amygdala reflected emotional awareness: for visually identical stimuli it showed amplified stronger response when the stimulus was perceived as emotional. Notably, in avatars gradually morphed along an emotional expression axis there was a parametric correlation between amygdala activity and emotional intensity. This study extends the mapping of emotional decoding in the human brain to the domain of highly controlled dynamic biological motion. Our results highlight an extensive level of brain processing of emotional information related to body language, which relies mostly on body kinematics. PMID:26220746

  14. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament.

    PubMed

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  15. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration. PMID:26793136

  16. Alleviation of ischemia-induced brain edema by activation of the central histaminergic system in rats.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Yumi; Adachi, Naoto; Liu, Keyue; Arai, Tatsuru; Nagaro, Takumi

    2008-09-01

    We have reported that facilitation of central histaminergic activity prevents the development of ischemia-induced brain injury. Since cerebral edema is a major cause of brain damage, we studied effects on brain edema of postischemic administration of L-histidine, a precursor of histamine, and thioperamide, a histamine H(3)-receptor antagonist, both of which enhance central histaminergic activity. Focal cerebral ischemia for 2 h was provoked by transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in rats, and the water content and infarct size were determined 24 h after reperfusion. Changes in the extracellular concentration of histamine were examined in the striatum by a microdialysis procedure, and effects of these compounds were evaluated. Repeated administration of L-histidine (1000 mg/kg x 2, i.p.), immediately and 6 h after reperfusion, reduced the increase in the water contents in ischemic regions. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide (5 mg/kg, s.c.) with L-histidine (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevented edema formation and alleviated brain infarction, although a single dose of L-histidine, immediately after reperfusion, showed no benefits. The striatal histamine level was gradually increased after reperfusion as well as during ischemia. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide with L-histidine markedly increased the brain histamine concentration, and the value increased up to 230% of that in the saline group 5 - 6 h after reperfusion. L-Histidine alone did not affect the increase in the histamine output after ischemia. These findings suggest that further activation of the central histaminergic system after initiation of cerebral ischemia prevents development of ischemia-induced brain edema.

  17. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  18. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  19. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-01

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574315

  20. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of “motivation to change:” 1) current treatment status (i.e., currently receiving vs. not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and 2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; Miller and Tonigan, 1996). Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue-reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  1. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.

  2. The brain in micro- and hypergravity: the effects of changing gravity on the brain electrocortical activity.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Uroš; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado; Kavcic, Voyko

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of increased and decreased gravity on central nervous system is essential for developing proper physical and cognitive countermeasures to assure safe and effective space missions and human survival in space. This short review covers the available literature on the brain electrocortical activity effects of decreased and increased gravitational force comparing to the 1g Earth conditions. Among all neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the electroencephalography (EEG) was found to be suitable method to monitor brain electrocortical activity in the extreme environments. Due to complexity and high cost of space flight missions, ground-based models have been employed to simulate microgravity effects on human body. Surprisingly, there is very limited number of publications reporting gravity-dependent EEG spectral changes. With increased gravity there are initially increased EEG activity in higher frequencies and at around 4 g appears loss of consciousness with accompanying slowing of EEG due to hypoxia. In microgravity, the most prevalent changes in EEG are faster frequencies such as alpha and beta. The results from simulated microgravity (bed rest) are pointing to changes in theta and alpha, representing signs of cortical inhibition. The changes in EEG activity in space flight are attributed to a decreased sensorimotor input while in parabolic flights short and fast transitions from hyper to microgravity presumably reflect lower arousal levels and emotional processes in microgravity. Thus, based on limited research about gravity-related changes in EEG from different environments it is difficult to draw any unequivocal conclusions. Additional systematic studies about electrocortical activity in space and parabolic flights, as well as longer bed rest studies are needed in order to advance knowledge about brain functioning in extreme conditions

  3. The brain in micro- and hypergravity: the effects of changing gravity on the brain electrocortical activity.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Uroš; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado; Kavcic, Voyko

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of increased and decreased gravity on central nervous system is essential for developing proper physical and cognitive countermeasures to assure safe and effective space missions and human survival in space. This short review covers the available literature on the brain electrocortical activity effects of decreased and increased gravitational force comparing to the 1g Earth conditions. Among all neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the electroencephalography (EEG) was found to be suitable method to monitor brain electrocortical activity in the extreme environments. Due to complexity and high cost of space flight missions, ground-based models have been employed to simulate microgravity effects on human body. Surprisingly, there is very limited number of publications reporting gravity-dependent EEG spectral changes. With increased gravity there are initially increased EEG activity in higher frequencies and at around 4 g appears loss of consciousness with accompanying slowing of EEG due to hypoxia. In microgravity, the most prevalent changes in EEG are faster frequencies such as alpha and beta. The results from simulated microgravity (bed rest) are pointing to changes in theta and alpha, representing signs of cortical inhibition. The changes in EEG activity in space flight are attributed to a decreased sensorimotor input while in parabolic flights short and fast transitions from hyper to microgravity presumably reflect lower arousal levels and emotional processes in microgravity. Thus, based on limited research about gravity-related changes in EEG from different environments it is difficult to draw any unequivocal conclusions. Additional systematic studies about electrocortical activity in space and parabolic flights, as well as longer bed rest studies are needed in order to advance knowledge about brain functioning in extreme conditions

  4. Early oxygen-utilization and brain activity in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Alderliesten, Thomas; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; Toet, Mona C; Lemmers, Petra M A; Vosse van de, Renè E; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J N L

    2015-01-01

    The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and quantitative aEEG/EEG parameters has not yet been investigated. Our aim was to study the association between oxygen utilization during the first 6 h after birth and simultaneously continuously monitored brain activity measured by aEEG/EEG. Forty-four hemodynamically stable babies with a GA < 28 weeks, with good quality NIRS and aEEG/EEG data available and who did not receive morphine were included in the study. aEEG and NIRS monitoring started at NICU admission. The relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE), and quantitative measurements of brain activity such as number of spontaneous activity transients (SAT) per minute (SAT rate), the interval in seconds (i.e. time) between SATs (ISI) and the minimum amplitude of the EEG in μV (min aEEG) were evaluated. rScO2 was negatively associated with SAT rate (β=-3.45 [CI=-5.76- -1.15], p=0.004) and positively associated with ISI (β=1.45 [CI=0.44-2.45], p=0.006). cFTOE was positively associated with SAT rate (β=0.034 [CI=0.009-0.059], p=0.008) and negatively associated with ISI (β=-0.015 [CI=-0.026- -0.004], p=0.007). Oxygen delivery and utilization, as indicated by rScO2 and cFTOE, are directly related to functional brain activity, expressed by SAT rate and ISI during the first hours after birth, showing an increase in oxygen extraction in preterm infants with increased early electro-cerebral activity. NIRS monitored oxygenation may be a useful biomarker of brain vulnerability in high-risk infants. PMID:25965343

  5. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3 Activities... affecting commerce. Examples: 1. A foreign subsidiary of a U.S. corporation seeks to acquire a foreign business. The acquiring person includes the U.S. parent corporation. If the U.S. corporation, or...

  6. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3 Activities... affecting commerce. Examples: 1. A foreign subsidiary of a U.S. corporation seeks to acquire a foreign business. The acquiring person includes the U.S. parent corporation. If the U.S. corporation, or...

  7. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  8. Task- and resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions related to affection and susceptible to concurrent cognitive demand

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Tanja S.; Caspers, Svenja; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Roski, Christian; Laird, Angela R.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    A recent fMRI-study revealed neural responses for affective processing of stimuli for which overt attention irrespective of stimulus valence was required in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala (AMY): activation decreased with increasing cognitive demand. To further characterize the network putatively related to this attenuation, we here characterized these regions with respect to their functional properties and connectivity patterns in task-dependent and task-independent states. All experiments of the BrainMap database activating the seed regions OFC and bilateral AMY were identified. Their functional characteristics were quantitatively inferred using the behavioral meta-data of the retrieved experiments. Task-dependent functional connectivity was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) of significant co-activations with these seed regions. Task-independent resting-state functional connectivity analysis in a sample of 100 healthy subjects complemented these analyses. All three seed regions co-activated with subgenual cingulum (SGC), precuneus (PCu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the task-dependent MACM analysis. Task-independent resting-state connectivity revealed significant coupling of the seeds only with the SGC, but not the PCu and the NAcc. The former region (SGC) moreover was shown to feature significant resting-state connectivity with all other regions implicated in the network connected to regions where emotional processing may be modulated by a cognitive distractor. Based on its functional profile and connectivity pattern, we suggest that the SGC might serve as a key hub in the identified network, as such linking autobiographic information [PCu], reward [NAcc], (reinforce) values [OFC] and emotional significance [AMY]. Such a role, in turn, may allow the SGC to influence the OFC and AMY to modulate affective processing. PMID:23370055

  9. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  10. Brain imaging of cognitively normal individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset AD

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Spector, Nicole; Goldowsky, Alexander; Williams, Schantel; Osorio, Ricardo; McHugh, Pauline; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This brain imaging study examines whether cognitively normal (NL) individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) show evidence of more extensive Alzheimer disease pathology compared with those who have a single parent affected by LOAD. Methods: Fifty-two NL individuals received MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. These included 4 demographically balanced groups (n = 13/group, aged 32–72 years, 60% female, 30% APOE ε4 carriers) of NL individuals with maternal (FHm), paternal (FHp), and maternal and paternal (FHmp) family history of LOAD, and with negative family history (FH−). Statistical parametric mapping, voxel-based morphometry, and z-score mapping were used to compare MRI gray matter volumes (GMVs), partial volume–corrected PiB retention, and FDG metabolism across FH groups and vs FH−. Results: NL FHmp showed more severe abnormalities in all 3 biomarkers vs the other groups regarding the number of regions affected and magnitude of impairment. PiB retention and hypometabolism were most pronounced in FHmp, intermediate in FHm, and lowest in FHp and FH−. GMV reductions were highest in FHmp and intermediate in FHm and FHp vs FH−. In all FH+ groups, amyloid-β deposition exceeded GMV loss and hypometabolism exceeded GMV loss (p < 0.001), while amyloid-β deposition exceeded hypometabolism in FHmp and FHp but not in FHm. Conclusions: These biomarker findings show a “LOAD parent-dose effect” in NL individuals several years, if not decades, before possible clinical symptoms. PMID:24523481

  11. Functional brain interactions that serve cognitive-affective processing during pain and placebo analgesia.

    PubMed

    Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Verne, G Nicholas; Perlstein, William M; Robinson, Michael M

    2007-12-01

    Pain requires the integration of sensory, cognitive, and affective information. The use of placebo is a common methodological ploy in many fields, including pain. Neuroimaging studies of pain and placebo analgesia (PA) have yet to identify a mechanism of action. Because PA must result from higher order processes, it is likely influenced by cognitive and affective dimensions of the pain experience. A network of brain regions involved in these processes includes the anterior and posterior insula (A-Ins, P-Ins), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (DACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the supplementary motor area (SMA). We used connectivity analyses to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with Placebo analgesia in a group of chronic pain patients. Structural equation models (SEM) of fMRI data evaluated the inter-regional connectivity of these regions across three conditions: (1) initial Baseline (B1), (2) placebo (PA), and (3) Placebo Match (PM). SEM results of B1 data in the left hemisphere confirmed hypothesized regional relationships. However, inter-regional relationships were dynamic and the network models varied across hemispheres and conditions. Deviations from the B1 model in the PA and PM conditions correspond to our manipulation of expectation for pain. The dynamic changes in inter-regional influence across conditions are interpreted in the context of a self-reinforcing feedback loop involved in the induction and maintenance of PA. Although it is likely that placebo analgesia results partly from afferent inhibition of a nociceptive signal, the mechanisms likely involve the interaction of a cognitive-affective network with input from both hemispheres. PMID:17904390

  12. Retrieving Binary Answers Using Whole-Brain Activity Pattern Classification

    PubMed Central

    Nawa, Norberto E.; Ando, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been successfully employed to advance our understanding of where and how information regarding different mental states is represented in the human brain, bringing new insights into how these states come to fruition, and providing a promising complement to the mass-univariate approach. Here, we employed MVPA to classify whole-brain activity patterns occurring in single fMRI scans, in order to retrieve binary answers from experiment participants. Five healthy volunteers performed two types of mental task while in the MRI scanner: counting down numbers and recalling positive autobiographical events. Data from these runs were used to train individual machine learning based classifiers that predicted which mental task was being performed based on the voxel-based brain activity patterns. On a different day, the same volunteers reentered the scanner and listened to six statements (e.g., “the month you were born is an odd number”), and were told to countdown numbers if the statement was true (yes) or recall positive events otherwise (no). The previously trained classifiers were then used to assign labels (yes/no) to the scans collected during the 24-second response periods following each one of the statements. Mean classification accuracies at the single scan level were in the range of 73.6 to 80.8%, significantly above chance for all participants. When applying a majority vote on the scans within each response period, i.e., the most frequent label (yes/no) in the response period becomes the answer to the previous statement, 5.0 to 5.8 sentences, out of 6, were correctly classified in each one of the runs, on average. These results indicate that binary answers can be retrieved from whole-brain activity patterns, suggesting that MVPA provides an alternative way to establish basic communication with unresponsive patients when other techniques are not successful. PMID:26778992

  13. Abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2010-02-01

    Abdominal surgery-induced postoperative gastric ileus is well established to induce Fos expression in specific brain nuclei in rats within 2-h after surgery. However, the phenotype of activated neurons has not been thoroughly characterized. Nesfatin-1 was recently discovered in the rat hypothalamus as a new anorexigenic peptide that also inhibits gastric emptying and is widely distributed in rat brain autonomic nuclei suggesting an involvement in stress responses. Therefore, we investigated whether abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Two hours after abdominal surgery with cecal palpation under short isoflurane anesthesia or anesthesia alone, rats were transcardially perfused and brains processed for double immunohistochemical labeling of Fos and nesfatin-1. Abdominal surgery, compared to anesthesia alone, induced Fos expression in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Double Fos/nesfatin-1 labeling showed that of the activated cells, 99% were nesfatin-1-immunoreactive in the SON, 91% in the LC, 82% in the rRPa, 74% in the EW and VLM, 71% in the anterior parvicellular PVN, 47% in the lateral magnocellular PVN, 41% in the medial magnocellular PVN, 14% in the NTS and 9% in the medial parvicellular PVN. These data established nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem as part of the neuronal response to abdominal surgery and suggest a possible implication of nesfatin-1 in the alterations of food intake and gastric transit associated with such a stressor. PMID:19944727

  14. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-yan; Yang, Guo-shuai; Pan, Meng-jie; Li, Chang-qing; Pan, Su-yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate. In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate. The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID

  15. Empathy for the social suffering of friends and strangers recruits distinct patterns of brain activation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Meghan L; Masten, Carrie L; Ma, Yina; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Han, Shihui

    2013-04-01

    Humans observe various peoples' social suffering throughout their lives, but it is unknown whether the same brain mechanisms respond to people we are close to and strangers' social suffering. To address this question, we had participant's complete functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while observing a friend and stranger experience social exclusion. Observing a friend's exclusion activated affective pain regions associated with the direct (i.e. firsthand) experience of exclusion [dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and insula], and this activation correlated with self-reported self-other overlap with the friend. Alternatively, observing a stranger's exclusion activated regions associated with thinking about the traits, mental states and intentions of others ['mentalizing'; dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), precuneus, and temporal pole]. Comparing activation from observing friend's vs stranger's exclusion showed increased activation in brain regions associated with the firsthand experience of exclusion (dACC and anterior insula) and with thinking about the self [medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)]. Finally, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that MPFC and affective pain regions activated in concert during empathy for friends, but not strangers. These results suggest empathy for friends' social suffering relies on emotion sharing and self-processing mechanisms, whereas empathy for strangers' social suffering may rely more heavily on mentalizing systems.

  16. Empathy for the social suffering of friends and strangers recruits distinct patterns of brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Meghan L.; Masten, Carrie L.; Ma, Yina; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Humans observe various peoples’ social suffering throughout their lives, but it is unknown whether the same brain mechanisms respond to people we are close to and strangers’ social suffering. To address this question, we had participant’s complete functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while observing a friend and stranger experience social exclusion. Observing a friend’s exclusion activated affective pain regions associated with the direct (i.e. firsthand) experience of exclusion [dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and insula], and this activation correlated with self-reported self-other overlap with the friend. Alternatively, observing a stranger’s exclusion activated regions associated with thinking about the traits, mental states and intentions of others [‘mentalizing’; dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), precuneus, and temporal pole]. Comparing activation from observing friend’s vs stranger’s exclusion showed increased activation in brain regions associated with the firsthand experience of exclusion (dACC and anterior insula) and with thinking about the self [medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)]. Finally, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that MPFC and affective pain regions activated in concert during empathy for friends, but not strangers. These results suggest empathy for friends’ social suffering relies on emotion sharing and self-processing mechanisms, whereas empathy for strangers’ social suffering may rely more heavily on mentalizing systems. PMID:22355182

  17. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination. PMID:25644527

  18. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination.

  19. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.

  20. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  1. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  2. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  3. Tracking of EEG activity using motion estimation to understand brain wiring.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Humaira; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ullah, Rafi; Shim, Seong-O; Bawakid, Abdullah; Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Subhani, Ahmad Rauf

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes.

  4. Reduced brain activation in violent adolescents during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Mei, Yi; Du, XiaoXia; Xie, Bin; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control have been linked to aggression and violent behaviour. This study aimed to observe whether violent adolescents show different brain activation patterns during response inhibition and to ascertain the roles these brain regions play. A self-report method and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) were used to evaluate violent behaviour. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 violent adolescents and 17 matched healthy subjects aged 12 to 18 years. While scanning, a go/no-go task was performed. Between-group comparisons revealed that activation in the bilateral middle and superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and right orbitofrontal area (BA11) regions were significantly reduced in the violent group compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the violent group had more widespread activation in the prefrontal cortex than that observed in the control group. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the violent group was widespread but lacking in focus, failing to produce intensive activation in some functionally related regions during response inhibition. PMID:26888566

  5. Nonlinear analysis of brain activity in magnetic influenced Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Adamopoulos, A V; Kotini, A; Tsagas, N

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were obtained from the brain of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Superconductive Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). For each patient the magnetic activity was recorded from a total of 64 points of the skull (32 points from each temporal lobe) as defined by a recording reference system, which is based on the 10-20 Electrode Placement System. Some of the recorded points were observed to exhibit abnormal rhythmic activity, characterized by high amplitudes and low frequencies. External magnetic stimulation (EMS) with intensity 1-7.5pT, and frequency the alpha-rhythm of the patient (8-13 Hz) was applied in the left-right temporal, frontal-occipital and vertex (2 minutes over each of the above regions) and the brain magnetic activity was recorded again. The application of the EMS resulted in rapid attenuation of the MEG activity of PD patients. Furthermore, chaotic dynamic methods were used, in order to estimate the correlation dimension D of the reconstructed phase spaces. The estimated values of D, in conjunction with the results derived from the other data analysis methods, strongly support the existence of low dimension chaotic structures in the dynamics of cortical activity of PD patients. In addition, the increased values of D of the MEG after the application of EMS when compared with the corresponding ones obtained from the MEGs prior to the EMS, suggest that the neural dynamics are strongly influenced by the application of EMS. PMID:11154103

  6. Attenuation of microglial and neuronal activation in the brain by ICV minocycline following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Melissa; Stebbing, Martin; Kompa, Andrew R; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Krum, Henry; Badoer, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    Following myocardial infarction, microglia, the immune cells in the central nervous system, become activated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) suggesting inflammation in this nucleus. Little is known about other brain nuclei. In the present study, we investigated whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the periaqueductal grey (PAG), regions known to have important cardiovascular regulatory functions, also show increased microglial activation and whether this coincides with increased neuronal activity. We also investigated whether minocycline inhibited microglial activation and whether this also affected neuronal activity and cardiac function. Compared to controls there was a significant increase in the proportion of activated microglia and neuronal activation in the PVN, RVLM, NTS and PAG, 12weeks following myocardial infarction (P<0.001). Intracebroventricular infusion of minocycline (beginning one week prior to infarction) significantly attenuated the increase in microglial activation by at least 50% in the PVN, RVLM, PAG and NTS, and neuronal activation was significantly reduced by 50% in the PVN and virtually abolished in the PAG, RVLM and NTS. Cardiac function (percent fractional shortening) was significantly reduced by 55% following myocardial infarction but this was not ameliorated by minocycline treatment. The results suggest that following myocardial infarction, inflammation occurs in brain nuclei that play key roles in cardiovascular regulation and that attenuation of this inflammation may not be sufficient to ameliorate cardiac function.

  7. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammers, Jürgen; Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-01

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-Tc SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-Tc SQUID-based MEG systems.

  8. Modulation of Fgf8 activity during vertebrate brain development.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Diego; Belo, Jose Antonio; Martinez, Salvador

    2005-09-01

    In recent years much emphasis has been placed on investigation of the precise control of FGF signaling during brain development. Such control is achieved in part by regulatory elements that determine the domains and levels of expression of genes coding for the diverse FGF ligands via specific molecular signaling pathways. There is new knowledge on the operation of such mechanisms in regions of the neural tube involved in the correct patterning of adjacent territories (known as secondary organizers of neural tube pattern). In the present minireview we intend to summarize recent evidence and emerging conclusions on potent modulators that govern the activity of Fgf8 signals in the developing vertebrate brain, focusing our attention on the best known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer.

  9. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  10. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    , termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MRE to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination.

  11. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  12. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  13. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  14. Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

    2014-10-10

    We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain

  15. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  16. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  17. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  18. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  19. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength. PMID:25571015

  20. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. PMID:26707716

  1. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  2. LRRK2 is expressed in areas affected by Parkinson's disease in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco; Pérez-Tur, Jordi

    2006-02-01

    The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene was recently found to have multiple mutations that are causative for autosomal dominant inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we used Northern blot analysis to show that this gene was expressed in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, medulla, spinal cord, occipital pole, frontal lobe, temporal lobe and caudate putamen. However, a more comprehensive map of LRRK2 mRNA localization in the central nervous system is still lacking. In this study we have mapped the distribution of the mRNA encoding for LRRK2 using nonradioactive in situ hybridization. We detected a moderate expression of this PD-related gene throughout the adult B2B6 mouse brain. A stronger hybridization signal was observed in deep cerebral cortex layers, superficial cingulate cortex layers, the piriform cortex, hippocampal formation, caudate putamen, substantia nigra, the basolateral and basomedial anterior amygdala nuclei, reticular thalamic nucleus and also in the cerebellar granular cell layer. Given that LRRK2 mRNA is highly enriched in motor systems and also is expressed in other systems, we may conclude that mutations in LRRK2 may affect several motor and nonmotor structures that may play an important role in the development of PD.

  3. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  4. Impaired planning in Parkinson's disease is reflected by reduced brain activation and connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, James P.; Gerrits, Niels J.H.M.; Vriend, Chris; Berendse, Henk W.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) often entails impairments of executive functions, such as planning. Although widely held that these impairments arise from dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, not all executive functions are affected early on, and the underlying neural dynamics are not fully understood. In a combined longitudinal and cross‐sectional study, we investigated how planning deficits progress over time in the early stages of PD compared to matched healthy controls. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify accompanying neural dynamics. Methods Seventeen PD patients and 20 healthy controls performed a parametric Tower of London task at two time points separated by ∼3 years (baseline and follow‐up). We assessed task performance longitudinally in both groups; at follow‐up, a subset of participants (14 patients, 19 controls) performed a parallel version of the task during fMRI. We performed meta‐analyses to localize regions‐of‐interest (ROIs), that is, the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior parietal cortex, and caudate nucleus, and performed group‐by‐task analyses and within‐group regression analyses of planning‐related neural activation. We studied task‐related functional connectivity of seeds in the DLPFC and caudate nucleus. Results PD patients, compared with controls, showed impaired task performance at both time‐points, while both groups showed similar performance reductions from baseline to follow‐up. Compared to controls, patients showed lower planning‐related brain activation together with decreased functional connectivity. Conclusion These findings support the notion that planning is affected early in the PD disease course, and that this impairment in planning is accompanied by decreases in both task‐related brain activity and connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3703–3715, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  5. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  6. Acute stress affects the global DNA methylation profile in rat brain: modulation by physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gelson M; Toffoli, Leandro V; Manfredo, Marcelo H; Francis-Oliveira, José; Silva, Andrey S; Raquel, Hiviny A; Martins-Pinge, Marli C; Moreira, Estefânia G; Fernandes, Karen B; Pelosi, Gislaine G; Gomes, Marcus V

    2015-02-15

    The vulnerability of epigenetic marks of brain cells to environmental stimuli and its implication for health have been recently debated. Thus, we used the rat model of acute restraint stress (ARS) to evaluate the impact of stress on the global DNA methylation and on the expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes of hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Furthermore, we verified the potential of physical exercise to modulate epigenetic responses evoked by ARS. Sedentary male Wistar rats were submitted to ARS at the 75th postnatal day (PND), whereas animals from a physically active group were previously submitted to swimming sessions (35-74th PND) and to ARS at the 75th PND. Global DNA methylation profile was quantified using an ELISA-based method and the quantitative expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes was evaluated by real-time PCR. ARS induced a decrease in global DNA methylation in hippocampus, cortex and PAG of sedentary animals and an increased expression of Bdnf in PAG. No change in DNA methylation was associated with ARS in the exercised animals, although it was associated with abnormal expression of Dnmt1 and Bdnf in cortex, hypothalamus and PAG. Our data reveal that ARS evokes adaptive changes in global DNA methylation of rat brain that are independent of the expression of the Dnmt1 gene but might be linked to abnormal expression of the Bdnf gene in the PAG. Furthermore, our evidence indicates that physical exercise has the potential to modulate changes in DNA methylation and gene expression consequent to ARS.

  7. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Thomas, Theresa C

    2016-07-01

    As many as 20-55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  8. Effects of spatial variation of skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers on optical mapping of brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuping; Shibahara, Nanae; Kuramashi, Daishi; Okawa, Shinpei; Kakuta, Naoto; Okada, Eiji; Maki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of anatomical variation in human heads on the optical mapping of brain activity, we perform simulations of optical mapping by solving the photon diffusion equation for layered-models simulating human heads using the finite element method (FEM). Particularly, the effects of the spatial variations in the thicknesses of the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layers on mapping images are investigated. Mapping images of single active regions in the gray matter layer are affected by the spatial variations in the skull and CSF layer thicknesses, although the effects are smaller than those of the positions of the active region relative to the data points. The increase in the skull thickness decreases the sensitivity of the images to active regions, while the increase in the CSF layer thickness increases the sensitivity in general. The images of multiple active regions are also influenced by their positions relative to the data points and by their depths from the skin surface.

  9. Alpha-lipoic acid affects the oxidative stress in various brain structures in mice with methionine and choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Veskovic, Milena; Mladenovic, Dusan; Jorgacevic, Bojan; Stevanovic, Ivana; de Luka, Silvio; Radosavljevic, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Deficiency in methionine or choline can induce oxidative stress in various organs such as liver, kidney, heart, and brain. This study was to examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by methionine and choline deficiency (MCD) in several brain structures. Male mice C57BL/6 (n = 28) were divided into four groups: (1) control - continuously fed with standard chow; (2) LA - fed with standard chow and receiving LA; (3) MCD2 - fed with MCD diet for two weeks, and (4) MCD2+LA - fed with MCD diet for two weeks and receiving LA (100 mg/kg/day intraperitonealy [i.p.]). Brain tissue (cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus) was taken for determination of oxidative stress parameters. MCD diet induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NOx concentration in all brain regions, while LA restored their content to normal values. Similar to this, in MCD2 group, activity of total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD was reduced by MCD diet, while LA treatment improved their activities in all brain structures. Besides, in MCD2 group a decrease in catalase activity in cortex and GSH content in hypothalamus was evident, while LA treatment induced an increase in catalase activity in cortex and striatum and GSH content in hypothalamus. LA treatment can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress, caused by MCD diet, in all brain regions by restoring antioxidant enzymes activities, predominantly total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD, and to a lesser extent by modulating catalase activity and GSH content. LA supplementation may be used in order to prevent brain oxidative injury induced by methionine and choline deficiency.

  10. Alpha-lipoic acid affects the oxidative stress in various brain structures in mice with methionine and choline deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Veskovic, Milena; Mladenovic, Dusan; Jorgacevic, Bojan; Stevanovic, Ivana; de Luka, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in methionine or choline can induce oxidative stress in various organs such as liver, kidney, heart, and brain. This study was to examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by methionine and choline deficiency (MCD) in several brain structures. Male mice C57BL/6 (n = 28) were divided into four groups: (1) control – continuously fed with standard chow; (2) LA – fed with standard chow and receiving LA; (3) MCD2 – fed with MCD diet for two weeks, and (4) MCD2+LA – fed with MCD diet for two weeks and receiving LA (100 mg/kg/day intraperitonealy [i.p.]). Brain tissue (cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus) was taken for determination of oxidative stress parameters. MCD diet induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NOx concentration in all brain regions, while LA restored their content to normal values. Similar to this, in MCD2 group, activity of total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD was reduced by MCD diet, while LA treatment improved their activities in all brain structures. Besides, in MCD2 group a decrease in catalase activity in cortex and GSH content in hypothalamus was evident, while LA treatment induced an increase in catalase activity in cortex and striatum and GSH content in hypothalamus. LA treatment can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress, caused by MCD diet, in all brain regions by restoring antioxidant enzymes activities, predominantly total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD, and to a lesser extent by modulating catalase activity and GSH content. LA supplementation may be used in order to prevent brain oxidative injury induced by methionine and choline deficiency. PMID:25193852

  11. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice.

    PubMed

    Waters, R Parrish; Pringle, R B; Forster, G L; Renner, K J; Malisch, J L; Garland, T; Swallow, J G

    2013-05-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  12. Writing affects the brain network of reading in Chinese: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Vu, Marianne; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Lawrence, Jason M; Harris, Lindsay N; Guan, Qun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus.

  13. Treatment parameters affecting the response of normal brain to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Chopp, Michael; Dereski, Mary O.; Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.; Kessel, David; Heads, Larry; Hetzel, Fred W.

    1993-06-01

    Different aspects of photodynamic therapy in normal rat brain tissue have been studied, in an effort to understand and improve the dosimetry of this new modality in treatment of brain tumors. dosimetry parameters, including light energy dose, fluence rate and beam size, and drug dosage were studied. PDT induced lesion depth in brain was measured as a biological endpoint. Effective attenuation depth and absolute light fluence rate distribution under superficial irradiation were measured using invasive optical probes. Photosensitizer uptake was quantified using HPLC analysis. The results indicate that normal brain have a high intrinsic sensitivity to PDT treatment, based on the estimated photodynamic threshold.

  14. Protein v. carbohydrate intake differentially affects liking- and wanting-related brain signalling.

    PubMed

    Born, Jurriaan M; Martens, Mieke J I; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Goebel, Rainer; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-28

    Extreme macronutrient intakes possibly lead to different brain signalling. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ingesting high-protein v. high-carbohydrate food on liking and wanting task-related brain signalling (TRS) and subsequent macronutrient intake. A total of thirty female subjects (21.6 (SD 2.2) years, BMI 25.0 (SD 3.7) kg/m²) completed four functional MRI scans: two fasted and two satiated on two different days. During the scans, subjects rated all food items for liking and wanting, thereby choosing the subsequent meal. The results show that high-protein (PROT) v. high-carbohydrate (CARB) conditions were generated using protein or carbohydrate drinks at the first meal. Energy intake and hunger were recorded. PROT (protein: 53.7 (SD 2.1) percentage of energy (En%); carbohydrate: 6.4 (SD 1.3) En%) and CARB conditions (protein: 11.8 (SD 0.6) En%; carbohydrate: 70.0 (SD 2.4) En%) were achieved during the first meal, while the second meals were not different between the conditions. Hunger, energy intake, and behavioural liking and wanting ratings were decreased after the first meal (P< 0.001). Comparing the first with the second meal, the macronutrient content changed: carbohydrate -26.9 En% in the CARB condition, protein -37.8 En% in the PROT condition. After the first meal in the CARB condition, wanting TRS was increased in the hypothalamus. After the first meal in the PROT condition, liking TRS was decreased in the putamen (P< 0.05). The change in energy intake from the first to the second meal was inversely related to the change in liking TRS in the striatum and hypothalamus in the CARB condition and positively related in the PROT condition (P< 0.05). In conclusion, wanting and liking TRS were affected differentially with a change in carbohydrate or protein intake, underscoring subsequent energy intake and shift in macronutrient composition. PMID:22643242

  15. Electromagnetic pulse activated brain microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Juan; Kang-Chu-Li; Miao, Xia; An, Guang-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) induced an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the leakage of albumin from blood into brain tissue. Albumin is known to activate microglia cells. Thus, we hypothesised that microglia activation could occur in the brain after EMP exposure. To test this hypothesis, the morphology and secretory function of microglia cells, including the expression of OX-42 (a marker of microglia activation), and levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and NO were determined in the rat cerebral cortex after EMP exposure. In addition, to examine the signalling pathway of EMP-induced microglia activation, protein and phosphorylated protein levels of p38, JNK and ERK were determined. It was found that the expression of OX-42increased significantly at 1, 6 and 12h (p<0.05) and recovered to the sham group level at 24h after EMP exposure. Levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 also changed significantly in vivo and in vitro after EMP exposure. The protein level of p38 and phosphorylated p38 increased significantly after EMP exposure (p<0.05) and recovered to sham levels at 12 and 24h, respectively. Protein and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK and JNK did not change. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) partly prevented the change in NO, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α levels induced by EMP exposure. Taken together, these results suggested that EMP exposure (200kV/m, 200 pulses) could activate microglia in rat brain and affect its secretory function both in vivo and in vitro, and the p38 pathway is involved in this process. PMID:26688329

  16. Electromagnetic pulse activated brain microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Juan; Kang-Chu-Li; Miao, Xia; An, Guang-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) induced an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the leakage of albumin from blood into brain tissue. Albumin is known to activate microglia cells. Thus, we hypothesised that microglia activation could occur in the brain after EMP exposure. To test this hypothesis, the morphology and secretory function of microglia cells, including the expression of OX-42 (a marker of microglia activation), and levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and NO were determined in the rat cerebral cortex after EMP exposure. In addition, to examine the signalling pathway of EMP-induced microglia activation, protein and phosphorylated protein levels of p38, JNK and ERK were determined. It was found that the expression of OX-42increased significantly at 1, 6 and 12h (p<0.05) and recovered to the sham group level at 24h after EMP exposure. Levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 also changed significantly in vivo and in vitro after EMP exposure. The protein level of p38 and phosphorylated p38 increased significantly after EMP exposure (p<0.05) and recovered to sham levels at 12 and 24h, respectively. Protein and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK and JNK did not change. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) partly prevented the change in NO, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α levels induced by EMP exposure. Taken together, these results suggested that EMP exposure (200kV/m, 200 pulses) could activate microglia in rat brain and affect its secretory function both in vivo and in vitro, and the p38 pathway is involved in this process.

  17. Investigating the physiology of brain activation with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Richard B.; Uludag, Kamil; Dubowitz, David J.

    2004-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool for investigating the working human brain based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect on the MR signal. However, despite the widespread use of fMRI techniques for mapping brain activation, the basic physiological mechanisms underlying the observed signal changes are still poorly understood. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques, which measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the BOLD effect simultaneously, provide a useful tool for investigating these physiological questions. In this paper, recent results of studies manipulating the baseline CBF both pharmacologically and physiologically will be discussed. These data are consistent with a feed-forward mechanism of neurovascular coupling, and suggest that the CBF change itself may be a more robust reflection of neural activity changes than the BOLD effect. Consistent with these data, a new thermodynamic hypothesis is proposed for the physiological function of CBF regulation: maintenance of the [O2]/[CO2] concentration ratio at the mitochondria in order to preserve the free energy available from oxidative metabolism. A kinetic model based on this hypothesis provides a reasonable quantitative description of the CBF changes associated with neural activity and altered blood gases (CO2 and O2).

  18. In vivo and in vitro effects of fructose on rat brain acetylcholinesterase activity: an ontogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Carine A; Biella, Mairis S; Lopes, Abigail; Deroza, Pedro F; Oliveira, Mariana B; Macan, Tamires P; Streck, Emilio L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Zugno, Alexandra I; Schuck, Patrícia F

    2014-12-01

    Increased fructose concentrations are the biochemical hallmark of fructosemia, a group of inherited disorders on the metabolic pathway of this sugar. The main clinical findings observed in patients affected by fructosemia include neurological abnormalities with developmental delay, whose pathophysiology is still undefined. In the present work we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fructose on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in brain structures of developing rats. For the in vitro experiments, fructose was added at increasing concentrations to the incubation medium. It was observed that fructose provoked an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebral cortex of 30-day-old-rats, even at low concentrations (0.1 mM). For the in vivo experiments, rats were killed 1 h after a single fructose administration (5 µmol/g). Control group received the same volume of saline solution. We found that AchE activity was increased in cerebral cortex of 30- and 60-day-old rats receiving fructose administration. Finally, we observed that AchE activity was unaffected by acute fructose administration in cerebral cortex, striatum or hippocampus of 15- and 90-day-old rats. The present data suggest that a disruption in cholinergic homeostasis may be involved in the pathophysiology of brain damage observed in young patients affected by fructosemia. PMID:25590728

  19. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  20. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased. PMID:26227537

  1. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  2. Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed.

  3. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons (‘mirror neurons’) in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger

  4. Human sexual behavior related to pathology and activity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Rodriguez Del Cerro, Maria Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed in this chapter are: (1) correlations among human sexual behavior, brain pathology, and brain activity, including caveats regarding the interpretation of "cause and effect" among these factors, and the degree to which "hypersexuality" and reported changes in sexual orientation correlated with brain pathology are uniquely sexual or are attributable to a generalized disinhibition of brain function; (2) the effects, in some cases inhibitory, in others facilitatory, on sexual behavior and motivation, of stroke, epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and brain surgery; and (3) insights into sexual motivation and behavior recently gained from functional brain imaging research and its interpretive limitations. We conclude from the reviewed research that the neural orchestra underlying the symphony of human sexuality comprises, rather than brain "centers," multiple integrated brain systems, and that there are more questions than answers in our understanding of the control of human sexual behavior by the brain - a level of understanding that is still in embryonic form.

  5. Chronic caffeine ingestion causes microglia activation, but not proliferation in the healthy brain.

    PubMed

    Steger, Rob; Kamal, Arifa; Lutchman, Sara; Intrabartolo, Liliana; Sohail, Rabia; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2014-07-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world which contributes to behavioral and metabolic changes when ingested. Within the central nervous system (CNS), caffeine has a high affinity for A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Serving as an antagonist, caffeine affects the ability of adenosine to bind to these receptors. Caffeine has been shown to alter neuronal functioning through increasing spontaneous firing. However, the effects of caffeine on non-neuronal cells in the CNS have not been studied extensively. Microglia are one phenotype of non-neuronal glia within the CNS. Acting as phagocytes, they contribute to the immune defense system of the brain and express A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Caffeine, therefore, may affect microglia. In order to test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice were randomly placed into one of three groups: control, low caffeine (0.3 g/L water) and high caffeine (1.0 g/L water) and were allowed to drink freely for 30 days. Following 30 days, brain sections were stained to reveal microglia. Morphological reconstructions and density measurements were examined in cortical and subcortical areas including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and striatum. Results indicate that microglial density throughout the brain is decreased in the caffeine groups as compared to the control. Caffeine also impacted microglia morphology shortening process length and decreasing branching. These results suggest that chronic caffeine ingestion has a systemic impact on microglia density and their activation.

  6. Chronic caffeine ingestion causes microglia activation, but not proliferation in the healthy brain

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Rob; Kamal, Arifa; Lutchman, Sara; Intrabartolo, Liliana; Sohail, Rabia; Brumberg, Joshua C.

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world which contributes to behavioral and metabolic changes when ingested. Within the central nervous system (CNS), caffeine has a high affinity for A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Serving as an antagonist, caffeine affects the ability for adenosine to bind to these receptors. Caffeine has been shown to alter neuronal functioning through increasing spontaneous firing. However, the effects of caffeine on non-neuronal cells in the CNS has been not been studied extensively. Microglia are one phenotype of non-neuronal glia within the CNS. Acting as phagocytes, they contribute to the immune defense system of the brain and express A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Caffeine, therefore, may affect microglia. In order to test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice were randomly placed into one of three groups: control, low caffeine (0.3g/L water) and high caffeine (1.0g/L water) and were allowed to drink freely for 30 days. Following 30 days, brain sections were stained to reveal microglia. Morphological reconstructions and density measurements were examined in cortical and subcortical areas including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and striatum. Results indicate that microglial density throughout the brain is decreased in the caffeine groups as compared to the control. Caffeine also impacted microglia morphology shortening process length and decreasing branching. These results suggest that chronic caffeine ingestion has a systemic impact on microglia density and their activation. PMID:24881873

  7. Substrate elasticity affects bovine satellite cell activation kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lapin, M R; Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, S E

    2013-05-01

    Satellite cells support efficient postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy through fusion into the adjacent muscle fiber. Nuclear contribution allows for maintenance of the fiber myonuclear domain and proficient transcription of myogenic genes. Niche growth factors affect satellite cell biology; however, the interplay between fiber elasticity and microenvironment proteins remains largely unknown. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and surface elasticity on bovine satellite cell (BSC) activation kinetics in vitro. Young's elastic modulus was calculated for the semimembranosus (SM) and LM muscles of young bulls (5 d; n = 8) and adult cows (27 mo; n = 4) cattle. Results indicate that LM elasticity decreased (P < 0.05) with age; no difference in Young's modulus for the SM was noted. Bovine satellite cells were seeded atop polyacrylamide bioscaffolds with surface elasticities that mimic young bull and adult cow LM or traditional cultureware. Cells were maintained in low-serum media supplemented with 5 ng/mL HGF or vehicle only for 24 or 48 h. Activation was evaluated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunocytochemistry. Results indicate that BSC maintained on rigid surfaces were activated at 24 h and refractive to HGF supplementation. By contrast, fewer (P < 0.05) BSC had exited quiescence after 24 h of culture on surfaces reflective of either young bull (8.1 ± 1.7 kPa) or adult cow (14.6 ± 1.6 kPa) LM. Supplementation with HGF promoted activation of BSC cultured on bioscaffolds as measured by an increase (P < 0.05) in PCNA immunopositive cells. Culture on pliant surfaces affected neither activation kinetics nor numbers of Paired box 7 (Pax7) immunopositive muscle stem cells (P > 0.05). However, with increasing surface elasticity, an increase (P < 0.05) in the numbers of muscle progenitors was observed. These results confirm that biophysical and biochemical signals regulate BSC activation.

  8. Vitamin D as a neurosteroid affecting the developing and adult brain.

    PubMed

    Groves, Natalie J; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and growing evidence supports a requirement for optimal vitamin D levels for the healthy developing and adult brain. Vitamin D has important roles in proliferation and differentiation, calcium signaling within the brain, and neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it may also alter neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Recent experimental studies highlight the impact that vitamin D deficiency has on brain function in health and disease. In addition, results from recent animal studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during adulthood may exacerbate underlying brain disorders and/or worsen recovery from brain stressors. An increasing number of epidemiological studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation is readily available and affordable, and this review highlights the need for further research. PMID:25033060

  9. Non-Gaussian Diffusion Imaging for Enhanced Contrast of Brain Tissue Affected by Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geffroy, Françoise; Le Bihan, Denis; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) considered so far as the “gold standard”. The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI). As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF), the stretched exponential model (SEM), and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes. PMID:24586610

  10. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

  11. Intrinsic Activity in the Fly Brain Gates Visual Information during Behavioral Choices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials) in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque) were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1–1 s) and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals. PMID:21209935

  12. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain. PMID:26834608

  13. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain. PMID:26834608

  14. Natural image classification driven by human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dai; Peng, Hanyang; Wang, Jinqiao; Tang, Ming; Xue, Rong; Zuo, Zhentao

    2016-03-01

    Natural image classification has been a hot topic in computer vision and pattern recognition research field. Since the performance of an image classification system can be improved by feature selection, many image feature selection methods have been developed. However, the existing supervised feature selection methods are typically driven by the class label information that are identical for different samples from the same class, ignoring with-in class image variability and therefore degrading the feature selection performance. In this study, we propose a novel feature selection method, driven by human brain activity signals collected using fMRI technique when human subjects were viewing natural images of different categories. The fMRI signals associated with subjects viewing different images encode the human perception of natural images, and therefore may capture image variability within- and cross- categories. We then select image features with the guidance of fMRI signals from brain regions with active response to image viewing. Particularly, bag of words features based on GIST descriptor are extracted from natural images for classification, and a sparse regression base feature selection method is adapted to select image features that can best predict fMRI signals. Finally, a classification model is built on the select image features to classify images without fMRI signals. The validation experiments for classifying images from 4 categories of two subjects have demonstrated that our method could achieve much better classification performance than the classifiers built on image feature selected by traditional feature selection methods.

  15. Smart helmet: Monitoring brain, cardiac and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the assessment of the injuries following a road-traffic accident involving motorcyclists is absolutely crucial, particularly in the events with head trauma. Standard apparatus for monitoring cardiac activity is usually attached to the limbs or the torso, while the brain function is routinely measured with a separate unit connected to the head-mounted sensors. In stark contrast to these, we propose an integrated system which incorporates the two functionalities inside an ordinary motorcycle helmet. Multiple fabric electrodes were mounted inside the helmet at positions featuring good contact with the skin at different sections of the head. The experimental results demonstrate that the R-peaks (and therefore the heart rate) can be reliably extracted from potentials measured with electrodes on the mastoids and the lower jaw, while the electrodes on the forehead enable the observation of neural signals. We conclude that various vital sings and brain activity can be readily recorded from the inside of a helmet in a comfortable and inconspicuous way, requiring only a negligible setup effort. PMID:26736636

  16. Spatiotemporal characteristics of electrocortical brain activity during mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Vansteensel, Mariska J; Bleichner, Martin G; Freudenburg, Zac V; Hermes, Dora; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Jansma, Johan Martijn; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-12-01

    Mental calculation is a complex mental procedure involving a frontoparietal network of brain regions. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed interesting characteristics of these regions, but the precise function of some areas remains elusive. In the present study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings to chronometrically assess the neuronal processes during mental arithmetic. A calculation task was performed during presurgical 3T fMRI scanning and subsequent ECoG monitoring. Mental calculation induced an increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal in prefrontal, parietal and lower temporo-occipital regions. The group-fMRI result was subsequently used to cluster the implanted electrodes into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). We observed remarkable differences in high frequency power profiles between ROIs, some of which were closely associated with stimulus presentation and others with the response. Upon stimulus presentation, occipital areas were the first to respond, followed by parietal and frontal areas, and finally by motor areas. Notably, we demonstrate that the fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus is associated with two subfunctions during mental calculation. This finding reveals the significance of the temporal dynamics of neural ensembles within regions with an apparent uniform function. In conclusion, our results shed more light on the spatiotemporal aspects of brain activation during a mental calculation task, and demonstrate that the use of fMRI data to cluster ECoG electrodes is a useful approach for ECoG group analysis. PMID:25044370

  17. Age-Related Influences of Prior Sleep on Brain Activation during Verbal Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Jonelis, Michelle B.; Drummond, Sean P. A.; Salamat, Jennifer S.; McKenna, Benjamin S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bondi, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OLD) than younger adults (YOUNG), often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OLD and YOUNG. Twenty-seven OLD (ages 59–82) and 27 YOUNG (ages 19–36) underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses examined the group (OLD vs. YOUNG) by prior sleep quantity (total sleep time, TST) or quality (sleep efficiency, SE) interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampal in OLD and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YOUNG. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YOUNG, but not in OLD. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OLD, longer sleep duration may be linked to the ability to engage in functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YOUNG, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YOUNG, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding. PMID:22493590

  18. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading.

  19. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. PMID:26095088

  20. The future of real-world neuroscience: imaging techniques to assess active brains in social environments.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Fukuda, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Morita, Kentaro; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is characterized by an evolutionarily new, highly developed neocortex, which has characteristic connections with phylogenically older structures to enable adaptation to complex social environments. Adaptive social behavior requires successful mental representations of the self and others' emotions and intentions. Measurement of brain activity under laboratory-based settings has been the gold standard in previous cognitive neuroscience studies. However, these measurement settings may be sub-optimal if we want to visualize brain function in active individuals in real-world environments. Neuroscience has historically developed through generations of the "sensing brain," "emotional brain," "social brain," and "ego brain." The next generation is the "action brain" combined with "real-world neuroscience" perspective. To enable in situ measurement of the action brain, real-world or two-person neuroimaging techniques are necessary to visualize brain dynamics during natural social situations, such as the presence of others. This review discusses recent literature describing non-human primate (NHP) and human brain functions during active behaviors in social environments. Uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms of the active brain in the presence of others by using real-world neuroimaging will be an important step toward fully understanding the human brain and its mental functions.

  1. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Tamarin, Ilia; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain. PMID:27689805

  2. Social Support Can Buffer against Stress and Shape Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Social support from close relationship partners is an important resource for coping with stress, particularly during childhood. We discuss ethical challenges associated with studying stress and its social buffering in the laboratory, as well as emerging evidence regarding two potential neural substrates for the social buffering of stress: hypothalamic oxytocin activity and activation of areas in the prefrontal cortex associated with effective self-regulation. We also address the role of early-life social experiences in shaping brain development, as well as recommendations for practice and policy that would advance the ethical treatment of children and reduce social inequalities in early-life experiences and opportunities–e.g., investing in programs that prevent child maltreatment and facilitating access to high-quality child care for economically disadvantaged families. We also debate the ethical implications of using oxytocin nasal sprays to simulate the stress-reducing properties of social support and advise waiting for more evidence before recommending their use. PMID:26478822

  3. Neuromodulation of parietal and motor activity affects motor planning and execution.

    PubMed

    Convento, Silvia; Bolognini, Nadia; Fusaro, Martina; Lollo, Federica; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool, which effectively modulates behavior, and related brain activity. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS affects motor function, enhancing or decreasing performance of both healthy participants and brain-damaged patients. Beyond M1, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is also crucially involved in controlling and guiding movement. Therefore, we explored whether the modulation of cortical excitability within PPC can also affect hand motor function in healthy right-handed participants. In Experiment 1, anodal tDCS (2 mA, 10 min) was applied to PPC and to M1 of both hemispheres. Skilled motor function of the non-dominant left hand, measured using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTT), improved after anodal tDCS of the right, contralateral M1, as well as after the anodal stimulation of the left, ipsilateral PPC. Conversely, in Experiment 2, cathodal tDCS of the left PPC, or of the right M1, reduced motor performance of the left hand. Finally, Experiment 3 shows that the anodal tDCS of the left PPC selectively facilitated action planning, while the anodal tDCS of the right M1 modulated action execution only. This evidence shows that motor improvement induced by left parietal and right motor stimulations relies on substantial different mechanisms, opening up novel perspectives in the neurorehabilitation of stroke patients with motor and apraxic disorders.

  4. Effects of weak transcranial alternating current stimulation on brain activity-a review of known mechanisms from animal studies.

    PubMed

    Reato, Davide; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (∼1 Hz) and gamma oscillations (∼30 Hz). We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms. PMID:24167483

  5. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  6. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  7. Brain activation induced by psychological stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castro, M N; Villarreal, M F; Bolotinsky, N; Papávero, E; Goldschmidt, M G; Costanzo, E Y; Drucaroff, L; Wainsztein, A; de Achával, D; Pahissa, J; Bär, K-J; Nemeroff, C B; Guinjoan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Environmental influences are critical for the expression of genes putatively related to the behavioral and cognitive phenotypes of schizophrenia. Among such factors, psychosocial stress has been proposed to play a major role in the expression of symptoms. However, it is unsettled how stress interacts with pathophysiological pathways to produce the disease. We studied 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls aged 18 to 50years with 3T-fMRI, in which a period of 6min of resting state acquisition was followed by a block design, with three blocks of 1-min control-task, 1-min stress-task and 1-min rest after-task. Self-report of stress and PANSS were measured. Limbic structures were activated in schizophrenia patients by simple tasks and remained active during, and shortly after stress. In controls, stress-related brain activation was more time-focused, and restricted to the stressful task itself. Negative symptom severity was inversely related to activation of anterior cingulum and orbitofrontal cortex. Results might represent the neurobiological aspect of hyper-reactivity to normal stressful situations previously described in schizophrenia, thus providing evidence on the involvement of limbic areas in the response to stress in schizophrenia. Patients present a pattern of persistent limbic activation probably contributing to hypervigilance and subsequent psychotic thought distortions.

  8. Storm in a coffee cup: caffeine modifies brain activation to social signals of threat.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jessica E; Lawrence, Andrew D; Diukova, Ana; Wise, Richard G; Rogers, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Caffeine, an adenosine A₁ and A(2A) receptor antagonist, is the most popular psychostimulant drug in the world, but it is also anxiogenic. The neural correlates of caffeine-induced anxiety are currently unknown. This study investigated the effects of caffeine on brain regions implicated in social threat processing and anxiety. Participants were 14 healthy male non/infrequent caffeine consumers. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, they underwent blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional face processing task 1 h after receiving caffeine (250 mg) or placebo in two fMRI sessions (counterbalanced, 1-week washout). They rated anxiety and mental alertness, and their blood pressure was measured, before and 2 h after treatment. Results showed that caffeine induced threat-related (angry/fearful faces > happy faces) midbrain-periaqueductal gray activation and abolished threat-related medial prefrontal cortex wall activation. Effects of caffeine on extent of threat-related amygdala activation correlated negatively with level of dietary caffeine intake. In concurrence with these changes in threat-related brain activation, caffeine increased self-rated anxiety and diastolic blood pressure. Caffeine did not affect primary visual cortex activation. These results are the first to demonstrate potential neural correlates of the anxiogenic effect of caffeine, and they implicate the amygdala as a key site for caffeine tolerance.

  9. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  10. Pericyte abundance affects sucrose permeability in cultures of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Fiona E; Hacking, Cindy

    2005-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier is a physical and metabolic barrier that restricts diffusion of blood-borne substances into brain. In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are used to characterize this structure, examine mechanisms of damage and repair and measure permeability of test substances. The core component of in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier is brain microvascular endothelial cells. We cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMEC) from isolated rat cortex microvessels. After 2-14 days in vitro (DIV), immunohistochemistry of these cells showed strong labeling for zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), a tight junction protein expressed in endothelial cells. Pericytes were also present in these cultures, as determined by expression of alpha-actin. The present study was performed to test different cell isolation methods and to compare the resulting cell cultures for abundance of pericytes and for blood-brain barrier function, as assessed by 14C-sucrose flux. Two purification strategies were used. First, microvessels were preabsorbed onto uncoated plastic for 4 h, then unattached microvessels were transferred to coated culture ware. Second, microvessels were incubated with an antibody to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1; CD31) precoupled to magnetic beads, and a magnetic separation procedure was performed. Our results indicate that immunopurification, but not preadsorption, was an effective method to purify microvessels and reduce pericyte abundance in the resulting cultures. This purification significantly reduced 14C-sucrose fluxes across cell monolayers. These data indicate that pericytes can interfere with the development of blood-brain barrier properties in in vitro models that utilize primary cultures of RBMECs.

  11. The EEG signal: a window on the cortical brain activity.

    PubMed

    Constant, Isabelle; Sabourdin, Nada

    2012-06-01

    The accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia, allowing a more accurate adaptation of the doses of hypnotics, is an important end point for the anesthesiologist. It is a particularly crucial issue in pediatric anesthesia, in the context of the recent controversies about the potential neurological consequences of the main anesthetic drugs on the developing brain. The electroencephalogram signal reflects the electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex. It is thus the key to assessment of the level of hypnosis. Beyond visual analysis, several monitoring devices allow an automated treatment of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, combining time and frequency domain analysis. Each of these monitors focuses on a specific combination of characteristics of the signal and provides the clinician with useful information that remains, however, partial. For a comprehensive approach of the EEG-derived indices, the main features of the normal EEG, in adults and children, will be presented in the awake state and during sleep. Age-related modifications accompanying cerebral maturation during infancy and childhood will be detailed. Then, this review will provide an update on how anesthetic drugs, particularly hypnotics, influence the EEG signal, and how the main available monitors analyze these drug-induced modifications. The relationships between pain, memory, and the EEG will be discussed. Finally, this review will focus on some specific EEG features such as the electrical epileptoid activity observed under sevoflurane anesthesia. The EEG signal is the best window we have on cortical brain activity and provides a fair pharmacodynamic feedback of the effects of hypnotics. However, the cortex is only one of several targets of anesthesia. Hypnotics and opiates, have also subcortical primary targets, and the EEG performances in the evaluation or prediction of nociception are poor. Monitoring subcortical structures in combination with the EEG might in the future

  12. Accessible cultural mind-set modulates default mode activity: evidence for the culturally situated brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenbo; Oyserman, Daphna; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during self-construal priming and a following resting state. We found that, relative to a calculation task, both interdependent and independent self-construal priming activated the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The contrast of interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming also revealed increased activity in the dorsal MPFC and left middle frontal cortex. The regional homogeneity analysis of the resting-state activity revealed increased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the dorsal MPFC but decreased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the PCC when contrasting interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming. The functional connectivity analysis of the resting-state activity, however, did not show significant difference in synchronization of activities in remote brain regions between different priming conditions. Our findings suggest that accessible collectivistic/individualistic mind-set induced by self-construal priming is associated with modulations of both task-related and resting-state activity in the default mode network.

  13. Focal cerebral ischemia activates neurovascular restorative dynamics in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chu, Min; Hu, Xiaoming; Lu, Shiduo; Gan, Yu; Li, Peiying; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia triggers regeneration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), which are associated with neovascularization and white matter repair in the brain. This study analyzed the dynamics of neurogenesis, neovascularization, and white matter injury/repair after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and elucidated their temporal association. Mice were subjected to MCAO for 60 minutes and sacrificed up to 28 days after reperfusion. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis, as measured by double staining of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with DCX or tomato lectin, respectively, were substantially activated soon after ischemia and persisted for 4 weeks. Despite the moderate recovery of functional vessels in infarct margin from 7 days post-ischemia, a significant decrease in vascular density remained over time. Clusters of immature neurons localized proximal to angiogenic blood vessels beginning 14 days after ischemia, suggesting interplay between neurogenesis and revascularization. Progenitors of oligodendrocytes (NG2+) constitutively presented in the normal brain and proliferated soon after ischemia. However, axon damage and the loss of white matter integrity after ischemic stroke were almost irreversible, as revealed by sustained decreases of myelin basic protein (MBP) and neurofilament-200 expression. PMID:22202008

  14. Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy to Understand Brain "Activation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Upon stimulation, areas of the brain associated with specific cognitive processing tasks may undergo observable physiological changes, and measures of such changes have been used to create brain maps for visualization of stimulated areas in task-related brain "activation" studies. These perturbations usually continue throughout the period of the…

  15. Some Problems for Representations of Brain Organization Based on Activation in Functional Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has overshadowed traditional lesion studies in becoming the dominant approach to the study of brain-behavior relationships. The proponents of functional imaging studies frequently argue that this approach provides an advantage over lesion studies by observing normal brain activity in vivo without the disruptive effects of…

  16. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. PMID:25978461

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.

  18. Genetic and environmental contributions to brain activation during calculation.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2013-11-01

    Twin studies have long suggested a genetic influence on inter-individual variations in mathematical abilities, and candidate genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies. However, the localization of the brain regions under genetic influence during number manipulation is still unexplored. Here we investigated fMRI data from a group of 19 MZ (monozygotic) and 13 DZ (dizygotic) adult twin pairs, scanned during a mental calculation task. We examined both the activation and the degree of functional lateralization in regions of interest (ROIs) centered on the main activated peaks. Heritability was first investigated by comparing the respective MZ and DZ correlations. Then, genetic and environmental contributions were jointly estimated by fitting a ACE model classically used in twin studies. We found that a subset of the activated network was under genetic influence, encompassing the bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL), the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and a left superior frontal region. An additional region of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC), whose deactivation correlated with a behavioral calculation score, also presented higher similarity between MZ than between DZ twins, thus offering a plausible physiological basis for the observable inheritance of math scores. Finally, the main impact of the shared environment was found in the lateralization of activation within the intraparietal sulcus. These maps of genetic and environmental contributions provide precise candidate phenotypes for further genetic association analyses, and illuminate how genetics and education shape the development of number processing networks.

  19. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  20. Perceived causality influences brain activity evoked by biological motion.

    PubMed

    Morris, James P; Pelphrey, Kevin A; McCarthy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain activity in an observer who watched the hand and arm motions of an individual when that individual was, or was not, the cause of the motion. Subjects viewed a realistic animated 3D character who sat at a table containing four pistons. On Intended Motion trials, the character raised his hand and arm upwards. On Unintended Motion trials, the piston under one of the character's hands pushed the hand and arm upward with the same motion. Finally, during Non-Biological Motion control trials, a piston pushed a coffee mug upward in the same smooth motion. Hand and arm motions, regardless of intention, evoked significantly more activity than control trials in a bilateral region that extended ventrally from the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) region and which was more spatially extensive in the right hemisphere. The left pSTS near the temporal-parietal junction, robustly differentiated between the Intended Motion and Unintended Motion conditions. Here, strong activity was observed for Intended Motion trials, while Unintended Motion trials evoked similar activity as the coffee mug trials. Our results demonstrate a strong hemispheric bias in the role of the pSTS in the perception of causality of biological motion. PMID:18633843

  1. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  2. The Right Brain: An Active Partner in Written Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl-Gemake, Josephine; And Others

    The human brain is composed of two interdependent systems, the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. While the left brain analyzes sequentially the phonemes of our language and names or reads words, the right brain produces the images, feelings, and associations connected with the words. Current educational systems, however, are doing little…

  3. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jörg; Riedel, Anett; Braun, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus) is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behavior. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method) in 8-day-old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A) pups together with parents and siblings (control), (B) separation of the litter from the parents, (C) individual separation from parents and siblings, and (D) individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B) significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C), where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D) maternal vocalizations "reactivated" brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, NAcc, and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex (IL) and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other conditions.

  4. Self-control, negative affect and neural activity during effortful cognition in deprived smokers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen J; Sayette, Michael A; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-06-01

    The vast majority of attempts to quit smoking cigarettes are unsuccessful. Negative affect (NA) is one of the primary factors contributing to smoking relapse, in part because it interferes with psychological processes that are essential for self-regulation and coping. Converging evidence suggests that NA may be less of a problem for smokers with high relative to low dispositional self-control, but very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this issue by examining the associations between trait self-control, state levels of NA and patterns of brain activation in nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 117) during the performance of a verbal n-back paradigm (a task requiring cognitive processes that support self-regulation). While the activation of several brain regions linked to executive control correlated positively and negatively with state NA and trait self-control, respectively, an interaction between these factors was identified in only one region: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We conclude that the functions supported by the vmPFC are an important source of variability in smokers' self-regulatory functioning and propose that the region may contribute to the use of implicit forms of self-control under demanding circumstances.

  5. Detection of cocaine induced rat brain activation by photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) was used to detect the progressive changes on the cerebral cortex of Sprague Dawley rats after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Different concentrations (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution were injected into Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. Cerebral cortex images of the animals were continuously acquired by PAT. For continuous observation, PAT system used multi-transducers to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The obtained photoacoustic images were compared with each other and confirmed that changes in blood volume were induced by cocaine hydrochloride injection. The results demonstrate that PAT may be used to detect the effects of drug abuse-induced brain activation. PMID:21163301

  6. Changes in brain activation in stroke patients after mental practice and physical exercise: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Song, Luping; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Mental practice is a new rehabilitation method that refers to the mental rehearsal of motor imagery content with the goal of improving motor performance. However, the relationship between activated regions and motor recovery after mental practice training is not well understood. In this study, 15 patients who suffered a first-ever subcortical stroke with neurological deficits affecting the right hand, but no significant cognitive impairment were recruited. 10 patients underwent mental practice combined with physical practice training, and 5 patients only underwent physical practice training. We observed brain activation regions after 4 weeks of training, and explored the correlation of activation changes with functional recovery of the affected hands. The results showed that, after 4 weeks of mental practice combined with physical training, the Fugl-Meyer assessment score for the affected right hand was significantly increased than that after 4 weeks of practice training alone. Functional MRI showed enhanced activation in the left primary somatosensory cortex, attenuated activation intensity in the right primary motor cortex, and enhanced right cerebellar activation observed during the motor imagery task using the affected right hand after mental practice training. The changes in brain cortical activity were related to functional recovery of the hand. Experimental findings indicate that cortical and cerebellar functional reorganization following mental practice contributed to the improvement of hand function. PMID:25317160

  7. Amino acid activation in mammalian brain. Purification and characterization of tryptophan-activating enzyme from buffalo brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Chung, C H; Lee, M L

    1973-10-01

    l-Tryptophan-activating enzyme [l-tryptophan-tRNA ligase (AMP), EC 6.1.1.2] of water-buffalo brain was purified to near homogeneity by heat and pH treatments, ammonium sulphate fractionation, column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Amberlite CG-50, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme catalyses tryptophanyl-tRNA formation with yeast tRNA, but not with Escherichia coli tRNA. The enzyme exhibits multiple peaks of activity in Sephadex gel filtration with molecular weights corresponding to 155000, 105000 and 50000. However, only one peak of activity with molecular weight of 155000 can be detected when the enzyme is subjected to gel filtration at high concentration. Disc gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate reveals a single band with molecular weight of 55000. The activity of the enzyme is concentration dependent. Different K(m) and V(max.) values are obtained at different enzyme concentrations. These data suggest that this enzyme may exist in different quaternary structures, each with its own kinetic constants. The enzyme activity is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, and is not protected by the presence of the substrates, l-tryptophan, Mg(2+), ATP, in any combination.

  8. Chondroitinase enhances cortical map plasticity and increases functionally active sprouting axons after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Harris, Neil G; Nogueira, Marcia S M; Verley, Derek R; Sutton, Richard L

    2013-07-15

    The beneficial effect of interventions with chondroitinase ABC enzyme to reduce axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate side chains after central nervous system injuries has been mainly attributed to enhanced axonal sprouting. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether newly sprouting axons that occur as a result of interventional strategies are able to functionally contribute to existing circuitry, and it is uncertain whether maladaptive sprouting occurs to increase the well-known risk for seizure activity after TBI. Here, we show that after a controlled cortical impact injury in rats, chondroitinase infusion into injured cortex at 30 min and 3 days reduced c-Fos⁺ cell staining resulting from the injury alone at 1 week postinjury, indicating that at baseline, abnormal spontaneous activity is likely to be reduced, not increased, with this type of intervention. c-Fos⁺ cell staining elicited by neural activity from stimulation of the affected forelimb 1 week after injury was significantly enhanced by chondroitinase, indicating a widespread effect on cortical map plasticity. Underlying this map plasticity was a larger contribution of neuronal, rather than glial cells and an absence of c-Fos⁺ cells surrounded by perineuronal nets that were normally present in stimulated naïve rats. After injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion produced the expected increase in growth-associated protein 43-positive axons and perikarya, of which a significantly greater number were double labeled for c-Fos after intervention with chondroitinase, compared to vehicle. These data indicate that chondroitinase produces significant gains in cortical map plasticity after TBI, and that either axonal sprouting and/or changes in perineuronal nets may underlie this effect. Chondroitinase dampens, rather than increases nonspecific c-Fos activity after brain injury, and induction of axonal sprouting is not maladaptive because greater numbers are functionally

  9. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  10. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  11. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  12. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose. PMID:27591145

  13. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  14. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions.

  15. Aberrant temporal and spatial brain activity during rest in patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Malinen, Sanna; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Koskinen, Miika; Ramkumar, Pavan; Forss, Nina; Kalso, Eija; Hari, Riitta

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of external stimuli, human hemodynamic brain activity displays slow intrinsic variations. To find out whether such fluctuations would be altered by persistent pain, we asked 10 patients with unrelenting chronic pain of different etiologies and 10 sex- and age-matched control subjects to rest with eyes open during 3-T functional MRI. Independent component analysis was used to identify functionally coupled brain networks. Time courses of an independent component comprising the insular cortices of both hemispheres showed stronger spectral power at 0.12 to 0.25 Hz in patients than in control subjects, with the largest difference at 0.16 Hz. A similar but weaker effect was seen in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas activity of the precuneus and early visual cortex, used as a control site, did not differ between the groups. In the patient group, seed point-based correlation analysis revealed altered spatial connectivity between insulae and anterior cingulate cortex. The results imply both temporally and spatially aberrant activity of the affective pain-processing areas in patients suffering from chronic pain. The accentuated 0.12- to 0.25-Hz fluctuations in the patient group might be related to altered activity of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:20308545

  16. Does self-construal predict activity in the social brain network? A genetic moderation effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Chenbo; Li, Bingfeng; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2014-09-01

    Neural activity in the social brain network varies across individuals with different cultural traits and different genetic polymorphisms. It remains unknown whether a specific genetic polymorphism may influence the association between cultural traits and neural activity in the social brain network. We tested whether the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) affects the association between self-construals and neural activity involved in reflection of personal attributes of oneself and a significant other (i.e., mother). Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese adults with short/short (s/s) or long/long (l/l) variants of the 5-HTTLPR during reflection of personal attributes of oneself and one's mother. We found that, while s/s and l/l genotype groups did not differ significantly in self-construals measured by the Self-Construal Scale, the relationship between self-construal scores and neural responses to reflection of oneself and mother was significantly different between the two genotype groups. Specifically, l/l but not s/s genotype group showed significant association between self-construal scores and activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle frontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, insula and hippocampus during reflection on mental attributes of oneself and mother. Our findings suggest that a specific genetic polymorphism may interact with a cultural trait to shape the neural substrates underlying social cognition.

  17. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions. PMID:25994970

  18. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Chambers, E S; Bridge, M W; Jones, D A

    2009-04-15

    Exercise studies have suggested that the presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth activates regions of the brain that can enhance exercise performance but direct evidence of such a mechanism is limited. The first aim of the present study was to observe how rinsing the mouth with solutions containing glucose and maltodextrin, disguised with artificial sweetener, would affect exercise performance. The second aim was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the brain regions activated by these substances. In Study 1A, eight endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max 60.8 +/- 4.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a cycle time trial (total work = 914 +/- 29 kJ) significantly faster when rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% glucose solution compared with a placebo containing saccharin (60.4 +/- 3.7 and 61.6 +/- 3.8 min, respectively, P = 0.007). The corresponding fMRI study (Study 1B) revealed that oral exposure to glucose activated reward-related brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum, which were unresponsive to saccharin. In Study 2A, eight endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max 57.8 +/- 3.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) tested the effect of rinsing with a 6.4% maltodextrin solution on exercise performance, showing it to significantly reduce the time to complete the cycle time trial (total work = 837 +/- 68 kJ) compared to an artificially sweetened placebo (62.6 +/- 4.7 and 64.6 +/- 4.9 min, respectively, P = 0.012). The second neuroimaging study (Study 2B) compared the cortical response to oral maltodextrin and glucose, revealing a similar pattern of brain activation in response to the two carbohydrate solutions, including areas of the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. The results suggest that the improvement in exercise performance that is observed when carbohydrate is present in the mouth may be due to the activation of brain regions believed to be involved in reward and motor control. The findings also suggest that

  19. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  20. PMCA activity and membrane tubulin affect deformability of erythrocytes from normal and hypertensive human subjects.

    PubMed

    Monesterolo, Noelia E; Nigra, Ayelen D; Campetelli, Alexis N; Santander, Verónica S; Rivelli, Juan F; Arce, Carlos A; Casale, Cesar H

    2015-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated formation of a complex between acetylated tubulin and brain plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and the effect of the lipid environment on structure of this complex and on PMCA activity. Deformability of erythrocytes from hypertensive human subjects was reduced by an increase in membrane tubulin content. In the present study, we examined the regulation of PMCA activity by tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, and the effect of exogenously added diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) on erythrocyte deformability. Some of the key findings were that: (i) PMCA was associated with tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, (ii) PMCA enzyme activity was directly correlated with erythrocyte deformability, and (iii) wh