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Sample records for affect brain responses

  1. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:23439389

  2. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  3. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. PMID:26203003

  4. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. PMID:26203003

  5. Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces As Enabling Technology for Responsive Psychiatric Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Widge, Alik S.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing clinical need for responsive neurostimulators, which sense a patient’s brain activity and deliver targeted electrical stimulation to suppress unwanted symptoms. This is particularly true in psychiatric illness, where symptoms can fluctuate throughout the day. Affective BCIs, which decode emotional experience from neural activity, are a candidate control signal for responsive stimulators targeting the limbic circuit. Present affective decoders, however, cannot yet distinguish pathologic from healthy emotional extremes. Indiscriminate stimulus delivery would reduce quality of life and may be actively harmful. We argue that the key to overcoming this limitation is to specifically decode volition, in particular the patient’s intention to experience emotional regulation. Those emotion-regulation signals already exist in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and could be extracted with relatively simple BCI algorithms. We describe preliminary data from an animal model of PFC-controlled limbic brain stimulation and discuss next steps for pre-clinical testing and possible translation. PMID:25580443

  6. Maternal brain response to own baby-cry is affected by cesarean section delivery

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.; Tasgin, Esra; Mayes, Linda C.; Feldman, Ruth; Constable, R. Todd; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    A range of early circumstances surrounding the birth of a child affects peripartum hormones, parental behavior and infant wellbeing. One of these factors, which may lead to postpartum depression, is the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery (VD) or cesarean section delivery (CSD). To test the hypothesis that CSD mothers would be less responsive to own baby-cry stimuli than VD mothers in the immediate postpartum period, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging, 2–4 weeks after delivery, of the brains of six mothers who delivered vaginally and six who had an elective CSD. VD mothers’ brains were significantly more responsive than CSD mothers’ brains to their own baby-cry in the superior and middle temporal gyri, superior frontal gyrus, medial fusiform gyrus, superior parietal lobe, as well as regions of the caudate, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and pons. Also, within preferentially active regions of VD brains, there were correlations across all 12 mothers with out-of-magnet variables. These include correlations between own baby-cry responses in the left and right lenticular nuclei and parental preoccupations (r = .64, p < .05 and .67, p < .05 respectively), as well as in the superior frontal cortex and Beck depression inventory (r = .78, p < .01). First this suggests that VD mothers are more sensitive to own baby-cry than CSD mothers in the early postpartum in sensory processing, empathy, arousal, motivation, reward and habit-regulation circuits. Second, independent of mode of delivery, parental worries and mood are related to specific brain activations in response to own baby-cry. PMID:18771508

  7. Brain Regions Affected by Impaired Control Modulate Responses to Alcohol and Smoking Cues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Despite the commonly observed comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use disorders and years of research, the mechanism underlying concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco is not yet clear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the relationship between brain responses to alcohol and smoking cues in 45 subjects with episodic drinking and regular smoking. Method: fMRI data were collected from two studies performing an alcohol-craving task and a smoking-craving task. First, we identified brain voxels significantly activated for both substance cues and then associated the activation of these voxels with various alcohol- and nicotine-dependence measures. Significant clusters (cluster-wise p < .05) correlated with behavioral assessments were extracted, and clusters identified from both cues were compared. Results: The association tests with various dependence scores showed that the loss of behavioral control subcategory in the Alcohol Dependence Scale was significantly correlated with brain activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right posterior insula regardless of cue types. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCC and right posterior insula, each playing a role in the salience network, are affected significantly by impaired control for alcohol and in turn influence brain responses to not only alcohol but also smoking cues, providing insight to neuronal mechanisms for concurrent use or comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence. PMID:25208199

  8. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy. PMID:19061906

  9. Affective responses after different intensities of exercise in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Caxa, Luciana; Santolia, Patricia; Antunes, Hanna K. M.; Suriano, Italo; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. Methods: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate-intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects general linear model (GLM) analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses. Results: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d = 1.80), tension (d = 1.31), depression (d = 1.18), anger (d = 1.08), confusion (d = 1.70), psychological distress (d = 1.28), and physical symptoms (d = 1.42) disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. Conclusion: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury. PMID:26161074

  10. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory. PMID:27508865

  11. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    PubMed

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. PMID:21596060

  12. Effects of dopaminergic modulation on electrophysiological brain response to affective stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Nijs, Ilse; Pepplinkhuizen, Lolke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Several theoretical accounts of the role of dopamine suggest that dopamine has an influence on the processing of affective stimuli. There is some indirect evidence for this from studies showing an association between the treatment with dopaminergic agents and self-reported affect. Materials and methods We addressed this issue directly by examining the electrophysiological correlates of affective picture processing during a single-dose treatment with a dopamine D2 agonist (bromocriptine), a dopamine D2 antagonist (haloperidol), and a placebo. We compared early and late event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that have been associated with affective processing in the three medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind crossover design amongst healthy males. In each treatment condition, subjects attentively watched neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures while ERPs were recorded. Results Results indicate that neither bromocriptine nor haloperidol has a selective effect on electrophysiological indices of affective processing. In concordance with this, no effects of dopaminergic modulation on self-reported positive or negative affect was observed. In contrast, bromocriptine decreased overall processing of all stimulus categories regardless of their affective content. Discussion The results indicate that dopaminergic D2 receptors do not seem to play a crucial role in the selective processing of affective visual stimuli. PMID:17891382

  13. Singlet oxygen scavengers affect laser-dye impairment of endothelium-dependent responses of brain arterioles.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, W I; Nelson, G H

    1996-04-01

    This study investigates the possible role of singlet oxygen in accounting for the inhibitory effect of laser-dye injury on endothelium-dependent dilations. The combination of helium-neon (HeNe) laser (20-s exposure) and intravascular Evans blue impairs endothelium-dependent dilation of mouse pial arterioles by acetylcholine (ACh), bradykinin (BK), and calcium ionophore A23187. Each has a different endothelium-derived mediator (EDRFACh, EDRFBK, EDRFionophore, respectively). In this study, diameters at a craniotomy site were monitored in vivo with an image splitter-television microscope. The laser-dye injury, as usual, abolished the responses 10 and 30 min after injury, with recovery, complete or partial, at 60 min. Dilations by sodium nitroprusside, an endothelium-independent dilator, were not affected by laser-dye. When the singlet oxygen scavengers L-histidine (10(-3) M) and L-tryptophan (10(-2) M) were added to the suffusate over the site, the responses to ACh at 10 and 30 min were relatively intact, the response to BK was partly protected at 10 min only, and the response to ionophore was still totally impaired at 10 and 30 min. Lysine, a nonscavenging amino acid, had no protective effects with any dilator. We postulate that a heat-induced injury initiates a chain of events resulting in prolonged singlet oxygen generation by the endothelial cell (not by the dye). We postulate further that destruction of EDRFACh by singlet oxygen is responsible for laser-dye inhibition of ACh and that generation of the radical must continue for > or = 30 min. On the other hand, the heat injury itself is probably responsible for the elimination of the response to ionophore. Heat plus singlet oxygen generated by heat-damaged tissue may initially impair the response to BK, but by 30 min only the effects of some other factor, presumably heat injury, account for the impaired response to BK. PMID:8967364

  14. Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: fMRI evidence

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; White, Richard; Omari, Amro; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Diwadka, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. Attention-driven Go No-Go and X-CPT (continuous performance test) protocols, using positive, negative and neutral Ekman faces, targeted the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. A stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, using images from the International Affective Pictures System, targeted the hippocampus (HIP). Participants comprised 23 women with BPD, who were compared with 15 healthy controls. When Negative>Positive faces were compared in the Go No-Go task, BPD subjects had hyper-activation relative to controls in areas reflecting task-relevant processing: the superior parietal/precuneus and thebasal ganglia. Decreased activation was also noted in the OFC, and increased activation in the amygdala (AMY). In the X-CPT, BPD subjects again showed hyper-activation in task-relevant areas: the superior parietal/precuneus and the ACC. In the stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, BPD subjects had decreased activation relative to controls in the HIP, ACC, superior parietal/precuneus, and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (for encoding), and the ACC, dPFC, and HIP for retrieval of Negative>Positive pictures, reflecting impairment of task-relevant functions. Negative affective interference with cognitive processing in BPD differs from that in healthy controls and is associated with functional abnormalities in brain networks reported to have structural or metabolic

  15. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus. PMID:26342282

  16. Brain lesions affect penile reflexes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, E P; Arjomand, J; Breedlove, S M

    1993-03-01

    Electrolytic lesions of several potential brain afferents to the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) affect the display of penile reflexes. Ablation of the median and pontine raphe areas significantly potentiates the expression of cups and flips. Animals with a bilateral lesion of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus have a shorter latency to the first erection but otherwise display normal reflex behavior. Although bilateral destruction of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) completely eliminated penile reflex activity, it also caused significant motor impairment thus clouding conclusions concerning the normal role of the LVN in penile reflex behavior. These and other results support the hypothesis that these brain regions which project to the SNB region normally modulate spinal reflex behavior of the rat penis. PMID:8440513

  17. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms) for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception. PMID:23536874

  18. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger. PMID:25224182

  19. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    PubMed

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing. PMID:26797854

  20. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  1. The unfolded protein response is activated in disease-affected brain regions in progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by intracellular tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein distributed throughout the neocortex, basal ganglia, and brainstem. A genome-wide association study identified EIF2AK3 as a risk factor for PSP. EIF2AK3 encodes PERK, part of the endoplasmic reticulum’s (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR). PERK is an ER membrane protein that senses unfolded protein accumulation within the ER lumen. Recently, several groups noted UPR activation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy, and in the hippocampus and substantia nigra of PSP subjects. Here, we evaluate UPR PERK activation in the pons, medulla, midbrain, hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum in subjects with PSP, AD, and in normal controls. Results We found UPR activation primarily in disease-affected brain regions in both disorders. In PSP, the UPR was primarily activated in the pons and medulla and to a much lesser extent in the hippocampus. In AD, the UPR was extensively activated in the hippocampus. We also observed UPR activation in the hippocampus of some elderly normal controls, severity of which positively correlated with both age and tau pathology but not with Aβ plaque burden. Finally, we evaluated EIF2AK3 coding variants that influence PERK activation. We show that a haplotype associated with increased PERK activation is genetically associated with increased PSP risk. Conclusions The UPR is activated in disease affected regions in PSP and the genetic evidence shows that this activation increases risk for PSP and is not a protective response. PMID:24252572

  2. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  3. Brain temperature could affect neurochemical evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of natural brain temperature fluctuations as a critical factor affecting electrochemical detection of extracellular glutamate in awake rats and proposes a viable strategy to exclude this inescapable influence, thereby increasing the reliability of electrochemical measurements of glutamate in behaving animals.

  4. The visual cognitive network, but not the visual sensory network, is affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a study of brain oscillatory responses.

    PubMed

    Yener, Görsev G; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-10-17

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered in many as prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Event-related oscillations (ERO) reflect cognitive responses of brain whereas sensory-evoked oscillations (SEO) inform about sensory responses. For this study, we compared visual SEO and ERO responses in MCI to explore brain dynamics (BACKGROUND). Forty-three patients with MCI (mean age=74.0 year) and 41 age- and education-matched healthy-elderly controls (HC) (mean age=71.1 year) participated in the study. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes for each subject's averaged delta response (0.5-3.0 Hz) were measured from two conditions (simple visual stimulation and classical visual oddball paradigm target stimulation) (METHOD). Overall, amplitudes of target ERO responses were higher than SEO amplitudes. The preferential location for maximum amplitude values was frontal lobe for ERO and occipital lobe for SEO. The ANOVA for delta responses showed significant results for the group Xparadigm. Post-hoc tests indicated that (1) the difference between groups were significant for target delta responses, but not for SEO, (2) ERO elicited higher responses for HC than MCI patients, and (3) females had higher target ERO than males and this difference was pronounced in the control group (RESULTS). Overall, cognitive responses display almost double the amplitudes of sensory responses over frontal regions. The topography of oscillatory responses differs depending on stimuli: visualsensory responses are highest over occipitals and -cognitive responses over frontal regions. A group effect is observed in MCI indicating that visual sensory and cognitive circuits behave differently indicating preserved visual sensory responses, but decreased cognitive responses (CONCLUSION). PMID:25152459

  5. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  6. Seasonality in human cognitive brain responses.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christelle; Muto, Vincenzo; Jaspar, Mathieu; Kussé, Caroline; Lambot, Erik; Chellappa, Sarah L; Degueldre, Christian; Balteau, Evelyne; Luxen, André; Middleton, Benita; Archer, Simon N; Collette, Fabienne; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-03-15

    Daily variations in the environment have shaped life on Earth, with circadian cycles identified in most living organisms. Likewise, seasons correspond to annual environmental fluctuations to which organisms have adapted. However, little is known about seasonal variations in human brain physiology. We investigated annual rhythms of brain activity in a cross-sectional study of healthy young participants. They were maintained in an environment free of seasonal cues for 4.5 d, after which brain responses were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed two different cognitive tasks. Brain responses to both tasks varied significantly across seasons, but the phase of these annual rhythms was strikingly different, speaking for a complex impact of season on human brain function. For the sustained attention task, the maximum and minimum responses were located around summer and winter solstices, respectively, whereas for the working memory task, maximum and minimum responses were observed around autumn and spring equinoxes. These findings reveal previously unappreciated process-specific seasonality in human cognitive brain function that could contribute to intraindividual cognitive changes at specific times of year and changes in affective control in vulnerable populations. PMID:26858432

  7. Diagnosing pseudobulbar affect in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, William; Hammond, Flora M; Malec, James F

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined by episodes of involuntary crying and/or laughing as a result of brain injury or other neurological disease. Epidemiology studies show that 5.3%–48.2% of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have symptoms consistent with (or suggestive of) PBA. Yet it is a difficult and often overlooked condition in individuals with TBI, and is easily confused with depression or other mood disorders. As a result, it may be undertreated and persist for longer than it should. This review presents the signs and symptoms of PBA in patients with existing TBI and outlines how to distinguish PBA from other similar conditions. It also compares and contrasts the different diagnostic criteria found in the literature and briefly mentions appropriate treatments. This review follows a composite case with respect to the clinical course and treatment for PBA and presents typical challenges posed to a provider when diagnosing PBA. PMID:25336956

  8. Magnetism triggers a brain response

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-06-11

    Scientists have discoverd evidence of response of human brains to magnetic fields. They used epilepsy patients with electrodes inserted into their brains to monitor and locate areas of electrical activity that lead to epileptic seizures. When the patients were exposed to magnetic fields of 1-2 milliteslas (about the strength of the magnetic field of a household appliance), the brain responded with bursts of epileptiform activity. The results have implications in medicine for locating epileptic centers, and for research into the effects of electromagnetic fields.

  9. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

  10. Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) and heart rate in response to affective infant-directed (ID) speech in 9-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Santesso, Diane L; Schmidt, Louis A; Trainor, Laurel J

    2007-10-01

    Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective content (i.e., love/comfort, surprise, fear) in a group of typically developing 9-month-old infants. Regional EEG and heart rate were collected continuously during stimulus presentation. We found the pattern of overall frontal EEG power was linearly related to affective intensity of the ID speech, such that EEG power was greatest in response to fear, than surprise than love/comfort; this linear pattern was specific to the frontal region. We also noted that heart rate decelerated to ID speech independent of affective content. As well, infants who were reported by their mothers as temperamentally distressed tended to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity during baseline and in response to affective ID speech, consistent with previous work with visual stimuli and extending it to the auditory modality. Findings are discussed in terms of how increases in frontal EEG power in response to different affective intensity may reflect the cognitive aspects of emotional processing across sensory domains in infancy. PMID:17659820

  11. Pre-pubertal stress exposure affects adult behavioral response in association with changes in circulating corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Bazak, Noam; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Kaplan, Zeev; Matar, Michael; Golan, Hava; Zohar, Joseph; Richter-Levin, Gal; Cohen, Hagit

    2009-07-01

    Early-life stress produces a cascade of neurobiological events that cause enduring changes in neural plasticity and synaptic efficacy that appear to play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms of these changes, in interaction with components of the stress response, such as corticosterone. This study examined the consequences of juvenile stress for behavior during adulthood in association with circulating corticosterone levels and BDNF expression. The experiments examined single exposure to predator scent stress (soiled cat litter for 10 min) as compared to repeated exposure, early in life and later on. Behavioral responses were assessed in the elevated plus maze and the acoustic startle response paradigms at 28, 60 and 90 days of age. Plasma corticosterone was measured and brain areas analyzed for BDNF levels. The results show that juvenile stress exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and startle amplitude and decreased plasma corticosterone. This response was seen immediately after exposure and also long term. Adult stress exposure increased anxiety-like behavior, startle amplitude and plasma corticosterone. Exposure to both early and later life trauma elicited reduced levels of corticosterone following the initial exposure, which were not raised by re-exposure, and elicited significant downregulation of BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus CA1 subregion. The consequences of adult stress exposure were more severe in rats were exposed to the same stressor as juveniles, indicated increased vulnerability. The results suggest that juvenile stress has resounding effects in adulthood reflected in behavioral responses. The concomitant changes in BDNF and corticosterone levels may mediate the changes in neural plasticity and synaptic functioning underlying clinical manifestations of PTSD. PMID:19181453

  12. Affective modulation of the startle reflex following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claire; Wood, Rodger L

    2012-01-01

    Diminished emotional recognition, expression, and responsivity are frequent legacies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can have an adverse impact on relationships and psychosocial recovery. However, assessment of emotion responsivity is often difficult because many patients lack insight into their altered personality. To overcome this obstacle, we used a physiological measure of emotion responsivity, the startle reflex, to examine how this can vary according to the affective valence of stimuli by comparing a TBI group with a matched control group. The study also examined whether weaknesses of attention and speed of information processing could account for differences in startle modulation across groups. Sixty-four TBI patients and controls completed the startle reflex procedure. Participants were presented with pictures that differed in affective valence, and measures were taken of eyeblink startle responses to an acoustic probe. Subjective ratings of affect and arousal for each picture were obtained, and TBI patients completed measures of attention and information processing. Results revealed that the TBI group did not show the pattern of startle modulation observed in the control group. Whilst pleasant pictures produced the usual attenuation of the startle response, startle responses to unpleasant pictures were significantly lower in the TBI group than in controls. No significant correlations emerged between startle responses and performance on neuropsychological measures in the TBI group. The TBI group also rated unpleasant pictures as significantly less arousing than did controls. The results provide partial support for a growing body of evidence that has proposed impaired emotion responsivity following TBI. PMID:22873359

  13. Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159124.html Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care Those on Medicaid have less access ... May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children with traumatic brain injuries may be less likely to receive rehabilitation ...

  14. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants' preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  15. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  16. Changes of brain response induced by simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jinhe; Yan, Gongdong; Guan, Zhiqiang

    The characteristics change of brain response was studied during 15° head-down tilt (HDT) comparing with 45° head-up tilt (HUT). The brain responses evaluated included the EEG power spectra change at rest and during mental arithmetic, and the event-related potentials (ERPs) of somatosensory, selective attention and mental arithmetic activities. The prominent feature of brain response change during HDT revealed that the brain function was inhibited to some extent. Such inhibition included that the significant increment of "40Hz" activity during HUT arithmetic almost disappeared during HDT arithmetic, and that the positive-potential effect induced by HDT presented in all kinds of ERPs measured, but the slow negative wave reflecting mental arithmetic and memory process was elongated. These data suggest that the brain function be affected profoundly by the simulated weightlessness, therefore, the brain function change during space flight should be studied systematically.

  17. Affective recognition memory processing and event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory was examined for visual affective stimuli using behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that varied systematically in arousal level (low, high) and valence direction (unpleasant, pleasant) were first viewed passively. Then, during a response phase, the original images were intermixed with an equal number of new images and presented, and participants were instructed to press a button to indicate whether each stimulus picture was previously viewed (target) or new (foil). Participants were more sensitive to unpleasant- than to pleasant-valence stimuli and were biased to respond to high-arousal unpleasant stimuli as targets, whether the stimuli were previously viewed or new. Response times (RTs) to target stimuli were systematically affected by valence, whereas RTs to foil stimuli were influenced by arousal level. ERP component amplitudes were generally larger for high than for low arousal levels. The P300 (late positive component) amplitude was largest for high-arousal unpleasant target images. These and other amplitude effects suggest that high-arousal unpleasant stimuli engage a privileged memory-processing route during stimulus processing. Theoretical relationships between affective and memory processes are discussed. PMID:21384231

  18. Language affects patterns of brain activation associated with perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Hai; Chan, Alice H D; Kay, Paul; Khong, Pek-Lan; Yip, Lawrance K C; Luke, Kang-Kwong

    2008-03-11

    Well over half a century ago, Benjamin Lee Whorf [Carroll JB (1956) Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)] proposed that language affects perception and thought and is used to segment nature, a hypothesis that has since been tested by linguistic and behavioral studies. Although clear Whorfian effects have been found, it has not yet been demonstrated that language influences brain activity associated with perception and/or immediate postperceptual processes (referred hereafter as "perceptual decision"). Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that brain regions mediating language processes participate in neural networks activated by perceptual decision. When subjects performed a perceptual discrimination task on easy-to-name and hard-to-name colored squares, largely overlapping cortical regions were identified, which included areas of the occipital cortex critical for color vision and regions in the bilateral frontal gyrus. Crucially, however, in comparison with hard-to-name colored squares, perceptual discrimination of easy-to-name colors evoked stronger activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, two regions responsible for word-finding processes, as demonstrated by a localizer experiment that uses an explicit color patch naming task. This finding suggests that the language-processing areas of the brain are directly involved in visual perceptual decision, thus providing neuroimaging support for the Whorf hypothesis. PMID:18316728

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Innate Immune Responses against Junín Virus in Mice Lead to Antiviral Adaptive Immune Responses during Systemic Infection and Do Not Affect Viral Replication in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Successful adaptive immunity to virus infection often depends on the initial innate response. Previously, we demonstrated that Junín virus, the etiological agent responsible for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), activates an early innate immune response via an interaction between the viral glycoprotein and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Here we show that TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2 heterodimers sense Junín virus glycoprotein and induce a cytokine response, which in turn upregulates the expression of the RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA5. NF-κB and Erk1/2 were important in the cytokine response, since both proteins were phosphorylated as a result of the interaction of virus with TLR2, and treatment with an Erk1/2-specific inhibitor blocked cytokine production. We show that the Junín virus glycoprotein activates cytokine production in a human macrophage cell line as well. Moreover, we show that TLR2-mediated immune response plays a role in viral clearance because wild-type mice cleared Candid 1 (JUNV C1), the vaccine strain of Junín virus, more rapidly than did TLR2 knockout mice. This clearance correlated with the generation of Junín virus-specific CD8+ T cells. However, infected wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice developed TLR2-independent blocking antibody responses with similar kinetics. We also show that microglia and astrocytes but not neurons are susceptible to infection with JUNV C1. Although JUNV C1 infection of the brain also triggered a TLR2-dependent cytokine response, virus levels were equivalent in wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice. IMPORTANCE Junín virus is transmitted by rodents native to Argentina and is associated with both systemic disease and, in some patients, neurological symptoms. Humans become infected when they inhale aerosolized Junín virus. AHF has a 15 to 30% mortality rate, and patients who clear the infection develop a strong antibody response to Junín virus. Here we investigated what factors determine the immune response to Jun

  20. Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159124.html Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care Those ... included providers of physical and occupational therapy; speech, language and cognitive therapy; and mental health services. The ...

  1. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  2. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC. PMID:23900312

  3. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  4. Frontal Brain Electrical Activity (EEG) and Heart Rate in Response to Affective Infant-Directed (ID) Speech in 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Diane L.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective…

  5. Law, Responsibility, and the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobbs, Dean; Lau, Hakwan C.; Jones, Owen D.; Frith, Chris D.

    In perhaps the first attempt to link the brain to mental illness, Hippocrates elegantly wrote that it is the brain that makes us mad or delirious. Epitomizing one of the fundamental assumptions of contemporary neuroscience, Hippocrates' words resonate far beyond the classic philosophical puzzle of mind and body and posit that our behavior, no matter how monstrous, lies at the mercy of our brain's integrity. While clinicopathological observations have long pointed to several putative neurobiological systems as important in antisocial and violent criminal behavior, recent advances in brain-imaging have the potential to provide unparalleled insight. Consequently, brain-imaging studies have reinvigorated the neurophilosophical and legal debate of whether we are free agents in control of our own actions or mere prisoners of a biologically determined brain. In this chapter, we review studies pointing to brain dysfunction in criminally violent individuals and address a range of philosophical and practical issues concerning the use of brainimaging in court. We finally lay out several guidelines for its use in the legal system.

  6. Vaccination pattern affects immunological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P. G.

    2005-08-01

    The response of the immune system to different vaccination patterns is studied with a simple model. It is argued that the history and characteristics of the pattern defines very different secondary immune responses in the case of infection. The memory function of the immune response can be set to work in very different modes depending on the pattern followed during immunizations. It is argued that the history and pattern of immunizations can be a decisive (and experimentally accessible) factor to tailor the effectiveness of a specific vaccine.

  7. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Brain's Response to Marijuana Print The Brain's Response to Marijuana Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome to my magazine series exploring the brain's response to drugs. In this issue, we'll investigate ...

  8. Connectomics Signatures of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Affected Adolescent Brains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Li, Zhihao; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Coles, Claire; Hu, Xiaoping; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Recent in-vivo neuroimaging studies revealed that several brain networks are altered in prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) affected adolescent brains. However, due to a lack of dense and corresponding cortical landmarks across individuals, the systematical alterations of functional connectivities in large-scale brain networks and the alteration of structural brain architecture in PCE affected brain are largely unknown. In this paper, we adopted a newly-developed data-driven strategy to build a large set of cortical landmarks that are consistent and corresponding across PCE adolescents and their matched controls. Based on these landmarks, we constructed large-scale functional connectomes, and applied the well-established approaches of deriving genomics signatures in genome-wide gene expression studies to discover functional connectomics signatures for the characterization of PCE adolescent brains. Results derived from experimental data demonstrated that 10 structurally disrupted landmarks were identified in PCE, and more importantly, the discovered informative functional connectomics signatures among consistent landmarks distinctively differentiate PCE brains from their matched controls. PMID:22461404

  9. CNS-specific regulatory elements in brain-derived HIV-1 strains affect responses to latency-reversing agents with implications for cure strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gray, L R; Cowley, D; Welsh, C; Lu, H K; Brew, B J; Lewin, S R; Wesselingh, S L; Gorry, P R; Churchill, M J

    2016-01-01

    Latency-reversing agents (LRAs), including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are being investigated as a strategy to eliminate latency in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The effectiveness of LRAs in activating latent infection in HIV strains derived from the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. Here we show that CNS-derived HIV-1 strains possess polymorphisms within and surrounding the Sp transcription factor motifs in the long terminal repeat (LTR). These polymorphisms result in decreased ability of the transcription factor specificity protein 1 to bind CNS-derived LTRs, reducing the transcriptional activity of CNS-derived viruses. These mutations result in CNS-derived viruses being less responsive to activation by the HDACi panobinostat and romidepsin compared with lymphoid-derived viruses from the same subjects. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 strains residing in the CNS have unique transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, which impact the regulation of latency, the consideration of which is essential for the development of HIV-1 eradication strategies. PMID:26303660

  10. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    PubMed Central

    Stolp, Helen B.; Liddelow, Shane A.; Sá-Pereira, Inês; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognized that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signaling or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signaling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body's response to damage or infection. This signaling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed. PMID:23986663

  11. Novel Neuroimaging Methods to Understand How HIV Affects the Brain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul M; Jahanshad, Neda

    2015-06-01

    In much of the developed world, the HIV epidemic has largely been controlled by antiretroviral treatment. Even so, there is growing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for accelerated brain aging and a range of cognitive impairments. What promotes or resists these changes is largely unknown. There is also interest in discovering factors that promote resilience to HIV and combat its adverse effects in children. Here, we review recent developments in brain imaging that reveal how the virus affects the brain. We relate these brain changes to changes in blood markers, cognitive function, and other patient outcomes or symptoms, such as apathy or neuropathic pain. We focus on new and emerging techniques, including new variants of brain MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging, for example, can map the brain's structural connections, while fMRI can uncover functional connections. Finally, we suggest how large-scale global research alliances, such as ENIGMA, may resolve controversies over effects where evidence is now lacking. These efforts pool scans from tens of thousands of individuals and offer a source of power not previously imaginable for brain imaging studies. PMID:25902966

  12. The bimusical brain is not two monomusical brains in one: evidence from musical affective processing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Roy, Anil; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2011-12-01

    Complex auditory exposures in ambient environments include systems of not only linguistic but also musical sounds. Because musical exposure is often passive, consisting of listening rather than performing, examining listeners without formal musical training allows for the investigation of the effects of passive exposure on our nervous system without active use. Additionally, studying listeners who have exposure to more than one musical system allows for an evaluation of how the brain acquires multiple symbolic and communicative systems. In the present fMRI study, listeners who had been exposed to Western-only (monomusicals) and both Indian and Western musical systems (bimusicals) since childhood and did not have significant formal musical training made tension judgments on Western and Indian music. Significant group by music interactions in temporal and limbic regions were found, with effects predominantly driven by between-music differences in temporal regions in the monomusicals and by between-music differences in limbic regions in the bimusicals. Effective connectivity analysis of this network via structural equation modeling (SEM) showed significant path differences across groups and music conditions, most notably a higher degree of connectivity and larger differentiation between the music conditions within the bimusicals. SEM was also used to examine the relationships among the degree of music exposure, affective responses, and activation in various brain regions. Results revealed a more complex behavioral-neural relationship in the bimusicals, suggesting that affective responses in this group are shaped by multiple behavioral and neural factors. These three lines of evidence suggest a clear differentiation of the effects of the exposure of one versus multiple musical systems. PMID:21812560

  13. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2007-01-01

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

  14. Influence of Age on Brain Edema Formation, Secondary Brain Damage and Inflammatory Response after Brain Trauma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luh, Clara; Gotthardt, Philipp; Huang, Changsheng; Schäfer, Michael K.; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C.

    2012-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI) elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months) and old (21 months) male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count) were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2%) compared to young (0%). This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral inflammation

  15. Novel Neuroimaging Methods to Understand How HIV Affects the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In much of the developed world, the HIV epidemic has largely been controlled by anti-retroviral treatment. Even so, there is growing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for accelerated brain aging, and a range of cognitive impairments. What promotes or resists these changes is largely unknown. There is also interest in discovering factors that promote resilience to HIV, and combat its adverse effects in children. Here we review recent developments in brain imaging that reveal how the virus affects the brain. We relate these brain changes to changes in blood markers, cognitive function, and other patient outcomes or symptoms, such as apathy or neuropathic pain. We focus on new and emerging techniques, including new variants of brain MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging, for example, can map the brain’s structural connections while fMRI can uncover functional connections. Finally, we suggest how large-scale global research alliances, such as ENIGMA, may resolve controversies over effects where evidence is now lacking. These efforts pool scans from tens of thousands of individuals, and offer a source of power not previously imaginable for brain imaging studies. PMID:25902966

  16. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  17. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  18. The fetal brain sparing response to hypoxia: physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Dino A

    2016-03-01

    How the fetus withstands an environment of reduced oxygenation during life in the womb has been a vibrant area of research since this field was introduced by Joseph Barcroft, a century ago. Studies spanning five decades have since used the chronically instrumented fetal sheep preparation to investigate the fetal compensatory responses to hypoxia. This defence is contingent on the fetal cardiovascular system, which in late gestation adopts strategies to decrease oxygen consumption and redistribute the cardiac output away from peripheral vascular beds and towards essential circulations, such as those perfusing the brain. The introduction of simultaneous measurement of blood flow in the fetal carotid and femoral circulations by ultrasonic transducers has permitted investigation of the dynamics of the fetal brain sparing response for the first time. Now we know that major components of fetal brain sparing during acute hypoxia are triggered exclusively by a carotid chemoreflex and that they are modified by endocrine agents and the recently discovered vascular oxidant tone. The latter is determined by the interaction between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. The fetal brain sparing response matures as the fetus approaches term, in association with the prepartum increase in fetal plasma cortisol, and treatment of the preterm fetus with clinically relevant doses of synthetic steroids mimics this maturation. Despite intense interest into how the fetal brain sparing response may be affected by adverse intrauterine conditions, this area of research has been comparatively scant, but it is likely to take centre stage in the near future. PMID:26496004

  19. Affective responsiveness, betrayal, and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2009-01-01

    Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment. PMID:19585337

  20. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  1. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  2. Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohew, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

  3. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  4. Human freezing in response to affective films.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F

    2014-01-01

    Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response. PMID:23805855

  5. Impairment in cognitive and affective empathy in patients with brain lesions: anatomical and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Tomer, R; Goldsher, D; Berger, B D; Aharon-Peretz, J

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairment in cognitive and affective empathy among patients with focal brain lesions, and the contribution of specific cognitive abilities (such as cognitive flexibility and processing of emotional information), to empathy. The cognitive and affective empathic response of patients with localized prefrontal lesions (n=36) was compared to responses of patients with parietal lesions (n=15) and healthy control subjects (n=19). Results indicate that patients with prefrontal lesions (especially those with lesions involving the orbitoprefrontal and medial regions) were significantly impaired in both cognitive and affective empathy as compared to parietal patients and healthy controls. When the damage was restricted to the prefrontal cortex, either left- or right-hemisphere lesions resulted in impaired empathy. However, when the lesion involved the right hemisphere, patients with parietal lesions were also impaired. The pattern of relationships between cognitive performance and empathy suggested dissociation between the cognitive correlates of affective and cognitive empathy. PMID:15590464

  6. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character Through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Aranyi, Gabor; Pecune, Florian; Charles, Fred; Pelachaud, Catherine; Cavazza, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Affective brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this article, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent's facial expressions, in which action units (AUs) are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent's responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment. PMID:27462216

  7. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character Through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Aranyi, Gabor; Pecune, Florian; Charles, Fred; Pelachaud, Catherine; Cavazza, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Affective brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this article, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent’s facial expressions, in which action units (AUs) are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent’s responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment. PMID:27462216

  8. Psychophysiological Response Patterns to Affective Film Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Marieke G. N.; Jentgens, Pia; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1) whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR), skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2) the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV) and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding. PMID:23646134

  9. How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic…

  10. A brain mechanism for facilitation of insight by positive affect.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Kounios, John; Parrish, Todd B; Jung-Beeman, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has shown that people solve insight or creative problems better when in a positive mood (assessed or induced), although the precise mechanisms and neural substrates of this facilitation remain unclear. We assessed mood and personality variables in 79 participants before they attempted to solve problems that can be solved by either an insight or an analytic strategy. Participants higher in positive mood solved more problems, and specifically more with insight, compared with participants lower in positive mood. fMRI was performed on 27 of the participants while they solved problems. Positive mood (and to a lesser extent and in the opposite direction, anxiety) was associated with changes in brain activity during a preparatory interval preceding each solved problem; modulation of preparatory activity in several areas biased people to solve either with insight or analytically. Analyses examined whether (a) positive mood modulated activity in brain areas showing responsivity during preparation; (b) positive mood modulated activity in areas showing stronger activity for insight than noninsight trials either during preparation or solution; and (c) insight effects occurred in areas that showed mood-related effects during preparation. Across three analyses, the ACC showed sensitivity to both mood and insight, demonstrating that positive mood alters preparatory activity in ACC, biasing participants to engage in processing conducive to insight solving. This result suggests that positive mood enhances insight, at least in part, by modulating attention and cognitive control mechanisms via ACC, perhaps enhancing sensitivity to detect non-prepotent solution candidates. PMID:18578603

  11. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  12. MEG brain activities reflecting affection for visual food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Shinya; Miyamura, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the modulation of alpha rhythm in response to food pictures with distinct affection values. We examined the method to discriminate subject's state, i.e., whether he/she liked the article of food or not, from MEG signals detected over the head. Pictures of familiar foods were used as affective stimuli, while those pictures with complementary color phase were used as non-affective stimuli. Alpha band signals in a narrow frequency window around the spectral peak of individual subjects were wavelet analyzed and phase-locked component to the stimulus onset was obtained as a complex number. The amplitude of the phase-locked component was averaged during 0-1 s after stimulus onset for 30 epochs in a measurement session and across 76 channels of MEG sensor. In statistical test of individual subjects, significant difference was found in the real part of the averaged phase-locked amplitude between the normal-color and reverse-color pictures. These results suggest that affective information processing of food pictures is reflected in the synchronized component of narrow band alpha rhythm. PMID:21096510

  13. Nonneural Androgen Receptors Affect Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Ramzan, Firyal; Monks, D Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone, acting via estrogenic and androgenic pathways, is the major endocrine mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system and behavior, but we have an incomplete knowledge of which cells and tissues mediate these effects. To distinguish between neural and nonneural actions of androgens in sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, we generated a loxP-based transgenic mouse, which overexpresses androgen receptors (ARs) when activated by Cre. We used this transgene to overexpress AR globally in all tissues using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Cre driver (CMV-AR), and we used a Nestin-Cre driver to overexpress AR only in neural tissue (Nes-AR). We then examined whether neural or global AR overexpression can affect socio-sexual behaviors using a resident-intruder paradigm. We found that both neural and global AR overexpression resulted in decreased aggressive behaviors and increased thrusting during mounting of intruders, consistent with a neural site of action. Global, but not neural, AR overexpression in males led to an increase in same-sex anogenital investigation. Together, these results suggest novel roles for nonneural AR in sexual differentiation of mice, and indicate that excess AR can lead to a paradoxical reduction of male-typical behavior. PMID:26636184

  14. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  15. Neuroleptics Affect Neuropeptide S and NPSR mRNA Levels in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Artur; Rojczyk, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has a multidirectional regulatory activity, especially when considered as a potent endogenous anxiolytic factor. Accumulating data suggests that neuroleptics affect peptidergic signaling in various brain structures. However, there is no information regarding the influence of treatment with antipsychotics on brain NPS expression. In the current study, we assessed the NPS and NPS receptor (NPSR) mRNA levels in the brains of rats shortly and chronically treated with chlorpromazine and olanzapine using quantitative real-time PCR. Both single-dose and long-term (4 months) olanzapine treatment led to the upregulation of NPS expression in the rat hypothalamus. It supports the hypothesis that NPS is involved in the dopamine-dependent anxiolytic actions of selected neuroleptics and possibly also in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. On the other hand, NPSR expression decreased after single-dose and chronic chlorpromazine administration in the hypothalamus, as well as after chronic olanzapine and chlorpromazine administration in the striatum and hippocampus. These results cast a new light on the pharmacology of antipsychotics and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for their action. Furthermore, our findings underline the complex nature of potential interactions between dopamine receptors and brain peptidergic pathways, which has potential clinical applications. PMID:26227793

  16. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  17. Transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalopsin in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Flyktman, Antti; Mänttäri, Satu; Nissilä, Juuso; Timonen, Markku; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-15

    Encephalopsin (OPN3) belongs to the light-sensitive transmembrane receptor family mainly expressed in the brain and retina. It is believed that light affects mammalian circadian rhythmicity only through the retinohypothalamic tract, which transmits light information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. However, it has been shown that light penetrates the skull. Here, we present the effect of transcranial light treatment on OPN3 expression and monoamine concentrations in mouse brain and other tissues. Mice were randomly assigned to control group, morning-light group and evening-light group, and animals were illuminated transcranially five times a week for 8 min for a total of 4 weeks. The concentrations of OPN3 and monoamines were analysed using western blotting and HPLC, respectively. We report that transcranial light treatment affects OPN3 expression in different brain areas and plasma/adrenal gland monoamine concentrations. In addition, when light was administered at a different time of the day, the response varied in different tissues. These results provide new information on the effects of light on transmitters mediating mammalian rhythmicity. PMID:25805701

  18. Quantitative SPECT brain imaging: Effects of attenuation and detector response

    SciTech Connect

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Bowsher, J.E.; Turkington, T.G.; Liang, Z.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-06-01

    Two physical factors that substantially degrade quantitative accuracy in SPECT imaging of the brain are attenuation and detector response. In addition to the physical factors, random noise in the reconstructed image can greatly affect the quantitative measurement. The purpose of this work was to implement two reconstruction methods that compensate for attenuation and detector response, a 3D maximum likelihood-EM method (ML) and a filtered backprojection method (FB) with Metz filter and Chang attenuation compensation, and compare the methods in terms of quantitative accuracy and image noise. The methods were tested on simulated data of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. The simulation incorporated attenuation and distance-dependent detector response. Bias and standard deviation of reconstructed voxel intensities were measured in the gray and white matter regions. The results with ML showed that in both the gray and white matter regions as the number of iterations increased, bias decreased and standard deviation increased. Similar results were observed with FB as the Metz filter power increased. In both regions, ML had smaller standard deviation than FB for a given bias. Reconstruction times for the ML method have been greatly reduced through efficient coding, limited source support, and by computing attenuation factors only along rays perpendicular to the detector.

  19. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  20. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-07-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  1. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event. PMID:23274171

  2. Electrical engram: how deep brain stimulation affects memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Fell, Jürgen; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure involving implantation of a pacemaker that sends electric impulses to specific brain regions. DBS has been applied in patients with Parkinson's disease, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (among others), and more recently in patients with Alzheimer's disease to improve memory functions. Current DBS approaches are based on the concept that high-frequency stimulation inhibits or excites specific brain regions. However, because DBS entails the application of repetitive electrical stimuli, it primarily exerts an effect on extracellular field-potential oscillations similar to those recorded with electroencephalography. Here, we suggest a new perspective on how DBS may ameliorate memory dysfunction: it may enhance normal electrophysiological patterns underlying long-term memory processes within the medial temporal lobe. PMID:24126128

  3. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  4. Cholinesterase inhibitors affect brain potentials in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Irimajiri, Rie; Michalewski, Henry J; Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an isolated episodic memory disorder that has a high likelihood of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Auditory sensory cortical responses (P50, N100) have been shown to be increased in amplitude in MCI compared to older controls. We tested whether (1) cortical potentials to other sensory modalities (somatosensory and visual) were also affected in MCI and (2) cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), one of the therapies used in this disorder, modulated sensory cortical potentials in MCI. Somatosensory cortical potentials to median nerve stimulation and visual cortical potentials to reversing checkerboard stimulation were recorded from 15 older controls and 15 amnestic MCI subjects (single domain). Results were analyzed as a function of diagnosis (Control, MCI) and ChEIs treatment (Treated MCI, Untreated MCI). Somatosensory and visual potentials did not differ significantly in amplitude in MCI subjects compared to controls. When ChEIs use was considered, somatosensory potentials (N20, P50) but not visual potentials (N70, P100, N150) were of larger amplitude in untreated MCI subjects compared to treated MCI subjects. Three individual MCI subjects showed increased N20 amplitude while off ChEIs compared to while on ChEIs. An enhancement of N20 somatosensory cortical activity occurs in amnestic single domain MCI and is sensitive to modulation by ChEIs. PMID:17320833

  5. Signalling pathways mediating inflammatory responses in brain ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Planas, A M; Gorina, R; Chamorro, A

    2006-12-01

    Stroke causes neuronal necrosis and generates inflammation. Pro-inflammatory molecules intervene in this process by triggering glial cell activation and leucocyte infiltration to the injured tissue. Cytokines are major mediators of the inflammatory response. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released in the ischaemic brain. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10, promote cell survival, whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha), can induce cell death. However, deleterious effects of certain cytokines can turn to beneficial actions, depending on particular features such as the concentration, time point and the very intricate network of intracellular signals that become activated and interact. A key player in the intracellular response to cytokines is the JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway that induces alterations in the pattern of gene transcription. These changes are associated either with cell death or survival depending, among other things, on the specific proteins involved. STAT1 activation is related to cell death, whereas STAT3 activation is often associated with survival. Yet, it is clear that STAT activation must be tightly controlled, and for this reason the function of JAK/STAT modulators, such as SOCS (suppressors of cytokine signalling) and PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT), and phosphatases is most relevant. Besides local effects in the ischaemic brain, cytokines are released to the circulation and affect the immune system. Unbalanced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory plasma cytokine concentrations favouring an 'anti-inflammatory' state can decrease the immune response. Robust evidence now supports that stroke can induce an immunodepression syndrome, increasing the risk of infection. The contribution of individual cytokines and their intracellular signalling pathways to this response needs to be further investigated

  6. Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

  7. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  8. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  9. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  10. Microhabitat use affects brain size and structure in intertidal gobies.

    PubMed

    White, Gemma E; Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    The ecological cognition hypothesis poses that the brains and behaviours of individuals are largely shaped by the environments in which they live and the associated challenges they must overcome during their lives. Here we examine the effect of environmental complexity on relative brain size in 4 species of intertidal gobies from differing habitats. Two species were rock pool specialists that lived on spatially complex rocky shores, while the remainder lived on dynamic, but structurally simple, sandy shores. We found that rock pool-dwelling species had relatively larger brains and telencephalons in particular, while sand-dwelling species had a larger optic tectum and hypothalamus. In general, it appears that various fish species trade off neural investment in specific brain lobes depending on the environment in which they live. Our previous research suggests that rock pool species have greater spatial learning abilities, enabling them to navigate their spatially complex environment, which may account for their enlarged telencephalon, while sand-dwelling species likely have a reduced need for spatial learning, due to their spatially simple habitat, and a greater need for visual acuity. The dorsal medulla and cerebellum size was unaffected by the habitat in which the fish lived, but there were differences between species indicative of species-specific trade-offs in neural investment. PMID:25896449

  11. Affective state and locus of control modulate the neural response to threat.

    PubMed

    Harnett, Nathaniel G; Wheelock, Muriah D; Wood, Kimberly H; Ladnier, Jordan C; Mrug, Sylvie; Knight, David C

    2015-11-01

    The ability to regulate the emotional response to threat is critical to healthy emotional function. However, the response to threat varies considerably from person-to-person. This variability may be partially explained by differences in emotional processes, such as locus of control and affective state, which vary across individuals. Although the basic neural circuitry that mediates the response to threat has been described, the impact individual differences in affective state and locus of control have on that response is not well characterized. Understanding how these factors influence the neural response to threat would provide new insight into processes that mediate emotional function. Therefore, the present study used a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to investigate the influence individual differences in locus of control, positive affect, and negative affect have on the brain and behavioral responses to predictable and unpredictable threats. Thirty-two healthy volunteers participated in a fear conditioning study in which predictable and unpredictable threats (i.e., unconditioned stimulus) were presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Locus of control showed a linear relationship with learning-related ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity such that the more external an individual's locus of control, the greater their differential response to predictable versus unpredictable threat. In addition, positive and negative affectivity showed a curvilinear relationship with dorsolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and insula activity, such that those with high or low affectivity showed reduced regional activity compared to those with an intermediate level of affectivity. Further, activity within the PFC, as well as other regions including the amygdala, were linked with the peripheral emotional response as indexed by skin conductance and electromyography. The current findings demonstrate that the neural response to threat within brain regions

  12. Brain Responses Differ to Faces of Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsalidou, Marie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Bayless, Sarah J.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2010-01-01

    We encounter many faces each day but relatively few are personally familiar. Once faces are familiar, they evoke semantic and social information known about the person. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate differential brain activity to familiar and non-familiar faces; however, brain responses related to personally familiar faces have been more rarely…

  13. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  14. Benevolent sexism alters executive brain responses.

    PubMed

    Dardenne, Benoit; Dumont, Muriel; Sarlet, Marie; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Salmon, Eric; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2013-07-10

    Benevolence is widespread in our societies. It is defined as considering a subordinate group nicely but condescendingly, that is, with charity. Deleterious consequences for the target have been reported in the literature. In this experiment, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify whether being the target of (sexist) benevolence induces changes in brain activity associated with a working memory task. Participants were confronted by benevolent, hostile, or neutral comments before and while performing a reading span test in an fMRI environment. fMRI data showed that brain regions associated previously with intrusive thought suppression (bilateral, dorsolateral, prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortex) reacted specifically to benevolent sexism compared with hostile sexism and neutral conditions during the performance of the task. These findings indicate that, despite being subjectively positive, benevolence modifies task-related brain networks by recruiting supplementary areas likely to impede optimal cognitive performance. PMID:23660680

  15. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  16. Mice Lacking Serotonin 2C Receptors Have increased Affective Responses to Aversive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bonasera, Stephen J.; Schenk, A. Katrin; Luxenberg, Evan J.; Wang, Xidao; Basbaum, Allan; Tecott, Laurence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although central serotonergic systems are known to influence responses to noxious stimuli, mechanisms underlying serotonergic modulation of pain responses are unclear. We proposed that serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT2CRs), which are expressed within brain regions implicated in sensory and affective responses to pain, contribute to the serotonergic modulation of pain responses. In mice constitutively lacking 5-HT2CRs (2CKO mice) we found normal baseline sensory responses to noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli. In contrast, 2CKO mice exhibited a selective enhancement of affect-related ultrasonic afterdischarge vocalizations in response to footshock. Enhanced affect-related responses to noxious stimuli were also exhibited by 2CKO mice in a fear-sensitized startle assay. The extent to which a brief series of unconditioned footshocks produced enhancement of acoustic startle responses was markedly increased in 2CKO mice. As mesolimbic dopamine pathways influence affective responses to noxious stimuli, and these pathways are disinhibited in 2CKO mice, we examined the sensitivity of footshock-induced enhancement of startle to dopamine receptor blockade. Systemic administration of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride selectively reduced footshock-induced enhancement of startle without influencing baseline acoustic startle responses. We propose that 5-HT2CRs regulate affective behavioral responses to unconditioned aversive stimuli through mechanisms involving the disinhibition of ascending dopaminergic pathways. PMID:26630489

  17. Brain Mechanisms of Extinction of the Classically Conditioned Eyeblink Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.; Robleto, Karla; Poulos, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that the cerebellum and its associated circuitry are essential for classical conditioning of the eyeblink response and other discrete motor responses (e.g., limb flexion, head turn, etc.) learned with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). However, brain mechanisms underlying extinction of these responses are still…

  18. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions. PMID:26379509

  19. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions. PMID:26379509

  20. Castration affects male rat brain opiate receptor content.

    PubMed

    Hahn, E F; Fishman, J

    1985-07-01

    We previously reported that saturable stereospecific binding of [3H]-naltrexone in rat brain homogenates prepared from castrated male rats was greater than the corresponding binding in intact animals. We now report that we have replicated these results and that the difficulty of other investigators in observing these differences is due to methodological factors. Specifically, when samples were filtered individually and rapidly, differences between castrated and intact rats were maintained. The increase in binding was also observed when tissues were washed to remove endogenous opioids prior to incubation, when [3H]-naloxone was used as the ligand, and when various antagonists were used as displacers in the radioreceptor assay. PMID:2991795

  1. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition. PMID:25210111

  2. Self-reported tolerance influences prefrontal cortex hemodynamics and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Gavin; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between cognitive and sensory processes in the brain contributes to the regulation of affective responses (pleasure-displeasure). Exercise can be used to manipulate sensory processes (by increasing physiological demand) in order to examine the role of dispositional traits that may influence an individual's ability to cognitively regulate these responses. With the use of near infrared spectroscopy, in this study we examined the influence of self-reported tolerance upon prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemodynamics and affective responses. The hemodynamic response was measured in individuals with high or low tolerance during an incremental exercise test. Sensory manipulation was standardized against metabolic processes (ventilatory threshold [VT] and respiratory compensation point [RCP]), and affective responses were recorded. The results showed that the high-tolerance group displayed a larger hemodynamic response within the right PFC above VT (which increased above RCP). The low-tolerance group showed a larger hemodynamic response within the left PFC above VT. The high-tolerance group reported a more positive/less negative affective response above VT. These findings provide direct neurophysiological evidence of differential hemodynamic responses within the PFC that are associated with tolerance in the presence of increased physiological demands. This study supports the role of dispositional traits and previous theorizing into the underlying mechanisms (cognitive vs. sensory processes) of affective responses. PMID:26337703

  3. Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, L.; Coveleskie, K.; Kilpatrick, L. A.; Labus, J. S.; Ebrat, B.; Stains, J.; Jiang, Z.; Tillisch, K.; Raybould, H. E.; Mayer, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions are engaged by the stimulation of sweet taste receptors by sucrose and by non-nutrient sweeteners and (ii) during visual food-related cues, obese subjects show greater brain responses to sucrose compared with lean controls. Methods In a double-blind, crossover design, 10 obese and 10 lean healthy females received a sucrose or a non-nutrient sweetened beverage prior to viewing food or neutral images. BOLD signal was measured using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Key Results Viewing food images after ingestion of either drink was associated with engagement of similar brain regions (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, anterior insula). Obese differed from lean subjects in behavioral and brain responses rating both beverages as less tasteful and satisfying, yet demonstrating greater brain responses. Obese subjects also showed engagement of an additional brain network (including anterior insula, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and amygdala) only after sucrose ingestion. Conclusions & Inferences Obese subjects had a reduced behavioral hedonic response, yet a greater engagement of affective brain networks, particularly after sucrose ingestion, suggesting that in obese subjects, lingual and gut-derived signaling generate less central hedonic effects than food-related memories in response to visual cues, analogous to response patterns implicated in food addiction. PMID:23566308

  4. Pathological display of affect in patients with depression and right frontal brain damage. An alternative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ross, E D; Stewart, R S

    1987-03-01

    Two patients are reported with the acute onset of pathological crying following right inferior frontal brain damage. Both had severe endogenous depression and neither had pseudobulbar palsy. These and other cases argue that two organic brain diseases--one structural and the other "physiopharmacological"--may interact to produce pathological display of affect that cannot be accounted for by traditional neurological explanations. A pharmacological mechanism for the rapid amelioration of pathological affect by tricyclic medications and its possible relationship to the newly discovered descending motor systems of the brain that use norepinephrine and serotonin as neurotransmitters is offered. These cases also suggest that pathological affect is a valuable clinical indicator of an underlying major depression in some brain-injured patients. PMID:3819712

  5. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  6. Emotional sounds and the brain: the neuro-affective foundations of musical appreciation.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak; Bernatzky, Günther

    2002-11-01

    This article summarizes the potential role of evolved brain emotional systems in the mediation of music appreciation. A variety of examples of how music may promote behavioral change are summarized, including effects on memory, mood, brain activity as well as autonomic responses such as the experience of 'chills'. Studies on animals (e.g. young chicks) indicate that musical stimulation have measurable effects on their behaviors and brain chemistries, especially increased brain norepinephrine (NE) turnover. The evolutionary sources of musical sensitivity are discussed, as well as the potential medical-therapeutic implications of this knowledge. PMID:12426066

  7. Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  8. Considering Affective Responses towards Environments for Enhancing Location Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Klettner, S.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies in the field of environmental psychology show that humans perceive and evaluate their surroundings affectively. Some places are experienced as unsafe, while some others as attractive and interesting. Experiences from daily life show that many of our daily behaviours and decision-making are often influenced by this kind of affective responses towards environments. Location based services (LBS) are often designed to assist and support people's behaviours and decision-making in space. In order to provide services with high usefulness (usability and utility), LBS should consider these kinds of affective responses towards environments. This paper reports on the results of a research project, which studies how people's affective responses towards environments can be modelled and acquired, as well as how LBS can benefit by considering these affective responses. As one of the most popular LBS applications, mobile pedestrian navigation systems are used as an example for illustration.

  9. Mouse brain responses to charged particle radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gregory; Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Pecaut, Michael; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Spigelman, Igor; Stampanoni, Marco

    CHANGES IN DISEASE LATENCY AND HOMEOSTASIS: 1) APP23 transgenic mice exhibit many of the pathological features of Alzheimer's Disease, and the disease progression is continuous over several months. Electrophysiological measurements have shown that disease-related decreases in synaptic efficacy occur earlier in irradiated APP23 animals. 2) Using vascular polymer cast technology combined with micro-tomographic imaging, microvasculature changes following irradiation have been detected and are consistent with loss of vessels and an increased spacing between them. The time course of vessel changes to control and irradiated animals is being constructed. 3) In order to assess the ability of the brain to respond to external environmental shocks and restore orderly normal function (homeostasis), we apply a controlled septic shock by treating animals with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We find that in irradiated animals, the patterns of electrophysiological changes associated with reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are complex and unlike those of either LPS or irradiation alone. They further suggest that the brain continues to remodel for up to 6 months following radiation. This is consistent with the idea that irradiation may potentiate the risks from late secondary insults.

  10. Affective responses to qigong: a pilot study of regular practitioners.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mattias; Hassmén, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Single sessions of Qigong have been associated with increased positive affect/emotional benefits. In the present study the aim was to refine the present understanding by using newly developed research methodologies. Therefore, affective reactions were studied in a group performing Qigong through pre-, during, and post-assessments using a modified version of the short Swedish Core Affect Scale complemented with open-ended questions. Affect was measured on a group and individual level. The results showed a shift during Qigong toward increased pleasant activated and deactivated affect in the group of 46 women who regularly practice Qigong. Inter-individual responses displayed positive affective responses, which also increased as the bout proceeded for the majority of practitioners. Acknowledging some limitations, these findings have practical implications for the enhancement of positive affect and subjective well-being. PMID:23561864

  11. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    PubMed

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  12. CFH Variants Affect Structural and Functional Brain Changes and Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Jin; Wu, Huan; Cui, Yue; Bi, Rui; Zhou, He-Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Li, Tao; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Tianzi; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The immune response is highly active in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of genetic risk contributed by immune genes to AD may provide essential insight for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we performed a genetic screening for AD-related top immune genes identified in Europeans in a Chinese cohort, followed by a multiple-stage study focusing on Complement Factor H (CFH) gene. Effects of the risk SNPs on AD-related neuroimaging endophenotypes were evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the effects on AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and CFH expression changes were measured in aged and AD brain tissues and AD cellular models. Our results showed that the AD-associated top immune genes reported in Europeans (CR1, CD33, CLU, and TREML2) have weak effects in Chinese, whereas CFH showed strong effects. In particular, rs1061170 (P(meta)=5.0 × 10(-4)) and rs800292 (P(meta)=1.3 × 10(-5)) showed robust associations with AD, which were confirmed in multiple world-wide sample sets (4317 cases and 16 795 controls). Rs1061170 (P=2.5 × 10(-3)) and rs800292 (P=4.7 × 10(-4)) risk-allele carriers have an increased entorhinal thickness in their young age and a higher atrophy rate as the disease progresses. Rs800292 risk-allele carriers have higher CSF tau and Aβ levels and severe cognitive decline. CFH expression level, which was affected by the risk-alleles, was increased in AD brains and cellular models. These comprehensive analyses suggested that CFH is an important immune factor in AD and affects multiple pathological changes in early life and during disease progress. PMID:26243271

  13. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  14. Global Genetic Variations Predict Brain Response to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Erin W.; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon; Kovacevic, Natasa; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Nichols, Thomas; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcela; Smolka, Michal N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Toro, Roberto; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620). Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40–50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R2 = 0.38, p<0.001). Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001) and the magnitude of brain response (R2 = 0.32, p<0.001). Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network. PMID:25122193

  15. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon; Kovacevic, Natasa; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Nichols, Thomas; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcela; Smolka, Michal N; Ströhle, Andreas; Toro, Roberto; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620). Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2) = 0.38, p<0.001). Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001) and the magnitude of brain response (R(2) = 0.32, p<0.001). Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network. PMID:25122193

  16. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  17. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  18. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  19. Brain Potentials During Affective Picture Processing in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, Greg; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2008-01-01

    In adults, emotional (e.g., both unpleasant and pleasant) compared to neutral pictures elicit an increase in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP); modulation of these ERP components are thought to reflect the facilitated processing of, and increased attention to, motivationally salient stimuli. To determine whether the EPN and LPP are sensitive to emotional content in children, high-density EEG was recorded from 18 children who were 5 to 8 years of age (mean age = 77 months, SD = 11 months) while they viewed developmentally appropriate pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reported ratings of valence and arousal were also obtained. An EPN was not evident following emotional compared to neutral pictures; however, a positivity maximal at occipital-parietal recording sites was increased from 500 to 1,000 ms following pleasant pictures and from 500 to 1,500 ms following unpleasant pictures. Comparisons between the EPN and LPP observed in children and adults, and implications for developmental studies of emotion, are discussed. PMID:19103249

  20. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  1. Behavioural and brain responses related to Internet search and memory.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-10-01

    The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based vs. non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared with traditional book searching. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items with remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex and lower brain activation in the right middle temporal gyrus when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the middle temporal gyrus were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the orbitofrontal cortex were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that, although Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivation to use the Internet. PMID:26262779

  2. Assessing Affective Learning Using a Student Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning relates to students' attitudes, emotions, and feelings. This study focuses on measuring affective learning during library instruction by using a student response system. Participants were undergraduate students who received course-related library instruction for a research assignment. Students rated their confidence levels…

  3. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tiago A.; Mocaiber, Izabela; Erthal, Fatima S.; Joffily, Mateus; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n = 22, 12 male) were scanned while viewing neutral (people) or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies) flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a) judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b) to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0 or 90∘ orientation difference) or (c) in a hard condition (0 or 6∘ orientation difference). Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. Region of interest analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01) between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses. PMID:25788883

  4. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  5. Brain response to prosodic boundary cues depends on boundary position

    PubMed Central

    Holzgrefe, Julia; Wellmann, Caroline; Petrone, Caterina; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Höhle, Barbara; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic information is crucial for spoken language comprehension and especially for syntactic parsing, because prosodic cues guide the hearer's syntactic analysis. The time course and mechanisms of this interplay of prosody and syntax are not yet well-understood. In particular, there is an ongoing debate whether local prosodic cues are taken into account automatically or whether they are processed in relation to the global prosodic context in which they appear. The present study explores whether the perception of a prosodic boundary is affected by its position within an utterance. In an event-related potential (ERP) study we tested if the brain response evoked by the prosodic boundary differs when the boundary occurs early in a list of three names connected by conjunctions (i.e., after the first name) as compared to later in the utterance (i.e., after the second name). A closure positive shift (CPS)—marking the processing of a prosodic phrase boundary—was elicited for stimuli with a late boundary, but not for stimuli with an early boundary. This result is further evidence for an immediate integration of prosodic information into the parsing of an utterance. In addition, it shows that the processing of prosodic boundary cues depends on the previously processed information from the preceding prosodic context. PMID:23882234

  6. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hettich, Dirk T.; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  7. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hettich, Dirk T; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  8. Lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness: protective or damaging response to the brain?

    PubMed

    Pardon, Marie Christine

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxins are widely used as experimental models of systemic bacterial infection and trigger robust inflammation by potently activating toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) expressed on innate immune cells. Their ability to trigger robust neuroinflammation despite poor brain penetration can prove useful for the understanding of how inflammation induced by viral infections contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. A single LPS challenge often result in a blunted inflammatory response to subsequent stimulation by LPS and other TLR ligands, but the extent to which endotoxin tolerance occur in the brain requires further clarification. LPS is also thought to render the brain transiently resistant to subsequent brain injuries by attenuating the concomitant pro-inflammatory response. While LPS hyporesponsiveness and preconditioning are classically seen as protective mechanisms limiting the toxic effects of sustained inflammation, recent research casts doubt as to whether they have beneficial or detrimental roles on the brain and in neurodegenerative disease. These observations suggest that spatio-temporal aspects of the immune responses to LPS and the disease status are determinant factors. Endotoxin tolerance may lead to a late pro-inflammatory response with potential harmful consequences. And while reduced TLR4 signaling reduces the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with LPS hyporesponsiveness can have deleterious consequences to the brain by inhibiting the protective phenotype of microglia, aggravating the progression of some neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Beneficial effects of LPS preconditioning, however appear to require a stimulation of anti-inflammatory mediators rather than an attenuation of the pro-inflammatory response. PMID:26662122

  9. Brain connectomics predict response to treatment in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Whitfield-Gabrieli, S; Ghosh, S S; Nieto-Castanon, A; Saygin, Z; Doehrmann, O; Chai, X J; Reynolds, G O; Hofmann, S G; Pollack, M H; Gabrieli, J D E

    2016-05-01

    We asked whether brain connectomics can predict response to treatment for a neuropsychiatric disorder better than conventional clinical measures. Pre-treatment resting-state brain functional connectivity and diffusion-weighted structural connectivity were measured in 38 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) to predict subsequent treatment response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We used a priori bilateral anatomical amygdala seed-driven resting connectivity and probabilistic tractography of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus together with a data-driven multivoxel pattern analysis of whole-brain resting-state connectivity before treatment to predict improvement in social anxiety after CBT. Each connectomic measure improved the prediction of individuals' treatment outcomes significantly better than a clinical measure of initial severity, and combining the multimodal connectomics yielded a fivefold improvement in predicting treatment response. Generalization of the findings was supported by leave-one-out cross-validation. After dividing patients into better or worse responders, logistic regression of connectomic predictors and initial severity combined with leave-one-out cross-validation yielded a categorical prediction of clinical improvement with 81% accuracy, 84% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Connectomics of the human brain, measured by widely available imaging methods, may provide brain-based biomarkers (neuromarkers) supporting precision medicine that better guide patients with neuropsychiatric diseases to optimal available treatments, and thus translate basic neuroimaging into medical practice. PMID:26260493

  10. Orbitofrontal Cortex Volume and Brain Reward Response in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shott, Megan E.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Mittal, Vijay A.; Pryor, Tamara L.; Orr, Joseph M.; Brown, Mark S.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives What drives overconsumption of food is poorly understood. Alterations in brain structure and function could contribute to increased food seeking. Recently brain orbitofrontal cortex volume has been implicated in dysregulated eating but little is know how brain structure relates to function. Subjects/Methods We examined obese (n=18, age=28.7.4±8.3 years) and healthy control women (n=24, age=27.4±6.3 years) using a multimodal brain imaging approach. We applied magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging to study brain gray and white matter volume as well as white matter integrity, and tested whether orbitofrontal cortex volume predicts brain reward circuitry activation in a taste reinforcement-learning paradigm that has been associated with dopamine function. Results Obese individuals displayed lower gray and associated white matter volumes (p<.05 family wise error (FWE)-small volume corrected) compared to controls in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and insula. White matter integrity was reduced in obese individuals in fiber tracts including the external capsule, corona radiata, sagittal stratum, and the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. Gray matter volume of the gyrus rectus at the medial edge of the orbitofrontal cortex predicted functional taste reward-learning response in frontal cortex, insula, basal ganglia, amygdala, hypothalamus and anterior cingulate cortex in control but not obese individuals. Conclusions This study indicates a strong association between medial orbitofrontal cortex volume and taste reinforcement-learning activation in the brain in control but not in obese women. Lower brain volumes in the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions associated with taste reward function as well as lower integrity of connecting pathways in obesity may support a more widespread disruption of reward pathways. The medial orbitofrontal cortex is an important structure in the termination of

  11. Intentional social distance regulation alters affective responses towards victims of violence: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Leiberg, Susanne; Eippert, Falk; Veit, Ralf; Anders, Silke

    2012-10-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain processes underlying control of emotional responses towards a person in distress by cognitive social distance modulation. fMRI and peripheral physiological responses (startle response and electrodermal activity) were recorded from 24 women while they watched victim-offender scenes and modulated their social distance to the victim by cognitive reappraisal. We found that emotional responses, including startle eyeblink and amygdala responses, can effectively be modulated by social distance modulation. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the anterior paracingulate cortex (aPCC), two brain regions that have previously been associated with brain processes related to distant and close others, is differentially modulated by intentional social distance modulation: activity in the dmPFC increased with increasing disengagement from the victim and activity in the aPCC increased with increasing engagement with the victim. We suggest that these two regions play opposing roles in cognitive modulation of social distance and affective responses towards persons in distress that enable the adaptive and flexible social behavior observed in humans. PMID:21998031

  12. Brain Activity, Personality Traits and Affect: Electrocortical Activity in Reaction to Affective Film Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makvand Hosseini, Sh.; Azad Fallah, P.; Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei, S. K.; Ghannadyan Ladani, S. H.; Heise, C.

    We studied the patterns of activation over the cerebral cortex in reaction to affective film stimuli in four groups of extroverts, introverts, neurotics and emotionally stables. Measures of extraversion and neuroticism were collected and resting EEG was recorded from 40 right handed undergraduate female students (19-23) on one occasion for five 30s periods in baseline condition and in affective states. Mean log-transformed absolute alpha power was extracted from 12 electrode sites and analyzed. Patterns of activation were different in personality groups. Different patterns of asymmetries were observed in personality groups in reaction to affective stimuli. Results were partly consistent with approach and withdrawal model and provided supportive evidence for the role of right frontal asymmetry in negative affects in two groups (introverts and emotionally stables) as well as the role of right central asymmetry (increase on right and decrease on left) in active affective states (anxiety and happiness) in all personality groups. Results were also emphasized on the role of decrease activity relative to baseline in cortical regions (bilaterally in frontal and unilaterally in left parietal and temporal regions) in moderating of positive and negative emotion.

  13. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. PMID:26203145

  14. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Andrew S.; Wing, Erik K.; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M.; Vack, Nathan J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. PMID:26203145

  15. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  16. Protease Inhibitors Do Not Affect Antibody Responses to Pneumococcal Vaccination.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Indhira; Munjal, Iona M; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Yu, Xiaoying; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Mendoza, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    HIV(+) subjects on optimal antiretroviral therapy have persistently impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccination. We explored the possibility that this effect may be due to HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). We found that in humans and mice, PIs do not affect antibody production in response to pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:27074938

  17. Prevalence and predictors of affective lability after pediatric traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Vasa, Roma A.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Thorn, Julia M.; Kalb, Luther; Grados, Marco A.; Slomine, Beth S.; Salorio, Cynthia F.; Gerring, Joan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Paediatric severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant postinjury affective and behavioral problems. Few studies have examined the prevalence and characteristics of affective lability after paediatric TBI. Methods 97 children with severe TBI were evaluated one year postinjury for the presence of affective lability using the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Demographic, clinical, and brain lesion characteristics were also assessed. Results Affective lability significantly increased after injury. Eighty-six children had a preinjury CALS score of 1SD or less from the group preinjury mean (M = 8.11, SD = 9.31) of which 35 and 15 children had a 1SD and 2SD increase in their CALS score from pre- to postinjury, respectively. A variety of affective shifts manifested postinjury including anxiety, silliness, dysphoria, and irritability. The most severe symptoms were irritability and unpredictable temper outbursts. Risk factors for affective lability included elevated preinjury affective lability and psychosocial adversity as well as greater damage to the orbitofrontal cortex. Postinjury affective lability was most frequently associated with a postinjury diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusions Affective lability is common after paediatric TBI and frequently manifests as irritability and unpredictable outbursts. Early intervention is needed to improve psychiatric outcomes. PMID:25950263

  18. Double jeopardy! The additive consequences of negative affect on performance-monitoring decrements following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Kaufman, David A S; Kellison, Ida L; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Perlstein, William M

    2009-07-01

    Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk for emotional sequelae. The current study utilized the error-related negativity (ERN) and posterror positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP) to test the hypothesis that negative affect disproportionately impairs performance-monitoring following severe TBI. High-density ERPs were acquired while 20 survivors of severe TBI and 20 demographically matched controls performed a single-trial Stroop task. Response-locked ERPs were separately averaged for correct and error trials. Negative affect was measured as the single latent factor of measures of depression and anxiety. Groups did not differ on overall level of negative affect. Control and TBI participants did not differ on error rates as a function of negative affect, but differed in response times. ERP results revealed disproportionately smaller ERN amplitudes in participants with TBI relative to controls as a function of negative affect. Pe amplitude did not differ between groups. Negative affect inversely correlated with ERN amplitude in TBI but not control participants. Overall, results support a "double jeopardy" hypothesis of disproportionate impairments in performance monitoring when negative affect is overlaid on severe TBI. PMID:19586208

  19. Reproducibility of regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. |

    1996-10-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism in response to benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men underwent scanning with PET and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: before placebo and before lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 wk later on the men to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained from the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased both whole-brain metabolism and the magnitude. The regional pattern of the changes were comparable for both studies (12.3% {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7% {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were the largest in the thalamus (22.2% {plus_minus} 8.6% and 22.4% {plus_minus} 6.9%) and occipital cortex (19% {plus_minus} 8.9% and 21.8% {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures were highly reproducible both for pharmacolgic and replication condition. This study measured the test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic responses, and although the global and regional metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the response to lorazepam was highly reproducible. 1613 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding. PMID:25024207

  1. Affection of Fundamental Brain Activity By Using Sounds For Patients With Prosodic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Emiko; Katagiri, Yoshitada; Seki, Keiko; Kawamata, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    We present a neural model of the production of modulated speech streams in the brain, referred to as prosody, which indicates the limbic structure essential for producing prosody both linguistically and emotionally. This model suggests that activating the fundamental brain including monoamine neurons at the basal ganglia will potentially contribute to helping patients with prosodic disorders coming from functional defects of the fundamental brain to overcome their speech problem. To establish effective clinical treatment for such prosodic disorders, we examine how sounds affect the fundamental activity by using electroencephalographic measurements. Throughout examinations with various melodious sounds, we found that some melodies with lilting rhythms successfully give rise to the fast alpha rhythms at the electroencephalogram which reflect the fundamental brain activity without any negative feelings.

  2. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  3. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  4. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  5. The Sad, the Angry, and the Asymmetrical Brain: Dichotic Listening Studies of Negative Affect and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…

  6. Developing Connections for Affective Regulation: Age-Related Changes in Emotional Brain Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of affective arousal is a critical aspect of children's social and cognitive development. However, few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in the development of this aspect of "hot" executive functioning. This process has been conceptualized as involving prefrontal control of the amygdala. Here, using functional…

  7. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  8. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  9. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to "comfort zones" that support survival, and negative affects reflect "discomfort zones" that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living--evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  10. Concurrent brain responses to separate auditory and visual targets

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel J.; Hauk, Olaf; Beste, Christian; Pizzella, Vittorio; Duncan, John

    2015-01-01

    In the attentional blink, a target event (T1) strongly interferes with perception of a second target (T2) presented within a few hundred milliseconds. Concurrently, the brain's electromagnetic response to the second target is suppressed, especially a late negative-positive EEG complex including the traditional P3 wave. An influential theory proposes that conscious perception requires access to a distributed, frontoparietal global workspace, explaining the attentional blink by strong mutual inhibition between concurrent workspace representations. Often, however, the attentional blink is reduced or eliminated for targets in different sensory modalities, suggesting a limit to such global inhibition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we confirm that visual and auditory targets produce similar, distributed patterns of frontoparietal activity. In an attentional blink EEG/MEG design, however, an auditory T1 and visual T2 are identified without mutual interference, with largely preserved electromagnetic responses to T2. The results suggest parallel brain responses to target events in different sensory modalities. PMID:26084914

  11. Concurrent brain responses to separate auditory and visual targets.

    PubMed

    Finoia, Paola; Mitchell, Daniel J; Hauk, Olaf; Beste, Christian; Pizzella, Vittorio; Duncan, John

    2015-08-01

    In the attentional blink, a target event (T1) strongly interferes with perception of a second target (T2) presented within a few hundred milliseconds. Concurrently, the brain's electromagnetic response to the second target is suppressed, especially a late negative-positive EEG complex including the traditional P3 wave. An influential theory proposes that conscious perception requires access to a distributed, frontoparietal global workspace, explaining the attentional blink by strong mutual inhibition between concurrent workspace representations. Often, however, the attentional blink is reduced or eliminated for targets in different sensory modalities, suggesting a limit to such global inhibition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we confirm that visual and auditory targets produce similar, distributed patterns of frontoparietal activity. In an attentional blink EEG/MEG design, however, an auditory T1 and visual T2 are identified without mutual interference, with largely preserved electromagnetic responses to T2. The results suggest parallel brain responses to target events in different sensory modalities. PMID:26084914

  12. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  13. Fetal brain regional responses to cerebral hypoperfusion: modulation by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles E; Giroux, Damian; Gridley, Kelly

    2003-12-12

    We have previously demonstrated that cerebral hypoperfusion stimulates several physiological and molecular responses which are components of homeostatic reflexes. Physiological increases in fetal plasma estradiol concentration modulate fetal brain responsiveness to hypotension. In the present study, we tested the effect of cerebral hypoperfusion and/or estradiol on the expression of Fos, the protein product of the gene c-fos in late-gestation fetal sheep. We hypothesized that estrogen and cerebral hypoperfusion alone would augment Fos abundance in various brain regions, including the hypothalamus and brainstem, and that estrogen would augment or otherwise modify the Fos response to cerebral hypoperfusion. Singleton or twin fetuses of time-dated pregnant ewes were chronically catheterized and fitted with an extravascular balloon occluder around the brachiocephalic artery using aseptic techniques. In one-half of the fetuses, we implanted a pellet subcutaneously which released estradiol at a rate of 5 mg in 21 days. Fetuses were studied at least 5 days after surgery (124-128 days' gestation, term is approximately 147 days). One-half of the fetuses were subjected to a 10-min period of brachiocephalic occlusion (BCO). One hour after the start of the experiment, the ewe and fetus were euthanized and the fetal brain was rapidly recovered, dissected, and frozen in a polypropylene tube in an acetone/dry ice bath. Brain tissue was homogenized in a boiling lysis buffer, and protein concentrations measured using the Bradford method. Extracted proteins were electrophoresed on 7.5% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and probed for Fos. In most brain regions, estradiol or BCO altered the expression of Fos. Analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) interaction between estradiol and BCO in brainstem, cerebellum, and hippocampus, nearly significant in hypothalamus (p=0.07) and not statistically significant in

  14. Gender Differences in Directional Brain Responses to Infant Hunger Cries

    PubMed Central

    De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; Rigo, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; De Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Infant cries are a critical survival mechanism that draw the attention of adult caregivers, who can then satisfy the basic needs of otherwise helpless infants. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of infant hunger cries on brain activity of adults who were in a cognitively non-demanding mental state of awake rest. We found that the brains of males and females, independent of parental status (parent or non parent), reacted differently to infant cries. Specifically, dorsal medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate areas, known to be involved in mind-wandering (the stream of thought typical of awake rest), remained active in men during exposure to infant cries, whereas in women activity in these regions decreased. These results reveal gender-dependent modulation of brain responses to infant requests to be fed, and specifically they indicate that women interrupt mind-wandering when exposed to the sounds of infant hunger cries, whereas men carry on without interruption. PMID:23282991

  15. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of presponse to MeHg exposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  16. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN FEMALE ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) BRAIN IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE EXPOSURE TO METHYLMERCURY

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 hr) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5 μg MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000 feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of p<0.01, 79 genes were up-regulated and 76 genes were down-regulated in response to MeHg exposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to the nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure. PMID:21082716

  17. Submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli evoke electrical brain responses.

    PubMed

    Sperdin, Holger F; Spierer, Lucas; Becker, Robert; Michel, Christoph M; Landis, Theodor

    2015-04-01

    Subliminal perception is strongly associated to the processing of meaningful or emotional information and has mostly been studied using visual masking. In this study, we used high density 256-channel EEG coupled with an liquid crystal display (LCD) tachistoscope to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of the brain response to visual checkerboard stimuli (Experiment 1) or blank stimuli (Experiment 2) presented without a mask for 1 ms (visible), 500 µs (partially visible), and 250 µs (subliminal) by applying time-wise, assumption-free nonparametric randomization statistics on the strength and on the topography of high-density scalp-recorded electric field. Stimulus visibility was assessed in a third separate behavioral experiment. Results revealed that unmasked checkerboards presented subliminally for 250 µs evoked weak but detectable visual evoked potential (VEP) responses. When the checkerboards were replaced by blank stimuli, there was no evidence for the presence of an evoked response anymore. Furthermore, the checkerboard VEPs were modulated topographically between 243 and 296 ms post-stimulus onset as a function of stimulus duration, indicative of the engagement of distinct configuration of active brain networks. A distributed electrical source analysis localized this modulation within the right superior parietal lobule near the precuneus. These results show the presence of a brain response to submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli independently of their emotional saliency or meaningfulness and opens an avenue for new investigations of subliminal stimulation without using visual masking. PMID:25487054

  18. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  19. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  20. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  1. Affective mentalizing and brain activity at rest in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Silvia P.; Canessa, Nicola; Cerami, Chiara; Dodich, Alessandra; Crespi, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2015-01-01

    Background bvFTD patients display an impairment in the attribution of cognitive and affective states to others, reflecting GM atrophy in brain regions associated with social cognition, such as amygdala, superior temporal cortex and posterior insula. Distinctive patterns of abnormal brain functioning at rest have been reported in bvFTD, but their relationship with defective attribution of affective states has not been investigated. Objective To investigate the relationship among resting-state brain activity, gray matter (GM) atrophy and the attribution of mental states in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal degeneration (bvFTD). Methods We compared 12 bvFTD patients with 30 age- and education-matched healthy controls on a) performance in a task requiring the attribution of affective vs. cognitive mental states; b) metrics of resting-state activity in known functional networks; and c) the relationship between task-performances and resting-state metrics. In addition, we assessed a connection between abnormal resting-state metrics and GM atrophy. Results Compared with controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction of intra-network coherent activity in several components, as well as decreased strength of activation in networks related to attentional processing. Anomalous resting-state activity involved networks which also displayed a significant reduction of GM density. In patients, compared with controls, higher affective mentalizing performance correlated with stronger functional connectivity between medial prefrontal sectors of the default-mode and attentional/performance monitoring networks, as well as with increased coherent activity in components of the executive, sensorimotor and fronto-limbic networks. Conclusions Some of the observed effects may reflect specific compensatory mechanisms for the atrophic changes involving regions in charge of affective mentalizing. The analysis of specific resting-state networks thus highlights an intermediate level of

  2. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Randi H.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Anderson, Laura C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social–emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, ‘social brain’ regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  3. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  4. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  5. Dose-response relationships using brain-computer interface technology impact stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Remsik, Alexander; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are an emerging novel technology for stroke rehabilitation. Little is known about how dose-response relationships for BCI therapies affect brain and behavior changes. We report preliminary results on stroke patients (n = 16, 11 M) with persistent upper extremity motor impairment who received therapy using a BCI system with functional electrical stimulation of the hand and tongue stimulation. We collected MRI scans and behavioral data using the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) before, during, and after the therapy period. Using anatomical and functional MRI, we computed Laterality Index (LI) for brain activity in the motor network during impaired hand finger tapping. Changes from baseline LI and behavioral scores were assessed for relationships with dose, intensity, and frequency of BCI therapy. We found that gains in SIS Strength were directly responsive to BCI therapy: therapy dose and intensity correlated positively with increased SIS Strength (p ≤ 0.05), although no direct relationships were identified with ARAT or 9-HPT scores. We found behavioral measures that were not directly sensitive to differences in BCI therapy administration but were associated with concurrent brain changes correlated with BCI therapy administration parameters: therapy dose and intensity showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) or trending (0.05 < p < 0.1) negative correlations with LI changes, while therapy frequency did not affect LI. Reductions in LI were then correlated (p ≤ 0.05) with increased SIS Activities of Daily Living scores and improved 9-HPT performance. Therefore, some behavioral changes may be reflected by brain changes sensitive to differences in BCI therapy administration, while others such as SIS Strength may be directly responsive to BCI therapy administration. Data preliminarily suggest that when using BCI in stroke rehabilitation, therapy frequency may be less important than dose and

  6. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Forde, Natalie J; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J; Cannon, Dara M; Murray, Robin M; McDonald, Colm

    2015-10-30

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its endophenotypic potential. Magnetic resonance diffusion images for 19 BP type I patients in remission, 21 of their first degree unaffected relatives, and 18 unrelated healthy controls underwent tractography. With the automated anatomical labelling atlas being used to define nodes, a connectivity matrix was generated for each subject. Network metrics were extracted with the Brain Connectivity Toolbox and then analysed for group differences, accounting for potential confounding effects of age, gender and familial association. Whole brain analysis revealed no differences between groups. Analysis of specific mainly frontal regions, previously implicated as potentially endophenotypic by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the same cohort, revealed a significant effect of group in the right medial superior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus driven by reduced organisation in patients compared with controls. The organisation of whole brain networks of those affected with BP I does not differ from their unaffected relatives or healthy controls. In discreet frontal regions, however, anatomical connectivity is disrupted in patients but not in their unaffected relatives. PMID:26382105

  7. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  8. Brain Responses to High-Protein Diets12

    PubMed Central

    Journel, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Darcel, Nicolas; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are suspected to have a greater satiating effect than the other 2 macronutrients. After protein consumption, peptide hormones released from the gastrointestinal tract (mainly anorexigenic gut peptides such as cholecystokinin, glucagon peptide 1, and peptide YY) communicate information about the energy status to the brain. These hormones and vagal afferents control food intake by acting on brain regions involved in energy homeostasis such as the brainstem and the hypothalamus. In fact, a high-protein diet leads to greater activation than a normal-protein diet in the nucleus tractus solitarius and in the arcuate nucleus. More specifically, neural mechanisms triggered particularly by leucine consumption involve 2 cellular energy sensors: the mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase. In addition, reward and motivation aspects of eating behavior, controlled mainly by neurons present in limbic regions, play an important role in the reduced hedonic response of a high-protein diet. This review examines how metabolic signals emanating from the gastrointestinal tract after protein ingestion target the brain to control feeding, energy expenditure, and hormones. Understanding the functional roles of brain areas involved in the satiating effect of proteins and their interactions will demonstrate how homeostasis and reward are integrated with the signals from peripheral organs after protein consumption. PMID:22585905

  9. Signaling the Unfolded Protein Response in primary brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Avril, Tony; Quillien, Véronique; Morandi, Xavier; Chevet, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular program used by eukaryotic cells to cope with protein misfolding stress in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). During tumor development, cancer cells are facing intrinsic (oncogene activation) and extrinsic (limiting nutrient or oxygen supply; exposure to chemotherapies) challenges, with which they must cope to survive. Primary brain tumors are relatively rare but deadly and present a significant challenge in the determination of risk factors in the population. These tumors are inherently difficult to cure because of their protected location in the brain. As such surgery, radiation and chemotherapy options carry potentially lasting patient morbidity and incomplete tumor cure. Some of these tumors, such as glioblastoma, were reported to present features of ER stress and to depend on UPR activation to sustain growth, but to date there is no clear general representation of the ER stress status in primary brain tumors. In this review, we describe the key molecular mechanisms controlling the UPR and their implication in cancers. Then we extensively review the literature reporting the status of ER stress in various primary brain tumors and discuss the potential impact of such observation on patient stratification and on the possibility of developing appropriate targeted therapies using the UPR as therapeutic target. PMID:27016056

  10. Neurobiological mechanisms associated with facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dawn; McDonald, Brenna C; West, John; Keiski, Michelle A; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not yet been identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), study aims were to 1) determine if there are differences in brain activation during facial affect processing in people with TBI who have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-I) relative to people with TBI and healthy controls who do not have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-N and HC, respectively); and 2) identify relationships between neural activity and facial affect recognition performance. A facial affect recognition screening task performed outside the scanner was used to determine group classification; TBI patients who performed greater than one standard deviation below normal performance scores were classified as TBI-I, while TBI patients with normal scores were classified as TBI-N. An fMRI facial recognition paradigm was then performed within the 3T environment. Results from 35 participants are reported (TBI-I = 11, TBI-N = 12, and HC = 12). For the fMRI task, TBI-I and TBI-N groups scored significantly lower than the HC group. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals for facial affect recognition compared to a baseline condition of viewing a scrambled face, revealed lower neural activation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) in the TBI-I group than the HC group. Right fusiform gyrus activity correlated with accuracy on the facial affect recognition tasks (both within and outside the scanner). Decreased FG activity suggests facial affect recognition deficits after TBI may be the result of impaired holistic face processing. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26040980

  11. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  12. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  13. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  14. Autistic traits are associated with diminished neural response to affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    ‘Social brain’ circuitry has recently been implicated in processing slow, gentle touch targeting a class of slow-conducting, unmyelinated nerves, CT afferents, which are present only in the hairy skin of mammals. Given the importance of such ‘affective touch’ in social relationships, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to replicate the finding of ‘social brain’ involvement in processing CT-targeted touch and to examine the relationship between the neural response and individuals’ social abilities. During an fMRI scan, 19 healthy adults received alternating blocks of slow (CT-optimal) and fast (non-optimal) brushing to the forearm. Relative to fast touch, the slow touch activated contralateral insula, superior temporal sulcus (STS), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Connectivity analyses revealed co-activation of the mPFC, insula and amygdala during slow touch. Additionally, participants’ autistic traits negatively correlated with the response to slow touch in the OFC and STS. The current study replicates and extends findings of the involvement of a network of ‘social brain’ regions in processing CT-targeted affective touch, emphasizing the multimodal nature of this system. Variability in the brain response to such touch illustrates a tight coupling of social behavior and social brain function in typical adults. PMID:22267520

  15. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, David D.; Brown, P. Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2007-01-01

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (∼0.6°C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs. PMID:17466279

  16. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  17. Is 'bipolar disorder' the brain's autopoietic response to schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2009-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are related conditions. This paper proposes a particular form of relatedness. If 'schizophrenia' is a mind/brain 'trapped' between waking and dreaming, in a disordered in-between state, then bipolar 'disorder' could actually be an attempt to restore order. The mind/brain is a self-producing, self-organizing system. Autopoiesis applies to such systems. Neuromodulation accomplishes self-organization in the mind/brain. If schizophrenia is a state in-between waking and dreaming, characterized by aminergic/cholinergic interpenetration and dopaminergic imbalance then bipolar 'disorder' could be a modulatory response. This autopoietic reaction may take the form of either aminergic hyperactivity aimed at producing a purer waking state, (precipitating mania in the waking state), or cholinergic hyperactivity aimed at producing a purer dreaming state, (producing depression in the waking state), or both, resulting in rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Thus bipolar activity may be an autopoietic response aimed at restoring differentiation to the in-between state of schizophrenia. PMID:19589644

  18. Brain Mechanisms for Processing Affective (and Nonaffective) Touch Are Atypical in Autism.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Martha D; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Gordon, Ilanit; Pretzsch, Charlotte; Beam, Danielle; Keifer, Cara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; McGlone, Francis; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents encode caress-like touch that supports social-emotional development, and stimulation of the CT system engages the insula and cortical circuitry involved in social-emotional processing. Very few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of touch processing in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often exhibit atypical responses to touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the hypothesis that children and adolescents with ASD would exhibit atypical brain responses to CT-targeted touch. Children and adolescents with ASD, relative to typically developing (TD) participants, exhibited reduced activity in response to CT-targeted (arm) versus non-CT-targeted (palm) touch in a network of brain regions known to be involved in social-emotional information processing including bilateral insula and insular operculum, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, bilateral temporoparietal junction extending into the inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus, right amygdala, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex including the inferior frontal and precentral gyri, suggesting atypical social brain hypoactivation. Individuals with ASD (vs. TD) showed an enhanced response to non-CT-targeted versus CT-targeted touch in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting atypical sensory cortical hyper-reactivity. PMID:26048952

  19. Affective response to a set of new musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hill, W Trey; Palmer, Jack A

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a novel set of musical stimuli was developed in an attempt to bring more rigor to a paradigm which often falls under scientific scrutiny. Although these musical clips were validated in terms of recognition for emotion, valence, and arousal, the clips were not specifically tested for their ability to elicit certain affective responses. The present study examined self-reported "elation" among 82 participants after listening to one of two types of the musical clips; 47 listened to happy music and 35 listened to sad music. Individuals who listened to happy music reported significantly higher "elation" than individuals who listened to the sad music. These results support the idea that music can elicit certain affective state responses. PMID:20524563

  20. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  1. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890892

  2. Brain responses mediating idiom comprehension: gender and hemispheric differences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Murdaugh, Donna L; Wolfe, Kelly R; Kumar, Sandhya L

    2012-07-27

    Processing figurative language, such as idioms, is unique in that it requires one to make associations between words and non-literal meanings that are contextually appropriate. At the neural level, processing idiomatic phrases has been linked to recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), the left temporal cortex, superior medial prefrontal gyrus (MPFC), and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). This functional MRI study examined the brain responses associated with processing idiomatic compared to literal sentences. In addition, gender differences in neural responses associated with language comprehension were also explored. In an fMRI scanner, thirty-six healthy adult volunteers viewed sentences that were either literal or idiomatic in nature, and answered subsequent comprehension questions. This sentence comprehension tasks activated mainly prefrontal language areas (LIFG, LSFG, and RMFG). Consistent with previous findings, idiomatic sentences showed increased response in LIFG. These results are discussed in the backdrop of the graded salience hypothesis. Furthermore, we found gender differences in brain activation and functional connectivity during this task. Women showed greater overall activation than men when comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences; whereas men had significantly greater functional connectivity between LIFG and LMTG than women across tasks. Overall, the findings of this study highlight the gender differences in neural responses associated with figurative language comprehension. PMID:22634066

  3. Brain responses in 4-month-old infants are already language specific.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Friedrich, Manuela; Christophe, Anne

    2007-07-17

    Language is the most important faculty that distinguishes humans from other animals. Infants learn their native language fast and effortlessly during the first years of life, as a function of the linguistic input in their environment. Behavioral studies reported the discrimination of melodic contours [1] and stress patterns [2, 3] in 1-4-month-olds. Behavioral [4, 5] and brain measures [6-8] have shown language-independent discrimination of phonetic contrasts at that age. Language-specific discrimination, however, has been reported for phonetic contrasts only for 6-12-month-olds [9-12]. Here we demonstrate language-specific discrimination of stress patterns in 4-month-old German and French infants by using electrophysiological brain measures. We compare the processing of disyllabic words differing in their rhythmic structure, mimicking German words being stressed on the first syllable, e.g., pápa/daddy[13], and French ones being stressed on the second syllable, e.g., papá/daddy. Event-related brain potentials reveal that experience with German and French differentially affects the brain responses of 4-month-old infants, with each language group displaying a processing advantage for the rhythmic structure typical in its native language. These data indicate language-specific neural representations of word forms in the infant brain as early as 4 months of age. PMID:17583508

  4. Predictive coding of music--brain responses to rhythmic incongruity.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Ostergaard, Leif; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, models of music processing in the brain have mainly discussed the specificity of brain modules involved in processing different musical components. We argue that predictive coding offers an explanatory framework for functional integration in musical processing. Further, we provide empirical evidence for such a network in the analysis of event-related MEG-components to rhythmic incongruence in the context of strong metric anticipation. This is seen in a mismatch negativity (MMNm) and a subsequent P3am component, which have the properties of an error term and a subsequent evaluation in a predictive coding framework. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the evoked responses in expert jazz musicians compared with rhythmically unskilled non-musicians. We propose that these differences trace a functional adaptation and/or a genetic pre-disposition in experts which allows for a more precise rhythmic prediction. PMID:19054506

  5. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  6. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  7. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  8. Decreased Zinc Availability Affects Glutathione Metabolism in Neuronal Cells and in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Yo; Salvador, Gabriela A.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    A deficit in zinc (Zn) availability can increase cell oxidant production, affect the antioxidant defense system, and trigger oxidant-sensitive signals in neuronal cells. This work tested the hypothesis that a decreased Zn availability can affect glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the developing rat brain and in neuronal cells in culture, as well as the capacity of human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells to upregulate GSH when challenged with dopamine (DA). GSH levels were low in the brain of gestation day 19 (GD19) fetuses from dams fed marginal Zn diets throughout gestation and in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCL), the first enzyme in the GSH synthetic pathway, was altered by Zn deficiency (ZD). The protein and mRNA levels of the GCL modifier (GCLM) and catalytic (GCLC) subunits were lower in the Zn-deficient GD19 fetal brain and in IMR-32 cells compared with controls. The nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which controls GCL transcription, was impaired by ZD. Posttranslationally, the caspase-3-dependent GCLC cleavage was high in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. Cells challenged with DA showed an increase in GCLM and GCLC protein and mRNA levels and a consequent increase in GSH concentration. Although Zn-deficient cells partially upregulated GCL subunits after exposure to DA, GSH content remained low. In summary, results show that a low Zn availability affects the GSH synthetic pathway in neuronal cells and fetal brain both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This can in part underlie the GSH depletion associated with ZD and the high sensitivity of Zn-deficient neurons to pro-oxidative stressors. PMID:23377617

  9. Affective Neural Responses Modulated by Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Clinical Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Hilt, Lori M.; Nitschke, Jack B.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/LG carriers showed less activity than their LA/LA counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/LG healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343

  10. Head orientation affects the intracranial pressure response resulting from shock wave loading in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dal Cengio Leonardi, Alessandra; Keane, Nickolas J; Bir, Cynthia A; Ryan, Anne G; Xu, Liaosa; Vandevord, Pamela J

    2012-10-11

    Since an increasing number of returning military personnel are presenting with neurological manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI), there has been a great focus on the effects resulting from blast exposure. It is paramount to resolve the physical mechanism by which the critical stress is being inflicted on brain tissue from blast wave encounters with the head. This study quantitatively measured the effect of head orientation on intracranial pressure (ICP) of rats exposed to a shock wave. Furthermore, the study examined how skull maturity affects ICP response of animals exposed to shock waves at various orientations. Results showed a significant increase in ICP values in larger rats at any orientation. Furthermore, when side-ICP values were compared to the other orientations, the peak pressures were significantly lower suggesting a relation between ICP and orientation of the head due to geometry of the skull and location of sutures. This finding accentuates the importance of skull dynamics in explaining possible injury mechanisms during blast. Also, the rate of pressure change was measured and indicated that the rate was significantly higher when the top of the head was facing the shock front. The results confirm that the biomechanical response of the superior rat skull is distinctive compared to other areas of the skull, suggesting a skull flexure mechanism. These results not only present insights into the mechanism of brain injury, but also provide information which can be used for designing more effective protective head gear. PMID:22947434

  11. Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers’ Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W.; Dani, John A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, we characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. But positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity towards negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. PMID:25621416

  12. Facial EMG as an Index of Affective Response to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Carter, Brian L.; Lam, Cho Y.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Negative affect reduction has been postulated to be a key feature of cigarette smoking. In the present study, facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SCR) were used to evaluate the affective significance of acute nicotine administration and overnight withdrawal. Smokers (n=115) attended four 90-min laboratory assessment sessions scheduled approximately three days apart. The four sessions provided a complete crossing of two pre-laboratory deprivation conditions (12-hour deprived vs. nondeprived) with two drug conditions (nicotine vs. placebo nasal spray). During each session, smokers viewed affective slides while facial EMG, HR, and SCR were recorded. Results indicated that for women, nicotine nasal spray resulted in lower corrugator EMG activity during both smoking-deprived and nondeprived sessions, compared to placebo. However, nondeprived women also showed an increase in zygomaticus EMG when given nicotine compared to placebo spray, while smoking-deprived women demonstrated a decrease in the zygomaticus response to nicotine compared to placebo. With men, nicotine also appeared to lower corrugator during deprivation, but not nondeprivation, compared to placebo spray, though the contrast only approached significance. With zygomaticus EMG, nicotine spray decreased men’s zygomaticus responding during nondeprivation but not during deprivation, compared to placebo spray. The HR results reflected the stimulatory properties of the drug rather than nicotine’s affective properties, while SCR was unresponsive to our experimental manipulations. The corrugator EMG results support negative reinforcement models of smoking that postulate that acute nicotine use reduces withdrawal-driven negative affect. PMID:17696686

  13. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. PMID:23685774

  14. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Arichi, Tomoki; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; Varela, Marta; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Allievi, Alessandro; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Counsell, Serena J.; Burdet, Etienne; Beckmann, Christian F.; Edwards, A. David

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing populations. We aimed to characterize HRF in human infants before and after the normal time of birth using rapid sampling of the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal. A somatosensory stimulus and an event related experimental design were used to collect data from 10 healthy adults, 15 sedated infants at term corrected post menstrual age (PMA) (median 41 + 1 weeks), and 10 preterm infants (median PMA 34 + 4 weeks). A positive amplitude HRF waveform was identified across all subject groups, with a systematic maturational trend in terms of decreasing time-to-peak and increasing positive peak amplitude associated with increasing age. Application of the age-appropriate HRF models to fMRI data significantly improved the precision of the fMRI analysis. These findings support the notion of a structured development in the brain's response to stimuli across the last trimester of gestation and beyond. PMID:22776460

  15. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women. PMID:26123902

  16. Mechanical response of brain tissue under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Laksari, Kaveh; Sadeghipour, Keyanoush; Darvish, Kurosh

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a framework for understanding the propagation of stress waves in brain tissue under blast loading has been developed. It was shown that tissue nonlinearity and rate dependence are the key parameters in predicting the mechanical behavior under such loadings, as they determine whether traveling waves could become steeper and eventually evolve into shock discontinuities. To investigate this phenomenon, in the present study, brain tissue has been characterized as a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) material and a nonlinear constitutive model has been developed for the tissue that spans from medium loading rates up to blast rates. It was shown that development of shock waves is possible inside the head in response to high rate compressive pressure waves. Finally, it was argued that injury to the nervous tissue at the microstructural level could be partly attributed to the high stress gradients with high rates generated at the shock front and this was proposed as a mechanism of injury in brain tissue. PMID:24457112

  17. Rat strain differences in brain structure and neurochemistry in response to binge alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Dirk; Rohlfing, Torsten; Hsu, Oliver; Vinco, Shara; Orduna, Juan; Luong, Richard; Bell, Richard L; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Ventricular enlargement is a robust phenotype of the chronically dependent alcoholic human brain, yet the mechanism of ventriculomegaly is unestablished. Heterogeneous stock Wistar rats administered binge EtOH (3 g/kg intragastrically every 8 h for 4 days to average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of 250 mg/dL) demonstrate profound but reversible ventricular enlargement and changes in brain metabolites (e.g., N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho)). Objectives Here, alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats systematically bred from heterogeneous stock Wistar rats for differential alcohol drinking behavior were compared with Wistar rats to determine whether genetic divergence and consequent morphological and neurochemical variation affect the brain’s response to binge EtOH treatment. Methods The three rat lines were dosed equivalently and approached similar BALs. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy evaluated the effects of binge EtOH on brain. Results As observed in Wistar rats, P and NP rats showed decreases in NAA. Neither P nor NP rats, however, responded to EtOH intoxication with ventricular expansion or increases in Cho levels as previously noted in Wistar rats. Increases in ventricular volume correlated with increases in Cho in Wistar rats. Conclusions The latter finding suggests that ventricular volume expansion is related to adaptive changes in brain cell membranes in response to binge EtOH. That P and NP rats responded differently to EtOH argues for intrinsic differences in their brain cell membrane composition. Further, differential metabolite responses to EtOH administration by rat strain implicate selective genetic variation as underlying heterogeneous effects of chronic alcoholism in the human condition. PMID:24030467

  18. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward.

    PubMed

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  19. Enhanced regional brain metabolic responses to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    While dopamine (DA) appears to be crucial for cocaine reinforcement, its involvement in cocaine addiction is much less clear. Using PET we have shown persistent reductions in striatal DA D2 receptors (which arc predominantly located on GABA cells) in cocaine abusers. This finding coupled to GABA`s role as an effector for DA led us to investigate if there were GABAergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission). Methods: The experimental subjects consisted of 12 active cocaine abusers and 32 age matched controls. Each subject underwent two PET FDG scans obtained within 1 week of each other. The first FDG scan was obtained after administration of placebo (3 cc of saline solution) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG; and the second after administration of lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG. The subjects were blind to the drugs received. Results: Lorazepam-induced sleepiness was significantly greater in abusers than in controls (p<0.001). Lorazepam-induced decreases in brain glucose metabolism were significantly larger in cocaine abusers than in controls. Whereas in controls whole brain metabolism decreased 13{+-}7 %, in cocaine abusers it decreased 21{+-}13 % (p < 0.05). Lorazepam-induced decrements in regional metabolism were significantly larger in striatum (p < 0.0 1), thalamus (p < 0.01) and cerebellum (p < 0.005) of cocaine abusers than of controls (ANOVA diagnosis by condition (placebo versus lorazepam) interaction effect). The only brain region for which the absolute metabolic changes-induced by lorazepam in cocaine abusers were equivalent to those in controls was the orbitofrontal cortex. These results document an accentuated sensitivity to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers which is compatible with disrupted GABAergic function in these patients.

  20. MicroRNA-155 negatively affects blood-brain barrier function during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro; Wu, Dongsheng; Pryce, Gareth; Simpson, Julie E; Reijerkerk, Arie; King-Robson, Josh; Kay, Oliver; de Vries, Helga E; Hirst, Mark C; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David Kingsley; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio Andres

    2014-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous system (CNS) microvascular disorders is largely unknown. We have identified miR-155 as a critical miRNA in neuroinflammation at the BBB. miR-155 is expressed at the neurovascular unit of individuals with MS and of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, loss of miR-155 reduced CNS extravasation of systemic tracers, both in EAE and in an acute systemic inflammation model induced by lipopolysaccharide. In cultured human brain endothelium, miR-155 was strongly and rapidly upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. miR-155 up-regulation mimicked cytokine-induced alterations in junctional organization and permeability, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-155 partially prevented a cytokine-induced increase in permeability. Furthermore, miR-155 modulated brain endothelial barrier function by targeting not only cell-cell complex molecules such as annexin-2 and claudin-1, but also focal adhesion components such as DOCK-1 and syntenin-1. We propose that brain endothelial miR-155 is a negative regulator of BBB function that may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CNS neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:24604078

  1. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  2. The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Bester, Assaf C; Manor, Miriam; Kerem, Eitan; Rivlin, Joseph; Zahdeh, Fouad; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar; Kerem, Batsheva

    2014-01-01

    One-third of monogenic inherited diseases result from premature termination codons (PTCs). Readthrough of in-frame PTCs enables synthesis of full-length functional proteins. However, extended variability in the response to readthrough treatment is found among patients, which correlates with the level of nonsense transcripts. Here, we aimed to reveal cellular pathways affecting this inter-patient variability. We show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs the response to readthrough treatment by regulating the levels of transcripts carrying PTCs. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed substantial differences in UPR activation between patients carrying PTCs, correlating with their response. We further found a significant inverse correlation between the UPR and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), suggesting a feedback loop between these homeostatic pathways. We uncovered and characterized the mechanism underlying this NMD-UPR feedback loop, which augments both UPR activation and NMD attenuation. Importantly, this feedback loop enhances the response to readthrough treatment, highlighting its clinical importance. Altogether, our study demonstrates the importance of the UPR and its regulatory network for genetic diseases caused by PTCs and for cell homeostasis under normal conditions. PMID:24705877

  3. Phytochrome B affects responsiveness to gibberellins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, J W; Foster, K R; Morgan, P W; Chory, J

    1996-01-01

    Plant responses to red and far-red light are mediated by a family of photoreceptors called phytochromes. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings lacking one of the phytochromes, phyB, have elongated hypocotyls and other tissues, suggesting that they may have an alteration in hormone physiology. We have studied the possibility that phyB mutations affect seedling gibberellin (GA) perception and metabolism by testing the responsiveness of wild-type and phyB seedlings to exogenous GAs. The phyB mutant elongates more than the wild type in response to the same exogenous concentrations of GA3 or GA4, showing that the mutation causes an increase in responsiveness to GAs. Among GAs that we were able to detect, we found no significant difference in endogenous levels between wild-type and phyB mutant seedlings. However, GA4 levels were below our limit of detectability, and the concentration of that active GA could have varied between wild-type and phyB mutant seedlings. These results suggest that, although GAs are required for hypocotyl cell elongation, phyB does not act primarily by changing total seedling GA levels but rather by decreasing seedling responsiveness to GAs. PMID:8819329

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  5. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  6. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  7. Untangling the brain's neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative transcriptional responses.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Karpagam; Friedman, Brad A; Larson, Jessica L; Lauffer, Benjamin E; Goldstein, Leonard D; Appling, Laurie L; Borneo, Jovencio; Poon, Chungkee; Ho, Terence; Cai, Fang; Steiner, Pascal; van der Brug, Marcel P; Modrusan, Zora; Kaminker, Joshua S; Hansen, David V

    2016-01-01

    A common approach to understanding neurodegenerative disease is comparing gene expression in diseased versus healthy tissues. We illustrate that expression profiles derived from whole tissue RNA highly reflect the degenerating tissues' altered cellular composition, not necessarily transcriptional regulation. To accurately understand transcriptional changes that accompany neuropathology, we acutely purify neurons, astrocytes and microglia from single adult mouse brains and analyse their transcriptomes by RNA sequencing. Using peripheral endotoxemia to establish the method, we reveal highly specific transcriptional responses and altered RNA processing in each cell type, with Tnfr1 required for the astrocytic response. Extending the method to an Alzheimer's disease model, we confirm that transcriptomic changes observed in whole tissue are driven primarily by cell type composition, not transcriptional regulation, and identify hundreds of cell type-specific changes undetected in whole tissue RNA. Applying similar methods to additional models and patient tissues will transform our understanding of aberrant gene expression in neurological disease. PMID:27097852

  8. Untangling the brain's neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative transcriptional responses

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Karpagam; Friedman, Brad A.; Larson, Jessica L.; Lauffer, Benjamin E.; Goldstein, Leonard D.; Appling, Laurie L.; Borneo, Jovencio; Poon, Chungkee; Ho, Terence; Cai, Fang; Steiner, Pascal; van der Brug, Marcel P.; Modrusan, Zora; Kaminker, Joshua S.; Hansen, David V.

    2016-01-01

    A common approach to understanding neurodegenerative disease is comparing gene expression in diseased versus healthy tissues. We illustrate that expression profiles derived from whole tissue RNA highly reflect the degenerating tissues' altered cellular composition, not necessarily transcriptional regulation. To accurately understand transcriptional changes that accompany neuropathology, we acutely purify neurons, astrocytes and microglia from single adult mouse brains and analyse their transcriptomes by RNA sequencing. Using peripheral endotoxemia to establish the method, we reveal highly specific transcriptional responses and altered RNA processing in each cell type, with Tnfr1 required for the astrocytic response. Extending the method to an Alzheimer's disease model, we confirm that transcriptomic changes observed in whole tissue are driven primarily by cell type composition, not transcriptional regulation, and identify hundreds of cell type-specific changes undetected in whole tissue RNA. Applying similar methods to additional models and patient tissues will transform our understanding of aberrant gene expression in neurological disease. PMID:27097852

  9. Affective responses across psychiatric disorders-A dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Hägele, Claudia; Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Held-Poschardt, Dada; Wittmann, André; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Between-group differences were assessed with full-factorial ANOVAs, with age, gender and smoking habits as covariates. Self-ratings of depressed mood and anxiety were correlated with activation clusters showing significant stimulus-evoked fMRI activation. Furthermore, we examined functional connectivity with the amygdala as seed region during the processing of aversive pictures. During the presentation of pleasant stimuli, we observed across all subjects significant activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus, while a significant activation of the left amygdala and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was found during the presentation of aversive stimuli. We did neither find any significant interaction with diagnostic group, nor any correlation with depression and anxiety scores at the activated clusters or with amygdala connectivity. Positive and aversive IAPS-stimuli were consistently processed in limbic and prefrontal brain areas, irrespective of diagnostic category. A dimensional correlate of these

  10. Reduced brain activation in violent adolescents during response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yi; Mei, Yi; Du, XiaoXia; Xie, Bin; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control have been linked to aggression and violent behaviour. This study aimed to observe whether violent adolescents show different brain activation patterns during response inhibition and to ascertain the roles these brain regions play. A self-report method and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) were used to evaluate violent behaviour. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 violent adolescents and 17 matched healthy subjects aged 12 to 18 years. While scanning, a go/no-go task was performed. Between-group comparisons revealed that activation in the bilateral middle and superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and right orbitofrontal area (BA11) regions were significantly reduced in the violent group compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the violent group had more widespread activation in the prefrontal cortex than that observed in the control group. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the violent group was widespread but lacking in focus, failing to produce intensive activation in some functionally related regions during response inhibition. PMID:26888566

  11. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  12. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN; ISAKI, EMI

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.

  13. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  14. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  15. Human Infant Faces Provoke Implicit Positive Affective Responses in Parents and Non-Parents Alike

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H.; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  16. Repeated electrical stimulation of reward-related brain regions affects cocaine but not "natural" reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dino; Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shalev, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Cooper, Ayelet; Zangen, Abraham

    2007-12-19

    Drug addiction is associated with long-lasting neuronal adaptations including alterations in dopamine and glutamate receptors in the brain reward system. Treatment strategies for cocaine addiction and especially the prevention of craving and relapse are limited, and their effectiveness is still questionable. We hypothesized that repeated stimulation of the brain reward system can induce localized neuronal adaptations that may either potentiate or reduce addictive behaviors. The present study was designed to test how repeated interference with the brain reward system using localized electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle at the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or the prefrontal cortex (PFC) affects cocaine addiction-associated behaviors and some of the neuronal adaptations induced by repeated exposure to cocaine. Repeated high-frequency stimulation in either site influenced cocaine, but not sucrose reward-related behaviors. Stimulation of the LH reduced cue-induced seeking behavior, whereas stimulation of the PFC reduced both cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation for its consumption. The behavioral findings were accompanied by glutamate receptor subtype alterations in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, both key structures of the reward system. It is therefore suggested that repeated electrical stimulation of the PFC can become a novel strategy for treating addiction. PMID:18094257

  17. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    PubMed

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells. PMID:27259217

  18. MicroRNA: Small RNA mediators of the brains genomic response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Sharon L; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    The developmental processes that establish the synaptic architecture of the brain while retaining capacity for activity-dependent remodeling, are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can lead to problems with neural circuitry which manifest in humans as a range of neurodevelopmental syndromes, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and fragile X mental retardation. Recent studies suggest that prenatal, postnatal and intergenerational environmental factors play an important role in the aetiology of stress-related psychopathology. A number of these disorders have been shown to display epigenetic changes in the postmortem brain that reflect early life experience. These changes affect the regulation of gene expression though chromatin remodeling (transcriptional) and post-transcriptional influences, especially small noncoding microRNA (miRNA). These dynamic and influential molecules appear to play an important function in both brain development and its adaption to stress. In this review, we examine the role of miRNA in mediating the brain's response to both prenatal and postnatal environmental perturbations and explore how stress- induced alterations in miRNA expression can regulate the stress response via modulation of the immune system. Given the close relationship between environmental stress, miRNA, and brain development/function, we assert that miRNA hold a significant position at the molecular crossroads between neural development and adaptations to environmental stress. A greater understanding of the dynamics that mediate an individual's predisposition to stress-induced neuropathology has major human health benefits and is an important area of research. PMID:27317386

  19. Electrophysiological Responses to Affective Stimuli in Neglectful Mothers

    PubMed Central

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz) and lower alpha (8–10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers. PMID:24498200

  20. Affective responsiveness is influenced by intake of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies. Recent data indicate impaired emotion recognition in OC users compared to naturally cycling females. Building upon these findings, the current study investigated the influence of OC use on three components of empathy, i.e., emotion recognition, perspective-taking, and affective responsiveness. We compared naturally cycling women to two groups of OC users, one being tested in their pill-free week and one in the phase of active intake. Whereas groups did not differ in emotion recognition and perspective-taking, an effect of pill phase was evident for affective responsiveness: Females currently taking the pill showed better performance than those in their pill-free week. These processing advantages complement previous findings on menstrual cycle effects and thereby suggest an association with changes in endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones. The current study highlights the need for future research to shed more light on the neuroendocrine alterations accompanying OC intake. PMID:27039036

  1. Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Lowe, K A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine how temporary insulin suppression might alter the catabolic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The metabolic responses to injury include hypermetabolism, accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. These alterations are associated with increased stress hormone concentrations. Insulin elaboration is usually suppressed immediately after an injury but is abundant later during convalescence. An infusion of hydrocortisone, glucagon, and epinephrine increases both stress hormone concentrations and insulin levels. It induces many of the metabolic alterations seen in critically ill patients, but it does not affect net muscle breakdown. METHODS: Seven healthy adults received a stress hormone infusion for 3 days in two separate studies. During one study they, also received an infusion of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (0.005 micrograms/kg/min), to suppress insulin elaboration for the first 24 hours. During the other study (control), insulin was permitted to rise unchecked. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations, hypermetabolism (+/- 20% above basal), and leukocytosis were similar during both study periods. When insulin elaboration was temporarily suppressed, whole-body nitrogen loss was increased during the first 48 hours, and the efflux of amino acids from the forearm after 72 hours of infusion was 60% greater than the control level. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary insulin suppression during physiologic increases in stress hormone concentrations amplified whole-body nitrogen loss and led to the development of accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Early hormonal changes after an injury may affect the development of later catabolic responses. PMID:8215639

  2. Testing Whether and When Abstract Symmetric Patterns Produce Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify. PMID:23840892

  3. Brain responses to sexual images in 46,XY women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are female-typical.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Stephan; Stevens, Jennifer; Vick, Janice Hassett; Bryk, Kristina; Quigley, Charmian A; Berenbaum, Sheri A; Wallen, Kim

    2014-11-01

    Androgens, estrogens, and sex chromosomes are the major influences guiding sex differences in brain development, yet their relative roles and importance remain unclear. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) offer a unique opportunity to address these issues. Although women with CAIS have a Y chromosome, testes, and produce male-typical levels of androgens, they lack functional androgen receptors preventing responding to their androgens. Thus, they develop a female physical phenotype, are reared as girls, and develop into women. Because sexually differentiated brain development in primates is determined primarily by androgens, but may be affected by sex chromosome complement, it is currently unknown whether brain structure and function in women with CAIS is more like that of women or men. In the first functional neuroimaging study of (46,XY) women with CAIS, typical (46,XX) women, and typical (46, XY) men, we found that men showed greater amygdala activation to sexual images than did either typical women or women with CAIS. Typical women and women with CAIS had highly similar patterns of brain activation, indicating that a Y chromosome is insufficient for male-typical human brain responses. Because women with CAIS produce male-typical or elevated levels of testosterone which is aromatized to estradiol these results rule out aromatization of testosterone to estradiol as a determinate of sex differences in patterns of brain activation to sexual images. We cannot, however, rule out an effect of social experience on the brain responses of women with CAIS as all were raised as girls. PMID:25284435

  4. Hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle and brain response to faces.

    PubMed

    Marecková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A; Paus, Tomás

    2014-02-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain's response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle. PMID:23175677

  5. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133613

  6. Environmental enrichment lessens cognitive decline in APP23 mice without affecting brain sirtuin expression.

    PubMed

    Polito, Letizia; Chierchia, Armando; Tunesi, Marta; Bouybayoune, Ihssane; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin; Albani, Diego; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a non-pharmacological intervention reported to counteract pathological signs in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed EE protocols in APP23 mice and evaluated how they influenced cognitive decline and brain amyloid-β (Aβ) burden. We also investigated the involvement of sirtuins (SIRTs) as a possible molecular mediator of EE, by assessing hippocampal and cortical mRNA and protein levels of the SIRT family members (SIRT1 to SIRT7). APP23 transgenic mice were moved to EE cages (TG-EEs) starting from 3 months of age. TG-EEs were compared to transgenic mice housed in standard cages (TG-SHs) and to wild-type littermates in the two housing conditions (WT-EEs and WT-SHs). At 7 months of age, all mice were tested for behavioral performance with Morris Water Maze (MWM) and visual novel Object Recognition Test (vORT). After a month, a group underwent biochemical analyses, while another group continued in the EE environment till 18 months of age, when Aβ plaque load was assessed. At 7 months, TG-SHs had impaired behavioral performance in MWM and vORT. In contrast, TG-EE mice had restored behavioral performance. At 8 months, EE did not affect AβPP expression or processing, Aβ40/42, pGlu-Aβ3-40/3-42, or Aβ oligomer level. The expression of two Aβ degrading enzymes (insulin degrading enzyme and neprilysin) was not modulated by EE. Brain sirtuin mRNA and protein levels were unchanged, while brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression increased after EE. Aβ deposition was attenuated in 18-month-old TG-EE mice, without apparent reduction of neuroinflammatory signs. We suggest that EE had a beneficial effect on cognitive performance and lessened long-term Aβ accumulation, but brain sirtuin expression was not modulated when cognitive impairment was restored. PMID:24961946

  7. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults: A STROBE Article.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests.There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05).APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  8. Schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for alleles that affect gene expression in adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Alexander L; Jones, Lesley; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Gejman, Pablo V; Levinson, Douglas F; Sanders, Alan R; Purcell, Shaun; Visscher, Peter M; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O’Donovan, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    It is widely thought that alleles that influence susceptibility to common diseases, including schizophrenia, will frequently do so through effects on gene expression. Since only a small proportion of the genetic variance for schizophrenia has been attributed to specific loci, this remains an unproven hypothesis. The International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC) recently reported a substantial polygenic contribution to that disorder, and that schizophrenia risk alleles are enriched among SNPs selected for marginal evidence for association (p<0.5) from genome wide association studies (GWAS). It follows that if schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for those that affect gene expression, those marginally associated SNPs which are also eQTLs should carry more true association signals compared with SNPs which are not. To test this, we identified marginally associated (p<0.5) SNPs from two of the largest available schizophrenia GWAS datasets. We assigned eQTL status to those SNPs based upon an eQTL dataset derived from adult human brain. Using the polygenic score method of analysis reported by the ISC, we observed and replicated the observation that higher probability cis-eQTLs predicted schizophrenia better than those with a lower probability for being a cis-eQTL. Our data support the hypothesis that alleles conferring risk of schizophrenia are enriched among those that affect gene expression. Moreover, our data show that notwithstanding the likely developmental origin of schizophrenia, studies of adult brain tissue can in principle allow relevant susceptibility eQTLs to be identified. PMID:21339752

  9. Progranulin Mutations Affects Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fronto-Temporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide V.; Benussi, Luisa; Fostinelli, Silvia; Ciani, Miriam; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin (PGRN) has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD) as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non-carriers in patients with overt FTD. Materials and Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations. PMID:26973510

  10. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  11. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  12. Aspartoacylase deficiency does not affect N-acetylaspartylglutamate level or glutamate carboxypeptidase II activity in the knockout mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sankar; Ezell, Edward L; Quast, Michael J; Wei, Jingna; Tyring, Stephen K; Michals-Matalon, Kimberlee; Matalon, Reuben

    2004-08-01

    Aspartoacylase (ASPA)-deficient patients [Canavan disease (CD)] reportedly have increased urinary excretion of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide abundant in the brain. Whether elevated excretion of urinary NAAG is due to ASPA deficiency, resulting in an abnormal level of brain NAAG, is examined using ASPA-deficient mouse brain. The level of NAAG in the knockout mouse brain was similar to that in the wild type. The NAAG hydrolyzing enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II), activity was normal in the knockout mouse brain. These data suggest that ASPA deficiency does not affect the NAAG or GCP II level in the knockout mouse brain, if documented also in patients with CD. PMID:15246864

  13. Age-dependent transcriptional and epigenomic responses to light exposure in the honey bee brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nils; Kucharski, Robert; Rössler, Wolfgang; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-07-01

    Light is a powerful environmental stimulus of special importance in social honey bees that undergo a behavioral transition from in-hive to outdoor foraging duties. Our previous work has shown that light exposure induces structural neuronal plasticity in the mushroom bodies (MBs), a brain center implicated in processing inputs from sensory modalities. Here, we extended these analyses to the molecular level to unravel light-induced transcriptomic and epigenomic changes in the honey bee brain. We have compared gene expression in brain compartments of 1- and 7-day-old light-exposed honey bees with age-matched dark-kept individuals. We have found a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), both novel and conserved, including several genes with reported roles in neuronal plasticity. Most of the DEGs show age-related changes in the amplitude of light-induced expression and are likely to be both developmentally and environmentally regulated. Some of the DEGs are either known to be methylated or are implicated in epigenetic processes suggesting that responses to light exposure are at least partly regulated at the epigenome level. Consistent with this idea light alters the DNA methylation pattern of bgm, one of the DEGs affected by light exposure, and the expression of microRNA miR-932. This confirms the usefulness of our approach to identify candidate genes for neuronal plasticity and provides evidence for the role of epigenetic processes in driving the molecular responses to visual stimulation. PMID:27398303

  14. Leptin Is Associated With Exaggerated Brain Reward and Emotion Responses to Food Images in Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Seo, Dongju; Kubat, Jessica; Van Name, Michelle A.; Giannini, Cosimo; Savoye, Mary; Constable, R. Todd; Sherwin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the U.S., an astonishing 12.5 million children and adolescents are now obese, predisposing 17% of our nation’s youth to metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adolescent obesity has tripled over the last three decades in the setting of food advertising directed at children. Obese adults exhibit increased brain responses to food images in motivation-reward pathways. These neural alterations may be attributed to obesity-related metabolic changes, which promote food craving and high-calorie food (HCF) consumption. It is not known whether these metabolic changes affect neural responses in the adolescent brain during a crucial period for establishing healthy eating behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-five obese (BMI 34.4 kg/m2, age 15.7 years) and fifteen lean (BMI 20.96 kg/m2, age 15.5 years) adolescents underwent functional MRI during exposure to HCF, low-calorie food (LCF), and nonfood (NF) visual stimuli 2 h after isocaloric meal consumption. RESULTS Brain responses to HCF relative to NF cues increased in obese versus lean adolescents in striatal-limbic regions (i.e., putamen/caudate, insula, amygdala) (P < 0.05, family-wise error [FWE]), involved in motivation-reward and emotion processing. Higher endogenous leptin levels correlated with increased neural activation to HCF images in all subjects (P < 0.05, FWE). CONCLUSIONS This significant association between higher circulating leptin and hyperresponsiveness of brain motivation-reward regions to HCF images suggests that dysfunctional leptin signaling may contribute to the risk of overconsumption of these foods, thus further predisposing adolescents to the development of obesity and T2D. PMID:25139883

  15. Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; Lindström, Per

    2005-05-17

    The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexual men, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379

  16. Brain Transcriptomic Response to Social Eavesdropping in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lopes, João Sollari; Abril-de-Abreu, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-01-01

    Public information is widely available at low cost to animals living in social groups. For instance, bystanders may eavesdrop on signaling interactions between conspecifics and use it to adapt their subsequent behavior towards the observed individuals. This social eavesdropping ability is expected to require specialized mechanisms such as social attention, which selects social information available for learning. To begin exploring the genetic basis of social eavesdropping, we used a previously established attention paradigm in the lab to study the brain gene expression profile of male zebrafish (Danio rerio) in relation to the attention they paid towards conspecifics involved or not involved in agonistic interactions. Microarray gene chips were used to characterize their brain transcriptomes based on differential expression of single genes and gene sets. These analyses were complemented by promoter region-based techniques. Using data from both approaches, we further drafted protein interaction networks. Our results suggest that attentiveness towards conspecifics, whether interacting or not, activates pathways linked to neuronal plasticity and memory formation. The network analyses suggested that fos and jun are key players on this response, and that npas4a, nr4a1 and egr4 may also play an important role. Furthermore, specifically observing fighting interactions further triggered pathways associated to a change in the alertness status (dnajb5) and to other genes related to memory formation (btg2, npas4b), which suggests that the acquisition of eavesdropped information about social relationships activates specific processes on top of those already activated just by observing conspecifics. PMID:26713440

  17. Brain Transcriptomic Response to Social Eavesdropping in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Public information is widely available at low cost to animals living in social groups. For instance, bystanders may eavesdrop on signaling interactions between conspecifics and use it to adapt their subsequent behavior towards the observed individuals. This social eavesdropping ability is expected to require specialized mechanisms such as social attention, which selects social information available for learning. To begin exploring the genetic basis of social eavesdropping, we used a previously established attention paradigm in the lab to study the brain gene expression profile of male zebrafish (Danio rerio) in relation to the attention they paid towards conspecifics involved or not involved in agonistic interactions. Microarray gene chips were used to characterize their brain transcriptomes based on differential expression of single genes and gene sets. These analyses were complemented by promoter region-based techniques. Using data from both approaches, we further drafted protein interaction networks. Our results suggest that attentiveness towards conspecifics, whether interacting or not, activates pathways linked to neuronal plasticity and memory formation. The network analyses suggested that fos and jun are key players on this response, and that npas4a, nr4a1 and egr4 may also play an important role. Furthermore, specifically observing fighting interactions further triggered pathways associated to a change in the alertness status (dnajb5) and to other genes related to memory formation (btg2, npas4b), which suggests that the acquisition of eavesdropped information about social relationships activates specific processes on top of those already activated just by observing conspecifics. PMID:26713440

  18. Differential chemokine responses in the murine brain following lyssavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D J; Núñez, A; Banyard, A C; Williams, A; Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2013-11-01

    The hallmark of lyssavirus infection is lethal encephalomyelitis. Previous studies have reported distinct lyssavirus isolate-related differences in severity of cellular recruitment into the encephalon in a murine model of infection following peripheral inoculation with rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus (EBLV)-1 and -2. In order to understand the role of chemokines in this process, comparative studies of the chemokine pattern, distribution and production in response to infection with these lyssaviruses were undertaken. Expression of CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL10 was observed throughout the murine brain with a distinct caudal bias in distribution, similar to both inflammatory changes and virus antigen distribution. CCL2 immunolabelling was localized to neuronal and astroglial populations. CCL5 immunolabelling was only detected in the astroglia, while CXCL10 labelling, although present in the astroglia, was more prominent in neurons. Isolate-dependent differences in the amount of chemokine immunolabelling in specific brain regions and chemokine production by neurons in vitro were observed, with a greater expression of CCL5 in vivo and CXCL10 production in vitro after EBLV infection. Additionally, strong positive associations between chemokine immunolabelling and perivascular cuffing and, to a lesser extent, virus antigen score were also observed. These differences in chemokine expression may explain the variation in severity of encephalitic changes observed in animals infected with different lyssavirus isolates. PMID:23746482

  19. Common resting brain dynamics indicate a possible mechanism underlying zolpidem response in severe brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Shawniqua T; Conte, Mary M; Goldfine, Andrew M; Noirhomme, Quentin; Gosseries, Olivia; Thonnard, Marie; Beattie, Bradley; Hersh, Jennifer; Katz, Douglas I; Victor, Jonathan D; Laureys, Steven; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem produces paradoxical recovery of speech, cognitive and motor functions in select subjects with severe brain injury but underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In three diverse patients with known zolpidem responses we identify a distinctive pattern of EEG dynamics that suggests a mechanistic model. In the absence of zolpidem, all subjects show a strong low frequency oscillatory peak ∼6–10 Hz in the EEG power spectrum most prominent over frontocentral regions and with high coherence (∼0.7–0.8) within and between hemispheres. Zolpidem administration sharply reduces EEG power and coherence at these low frequencies. The ∼6–10 Hz activity is proposed to arise from intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal neurons that are passively entrained across the cortex by locally-generated spontaneous activity. Activation by zolpidem is proposed to arise from a combination of initial direct drug effects on cortical, striatal, and thalamic populations and further activation of underactive brain regions induced by restoration of cognitively-mediated behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01157.001 PMID:24252875

  20. Review of evoked and event-related delta responses in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, the brain's oscillatory responses have invaded the literature. The studies on delta (0.5-3.5Hz) oscillatory responses in humans upon application of cognitive paradigms showed that delta oscillations are related to cognitive processes, mainly in decision making and attentional processes. The present manuscript comprehensively reviews the studies on delta oscillatory responses upon cognitive stimulation in healthy subjects and in different pathologies, namely Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholism. Further delta oscillatory response upon presentation of faces, facial expressions, and affective pictures are reviewed. The relationship between pre-stimulus delta activity and post-stimulus evoked and event-related responses and/or oscillations is discussed. Cross-frequency couplings of delta oscillations with higher frequency windows are also included in the review. The conclusion of this review includes several important remarks, including that delta oscillatory responses are involved in cognitive and emotional processes. A decrease of delta oscillatory responses could be a general electrophysiological marker for cognitive dysfunction (Alzheimer's disease, MCI, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholism). The pre-stimulus activity (phase or amplitude changes in delta activity) has an effect on post-stimulus EEG responses. PMID:25660301

  1. "Cold training" affects rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Di Meo, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Continuous exposure of homeothermic animals to low environmental temperatures elicits physiological adaptations necessary for animal survival, which are associated to higher generation of pro-oxidants in thermogenic tissues. It is not known whether intermittent cold exposure (cold training) is able to affect tissue responses to continuous cold exposure. Therefore, we investigated whether rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure of 2 days are modified by cold training (1h daily for 5 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks). Continuous cold increased liver oxidative metabolism by increasing tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial aerobic capacity. Cold training did not affect such parameters, but attenuated or prevented the changes elicited by continuous cold exposure. Two-day cold exposure increased lipid hydroperoxide and protein-bound carbonyl levels in homogenates and mitochondria, whereas cold training decreased such effects although it decreased only homogenate protein damage in control rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPX and GR and H2O2 production were increased by continuous cold exposure. Despite the increase in GPX and GR activities, livers from cold-exposed rats showed increased susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Such cold effects were decreased by cold training, which in control rats reduced only H2O2 production and susceptibility to stress. The changes of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression levels were consistent with those induced by cold exposure and cold training in mitochondrial protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the mechanisms by which cold training attenuates the effects of the continuous cold exposure remain to be elucidated. PMID:26808664

  2. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  3. Viral Infection Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Homing Ability of Forager Honey Bees, Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 107 copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive. PMID:24130876

  4. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response.

    PubMed

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Silvetti, Massimo; Verguts, Tom; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials, are indeed perceived as more aversive (Dreisbach & Fischer, Brain and Cognition, 78(2), 94-98 (2012)). Importantly, however, in two experiments we demonstrate that this effect is reversed following successful responses; correctly responding to incongruent trials engendered relatively more positive affect than correctly responding to congruent trials. The results are discussed in light of a recent computational model by Silvetti, Seurinck, and Verguts, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5:75 (2011) where it is assumed that outcome expectancies are more negative for incongruent trials than congruent trials. Consequently, the intrinsic reward (prediction error) following successful completion is larger for incongruent than congruent trials. These findings divulge a novel perspective on 'cognitive' adaptations to conflict. PMID:25183556

  5. Affective neural responses modulated by serotonin transporter genotype in clinical anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Oathes, Desmond J; Hilt, Lori M; Nitschke, Jack B

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/L(G) carriers showed less activity than their L(A)/L(A) counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/L(G) healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343

  6. Physical Effort Affects Heatstroke Thermoregulatory Response and Mortality in Rats.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Peng, Na; Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Xing-Gui; Li, Bing-Lin; Peng, Li-Qiong; Ma, Qiang; Su, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Animals suffering from heatstroke (HS) after physical effort may have different heat-related core temperature (Tc) responses compared with passive HS. In the present study, conscious and unrestrained rats were exposed to ambient temperature (Ta) of 39.5°C ± 0.2°C with or without running (run-heated or rest-heated, respectively) until HS onset, which was defined as the systolic blood pressure starting to drop. In comparison with rest-heated rats, run-heated rats had a significantly shorter latency of HS onset. Physical effort did not have significant influence on hyperthermia severity (43.3°C ± 0.2°C at rest-heated, and 43.4°C ± 0.2°C at run-heated), but it could significantly decrease the thermal load to develop HS (315.1°C ± 37.3°C·min for rest-heated, and 133.5 ± 21.4 °C·min for run-heated). Working component during heat exposure may contribute to a decreased survival rate of HS (46.9% at rest-heated and 31.3% at run-heated). Impaired heat dissipation during recovery may be responsible for relative poor survival of run-heated rats. In both groups, survival was affected by Tc at HS onset and thermal area. Hypothermia (Tc <35°C) developed after HS onset, with no significant difference in Tc,min between the rest-heated and run-heated groups. These thermoregulatory responses to HS after physical effort may provide insight into HS pathophysiology. PMID:26009815

  7. Inflight exercise affects stand test responses after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.; Moore, A. D. Jr; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Schneider, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crew members during short-duration space flights (9-16 d) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 h of landing. METHODS: Thirty crew members performed self-selected inflight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. Two subjects participated in this investigation during two different flights. A 10-min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10-15 d before launch (PRE) and within 4 h of landing (POST). Based upon their inflight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: > or = 3 times/week, HR > or = 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 11), medium (MEDex: > or = 3 times/week, HR < 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 10), or low (LOex: < or = 3 times/week, HR and duration variable, N = 11) exercisers. HR and BP responses to standing were compared between groups (ANOVA, P < or = 0.05). RESULTS: There were no PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared with PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36 +/- 5 bpm) compared with HIex or MEDex groups (25 +/- 1 bpm; 22 +/- 2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after space flight in the MEDex and HIex groups but was significantly greater in the LOex group (PRE: -9 +/- 3; POST: -19 +/- 4 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, moderate to high levels of inflight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after space flight.

  8. Drug Metabolism within the Brain Changes Drug Response: Selective Manipulation of Brain CYP2B Alters Propofol Effects

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2011-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes are expressed in the liver, as well as in extrahepatic tissues such as the brain. Here we show for the first time that drug metabolism by a CYP within the brain, illustrated using CYP2B and the anesthetic propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol, Diprivan), can meaningfully alter the pharmacological response to a CNS acting drug. CYP2B is expressed in the brains of animals and humans, and this CYP isoform is able to metabolize centrally acting substrates such as propofol, ecstasy, and serotonin. Rats were given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injections of vehicle, C8-xanthate, or 8-methoxypsoralen (CYP2B mechanism-based inhibitors) and then tested for sleep time following propofol (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Both inhibitors significantly increased sleep-time (1.8- to 2-fold) and brain propofol levels, while having no effect on plasma propofol levels. Seven days of nicotine treatment can induce the expression of brain, but not hepatic, CYP2B, and this induction reduced propofol sleep times by 2.5-fold. This reduction was reversed in a dose-dependent manner by i.c.v. injections of inhibitor. Sleep times correlated with brain (r=0.76, P=0.0009), but not plasma (r=0.24, P=0.39) propofol concentrations. Inhibitor treatments increased brain, but not plasma, propofol levels, and had no effect on hepatic enzyme activity. These data indicate that brain CYP2B can metabolize neuroactive substrates (eg, propofol) and can alter their pharmacological response. This has wider implications for localized CYP-mediated metabolism of drugs, neurotransmitters, and neurotoxins within the brain by this highly variable enzyme family and other CYP subfamilies expressed in the brain. PMID:21107310

  9. Sustained sleep fragmentation affects brain temperature, food intake and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Baud, Maxime O; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Sleep fragmentation is present in numerous sleep pathologies and constitutes a major feature of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity has been shown to be associated to obstructive sleep apnea. While sleep fragmentation has been shown to impact sleep homeostasis, its specific effects on metabolic variables are only beginning to emerge. In this context, it is important to develop realistic animal models that would account for chronic metabolic effects of sleep fragmentation. We developed a 14-day model of instrumental sleep fragmentation in mice, and show an impact on both brain-specific and general metabolism. We first report that sleep fragmentation increases food intake without affecting body weight. This imbalance was accompanied by the inability to adequately decrease brain temperature during fragmented sleep. In addition, we report that sleep-fragmented mice develop glucose intolerance. We also observe that sleep fragmentation slightly increases the circadian peak level of glucocorticoids, a factor that may be involved in the observed metabolic effects. Our results confirm that poor-quality sleep with sustained sleep fragmentation has similar effects on general metabolism as actual sleep loss. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that sleep fragmentation is an aggravating factor for the development of metabolic dysfunctions that may be relevant for sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:22734931

  10. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  11. PET Parametric Response Mapping for Clinical Monitoring and Treatment Response Evaluation in Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Chen, Wei; Harris, Robert J; Pope, Whitney B; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Czernin, Johannes; Phelps, Michael E; Cloughesy, Timothy F

    2013-04-01

    PET parametric response maps (PRMs) are a provocative new molecular imaging technique for quantifying brain tumor response to therapy in individual patients. By aligning sequential PET scans over time using anatomic MR imaging information, the voxel-wise change in radiotracer uptake can be quantified and visualized. PET PRMs can be performed before and after a particular therapy to test whether the tumor is responding favorably, or performed relative to a distant time point to monitor changes through the course of a treatment. This article focuses on many of the technical details involved in generating, visualizing, and quantifying PET PRMs, and practical applications and example case studies. PMID:27157948

  12. How Acute and Chronic Alcohol Consumption Affects Brain Networks: Insights from Multimodal Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Tilman; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Kareken, David A.; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Tapert, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimodal imaging combining 2 or more techniques is becoming increasingly important because no single imaging approach has the capacity to elucidate all clinically relevant characteristics of a network. Methods This review highlights recent advances in multimodal neuroimaging (i.e., combined use and interpretation of data collected through magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetoencephalography, MR perfusion, and MR spectroscopy methods) that leads to a more comprehensive understanding of how acute and chronic alcohol consumption affect neural networks underlying cognition, emotion, reward processing, and drinking behavior. Results Several innovative investigators have started utilizing multiple imaging approaches within the same individual to better understand how alcohol influences brain systems, both during intoxication and after years of chronic heavy use. Conclusions Their findings can help identify mechanism-based therapeutic and pharmacological treatment options, and they may increase the efficacy and cost effectiveness of such treatments by predicting those at greatest risk for relapse. PMID:22577873

  13. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  14. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    PubMed Central

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  15. Exploring diazepam's effect on hemodynamic responses of mouse brain tissue by optical spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Abookasis, David; Shochat, Ariel; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a simple duel-optical spectroscopic imaging apparatus capable of simultaneously determining relative changes in brain oxy-and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations was used following administration of the anxiolytic compound diazepam in mice with strong dominant (Dom) and submissive (Sub) behavioral traits. Three month old mice (n = 30) were anesthetized and after 10 min of baseline imaging, diazepam (1.5 mg/kg) was administered and measurements were taken for 80 min. The mouse head was illuminated by white light based LED's and diffused reflected light passing through different channels, consisting of a bandpass filter and a CCD camera, respectively, was collected and analyzed to measure the hemodynamic response. This work's major findings are threefold: first, Dom and Sub animals showed statistically significant differences in hemodynamic response to diazepam administration. Secondly, diazepam was found to more strongly affect the Sub group. Thirdly, different time-series profiles were observed post-injection, which can serve as a possible marker for the groups' differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of an anxiolytic drug on brain hemodynamic responses in mice using diffused light optical imaging. PMID:25071958

  16. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2011-08-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal cortex (PFC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and amygdala in response to chronic variable stress (CVS). Following 14 days of CVS, the presynaptic protein synaptophysin was assessed in male and female rats. Our results demonstrate that synaptophysin staining density was higher in females than males in all brain areas evaluated, indicating sex differences in the organization of presynaptic innervation. After CVS, the PVN, principal nucleus of the BST (BSTpr), and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) displayed significantly reduced synaptophysin density in females but not males. Furthermore, males showed an increase in synaptophysin in the PVN after CVS, suggesting a sex difference in the modulation of presynaptic inputs to the PVN following chronic stress. Overall, these data suggest marked sex differences in PVN, BSTpr, and BLA presynaptic innervation as a consequence of chronic stress, which may be associated with differential stress responsivity and perhaps susceptibility to pathologies in males and females. PMID:21315096

  17. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Thomas, Theresa C

    2016-07-01

    As many as 20-55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  18. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  19. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  20. Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups' neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal. PMID:21861686

  1. Explicit and Implicit Second Language Training Differentially Affect the Achievement of Native-like Brain Activation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups’ neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal. PMID:21861686

  2. Temporal profile of brain response to alprazolam in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory G; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Stein, Murray B; von Kienlin, Markus; Liu, Thomas T; Simmons, Alan; Wierenga, Christina; Stein, Orah Y; Bruns, Andreas; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Paulus, Martin

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the temporal pattern of brain response to emotional stimuli during 28 days of alprazolam treatment among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) randomized 2:1 to drug or placebo in a double-blind design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained during an emotion face matching task (EFMT) and an affective stimulus expectancy task (STIMEX) were performed at baseline, one hour after initial drug administration and 28 days later. Alprazolam significantly reduced scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire after one week and 28 days of treatment. Brain activation in the amygdala during the EFMT and in the insula during the STIMEX was reduced one hour after alprazolam administration but returned to baseline levels at Day 28. Exploratory analyses revealed significant treatment differences in brain activity during the STIMEX on Day 28 in frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, middle temporal gyrus, secondary visual cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that the neural mechanisms supporting sustained treatment effects of benzodiazepines in GAD differ from those underlying their acute effects. PMID:26211623

  3. Proteomic analysis of immature rat pups brain in response to hypoxia and ischemia challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Jun; Ma, Dong-Qing; Cui, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia and ischemia significantly affects perinatal brain development, even worse in preterm infants. However, the details of the mechanism leading to permanent brain damage after hypoxia-ischemia attack have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics could provide insight into the potential mechanism and help to promote the clinical treatment. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed 24 hours after hypoxia-ischemia using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry coupled to label-free analysis. Compared to control, 193 proteins were present only in hypoxic-ischemic group. In addition, 34 proteins were more than 2 folds up-regulated and 14 proteins were more than 2 folds down-regulated in hypoxia-ischemia group. Gene Ontology database showed that the majority of differentially expressed proteins comprised mitochondrial proteins et al. Molecular function analysis revealed that the majority of proteins were involved in ion binding et al. Biological process analysis showed that the majority of proteins were involved in response to organic substance et al. STRING 9.0 software analysis were used to explore the complex interactions existed among the proteins. Western blot were used to verify the fold changes of some proteins-microtubule-associated protein 2 and microtubule-associated protein tau. This novel study performed a full-scale screening of the proteomics research in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage of immature rat. PMID:25197337

  4. Selective alignment of brain responses by task demands during semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosuè

    2012-04-01

    The way the brain binds together words to form sentences may depend on whether and how the arising cognitive representation is to be used in behavior. The amplitude of the N400 effect in event-related brain potentials is inversely correlated with the degree of fit of a word's meaning into a semantic representation of the preceding discourse. This study reports a double dissociation in the latency characteristics of the N400 effect depending on task demands. When participants silently read words in a sentence context, without issuing a relevant overt response, greater temporal alignment over recording sites occurs for N400 onsets than peaks. If however a behavior is produced - here pressing a button in a binary probe selection task - exactly the opposite pattern is observed, with stronger alignment of N400 peaks than onsets. The peak amplitude of the N400 effect correlates best with the latency characteristic showing less temporal dispersion. These findings suggest that meaning construction in the brain is subtly affected by task demands, and that there is complex functional integration between semantic combinatorics and control systems handling behavioral goals. PMID:22245013

  5. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  6. Like or Dislike? Affective Preference Modulates Neural Response to Others' Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiuling; Qu, Lulu; Li, Xuebing

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the brain responds differentially to others' gains and losses relative to one's own, moderated by social context factors such as competition and interpersonal relationships. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the neural response to others' outcomes could be modulated by a short-term induced affective preference. We engaged 17 men and 18 women in a social-exchange game, in which two confederates played fairly or unfairly. Both men and women rated the fair player as likable and the unfair players as unlikable. Afterwards, ERPs were recorded while participants observed each confederates playing a gambling game individually. This study examines feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to negative feedback. ANOVA showed a significant interaction in which females but not males displayed stronger FRNs when observing likable players' outcomes compared to unlikable ones'. However, males did not respond differently under either circumstance. These findings suggest that, at least in females, the neural response is influenced by a short-term induced affective preference. PMID:25171075

  7. Like or dislike? Affective preference modulates neural response to others' gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Qu, Chen; Luo, Qiuling; Qu, Lulu; Li, Xuebing

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the brain responds differentially to others' gains and losses relative to one's own, moderated by social context factors such as competition and interpersonal relationships. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the neural response to others' outcomes could be modulated by a short-term induced affective preference. We engaged 17 men and 18 women in a social-exchange game, in which two confederates played fairly or unfairly. Both men and women rated the fair player as likable and the unfair players as unlikable. Afterwards, ERPs were recorded while participants observed each confederates playing a gambling game individually. This study examines feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to negative feedback. ANOVA showed a significant interaction in which females but not males displayed stronger FRNs when observing likable players' outcomes compared to unlikable ones'. However, males did not respond differently under either circumstance. These findings suggest that, at least in females, the neural response is influenced by a short-term induced affective preference. PMID:25171075

  8. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  9. Genotype over-diagnosis in amygdala responsiveness: affective processing in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Furmark, Tomas; Henningsson, Susanne; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Faria, Vanda; Oreland, Lars; Bani, Massimo; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Eriksson, Elias; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the amygdala is thought to be a crucial brain region for negative affect, neuroimaging studies do not always show enhanced amygdala response to aversive stimuli in patients with anxiety disorders. Serotonin (5-HT)–related genotypes may contribute to interindividual variability in amygdala responsiveness. The short (s) allele of the 5-HT transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the T variant of the G-703T polymorphism in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene have previously been associated with amygdala hyperresponsivity to negative faces in healthy controls. We investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on amygdala responsiveness to angry faces in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) compared with healthy controls. Methods We used positron emission tomography with oxygen 15-labelled water to assess regional cerebral blood flow in 34 patients with SAD and 18 controls who viewed photographs of angry and neutral faces presented in counterbalanced order. We genotyped all participants with respect to the 5-HTTLPR and TPH2 polymorphisms. Results Patients with SAD and controls had increased left amygdala activation in response to angry compared with neutral faces. Genotype but not diagnosis explained a significant portion of the variance in amygdala responsiveness, the response being more pronounced in carriers of s and/or T alleles. Limitations Our analyses were limited owing to the small sample and the fact that we were unable to match participants on genotype before enrolment. In addition, other imaging techniques not used in our study may have revealed additional effects of emotional stimuli. Conclusion Amygdala responsiveness to angry faces was more strongly related to serotonergic polymorphisms than to diagnosis of SAD. Emotion activation studies comparing amygdala excitability in patient and control groups could benefit from taking variation in 5-HT–related genes into account. PMID:19125211

  10. The Brain Basis of Positive and Negative Affect: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Human Neuroimaging Literature.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Weber, Jochen; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-05-01

    The ability to experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings or to represent objects as "positive" or "negative" is known as representing hedonic "valence." Although scientists overwhelmingly agree that valence is a basic psychological phenomenon, debate continues about how to best conceptualize it scientifically. We used a meta-analysis of 397 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography studies (containing 914 experimental contrasts and 6827 participants) to test 3 competing hypotheses about the brain basis of valence: the bipolarity hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a brain system that monotonically increases and/or decreases along the valence dimension, the bivalent hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by independent brain systems, and the affective workspace hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a flexible set of valence-general regions. We found little evidence for the bipolar or bivalent hypotheses. Findings instead supported the hypothesis that, at the level of brain activity measurable by fMRI, valence is flexibly implemented across instances by a set of valence-general limbic and paralimbic brain regions. PMID:25631056

  11. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  12. Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks. PMID:19707539

  13. Brain pressure responses in translational head impact: a dimensional analysis and a further computational study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Shijie; Ji, Songbai

    2014-01-01

    Brain pressure responses resulting from translational head impact are typically related to focal injuries at the coup and contrecoup sites. Despite significant efforts characterizing brain pressure responses using experimental and modeling approaches, a thorough investigation of the key controlling parameters appears lacking. In this study, we attempted to identify three parameters specific and important for brain pressure responses induced by isolated linear acceleration (alin) via a dimensional analysis: alin itself (magnitude and directionality), brain size and shape. These findings were verified using our recently developed Dartmouth Head Injury Model (DHIM). Applying alin to the rigid skull, we found that the temporal profile of the given alin directly determined that of pressure. Brain pressure was also found to be linearly proportional to brain size and dependent on impact direction. In addition, we investigated perturbations to brain pressure responses as a result of non-rigid skull deformation. Finally, DHIM pressure responses were quantitatively validated against two representative cadaveric head impacts (categorized as “good” to “excellent” in performance). These results suggest that both the magnitude and directionality of alin as well as brain size and shape should be considered when interpreting brain pressure responses. Further, a model validated against pressure responses alone is not sufficient to ensure its fidelity in strain-related responses. These findings provide important insights into brain pressure responses in translational head impact and the resulting risk of pressure-induced injury. In addition, they establish the feasibility of creating a pre-computed atlas for real-time tissue-level pressure responses without a direct simulation in the future. PMID:25412925

  14. Brain pressure responses in translational head impact: a dimensional analysis and a further computational study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Shijie; Ji, Songbai

    2015-08-01

    Brain pressure responses resulting from translational head impact are typically related to focal injuries at the coup and contrecoup sites. Despite significant efforts characterizing brain pressure responses using experimental and modeling approaches, a thorough investigation of the key controlling parameters appears lacking. In this study, we identified three parameters specific and important for brain pressure responses induced by isolated linear acceleration a(lin) via a dimensional analysis: a(lin) itself (magnitude and directionality), brain size and shape. These findings were verified using our recently developed Dartmouth Head Injury Model (DHIM). Applying a(lin) to the rigid skull, we found that the temporal profile of the given a(lin) directly determined that of pressure. Brain pressure was also found to be linearly proportional to brain size and dependent on impact direction. In addition, we investigated perturbations to brain pressure responses as a result of non-rigid skull deformation. Finally, DHIM pressure responses were quantitatively validated against two representative cadaveric head impacts (categorized as "good" to "excellent" in performance). These results suggest that both the magnitude and directionality of a(lin) as well as brain size and shape should be considered when interpreting brain pressure responses. Further, a model validated against pressure responses alone is not sufficient to ensure its fidelity in strain-related responses. These findings provide important insights into brain pressure responses in translational head impact and the resulting risk of pressure-induced injury. In addition, they establish the feasibility of creating a pre-computed atlas for real-time tissue-level pressure responses without a direct simulation in the future. PMID:25412925

  15. Brain injury causes loss of cardiovascular response to hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Fulton, R L; Flynn, W J; Mancino, M; Bowles, D; Cryer, H M

    1993-01-01

    The combined cardiovascular effects of hemorrhagic shock and mechanical brain injury were modeled in five groups of pigs. Standard and hypertonic saline resuscitation of hypotension were evaluated. Changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), intracranial pressure (ICP), and brain water were measured. Brain injury (BI) was produced with a fluid percussion device that generated an extradural pressure of 3.5 x 10(5) N/m2 for 400 msec. Shock was caused by bleeding to a MAP of 60 mm Hg for 60 minutes and then resuscitated with shed blood only or shed blood plus 0.9% or 1.8% saline. Brain-injured only and shocked-only pigs served as controls. We found that brain injury alone caused refractory hypotension. Less shed blood was required to produce shock in brain injured animals (p < .05). Shock accompanied by brain injury was not reversed with crystalloid solutions. Volumes of saline required to restore blood pressure were large (> 6 L in 3 hours). 1.8% saline produced less rise in ICP than 0.9% saline but was less effective in restoring blood pressure. Brain edema was not decreased with 1.8% saline. Brain injury altered vascular compensation to hemorrhage and made accepted resuscitative measures ineffective. PMID:8512886

  16. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  17. Adolescent responses toward a new technology: first associations, information seeking and affective responses to ecogenomics.

    PubMed

    Bos, Mark J W; Koolstra, Cees M; Willems, Jaap T J M

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study among adolescents (N = 752) who were introduced to the emerging technology of ecogenomics for the first time. An online survey focused on their associations with the term ecogenomics, their planned information seeking behaviors if they were to acquire information about the new technology, and their first affective responses toward ecogenomics after having read some introductory information about it. Adolescents were found to associate ecogenomics most frequently with economy. Although the Internet was the most popular medium to be used in their planned information seeking behaviors, books and science communication professionals were judged as the most trustworthy information sources. After having read the introductory information about ecogenomics most adolescents reported positive affective responses toward the new technology. PMID:19579687

  18. Neuroinflammatory responses to traumatic brain injury: etiology, clinical consequences, and therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Diego; Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S; Acosta, Sandra; de la Pena, Ike; Tajiri, Naoki; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem accounting for 1.4 million emergency room visits by US citizens each year. Although TBI has been traditionally considered an acute injury, chronic symptoms reminiscent of neurodegenerative disorders have now been recognized. These progressive neurodegenerative-like symptoms manifest as impaired motor and cognitive skills, as well as stress, anxiety, and mood affective behavioral alterations. TBI, characterized by external bumps or blows to the head exceeding the brain’s protective capacity, causes physical damage to the central nervous system with accompanying neurological dysfunctions. The primary impact results in direct neural cell loss predominantly exhibiting necrotic death, which is then followed by a wave of secondary injury cascades including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, blood–brain barrier disruption, and inflammation. All these processes exacerbate the damage, worsen the clinical outcomes, and persist as an evolving pathological hallmark of what we now describe as chronic TBI. Neuroinflammation in the acute stage of TBI mobilizes immune cells, astrocytes, cytokines, and chemokines toward the site of injury to mount an antiinflammatory response against brain damage; however, in the chronic stage, excess activation of these inflammatory elements contributes to an “inflamed” brain microenvironment that principally contributes to secondary cell death in TBI. Modulating these inflammatory cells by changing their phenotype from proinflammatory to antiinflammatory would likely promote therapeutic effects on TBI. Because neuroinflammation occurs at acute and chronic stages after the primary insult in TBI, a treatment targeting neuroinflammation may have a wider therapeutic window for TBI. To this end, a better understanding of TBI etiology and clinical manifestations, especially the pathological presentation of chronic TBI with neuroinflammation as a major

  19. Pyruvate blocks blood-brain barrier disruption, lymphocyte infiltration and immune response in excitotoxic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae K; McLarnon, James G

    2016-01-01

    The effects of pyruvate, the end metabolite of glycolysis, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment and immune reactivity were examined in the quinolinic acid (QA)-injected rat striatum. Extensive disruption of BBB was observed at 7 d post QA-injection as demonstrated by increased immunohistochemical staining using antibody against immunoglobulin G (IgG). Animals receiving pyruvate administration (500 mg/kg) with QA-injection exhibited reduced lgG immunoreactivity (by 45%) relative to QA alone. QA intrastriatal injection also resulted in marked increases in the number of infiltrating T-lymphocytes (by 70-fold) and expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-class II) (by 45-fold) relative to unlesioned control. Treatment with pyruvate significantly reduced infiltration of T-cells (by 68%) and MHC class II expression (by 48%) induced by QA. These results indicate that QA injection into rat striatum leads to impairment in BBB function with pyruvate administration reducing immune response and BBB leakiness in excitotoxic injury. PMID:27073744

  20. Pain Catastrophising Affects Cortical Responses to Viewing Pain in Others

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Pain catastrophising is an exaggerated cognitive attitude implemented during pain or when thinking about pain. Catastrophising was previously associated with increased pain severity, emotional distress and disability in chronic pain patients, and is also a contributing factor in the development of neuropathic pain. To investigate the neural basis of how pain catastrophising affects pain observed in others, we acquired EEG data in groups of participants with high (High-Cat) or low (Low-Cat) pain catastrophising scores during viewing of pain scenes and graphically matched pictures not depicting imminent pain. The High-Cat group attributed greater pain to both pain and non-pain pictures. Source dipole analysis of event-related potentials during picture viewing revealed activations in the left (PHGL) and right (PHGR) paraphippocampal gyri, rostral anterior (rACC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) cortices. The late source activity (600–1100 ms) in PHGL and PCC was augmented in High-Cat, relative to Low-Cat, participants. Conversely, greater source activity was observed in the Low-Cat group during the mid-latency window (280–450 ms) in the rACC and PCC. Low-Cat subjects demonstrated a significantly stronger correlation between source activity in PCC and pain and arousal ratings in the long latency window, relative to high pain catastrophisers. Results suggest augmented activation of limbic cortex and higher order pain processing cortical regions during the late processing period in high pain catastrophisers viewing both types of pictures. This pattern of cortical activations is consistent with the distorted and magnified cognitive appraisal of pain threats in high pain catastrophisers. In contrast, high pain catastrophising individuals exhibit a diminished response during the mid-latency period when attentional and top-down resources are ascribed to observed pain. PMID:26186545

  1. Active microwave computed brain tomography: the response to a challenge.

    PubMed

    Almirall, H; Broquetas, A; Jofre, L

    1991-02-01

    The potential application of active microwave techniques to brain imaging is studied by numerical simulations and experimentally using a recently developed cylindrical microwave scanner. The potential advantages and limitations of this method in static and dynamic brain imaging are presented and compared with other imaging techniques. PMID:2062119

  2. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C.; Massey, Jonathan H.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

  3. Students with Acquired Brain Injury. The School's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann, Ed.; Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Todis, Bonnie, Ed.

    Designed for educators, this book focuses on educational issues relating to students with acquired brain injury (ABI), and describes approaches that have been effective in improving the school experiences of students with brain injury. Section 1 provides an introduction to issues related to ABI in children and youth and includes: "An Overview of…

  4. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Drugs. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This teacher's guide aims to develop an understanding among students grades 5 through 9 of the physical reality of drug use. Contents include: (1) "Brain Anatomy"; (2) "Nerve Cells and Neurotransmission"; (3) "Effects of Drugs on the Brain"; (4) "Marijuana"; (5) "Opiates"; (6) "Inhalants"; (7) "Hallucinogens"; (8) "Steroids"; (9) "Stimulants";…

  5. Verbal labels selectively bias brain responses to high-energy foods.

    PubMed

    Toepel, Ulrike; Ohla, Kathrin; Hudry, Julie; le Coutre, Johannes; Murray, Micah M

    2014-02-15

    The influence of external factors on food preferences and choices is poorly understood. Knowing which and how food-external cues impact the sensory processing and cognitive valuation of food would provide a strong benefit toward a more integrative understanding of food intake behavior and potential means of interfering with deviant eating patterns to avoid detrimental health consequences for individuals in the long run. We investigated whether written labels with positive and negative (as opposed to 'neutral') valence differentially modulate the spatio-temporal brain dynamics in response to the subsequent viewing of high- and low-energetic food images. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from 20 normal-weight participants. VEPs and source estimations in response to high- and low- energy foods were differentially affected by the valence of preceding word labels over the ~260-300 ms post-stimulus period. These effects were only observed when high-energy foods were preceded by labels with positive valence. Neural sources in occipital as well as posterior, frontal, insular and cingulate regions were down-regulated. These findings favor cognitive-affective influences especially on the visual responses to high-energetic food cues, potentially indicating decreases in cognitive control and goal-adaptive behavior. Inverse correlations between insular activity and effectiveness in food classification further indicate that this down-regulation directly impacts food-related behavior. PMID:24185017

  6. A Response to the Legitimacy of Brain Death in Islam.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Brain death is a novel construct of death for the procurement of transplantable organs. Many authoritative Islamic organizations and governments have endorsed brain death as true death for organ donation. Many commentators have reiterated the misconception that the Quranic text does not define death. We respond by clarifying: (1) the Quran does define death as biologic disintegration and clearly distinguishes it from the dying process, (2) brain death belongs scientifically within the spectrum of neurologic disorders of consciousness and should not be confused with death, and (3) religious and legal discord about brain death has grown in jurisdictions worldwide. We urge for public transparency and truthfulness about brain death and the accommodation and respect of religious objection to the determination of death by neurologic criteria. PMID:27010462

  7. Brain Lactate Concentration Falls in Response to Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Impaired Awareness of Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wiegers, Evita C; Rooijackers, Hanne M; Tack, Cees J; Heerschap, Arend; de Galan, Bastiaan E; van der Graaf, Marinette

    2016-06-01

    Brain lactate may be involved in the development of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), a condition that affects approximately 25% of patients with type 1 diabetes and increases the risk of severe hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute hypoglycemia on brain lactate concentration in patients with IAH as compared with those with normal awareness of hypoglycemia (NAH) and healthy control subjects (n = 7 per group). After an overnight fast, all subjects underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic (5.0 mmol/L)-hypoglycemic (2.8 mmol/L) glucose clamp. Brain lactate concentrations were measured continuously with (1)H-MRS using a specific lactate detection method. Hypoglycemia generated symptoms in patients with NAH and healthy control subjects but not in patients with IAH. Brain lactate fell significantly by ∼20% in response to hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes with IAH but remained stable in both healthy control subjects and in patients with NAH. The fall in brain lactate is compatible with increased brain lactate oxidation providing an alternative fuel source during hypoglycemia, which may contribute to the impaired detection of hypoglycemia. PMID:26993070

  8. STAT1 signaling modulates HIV-1-induced inflammatory responses and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; Yang, Bo; Gendelman, Howard E; Persidsky, Yuri; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2008-02-15

    The relationship among neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and progressive HIV-1 infection as they affect the onset and development of neuroAIDS is incompletely understood. One possible link is signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways. These respond to proinflammatory and regulatory factors and could affect neuroinflammatory responses induced from infected cells and disease-affected brain tissue. Our previous works demonstrated that HIV-1 activates pro-inflammatory and interferon-alpha-inducible genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and that these genes are linked to the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. We now demonstrate that HIV-1 activates STAT1, induces IL-6 expression, and diminishes expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2 in HBMECs. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, blocked HIV-1-induced IL-6, diminished HIV-1-induced claudin-5 and ZO-1 down-regulation, and blocked HIV-1- and IL-6-induced monocyte migration across a BBB model. Enhanced expression and activation of STAT1 and decreased claudin-5 were observed in microvessels from autopsied brains of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia. These data support the notion that STAT1 plays an integral role in HIV-1-induced BBB damage and is relevant to viral neuropathogenesis. Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to attenuate HIV-1-induced BBB compromise and as such improve clinical outcomes. PMID:18003888

  9. Brief sensory experience differentially affects the volume of olfactory brain centres in a moth.

    PubMed

    Anton, Sylvia; Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Gadenne, Bruno; Iqbal, Javaid; Juchaux, Marjorie; List, Olivier; Gaertner, Cyril; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Experience modifies behaviour in animals so that they adapt to their environment. In male noctuid moths, Spodoptera littoralis, brief pre-exposure to various behaviourally relevant sensory signals modifies subsequent behaviour towards the same or different sensory modalities. Correlated with a behavioural increase in responses of male moths to the female-emitted sex pheromone after pre-exposure to olfactory, acoustic or gustatory stimuli, an increase in sensitivity of olfactory neurons within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe, is found for olfactory and acoustic stimuli, but not for gustatory stimuli. Here, we investigated whether anatomical changes occurring in the antennal lobes and in the mushroom bodies (the secondary olfactory centres) possibly correlated with the changes observed in behaviour and in olfactory neuron physiology. Our results showed that significant volume changes occurred in glomeruli (olfactory units) responsive to sex pheromone following exposure to both pheromone and predator sounds. The volume of the mushroom body input region (calyx) also increased significantly after pheromone and predator sound treatment. However, we found no changes in the volume of antennal lobe glomeruli or of the mushroom body calyx after pre-exposure to sucrose. These findings show a relationship of antennal lobe sensitivity changes to the pheromone with changes in the volume of the related glomeruli and the output area of antennal lobe projection neurons elicited by sensory cues causing a behavioural change. Behavioural changes observed after sucrose pre-exposure must originate from changes in higher integration centres in the brain. PMID:26463049

  10. Insula and inferior frontal triangularis activations distinguish between conditioned brain responses using emotional sounds for basic BCI communication

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Linda; Liberati, Giulia; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Kim, Sunjung; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Raffone, Antonino; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta; Birbaumer, Niels; Veit, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI), it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (“yes”) and negative (“no”) responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting. Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS), respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1) and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2), in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR). The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI. PMID:25100958

  11. Insula and inferior frontal triangularis activations distinguish between conditioned brain responses using emotional sounds for basic BCI communication.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, Linda; Liberati, Giulia; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Kim, Sunjung; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Raffone, Antonino; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta; Birbaumer, Niels; Veit, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI), it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative ("yes") and negative ("no") responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting. Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS), respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1) and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2), in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR). The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI. PMID:25100958

  12. Dim light at night interacts with intermittent hypoxia to alter cognitive and affective responses

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Zachary M.; Magalang, Ulysses J.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dim light at night (dLAN) have both been independently associated with alterations in mood and cognition. We aimed to determine whether dLAN would interact with intermittent hypoxia (IH), a condition characteristic of OSA, to alter the behavioral, cognitive, and affective responses. Adult male mice were housed in either standard lighting conditions (14:10-h light-dark cycle; 150 lux:0 lux) or dLAN (150 lux:5 lux). Mice were then exposed to IH (15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, FiO2 nadir of 5%) for 3 wk, then tested in assays of affective and cognitive responses; brains were collected for dendritic morphology and PCR analysis. Exposure to dLAN and IH increased anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed in the open field, elevated plus maze, and the light/dark box. dLAN and IH increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. IH impaired learning and memory performance in the passive avoidance task; however, no differences were observed in spatial working memory, as assessed by y-maze or object recognition. IH combined with dLAN decreased cell body area in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Overall, IH decreased apical spine density in the CA3, whereas dLAN decreased spine density in the CA1 of the hippocampus. TNF-α gene expression was not altered by IH or lighting condition, whereas VEGF expression was increased by dLAN. The combination of IH and dLAN provokes negative effects on hippocampal dendritic morphology, affect, and cognition, suggesting that limiting nighttime exposure to light in combination with other established treatments may be of benefit to patients with OSA. PMID:23657638

  13. Dim light at night interacts with intermittent hypoxia to alter cognitive and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Magalang, Ulysses J; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dim light at night (dLAN) have both been independently associated with alterations in mood and cognition. We aimed to determine whether dLAN would interact with intermittent hypoxia (IH), a condition characteristic of OSA, to alter the behavioral, cognitive, and affective responses. Adult male mice were housed in either standard lighting conditions (14:10-h light-dark cycle; 150 lux:0 lux) or dLAN (150 lux:5 lux). Mice were then exposed to IH (15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, FiO2 nadir of 5%) for 3 wk, then tested in assays of affective and cognitive responses; brains were collected for dendritic morphology and PCR analysis. Exposure to dLAN and IH increased anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed in the open field, elevated plus maze, and the light/dark box. dLAN and IH increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. IH impaired learning and memory performance in the passive avoidance task; however, no differences were observed in spatial working memory, as assessed by y-maze or object recognition. IH combined with dLAN decreased cell body area in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Overall, IH decreased apical spine density in the CA3, whereas dLAN decreased spine density in the CA1 of the hippocampus. TNF-α gene expression was not altered by IH or lighting condition, whereas VEGF expression was increased by dLAN. The combination of IH and dLAN provokes negative effects on hippocampal dendritic morphology, affect, and cognition, suggesting that limiting nighttime exposure to light in combination with other established treatments may be of benefit to patients with OSA. PMID:23657638

  14. Time-Varying Affective Response for Humanoid Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkina, Lilia; Arkin, Ronald C.; Lee, Jamee K.; Jung, Hyunryong

    This paper describes the design of a complex time-varying affective architecture. It is an expansion of the TAME architecture (traits, attitudes, moods, and emotions) as applied to humanoid robotics. It particular it is intended to promote effective human-robot interaction by conveying the robot’s affective state to the user in an easy-to-interpret manner.

  15. Changes in brain volume in response to estradiol levels, amphetamine sensitization and haloperidol treatment in awake female rats.

    PubMed

    Madularu, Dan; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F; Brake, Wayne G

    2015-08-27

    Estrogen has been shown to further ameliorate symptoms when administered in conjunction with antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. We have previously shown that chronic haloperidol (HAL) treatment reduces amphetamine (AMPH)-induced locomotor activity in AMPH-sensitized rats, but only when paired with high levels of the estrogen, 17-β estradiol. In addition, we reported estradiol-dependent responses to AMPH in AMPH-sensitized rats as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It is thus clear that estradiol and antipsychotics both affect the rat brain, however the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. The aim of the current study was to assess this interaction by investigating the effects of estradiol, AMPH and HAL on brain volume changes in awake female rats. Repeated exposure to AMPH resulted in an overall reduction in brain volume, regardless of hormonal status (i.e. no, low or high estradiol). Similarly, chronic HAL treatment further reduced brain volume compared to acute treatment. Hormonal status affected hippocampal volume with rats receiving low estradiol replacement showing larger volume; this difference was no longer significant after repeated exposure to AMPH. Finally, we found changes in volume in response to AMPH throughout hippocampal components (i.e. CA1-CA3 and dentate) as well as components of the mesocortical system. In conclusion, brain volume seems to be influenced by hormonal status, as well as exposure to AMPH and haloperidol treatment. These findings implicate areas where estradiol, amphetamine and antipsychotics may be producing volumetric changes in the brain, pointing the way to where future studies should focus. PMID:26032742

  16. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Teie, David

    2010-02-23

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech ('motherese') influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state. PMID:19726444

  17. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  18. Event related beta and gamma oscillatory responses during perception of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Tülay, Elif

    2014-08-19

    Several studies reveal that unpleasant pictures elicit higher beta and gamma responses than pleasant and/or neutral pictures; however, the effect of stimulation design (block or random) has not been studied before. The aim of the study is to analyze the common and distinct parameters of affective picture perception in block and random designs by means of analysis of high frequency oscillatory dynamics (beta and gamma). EEG of 22 healthy subjects was recorded at 32 locations. The participants passively viewed 120 emotional pictures (10 × 4 unpleasant, 10 × 4 pleasant, 10 × 4 neutral) in block and random designs. The phase-locking and power of event related beta (14-28 Hz) and gamma (29-48 Hz) oscillations were analyzed for two different time windows (0-200 ms/200-400 ms). Statistical analysis showed that in the 0-200 ms time window, during the block design, unpleasant stimulation elicited higher beta phase-locking and beta power than the pleasant and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). In the 200-400 ms time window, during the block design, over occipital electrodes unpleasant stimulation elicited higher gamma response power than the pleasant stimulation and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). Unpleasant stimulation did not elicit higher beta or gamma responses in the random design. The present study showed that experimental design highly influences the perception of IAPS pictures. Unpleasant stimulation elicited higher event related beta and gamma phase-locking and power only in block design but not in random design. It seems that longer blocks of aversive pictures affect the brain more than the rapid observation of these pictures. PMID:24992292

  19. The Golden Beauty: Brain Response to Classical and Renaissance Sculptures

    PubMed Central

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Macaluso, Emiliano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty in art? Or is aesthetic experience entirely subjective? Using fMRI technique, we addressed this question by presenting viewers, naïve to art criticism, with images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. Employing proportion as the independent variable, we produced two sets of stimuli: one composed of images of original sculptures; the other of a modified version of the same images. The stimuli were presented in three conditions: observation, aesthetic judgment, and proportion judgment. In the observation condition, the viewers were required to observe the images with the same mind-set as if they were in a museum. In the other two conditions they were required to give an aesthetic or proportion judgment on the same images. Two types of analyses were carried out: one which contrasted brain response to the canonical and the modified sculptures, and one which contrasted beautiful vs. ugly sculptures as judged by each volunteer. The most striking result was that the observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas). The activation of the insula was particularly strong during the observation condition. Most interestingly, when volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly. We conclude that, in observers naïve to art criticism, the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty); the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty). PMID:18030335

  20. Unidentified Bright Objects on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Affect Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Chan; Chang, Dong Sik; Cho, Chin Saeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in clinical manifestations of in two groups of vestibular neuritis (VN) patients with or without unidentified bright objects (UBOs). Methods A prospective, observational study with 46 patients diagnosed with VN between May 2013 and November 2013 was executed. A caloric test, a cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) test, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spontaneous nystagmus test, head impulse test, and head-shaking nystagmus test were performed. Results Of the patients, 56.5% (n=26) were classified as UBO-positive by MRI. These showed lower caloric weakness and more prominent cVEMP asymmetry compared with the UBO-negative group (P<0.05). Total VN (TVN) was the most common in the UBO-positive group (45.0%), followed by superior VN (SVN, 30.0%), and inferior VN (IVN, 25.0%). However, in the UBO-negative group, SVN (75.0%) was the most common, followed by TVN and IVN (P<0.05). The recovery rate was not influenced by UBOs (P>0.05). Conclusion UBOs on T2-weighted or fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI may affect the patterns of the vestibular nerve in patients with VN. PMID:26622955

  1. Maternal mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy affect infants’ neural responses to sounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Marion I.; Donkers, Franc C. L.; Winkler, István; Otte, Renée A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy has been consistently shown to negatively affect offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of positive maternal traits/states during pregnancy on the offspring. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of the mother’s mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy on the infant’s neurocognitive functioning at 9 months of age. Mothers reported mindfulness using the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory and anxiety using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) at ±20.7 weeks of gestation. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured from 79 infants in an auditory oddball paradigm designed to measure auditory attention—a key aspect of early neurocognitive functioning. For the ERP responses elicited by standard sounds, higher maternal mindfulness was associated with lower N250 amplitudes (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.097), whereas higher maternal anxiety was associated with higher N250 amplitudes (P < 0.05, η2 = 0.057). Maternal mindfulness was also positively associated with the P150 amplitudes (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.130). These results suggest that infants prenatally exposed to higher levels of maternal mindfulness devote fewer attentional resources to frequently occurring irrelevant sounds. The results show that positive traits and experiences of the mother during pregnancy may also affect the unborn child. Emphasizing the beneficial effects of a positive psychological state during pregnancy may promote healthy behavior in pregnant women. PMID:24925904

  2. The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others' emotions

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Sangster, Matthew-Donald; Collins, Nancy; Brown, Lucy L

    2014-01-01

    Background Theory and research suggest that sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), found in roughly 20% of humans and over 100 other species, is a trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsiveness to the environment and to social stimuli. Self-report studies have shown that high-SPS individuals are strongly affected by others' moods, but no previous study has examined neural systems engaged in response to others' emotions. Methods This study examined the neural correlates of SPS (measured by the standard short-form Highly Sensitive Person [HSP] scale) among 18 participants (10 females) while viewing photos of their romantic partners and of strangers displaying positive, negative, or neutral facial expressions. One year apart, 13 of the 18 participants were scanned twice. Results Across all conditions, HSP scores were associated with increased brain activation of regions involved in attention and action planning (in the cingulate and premotor area [PMA]). For happy and sad photo conditions, SPS was associated with activation of brain regions involved in awareness, integration of sensory information, empathy, and action planning (e.g., cingulate, insula, inferior frontal gyrus [IFG], middle temporal gyrus [MTG], and PMA). Conclusions As predicted, for partner images and for happy facial photos, HSP scores were associated with stronger activation of brain regions involved in awareness, empathy, and self-other processing. These results provide evidence that awareness and responsiveness are fundamental features of SPS, and show how the brain may mediate these traits. PMID:25161824

  3. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression governs the brain's response to injury.

    PubMed

    Simon, Roger P

    2016-06-20

    Mild stress from ischemia, seizure, hypothermia, or infection can produce a transient neuroprotected state in the brain. In the neuroprotected state, the brain responds differently to a severe stress and sustains less injury. At the genomic level, the response of the neuroprotected brain to a severe stress is characterized by widespread differential regulation of genes with diverse functions. This reprogramming of gene expression observed in the neuroprotected brain in response to a stress is consistent with an epigenetic model of regulation mediated by changes in DNA methylation and histone modification. Here, we summarize our evolving understanding of the molecular basis for endogenous neuroprotection and review recent findings that implicate DNA methylation and protein mediators of histone modification as epigenetic regulators of the brain's response to injury. PMID:26739198

  4. Maternal Warm Responsiveness and Negativity Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Joy M.; Brown, Tanya M.; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith O.; Wade, Shari L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective To understand how traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects maternal warm responsiveness and negativity over the first 12 months following injury. Method/Design We used a concurrent cohort research design to examine dyadic interactions in young children with a TBI (n = 78) and a comparison group of young children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 112) and their families during the initial weeks following injury (i.e., baseline) and at two follow-up periods (approximately 6 and 12 months later). Trained raters coded videotaped interactions during a free play and structured teaching task for maternal warm responsiveness and negativity. Results Mothers in the complicated mild/moderate TBI group, but not those in the severe TBI group, exhibited significantly lower levels of maternal warm responsiveness than mothers in the OI group. However, these differences were observed only at baseline during free play and only at baseline and 6 months postinjury during the structured teaching task, suggesting diminishing adverse effects of complicated mild/moderate TBI on parenting over time postinjury. Analysis failed to reveal group differences in maternal negativity at any of the assessments. Across groups, lower socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with lower levels of warm responsiveness and higher levels of negativity. Conclusions/Implications These findings, though preliminary, indicate possible alterations in mother–child interactions in the months following a TBI. PMID:23978080

  5. The human brain response to dental pain relief.

    PubMed

    Meier, M L; Widmayer, S; Abazi, J; Brügger, M; Lukic, N; Lüchinger, R; Ettlin, D A

    2015-05-01

    Local anesthesia has made dental treatment more comfortable since 1884, but little is known about associated brain mechanisms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a modern neuroimaging tool widely used for investigating human brain activity related to sensory perceptions, including pain. Most brain regions that respond to experimental noxious stimuli have recently been found to react not only to nociception alone, but also to visual, auditory, and other stimuli. Thus, presumed functional attributions have come under scrutiny regarding selective pain processing in the brain. Evidently, innovative approaches are warranted to identify cerebral regions that are nociceptive specific. In this study, we aimed at circumventing known methodological confounders by applying a novel paradigm in 14 volunteers: rather than varying the intensity and thus the salience of painful stimuli, we applied repetitive noxious dental stimuli at constant intensity to the left mandibular canine. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, we suppressed the nociceptive barrage by a mental nerve block. Brain activity before and after injection of 4% articaine was compared intraindividually on a group level. Dental pain extinction was observed to correspond to activity reduction in a discrete region of the left posterior insular cortex. These results confirm previous reports demonstrating that direct electrical stimulation of this brain region-but not of others-evokes bodily pain sensations. Hence, our investigation adds further evidence to the notion that the posterior insula plays a unique role in nociceptive processing. PMID:25691071

  6. A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses.

    PubMed

    Wager, Tor D; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E; Satpute, Ajay B; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-04-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories--fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness--is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  7. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  8. Invited review--neuroimaging response assessment criteria for brain tumors in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Garcia, Paulo A; Daniel, Gregory B; Bourland, John Daniel; Debinski, Waldemar; Dervisis, Nikolaos; Klahn, Shawna

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of therapeutic response using cross-sectional imaging techniques, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MRI, is an integral part of the clinical management of brain tumors in veterinary patients. Spontaneous canine brain tumors are increasingly recognized and utilized as a translational model for the study of human brain tumors. However, no standardized neuroimaging response assessment criteria have been formulated for use in veterinary clinical trials. Previous studies have found that the pathophysiologic features inherent to brain tumors and the surrounding brain complicate the use of the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) assessment system. Objectives of this review are to describe strengths and limitations of published imaging-based brain tumor response criteria and propose a system for use in veterinary patients. The widely used human Macdonald and response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria are reviewed and described as to how they can be applied to veterinary brain tumors. Discussion points will include current challenges associated with the interpretation of brain tumor therapeutic responses such as imaging pseudophenomena and treatment-induced necrosis, and how advancements in perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown promise in differentiating tumor progression from therapy-induced changes. Finally, although objective endpoints such as MR imaging and survival estimates will likely continue to comprise the foundations for outcome measures in veterinary brain tumor clinical trials, we propose that in order to provide a more relevant therapeutic response metric for veterinary patients, composite response systems should be formulated and validated that combine imaging and clinical assessment criteria. PMID:24219161

  9. INVITED REVIEW – NEUROIMAGING RESPONSE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR BRAIN TUMORS IN VETERINARY PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Garcia, Paulo A.; Daniel, Gregory B.; Bourland, John Daniel; Debinski, Waldemar; Dervisis, Nikolaos; Klahn, Shawna

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of therapeutic response using cross-sectional imaging techniques, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MRI, is an integral part of the clinical management of brain tumors in veterinary patients. Spontaneous canine brain tumors are increasingly recognized and utilized as a translational model for the study of human brain tumors. However, no standardized neuroimaging response assessment criteria have been formulated for use in veterinary clinical trials. Previous studies have found that the pathophysiologic features inherent to brain tumors and the surrounding brain complicate the use of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) assessment system. Objectives of this review are to describe strengths and limitations of published imaging-based brain tumor response criteria and propose a system for use in veterinary patients. The widely used human Macdonald and Response Assessment in Neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria are reviewed and described as to how they can be applied to veterinary brain tumors. Discussion points will include current challenges associated with the interpretation of brain tumor therapeutic responses such as imaging pseudophenomena and treatment-induced necrosis, and how advancements in perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown promise in differentiating tumor progression from therapy-induced changes. Finally, although objective endpoints such as MR-imaging and survival estimates will likely continue to comprise the foundations for outcome measures in veterinary brain tumor clinical trials, we propose that in order to provide a more relevant therapeutic response metric for veterinary patients, composite response systems should be formulated and validated that combine imaging and clinical assessment criteria. PMID:24219161

  10. Aging affects the cardiovascular responses to cold stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kari L.; Wilson, Thad E.; Sauder, Charity L.; Gao, Zhaohui; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress is greater with age, we measured physiological responses to 20 min of superficial skin cooling, via water-perfused suit, in 12 younger [25 ± 1 (SE) yr old] and 12 older (65 ± 2 yr old) adults. We found that superficial skin cooling elicited an increase in blood pressure from resting levels (pressor response; P < 0.05) in younger and older adults. However, the magnitude of this pressor response (systolic and mean blood pressure) was more than twofold higher in older adults (P < 0.05 vs. younger adults). The magnitude of the pressor response was similar at peripheral (brachial) and central (estimated in the aorta) measurement sites. Regression analysis revealed that aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of central arterial stiffness obtained before cooling, was the best predictor of the increased pressor response to superficial skin cooling in older adults, explaining ∼63% of its variability. These results indicate that there is a greater pressor response to non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress with age in humans that may be mediated by increased levels of central arterial stiffness. PMID:19679742

  11. MW151 Inhibited IL-1β Levels after Traumatic Brain Injury with No Effect on Microglia Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Zhou, Zhengqiu; Rowe, Rachel K.; Xing, Bin; Goulding, Danielle S.; Conley, Alyssa N.; Sompol, Pradoldej; Meier, Shelby; Abisambra, Jose F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Watterson, D. Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    A prevailing neuroinflammation hypothesis is that increased production of proinflammatory cytokines contributes to progressive neuropathology, secondary to the primary damage caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In support of the hypothesis, post-injury interventions that inhibit the proinflammatory cytokine surge can attenuate the progressive pathology. However, other post-injury neuroinflammatory responses are key to endogenous recovery responses. Therefore, it is critical that pharmacological attenuation of detrimental or dysregulated neuroinflammatory processes avoid pan-suppression of inflammation. MW151 is a CNS-penetrant, small molecule experimental therapeutic that restores injury- or disease-induced overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines towards homeostasis without immunosuppression. Post-injury administration of MW151 in a closed head injury model of mild TBI suppressed acute cytokine up-regulation and downstream cognitive impairment. Here, we report results from a diffuse brain injury model in mice using midline fluid percussion. Low dose (0.5–5.0 mg/kg) administration of MW151 suppresses interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the cortex while sparing reactive microglia and astrocyte responses. To probe molecular mechanisms, we used live cell imaging of the BV-2 microglia cell line to demonstrate that MW151 does not affect proliferation, migration, or phagocytosis of the cells. Our results provide insight into the roles of glial responses to brain injury and indicate the feasibility of using appropriate dosing for selective therapeutic modulation of injurious IL-1β increases while sparing other glial responses to injury. PMID:26871438

  12. MW151 Inhibited IL-1β Levels after Traumatic Brain Injury with No Effect on Microglia Physiological Responses.

    PubMed

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Zhou, Zhengqiu; Rowe, Rachel K; Xing, Bin; Goulding, Danielle S; Conley, Alyssa N; Sompol, Pradoldej; Meier, Shelby; Abisambra, Jose F; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    A prevailing neuroinflammation hypothesis is that increased production of proinflammatory cytokines contributes to progressive neuropathology, secondary to the primary damage caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In support of the hypothesis, post-injury interventions that inhibit the proinflammatory cytokine surge can attenuate the progressive pathology. However, other post-injury neuroinflammatory responses are key to endogenous recovery responses. Therefore, it is critical that pharmacological attenuation of detrimental or dysregulated neuroinflammatory processes avoid pan-suppression of inflammation. MW151 is a CNS-penetrant, small molecule experimental therapeutic that restores injury- or disease-induced overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines towards homeostasis without immunosuppression. Post-injury administration of MW151 in a closed head injury model of mild TBI suppressed acute cytokine up-regulation and downstream cognitive impairment. Here, we report results from a diffuse brain injury model in mice using midline fluid percussion. Low dose (0.5-5.0 mg/kg) administration of MW151 suppresses interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the cortex while sparing reactive microglia and astrocyte responses. To probe molecular mechanisms, we used live cell imaging of the BV-2 microglia cell line to demonstrate that MW151 does not affect proliferation, migration, or phagocytosis of the cells. Our results provide insight into the roles of glial responses to brain injury and indicate the feasibility of using appropriate dosing for selective therapeutic modulation of injurious IL-1β increases while sparing other glial responses to injury. PMID:26871438

  13. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  14. Affective responses to emotional words are boosted in communicative situations.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages. PMID:25596462

  15. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  16. Environment temperature affects cell proliferation in the spinal cord and brain of juvenile turtles.

    PubMed

    Radmilovich, Milka; Fernández, Anabel; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar

    2003-09-01

    The spinal cords and brains--comprising dorsal cortex (DC), medial cortex (MC) and diencephalon (Dien)--of juvenile turtles acclimated to warm temperature [27-30 degrees C; warm-acclimated turtles (WATs)] revealed higher density values of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells (BrdU-LCs) than those acclimated to a cooler environment [5-14 degrees C; cold-acclimated turtles (CATs)]. Both populations were under the influence of the seasonal daily light-dark rhythms. Pronounced differences between WATs and CATs (independent t-test; confidence level, P<0.01) were found in the central area of the spinal gray matter and in the ependymal epithelium lining the brain ventricles. Forebrain regions (DC, MC and Dien) also revealed significant differences between WATs and CATs (independent t-test; confidence level, P<0.01-0.05). Unexplored biological clocks that may be affecting cell proliferation were equalized by performing paired experiments involving one WAT and one CAT. Both animals were injected on the same day at the same time and both were sacrificed 24 h later. These experiments confirmed that a warm environment increased cell proliferation in the CNS of turtles. Double- and triple-labeling experiments involving anti-BrdU antibody together with anti-glial protein antibodies revealed that temperature modulates not only cell populations expressing glial markers but also other cells that do not express them. As expected, in the case of short post-injection (BrdU) surviving time points, no cells were found colabeling for BrdU and NeuN (neuronal marker). The probable direct effect of temperature on the cell division rate should be analyzed together with potential indirect effects involving increased motor activity and increased food intake. The fate of the increased BrdU-LCs (death, permanence as progenitor cells or differentiation following neuronal or glial lines) remains a matter for further investigation. Results are discussed in the light of current opinions concerned with

  17. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Michael T.; Swaddle, John P.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  18. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  19. Task- and resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions related to affection and susceptible to concurrent cognitive demand

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Tanja S.; Caspers, Svenja; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Roski, Christian; Laird, Angela R.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    A recent fMRI-study revealed neural responses for affective processing of stimuli for which overt attention irrespective of stimulus valence was required in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala (AMY): activation decreased with increasing cognitive demand. To further characterize the network putatively related to this attenuation, we here characterized these regions with respect to their functional properties and connectivity patterns in task-dependent and task-independent states. All experiments of the BrainMap database activating the seed regions OFC and bilateral AMY were identified. Their functional characteristics were quantitatively inferred using the behavioral meta-data of the retrieved experiments. Task-dependent functional connectivity was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) of significant co-activations with these seed regions. Task-independent resting-state functional connectivity analysis in a sample of 100 healthy subjects complemented these analyses. All three seed regions co-activated with subgenual cingulum (SGC), precuneus (PCu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the task-dependent MACM analysis. Task-independent resting-state connectivity revealed significant coupling of the seeds only with the SGC, but not the PCu and the NAcc. The former region (SGC) moreover was shown to feature significant resting-state connectivity with all other regions implicated in the network connected to regions where emotional processing may be modulated by a cognitive distractor. Based on its functional profile and connectivity pattern, we suggest that the SGC might serve as a key hub in the identified network, as such linking autobiographic information [PCu], reward [NAcc], (reinforce) values [OFC] and emotional significance [AMY]. Such a role, in turn, may allow the SGC to influence the OFC and AMY to modulate affective processing. PMID:23370055

  20. Physiologic response of human brain death and the use of vasopressin for successful organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Tang, Julin F

    2011-03-01

    The dynamic physiologic response of human brain death and the impact of vasopressin on successful organ transplantation is reported. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit after severe traumatic brain injury resulting in brain death. Initial Cushing reflex was followed by a precipitous decrease in systemic blood pressure that was refractory to the alpha-agonist phenylephrine. After intravenous vasopressin was given, hemodynamic stability was restored and maintained until successful organ transplantation. Vasopressin, a catecholamine-sparing vasopressor and antidiuretic agent, may be an effective agent in the treatment of refractory hypotension after brain death prior to organ transplantation. PMID:21377081

  1. Selection for brain size impairs innate, but not adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas; Penn, Dustin J

    2016-03-16

    Both the brain and the immune system are energetically demanding organs, and when natural selection favours increased investment into one, then the size or performance of the other should be reduced. While comparative analyses have attempted to test this potential evolutionary trade-off, the results remain inconclusive. To test this hypothesis, we compared the tissue graft rejection (an assay for measuring innate and acquired immune responses) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of fish, creating reciprocal allografts, and the rejection reaction was scored over 8 days (before acquired immunity develops). Acquired immune responses were tested two weeks later, when the same pairs of fish received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with large-brained animals, small-brained animals of both sexes mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the first allograft. The rejection response to the second set of allografts did not differ between large- and small-brained fish. Our results show that selection for large brain size reduced innate immune responses to an allograft, which supports the hypothesis that there is a selective trade-off between investing into brain size and innate immunity. PMID:26962144

  2. Selection for brain size impairs innate, but not adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas; Penn, Dustin J.

    2016-01-01

    Both the brain and the immune system are energetically demanding organs, and when natural selection favours increased investment into one, then the size or performance of the other should be reduced. While comparative analyses have attempted to test this potential evolutionary trade-off, the results remain inconclusive. To test this hypothesis, we compared the tissue graft rejection (an assay for measuring innate and acquired immune responses) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of fish, creating reciprocal allografts, and the rejection reaction was scored over 8 days (before acquired immunity develops). Acquired immune responses were tested two weeks later, when the same pairs of fish received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with large-brained animals, small-brained animals of both sexes mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the first allograft. The rejection response to the second set of allografts did not differ between large- and small-brained fish. Our results show that selection for large brain size reduced innate immune responses to an allograft, which supports the hypothesis that there is a selective trade-off between investing into brain size and innate immunity. PMID:26962144

  3. Altered Brain Response to Drinking Glucose and Fructose in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Arora, Jagriti; Giannini, Cosimo; Kubat, Jessica; Malik, Saima; Van Name, Michelle A; Santoro, Nicola; Savoye, Mary; Duran, Elvira J; Pierpont, Bridget; Cline, Gary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased brain perfusion in brain regions involved in executive function (prefrontal cortex [PFC]) and increased perfusion in homeostatic appetite regions of the brain (hypothalamus). Conversely, in response to drinking glucose, lean adolescents demonstrated increased PFC brain perfusion and no change in perfusion in the hypothalamus. In addition, obese adolescents demonstrated attenuated suppression of serum acyl-ghrelin and increased circulating insulin level after glucose ingestion; furthermore, the change in acyl-ghrelin and insulin levels after both glucose and fructose ingestion was associated with increased hypothalamic, thalamic, and hippocampal blood flow in obese relative to lean adolescents. Additionally, in all subjects there was greater perfusion in the ventral striatum with fructose relative to glucose ingestion. Finally, reduced connectivity between executive, homeostatic, and hedonic brain regions was observed in obese adolescents. These data demonstrate that obese adolescents have impaired prefrontal executive control responses to drinking glucose and fructose, while their homeostatic and hedonic responses appear to be heightened. Thus, obesity-related brain adaptations to glucose and fructose consumption in obese adolescents may contribute to excessive consumption of glucose and fructose, thereby promoting further weight gain. PMID:27207544

  4. Factors affecting response of surface waters to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Clapp, R.B.; Reuss, J.O.

    1986-04-01

    Knowledge of watershed hydrology and of the biogeochemical reactions and elemental pools and fluxes occurring in watersheds can be used to classify the response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. A conceptual mosel is presented for classifying watersheds into those for which (1) surface water chemistry will change rapidly with deposition quality (direct response) (2) surface water chemistry will change only slowly over time (delayed response), and (3) surface water chemistry will not change significantly, even with continued acidic deposition (capacity-protected). Techniques and data available for classification of all watersheds in a region into these categories are discussed.

  5. Modulation of Ethylene Responses Affects Plant Salt-Stress Responses1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wan-Hong; Liu, Jun; He, Xin-Jian; Mu, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Hua-Lin; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene signaling plays important roles in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Its functions in abiotic stress responses remain largely unknown. Here, we report that alteration of ethylene signaling affected plant salt-stress responses. A type II ethylene receptor homolog gene NTHK1 (Nicotiana tabacum histidine kinase 1) from tobacco (N. tabacum) conferred salt sensitivity in NTHK1-transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants as judged from the phenotypic change, the relative electrolyte leakage, and the relative root growth under salt stress. Ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype. Analysis of Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gain-of-function mutants further suggests that receptor function may lead to salt-sensitive responses. Mutation of EIN2, a central component in ethylene signaling, also results in salt sensitivity, suggesting that EIN2-mediated signaling is beneficial for plant salt tolerance. Overexpression of the NTHK1 gene or the receptor gain-of-function activated expression of salt-responsive genes AtERF4 and Cor6.6. In addition, the transgene NTHK1 mRNA was accumulated under salt stress, suggesting a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. These findings imply that ethylene signaling may be required for plant salt tolerance. PMID:17189334

  6. Vitamin D as a neurosteroid affecting the developing and adult brain.

    PubMed

    Groves, Natalie J; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and growing evidence supports a requirement for optimal vitamin D levels for the healthy developing and adult brain. Vitamin D has important roles in proliferation and differentiation, calcium signaling within the brain, and neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it may also alter neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Recent experimental studies highlight the impact that vitamin D deficiency has on brain function in health and disease. In addition, results from recent animal studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during adulthood may exacerbate underlying brain disorders and/or worsen recovery from brain stressors. An increasing number of epidemiological studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation is readily available and affordable, and this review highlights the need for further research. PMID:25033060

  7. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms. PMID:25745389

  8. A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Craig G.

    1976-01-01

    The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

  9. Non-Gaussian Diffusion Imaging for Enhanced Contrast of Brain Tissue Affected by Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geffroy, Françoise; Le Bihan, Denis; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) considered so far as the “gold standard”. The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI). As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF), the stretched exponential model (SEM), and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes. PMID:24586610

  10. Photoperiodic responses of depression-like behavior, the brain serotonergic system, and peripheral metabolism in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Misato; Togo, Yuki; Goda, Ryosei; Kawase, Takahiro; Matsuo, Haruka; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depression during specific seasons, generally winter. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD remain elusive due to a limited number of animal models with high availability and validity. Here we show that laboratory C57BL/6J mice display photoperiodic changes in depression-like behavior and brain serotonin content. C57BL/6J mice maintained under short-day conditions, as compared to those under long-day conditions, demonstrated prolonged immobility times in the forced swimming test with lower brain levels of serotonin and its precursor l-tryptophan. Furthermore, photoperiod altered multiple parameters reflective of peripheral metabolism, including the ratio of plasma l-tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids that compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier, responses of circulating glucose and insulin to glucose load, sucrose intake under restricted feeding condition, and sensitivity of the brain serotonergic system to peripherally administered glucose. These data suggest that the mechanisms underlying SAD involve the brain-peripheral tissue network, and C57BL/6J mice can serve as a powerful tool for investigating the link between seasons and mood. PMID:24485474

  11. Relationship between personality traits and brain reward responses when playing on a team.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Carmen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Baudewig, Juergen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is an integral part of human social life and we often build teams to achieve certain goals. However, very little is currently understood about emotions with regard to cooperation. Here, we investigated the impact of social context (playing alone versus playing on a team) on emotions while winning or losing a game. We hypothesized that activity in the reward network is modulated by the social context and that personality characteristics might impact team play. We conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that involved a simple game of dice. In the team condition, the participant played with a partner against another two-person team. In the single-player condition, the participant played alone against another player. Our results revealed that reward processing in the right amygdala was modulated by the social context. The main effect of outcome (gains versus losses) was associated with increased responses in the reward network. We also found that differences in the reward-related neural response due to social context were associated with specific personality traits. When playing on a team, increased activity in the amygdala during winning was a unique function of openness, while decreased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum during losing was associated with extraversion and conscientiousness, respectively. In conclusion, we provide evidence that working on a team influences the affective value of a negative outcome by attenuating the negative response associated with it in the amygdala. Our results also show that brain reward responses in a social context are affected by personality traits related to teamwork. PMID:24475262

  12. Relationship between Personality Traits and Brain Reward Responses when Playing on a Team

    PubMed Central

    Morawetz, Carmen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Baudewig, Juergen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is an integral part of human social life and we often build teams to achieve certain goals. However, very little is currently understood about emotions with regard to cooperation. Here, we investigated the impact of social context (playing alone versus playing on a team) on emotions while winning or losing a game. We hypothesized that activity in the reward network is modulated by the social context and that personality characteristics might impact team play. We conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that involved a simple game of dice. In the team condition, the participant played with a partner against another two-person team. In the single-player condition, the participant played alone against another player. Our results revealed that reward processing in the right amygdala was modulated by the social context. The main effect of outcome (gains versus losses) was associated with increased responses in the reward network. We also found that differences in the reward-related neural response due to social context were associated with specific personality traits. When playing on a team, increased activity in the amygdala during winning was a unique function of openness, while decreased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum during losing was associated with extraversion and conscientiousness, respectively. In conclusion, we provide evidence that working on a team influences the affective value of a negative outcome by attenuating the negative response associated with it in the amygdala. Our results also show that brain reward responses in a social context are affected by personality traits related to teamwork. PMID:24475262

  13. ADHD- and Medication-Related Brain Activation Effects in Concordantly Affected Parent-Child Dyads with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Casey, B. J.; Tonev, Simon T.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M.; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Spicer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological…

  14. Preoperative mucosal tolerance to brain antigens and a neuroprotective immune response following surgical brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, Robert E.; Jafarian, Nazanin; Chen, Wanqiu; Applegate, Richard L.; Colohan, Austin R. T.; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Object Intracranial surgery causes cortical injury from incisions, hemorrhage, retraction, and electrocautery. The term “surgical brain injury” (SBI) has been developed to categorize this injury inherent to the procedure. Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in SBI. Traditional antiinflammatory therapies are often limited by their immunosuppressive side effects and poor CNS penetration. This study uses mucosal tolerance to develop an immune system that is tolerant to brain myelin basic protein (MBP) so that inflammation can be suppressed in a timely and site-specific manner following surgical disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Methods A standard SBI model using CD57 mice was used. Nasopharyngeal mucosa was exposed to vehicle, ovalbumin, or MBP to develop mucosal tolerance to these antigens. Immunological tolerance to MBP was confirmed in vivo through hypersensitivity testing. Neurological scores, cerebral edema, and interleukin (IL)–1β and transforming growth factor (TGF)–β1 cytokine levels were measured 48 hours postoperatively. Results Hypersensitivity testing confirmed the development of immune tolerance to MBP. Myelin basic protein– tolerant mice demonstrated reduced neurological injury, less cerebral edema, decreased levels of IL-1β, and increased levels of TGFβ1 following SBI. Conclusions Developing preoperative immunological tolerance to brain antigens through mucosal tolerance provides neuroprotection, reduces brain edema, and modulates neuroinflammation following SBI. PMID:22017304

  15. Fractional Diffusion Based Modelling and Prediction of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Human brain response is the result of the overall ability of the brain in analyzing different internal and external stimuli and thus making the proper decisions. During the last decades scientists have discovered more about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research, there were fewer efforts which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling and prediction of the human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, upon receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equations. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus this model can be used for many types of applications such as prediction of seizure onset in patient with epilepsy. PMID:26089955

  16. Glial response to 17β-estradiol in neonatal rats with excitotoxic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pansiot, Julien; Pham, Hoa; Dalous, Jeremie; Chevenne, Didier; Colella, Marina; Schwendimann, Leslie; Fafouri, Assia; Mairesse, Jérôme; Moretti, Raffaella; Schang, Anne-Laure; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Gressens, Pierre; Baud, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    White-matter injury is the most common cause of the adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes observed in preterm infants. Only few options exist to prevent perinatal brain injury associated to preterm delivery. 17β-estradiol (E2) is the predominant estrogen in circulation and has been shown to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. However, while E2 has been found to modulate inflammation in adult models of brain damage, how estrogens influence glial cells response in the developing brain needs further investigations. Using a model of ibotenate-induced brain injury, we have refined the effects of E2 in the developing brain. E2 provides significant neuroprotection both in the cortical plate and the white matter in neonatal rats subjected to excitotoxic insult mimicking white matter and cortical damages frequently observed in very preterm infants. E2 promotes significant changes in microglial phenotypes balance in response to brain injury and the acceleration of oligodendrocyte maturation. Maturational effects of E2 on myelination process were observed both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, these data demonstrate that response of glial cells to E2 could be responsible for its neuroprotective properties in neonatal excitotoxic brain injury. PMID:27222132

  17. Histamine Induces Alzheimer's Disease-Like Blood Brain Barrier Breach and Local Cellular Responses in Mouse Brain Organotypic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Sedeyn, Jonathan C; Wu, Hao; Hobbs, Reilly D; Levin, Eli C; Nagele, Robert G; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    Among the top ten causes of death in the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the only one that cannot be cured, prevented, or even slowed down at present. Significant efforts have been exerted in generating model systems to delineate the mechanism as well as establishing platforms for drug screening. In this study, a promising candidate model utilizing primary mouse brain organotypic (MBO) cultures is reported. For the first time, we have demonstrated that the MBO cultures exhibit increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability as shown by IgG leakage into the brain parenchyma, astrocyte activation as evidenced by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal damage-response as suggested by increased vimentin-positive neurons occur upon histamine treatment. Identical responses-a breakdown of the BBB, astrocyte activation, and neuronal expression of vimentin-were then demonstrated in brains from AD patients compared to age-matched controls, consistent with other reports. Thus, the histamine-treated MBO culture system may provide a valuable tool in combating AD. PMID:26697497

  18. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  19. A Response: All "Thinking" Paths Lead to the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Leslie A.

    1986-01-01

    Assails schools for rushing into the thinking skills approach without examining advances in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and other brain-related disciplines. Blames the classroom situation itself for forcing teachers into counterproductive, direct teaching methods that don't work. Asserts the need for…

  20. Osteopontin Expression in Acute Immune Response Mediates Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Adaptive Outcome Following Cortical Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Julie L.; Reeves, Thomas M.; Phillips, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces axotomy, deafferentation and reactive synaptogenesis. Inflammation influences synaptic repair, and the novel brain cytokine osteopontin (OPN) has potential to support axon regeneration through exposure of its integrin receptor binding sites. This study explored whether OPN secretion and proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the initial degenerative phase of synaptogenesis, targeting reactive neuroglia to affect successful repair. Adult rats received unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion (UEC) modeling adaptive synaptic plasticity. Over the first week postinjury, hippocampal OPN protein and mRNA were assayed and histology performed. At 1–2d, OPN protein increased up to 51 fold, and was localized within activated, mobilized glia. OPN transcript also increased over 50 fold, predominantly within reactive microglia. OPN fragments known to be derived from MMP proteolysis were elevated at 1d, consistent with prior reports of UEC glial activation and enzyme production. Postinjury minocycline immunosuppression attenuated MMP-9 gelatinase activity, which was correlated with reduction of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (LCN2) expression, and reduced OPN fragment generation. The antibiotic also attenuated removal of synapsin-1 positive axons from the deafferented zone. OPN KO mice subjected to UEC had similar reduction of hippocampal MMP-9 activity, as well as lower synapsin-1 breakdown over the deafferented zone. MAP1B and N-cadherin, surrogates of cytoarchitecture and synaptic adhesion, were not affected. OPN KO mice with UEC exhibited time dependent cognitive deficits during the synaptogenic phase of recovery. This study demonstrates that OPN can mediate immune response during TBI synaptic repair, positively influencing synapse reorganization and functional recovery. PMID:25151457

  1. Error-related brain activation during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task.

    PubMed

    Menon, V; Adleman, N E; White, C D; Glover, G H; Reiss, A L

    2001-03-01

    Inhibitory control and performance monitoring are critical executive functions of the human brain. Lesion and imaging studies have shown that the inferior frontal cortex plays an important role in inhibition of inappropriate response. In contrast, specific brain areas involved in error processing and their relation to those implicated in inhibitory control processes are unknown. In this study, we used a random effects model to investigate error-related brain activity associated with failure to inhibit response during a Go/NoGo task. Error-related brain activation was observed in the rostral aspect of the right anterior cingulate (BA 24/32) and adjoining medial prefrontal cortex, the left and right insular cortex and adjoining frontal operculum (BA 47) and left precuneus/posterior cingulate (BA 7/31/29). Brain activation related to response inhibition and competition was observed bilaterally in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/46), pars triangularis region of the inferior frontal cortex (BA 45/47), premotor cortex (BA 6), inferior parietal lobule (BA 39), lingual gyrus and the caudate, as well as in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). These findings provide evidence for a distributed error processing system in the human brain that overlaps partially, but not completely, with brain regions involved in response inhibition and competition. In particular, the rostal anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate/precuneus as well as the left and right anterior insular cortex were activated only during error processing, but not during response competition, inhibition, selection, or execution. Our results also suggest that the brain regions involved in the error processing system overlap with brain areas implicated in the formulation and execution of articulatory plans. PMID:11170305

  2. Living with Smartphones: Does Completion Device Affect Survey Responses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Amber D.; Miller, Angie L.

    2015-01-01

    With the growing reliance on tablets and smartphones for internet access, understanding the effects of completion device on online survey responses becomes increasing important. This study uses data from the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project, a multi-institution online alumni survey designed to obtain knowledge of arts education, to explore…

  3. Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

  4. Processing Time Shifts Affects the Execution of Motor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Andrea J.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether time shifts in text comprehension are represented spatially. Participants read sentences involving past or future events and made sensibility judgment responses in one of two ways: (1) moving toward or away from their body and (2) pressing the toward or away buttons without moving. Previous work suggests that spatial…

  5. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  6. The peptide semax affects the expression of genes related to the immune and vascular systems in rat brain focal ischemia: genome-wide transcriptional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nootropic neuroprotective peptide Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) has proved efficient in the therapy of brain stroke; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action remain obscure. Our genome-wide study was designed to investigate the response of the transcriptome of ischemized rat brain cortex tissues to the action of Semax in vivo. Results The gene-expression alteration caused by the action of the peptide Semax was compared with the gene expression of the “ischemia” group animals at 3 and 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). The peptide predominantly enhanced the expression of genes related to the immune system. Three hours after pMCAO, Semax influenced the expression of some genes that affect the activity of immune cells, and, 24 h after pMCAO, the action of Semax on the immune response increased considerably. The genes implicated in this response represented over 50% of the total number of genes that exhibited Semax-induced altered expression. Among the immune-response genes, the expression of which was modulated by Semax, genes that encode immunoglobulins and chemokines formed the most notable groups. In response to Semax administration, 24 genes related to the vascular system exhibited altered expression 3 h after pMCAO, whereas 12 genes were changed 24 h after pMCAO. These genes are associated with such processes as the development and migration of endothelial tissue, the migration of smooth muscle cells, hematopoiesis, and vasculogenesis. Conclusions Semax affects several biological processes involved in the function of various systems. The immune response is the process most markedly affected by the drug. Semax altered the expression of genes that modulate the amount and mobility of immune cells and enhanced the expression of genes that encode chemokines and immunoglobulins. In conditions of rat brain focal ischemia, Semax influenced the expression of genes that promote the formation and

  7. Vocal and visual stimulation, congruence and lateralization affect brain oscillations in interspecies emotional positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-06-01

    The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect." PMID:26256040

  8. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  9. Magnetic and electrical responses of the human brain to texture-defined form and to textons.

    PubMed

    Regan, D; He, P

    1995-09-01

    1. We searched for a neurophysical correlate of preattentive texture discrimination by recording magnetic and electric evoked responses from the human brain during the first few hundred milliseconds following the presentation of texture-defined (TD) checkerboard form. The only two textons that changed when the TD checkerboard appeared or disappeared were the local orientation and line termination textons. (Textons are conspicuous local features within a texture pattern). 2. Our evidence that the magnetic response to TD form cannot be explained in terms of responses to the two associated textons is as follows: 1) by dissociating the two responses we showed that the magnetic response to TD form is almost entirely independent of the magnetic response to the local orientation texton; 2) a further distinction between the two responses is that their distributions over the head are different; and 3) the magnetic response to TD form differs from the magnetic response to the line termination texton in both distribution over the head and waveform. We conclude that this evidence identifies the existence of a brain response correlate of preattentive texture discrimination. 3. We also recorded brain responses to luminance-defined (LD) checkerboard form. Our grounds for concluding that magnetic brain responses to the onset of checkerboard form are generated by different and independent neural systems for TD and LD form are as follows: 1) magnetic responses to the onset of TD form and LD form had different distributions over the skull, had different waveforms, and depended differently on check size; and 2) the waveform of the response to superimposed TD and LD checks closely approximated the linear sum of responses to TD checks and LD checks alone. 4. One possible explanation for the observed differences between the magnetic and electric evoked responses is that responses to both onset and offset of TD form predominantly involve neurons aligned parallel to the skull, whereas that

  10. Response assessment criteria for brain metastases: proposal from the RANO group.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nancy U; Lee, Eudocia Q; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J; Barboriak, Daniel P; Baumert, Brigitta G; Bendszus, Martin; Brown, Paul D; Camidge, D Ross; Chang, Susan M; Dancey, Janet; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Gaspar, Laurie E; Harris, Gordon J; Hodi, F Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N; Linskey, Mark E; Macdonald, David R; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H; van den Bent, Martin J; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wen, Patrick Y

    2015-06-01

    CNS metastases are the most common cause of malignant brain tumours in adults. Historically, patients with brain metastases have been excluded from most clinical trials, but their inclusion is now becoming more common. The medical literature is difficult to interpret because of substantial variation in the response and progression criteria used across clinical trials. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) working group is an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop standard response and progression criteria for use in clinical trials of treatment for brain metastases. Previous efforts have focused on aspects of trial design, such as patient population, variations in existing response and progression criteria, and challenges when incorporating neurological, neuro-cognitive, and quality-of-life endpoints into trials of patients with brain metastases. Here, we present our recommendations for standard response and progression criteria for the assessment of brain metastases in clinical trials. The proposed criteria will hopefully facilitate the development of novel approaches to this difficult problem by providing more uniformity in the assessment of CNS metastases across trials. PMID:26065612

  11. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. PMID:25978461

  13. Emotions and BIS/BAS components affect brain activity (ERPs and fNIRS) in observing intra-species and inter-species interactions.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-09-01

    Affective response to observation of intra-species and inter-species interactions was considered in the present research. The brain activity (optical imaging: functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS; and event-related potentials, ERPs, N200) was monitored when subjects observed interactive situations (human-human, HH; human-animal, HA) with a positive (cooperative), negative (uncooperative) or neutral (no emotional) content. In addition, cortical lateralization (more left or right prefrontal activity) and personality component (Behavioral Activation System, BAS; Behavioral Inhibition System, BIS) effects were explored. Both ERP and fNIRS showed significant brain activity increasing in response to positive and negative compared with neutral interactions for HH and HA. However, some differences were found between HH (more "negative valence" effect) and HA (more "positive valence" effect). Finally BAS and BIS were related respectively to more left (positive conditions) or right (negative conditions) hemispheric activity. These results supported the significance of affective behavior differentiating the species-specific and species-aspecific relationships. PMID:26319406

  14. Post-weaning environmental enrichment alters affective responses and interacts with behavioral testing to alter nNOS immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Fonken, Laura K; Gusfa, James; Kassouf, Kathleen M; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-11-01

    Challenging early life events can dramatically affect mental health and wellbeing. Childhood trauma and neglect can increase the risk for developing depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Early maternal separation in rodents has been extensively studied and induces long-lasting alterations in affective and stress responses. However, other developmental periods (e.g., the pubertal period) comprise a critical window whereby social and environmental complexity can exert lasting changes on the brain and behavior. In this study, we tested whether early life environmental complexity impacts affective responses, aggressive behaviors, and expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, in adulthood. Mice were weaned into social+nonsocial enrichment, social only enrichment, or standard (isolated) laboratory environments and were tested in open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and resident-intruder aggression tests 60 days later. Social+nonsocial enrichment reduced locomotor behavior and anxiety-like responses in the open field and reduced depressive-like responses in the forced swim test. Social housing increased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Both social+nonsocial enrichment and social housing only reduced aggressive behaviors compared with isolation. Social+nonsocial enrichment also increased body mass gain throughout the study. Finally, socially-housed mice had reduced corticosterone concentrations compared with social+nonsocial-enriched mice. Behavioral testing reduced nNOS-positive neurons in the basolateral amygdala and the ventral lateral septum, but not in the social+nonsocial-enriched mice, suggesting that environmental complexity may buffer the brain against some environmental perturbations. PMID:21777607

  15. Variation in the Williams syndrome GTF2I gene and anxiety proneness interactively affect prefrontal cortical response to aversive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jabbi, M; Chen, Q; Turner, N; Kohn, P; White, M; Kippenhan, J S; Dickinson, D; Kolachana, B; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the heritability of complex behavioral traits such as human anxiety remains a challenging endeavor for behavioral neuroscience. Copy-number variation (CNV) in the general transcription factor gene, GTF2I, located in the 7q11.23 chromosomal region that is hemideleted in Williams syndrome and duplicated in the 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7), is associated with gene-dose-dependent anxiety in mouse models and in both Williams syndrome and Dup7. Because of this recent preclinical and clinical identification of a genetic influence on anxiety, we examined whether sequence variation in GTF2I, specifically the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2527367, interacts with trait and state anxiety to collectively impact neural response to anxiety-laden social stimuli. Two hundred and sixty healthy adults completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Harm Avoidance (HA) subscale, a trait measure of anxiety proneness, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while matching aversive (fearful or angry) facial identity. We found an interaction between GTF2I allelic variations and HA that affects brain response: in individuals homozygous for the major allele, there was no correlation between HA and whole-brain response to aversive cues, whereas in heterozygotes and individuals homozygous for the minor allele, there was a positive correlation between HA sub-scores and a selective dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responsivity during the processing of aversive stimuli. These results demonstrate that sequence variation in the GTF2I gene influences the relationship between trait anxiety and brain response to aversive social cues in healthy individuals, supporting a role for this neurogenetic mechanism in anxiety. PMID:26285132

  16. Variation in the Williams syndrome GTF2I gene and anxiety proneness interactively affect prefrontal cortical response to aversive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Jabbi, M; Chen, Q; Turner, N; Kohn, P; White, M; Kippenhan, J S; Dickinson, D; Kolachana, B; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the heritability of complex behavioral traits such as human anxiety remains a challenging endeavor for behavioral neuroscience. Copy-number variation (CNV) in the general transcription factor gene, GTF2I, located in the 7q11.23 chromosomal region that is hemideleted in Williams syndrome and duplicated in the 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7), is associated with gene-dose-dependent anxiety in mouse models and in both Williams syndrome and Dup7. Because of this recent preclinical and clinical identification of a genetic influence on anxiety, we examined whether sequence variation in GTF2I, specifically the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2527367, interacts with trait and state anxiety to collectively impact neural response to anxiety-laden social stimuli. Two hundred and sixty healthy adults completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Harm Avoidance (HA) subscale, a trait measure of anxiety proneness, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while matching aversive (fearful or angry) facial identity. We found an interaction between GTF2I allelic variations and HA that affects brain response: in individuals homozygous for the major allele, there was no correlation between HA and whole-brain response to aversive cues, whereas in heterozygotes and individuals homozygous for the minor allele, there was a positive correlation between HA sub-scores and a selective dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responsivity during the processing of aversive stimuli. These results demonstrate that sequence variation in the GTF2I gene influences the relationship between trait anxiety and brain response to aversive social cues in healthy individuals, supporting a role for this neurogenetic mechanism in anxiety. PMID:26285132

  17. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling. PMID:25782410

  18. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p < 0.001). Levels of total glutathione and the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were influenced by mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that species and type of organ alone or in combination are more important factors than chronic exposure to mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione. PMID:26276034

  19. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  20. Cerebrovascular responses of the rat brain to noxious stimuli as examined by functional near-infrared whole brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Wei; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2012-01-01

    While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been increasingly used to detect stimulated brain activities with an advantage of dissociating regional oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations simultaneously, it has not been utilized much in pain research. Here, we investigated and demonstrated the feasibility of using this technique to obtain whole brain hemodynamics in rats and speculated on the functional relevance of the NIR-based hemodynamic signals during pain processing. NIR signals were emitted and collected using a 26-optodes array on rat's dorsal skull surface after the removal of skin. Following the subcutaneous injection of formalin (50 μl, 3%) into a hindpaw, several isolable brain regions showed hemodynamic changes, including the anterior cingulate cortex, primary/secondary somatosensory cortexes, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray (n = 6). Time courses of hemodynamic changes in respective regions matched with the well-documented biphasic excitatory response. Surprisingly, an atypical pattern (i.e., a decrease in oxyhemoglobin concentration with a concomitant increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration) was seen in phase II. In a separate group of rats with innocuous brush and noxious pinch of the same area (n = 11), results confirmed that the atypical pattern occurred more likely in the presence of nociception than nonpainful stimulation, suggesting it as a physiological substrate when the brain processes pain. In conclusion, the NIR whole brain imaging provides a useful alternative to study pain in vivo using small-animal models. Our results support the notion that neurovascular response patterns depend on stimuli, bringing attention to the interpretation of vascular-based neuroimaging data in studies of pain. PMID:22378174

  1. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. PMID:26683083

  2. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants’ looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.

  3. BDNF mediates adaptive brain and body responses to energetic challenges.

    PubMed

    Marosi, Krisztina; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-02-01

    Emerging findings suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves widespread roles in regulating energy homeostasis by controlling patterns of feeding and physical activity, and by modulating glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. BDNF mediates the beneficial effects of energetic challenges such as vigorous exercise and fasting on cognition, mood, cardiovascular function, and on peripheral metabolism. By stimulating glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis BDNF bolsters cellular bioenergetics and protects neurons against injury and disease. By acting in the brain and periphery, BDNF increases insulin sensitivity and parasympathetic tone. Genetic factors, a 'couch potato' lifestyle, and chronic stress impair BDNF signaling, and this may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Novel BDNF-focused interventions are being developed for obesity, diabetes, and neurological disorders. PMID:24361004

  4. Alzheimer’s disease: relevant molecular and physiopathological events affecting amyloid-β brain balance and the putative role of PPARs

    PubMed Central

    Zolezzi, Juan M.; Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Santos, Manuel J.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia. With the expected aging of the human population, the estimated morbidity of AD suggests a critical upcoming health problem. Several lines of research are focused on understanding AD pathophysiology, and although the etiology of the disease remains a matter of intense debate, increased brain levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) appear to be a critical event in triggering a wide range of molecular alterations leading to AD. It has become evident in recent years that an altered balance between production and clearance is responsible for the accumulation of brain Aβ. Moreover, Aβ clearance is a complex event that involves more than neurons and microglia. The status of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus, along with hepatic functionality, should be considered when Aβ balance is addressed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of metals, such as copper, could both directly affect these secondary structures and act as a seeding or nucleation core that facilitates Aβ aggregation. Recently, we have addressed peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-related mechanisms, including the direct modulation of mitochondrial dynamics through the PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) axis and the crosstalk with critical aging- and neurodegenerative-related cellular pathways. In the present review, we revise the current knowledge regarding the molecular aspects of Aβ production and clearance and provide a physiological context that gives a more complete view of this issue. Additionally, we consider the different structures involved in AD-altered Aβ brain balance, which could be directly or indirectly affected by a nuclear receptor (NR)/PPAR-related mechanism. PMID:25120477

  5. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Objective The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. Method A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. Results In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Conclusions Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men. PMID:18197269

  6. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  7. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  8. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  9. Fuel not fun: Reinterpreting attenuated brain responses to reward in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Nils B; Small, Dana M

    2016-08-01

    There is a well-established literature linking obesity to altered dopamine signaling and brain response to food-related stimuli. Neuroimaging studies frequently report enhanced responses in dopaminergic regions during food anticipation and decreased responses during reward receipt. This has been interpreted as reflecting anticipatory "reward surfeit", and consummatory "reward deficiency". In particular, attenuated response in the dorsal striatum to primary food rewards is proposed to reflect anhedonia, which leads to overeating in an attempt to compensate for the reward deficit. In this paper, we propose an alternative view. We consider brain response to food-related stimuli in a reinforcement-learning framework, which can be employed to separate the contributions of reward sensitivity and reward-related learning that are typically entangled in the brain response to reward. Consequently, we posit that decreased striatal responses to milkshake receipt reflect reduced reward-related learning rather than reward deficiency or anhedonia because reduced reward sensitivity would translate uniformly into reduced anticipatory and consummatory responses to reward. By re-conceptualizing reward deficiency as a shift in learning about subjective value of rewards, we attempt to reconcile neuroimaging findings with the putative role of dopamine in effort, energy expenditure and exploration and suggest that attenuated brain responses to energy dense foods reflect the "fuel", not the fun entailed by the reward. PMID:27085908

  10. Study of a fetal brain affected by a severe form of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, a rare cause of early parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Noguero, Alba; Díez, Héctor; Jou, Cristina; Pineda, Mercè; Ormazábal, Aida; Sánchez, Aurora; Artuch, Rafael; Garcia-Cazorla, Àngels

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is an inborn error of dopamine synthesis. Two clinical phenotypes have been described. The THD "B" phenotype produces a severe encephalopathy of early-onset with sub-optimal L-Dopa response, whereas the "A" phenotype has a better L-Dopa response and outcome. The objective of the study is to describe the expression of key synaptic proteins and neurodevelopmental markers in a fetal brain of THD "B" phenotype. The brain of a 16-week-old miscarried human fetus was dissected in different brain areas and frozen until the analysis. TH gene study revealed the p.R328W/p.T399M mutations, the same mutations that produced a B phenotype in her sister. After protein extraction, western blot analyses were performed to assess protein expression. The results were compared to an age-matched control. We observed a decreased expression in TH and in other dopaminergic proteins, such as VMAT 1 and 2 and dopamine receptors, especially D2DR. GABAergic and glutamatergic proteins such as GABA VT, NMDAR1 and calbindin were also altered. Developmental markers for synapses, axons and dendrites were decreased whereas markers of neuronal volume were preserved. Although this is an isolated case, this brain sample is unique and corresponds to the first reported study of a THD brain. It provides interesting information about the influence of dopamine as a regulator of other neurotransmitter systems, brain development and movement disorders with origin at the embryological state. This study could also contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of THD at early fetal stages. PMID:26686676

  11. Dose-Volume Response Relationship for Brain Metastases Treated with Frameless Single-Fraction Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianmin; Yusuf, Mehran B; Dragun, Anthony; Dunlap, Neal; Guan, Timothy; Boling, Warren; Rai, Shesh; Woo, Shiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to identify a dose-volume response relationship for brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: We reviewed patients who underwent frameless single-fraction linear accelerator SRS for brain metastases between 2007 and 2013 from an institutional database. Proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of outcome. A ratio of maximum lesion dose per mm-diameter (Gy/mm) was constructed to establish a dose-volume relationship. Results: There were 316 metastases evaluated in 121 patients (2 - 33 mm in the largest diameter). The median peripheral dose was 18.0 Gy (range: 10.0 – 24.0 Gy). Local control was 84.8% for all lesions and was affected by location, peripheral dose, maximum dose, and lesion size (p values < 0.050). A dose-volume response relationship was constructed using the maximum dose and lesion size. A unit increase in Gy/mm was associated with decreased local failure (p = 0.005). Local control of 80%, 85%, and 90% corresponded to maximum doses per millimeter of 1.67 Gy/mm, 2.86 Gy/mm, and 4.4 Gy/mm, respectively. Toxicity was uncommon and only 1.0% of lesions developed radionecrosis requiring surgery. Conclusions: For brain metastases less than 3 cm, a dose-volume response relationship exists between maximum radiosurgical dose and lesion size, which is predictive of local control. PMID:27284495

  12. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  13. Acute caffeine administration affects zebrafish response to a robotic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Mwaffo, Violet; Li, Jasmine; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Zebrafish has been recently proposed as a valid animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms regulating emotional behavior and evaluate the modulatory effects exerted by psychoactive compounds. In this study, we propose a novel methodological framework based on robotics and information theory to investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish exposed to acute caffeine treatment. In a binary preference test, we studied the response of caffeine-treated zebrafish to a replica of a shoal of conspecifics moving in the tank. A purely data-driven information theoretic approach was used to infer the influence of the replica on zebrafish behavior as a function of caffeine concentration. Our results demonstrate that acute caffeine administration modulates both the average speed and the interaction with the replica. Specifically, zebrafish exposed to elevated doses of caffeine show reduced locomotion and increased sensitivity to the motion of the replica. The methodology developed in this study may complement traditional experimental paradigms developed in the field of behavioral pharmacology. PMID:25907748

  14. Investigating Neuromagnetic Brain Responses against Chromatic Flickering Stimuli by Wavelet Entropies

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Mayank; Bhushan, Chitresh; Saha, Goutam; Shimjo, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Katsumi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosensitive epilepsy is a type of reflexive epilepsy triggered by various visual stimuli including colourful ones. Despite the ubiquitous presence of colorful displays, brain responses against different colour combinations are not properly studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we studied the photosensitivity of the human brain against three types of chromatic flickering stimuli by recording neuromagnetic brain responses (magnetoencephalogram, MEG) from nine adult controls, an unmedicated patient, a medicated patient, and two controls age-matched with patients. Dynamical complexities of MEG signals were investigated by a family of wavelet entropies. Wavelet entropy is a newly proposed measure to characterize large scale brain responses, which quantifies the degree of order/disorder associated with a multi-frequency signal response. In particular, we found that as compared to the unmedicated patient, controls showed significantly larger wavelet entropy values. We also found that Renyi entropy is the most powerful feature for the participant classification. Finally, we also demonstrated the effect of combinational chromatic sensitivity on the underlying order/disorder in MEG signals. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that when perturbed by potentially epileptic-triggering stimulus, healthy human brain manages to maintain a non-deterministic, possibly nonlinear state, with high degree of disorder, but an epileptic brain represents a highly ordered state which making it prone to hyper-excitation. Further, certain colour combination was found to be more threatening than other combinations. PMID:19779630

  15. Lipid phosphate phosphatase inhibitors locally amplify lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor signalling in rat brain cryosections without affecting global LPA degradation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signalling phospholipid with multiple biological functions, mainly mediated through specific G protein-coupled receptors. Aberrant LPA signalling is being increasingly implicated in the pathology of common human diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and cancer. The lifetime of the signalling pool of LPA is controlled by the equilibrium between synthesizing and degradative enzymatic activity. In the current study, we have characterized these enzymatic pathways in rat brain by pharmacologically manipulating the enzymatic machinery required for LPA degradation. Results In rat brain cryosections, the lifetime of bioactive LPA was found to be controlled by Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatase activity, attributed to lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Pharmacological inhibition of this LPP activity amplified LPA1 receptor signalling, as revealed using functional autoradiography. Although two LPP inhibitors, sodium orthovanadate and propranolol, locally amplified receptor responses, they did not affect global brain LPA phosphatase activity (also attributed to Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatases), as confirmed by Pi determination and by LC/MS/MS. Interestingly, the phosphate analog, aluminium fluoride (AlFx-) not only irreversibly inhibited LPP activity thereby potentiating LPA1 receptor responses, but also totally prevented LPA degradation, however this latter effect was not essential in order to observe AlFx--dependent potentiation of receptor signalling. Conclusions We conclude that vanadate- and propranolol-sensitive LPP activity locally guards the signalling pool of LPA whereas the majority of brain LPA phosphatase activity is attributed to LPP-like enzymatic activity which, like LPP activity, is sensitive to AlFx- but resistant to the LPP inhibitors, vanadate and propranolol. PMID:22686545

  16. Histamine Induces Alzheimer's Disease-Like Blood Brain Barrier Breach and Local Cellular Responses in Mouse Brain Organotypic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sedeyn, Jonathan C.; Wu, Hao; Hobbs, Reilly D.; Levin, Eli C.; Nagele, Robert G.; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    Among the top ten causes of death in the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the only one that cannot be cured, prevented, or even slowed down at present. Significant efforts have been exerted in generating model systems to delineate the mechanism as well as establishing platforms for drug screening. In this study, a promising candidate model utilizing primary mouse brain organotypic (MBO) cultures is reported. For the first time, we have demonstrated that the MBO cultures exhibit increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability as shown by IgG leakage into the brain parenchyma, astrocyte activation as evidenced by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal damage-response as suggested by increased vimentin-positive neurons occur upon histamine treatment. Identical responses—a breakdown of the BBB, astrocyte activation, and neuronal expression of vimentin—were then demonstrated in brains from AD patients compared to age-matched controls, consistent with other reports. Thus, the histamine-treated MBO culture system may provide a valuable tool in combating AD. PMID:26697497

  17. Ability to Maintain Internal Arousal and Motivation Modulates Brain Responses to Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression. PMID:25438046

  18. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Cheng, Yuqi; Lai, Aiyun; Lv, Zhaoping; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Chunrong; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE). Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD) and white matter (WMD) were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA), and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL) or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients. PMID:26090505

  19. Associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities in an affectively positive situation.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Kimura, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Kanayama, Noriaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Konagaya, Toshihiro; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2009-03-31

    It is hypothesized that experiencing positive emotions such as pleasure leads to a perception of the body being in a positive state. This study demonstrated associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities by simultaneously recording these activities when positive emotions were evoked in participants watching films revolving around a love story. Heart rate variability analysis revealed increased parasympathetic nervous activity while watching the film. The following brain regions were significantly activated in the positive condition relative to the control condition: medial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. Further, covariate analyses indicated that these brain regions were temporally associated with subjective positive mood. Activities of brain regions considered to be related to interoceptive awareness, such as the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex, were also temporally associated with the cardiovascular change. These results suggest that while an individual experiences positive emotions, activities of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system may be interrelated, and the brain may perceive the body to be in a positive state. PMID:19368841

  20. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Cheng, Yuqi; Lai, Aiyun; Lv, Zhaoping; Campbell, Robert A A; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Chunrong; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE). Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD) and white matter (WMD) were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA), and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL) or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients. PMID:26090505

  1. Invasive and transcranial photoacoustic imaging of the vascular response to brain electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Yao, Junjie; Hu, Song; Li, Li; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Advances in the brain functional imaging greatly facilitated the understanding of neurovascular coupling. For monitoring of the microvascular response to the brain electrical stimulation in vivo we used optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) through the cranial openings as well as transcranially. Both types of the vascular response, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, were clearly observed with good spatial and temporal resolution. Obtained results confirm one of the primary points of the neurovascular coupling theory that blood vessels could present vasoconstriction or vasodilatation in response to electrical stimulation, depending on the balance between inhibition and excitation of the different parts of the elements of the neurovascular coupling system.

  2. Not all brains are created equal: the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-01-01

    A current issue in the research of augmentation of brain functions using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is the diversity and inconsistency in outcome results. Similar studies often report different results, depending on the parameters and tasks used. Such inconsistencies have led to significant doubts about the efficacy of the method in the broader scientific community, despite its promising potential for patient recovery and treatment. Evidence on the large variability in individual cortical excitability and response to tES suggests that stimulation may affect individuals differently, depending on the subject’s age, gender, brain state, hormonal levels, and pre-existing regional excitability. Certain factors might even lead to the reversal of polarity-dependent effects, and therefore have crucial implications for neurorehabilitation and cognitive enhancement. Research paradigms may have to be refined in the future to avoid the confounding effects of such factors. PMID:24605090

  3. The log-dynamic brain: how skewed distributions affect network operations

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Mizuseki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We often assume that the variables of functional and structural brain parameters — such as synaptic weights, the firing rates of individual neurons, the synchronous discharge of neural populations, the number of synaptic contacts between neurons and the size of dendritic boutons — have a bell-shaped distribution. However, at many physiological and anatomical levels in the brain, the distribution of numerous parameters is in fact strongly skewed with a heavy tail, suggesting that skewed (typically lognormal) distributions are fundamental to structural and functional brain organization. This insight not only has implications for how we should collect and analyse data, it may also help us to understand how the different levels of skewed distributions — from synapses to cognition — are related to each other. PMID:24569488

  4. Melatonin affects the order, dynamics and hydration of brain membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkas, Sara B.; Inci, Servet; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2007-05-01

    The brain is especially susceptible to free radical attack since it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and consumes very high amounts of oxygen. Melatonin is a non-enzymatic amphiphilic antioxidant hormone that is widely used in medicine for protective and treatment purposes in cases of oxidative stress. In the present work, the effects of the clinically used dose of melatonin (a single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg) on rat brain homogenate were investigated as a function of temperature using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the lipid to protein ratio decreases in the melatonin treated brain samples. Moreover, it is revealed that melatonin disorders and decreases the dynamics of lipids and induces a strengthening in the hydrogen bonding between the functional groups of both melatonin and the polar parts of lipids and/or water at physiological temperatures.

  5. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice. PMID:24973705

  6. Repeated BOLD-fMRI imaging of deep brain stimulation responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tzu-Hao Harry; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with α-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, α-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol) with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP) thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91), and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67). The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI. PMID:24825464

  7. Repeated BOLD-fMRI Imaging of Deep Brain Stimulation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tzu-Hao Harry; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with α-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, α-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol) with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP) thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91), and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67). The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI. PMID:24825464

  8. Two dimensional affective state distribution of the brain under emotion stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Hamwira; Karim, Izzah; Wahab, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Norhaslinda

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are ambiguous. Many techniques have been employed to perform emotion prediction and to understand emotional elicitations. Brain signals measured using electroencephalogram (EEG) are also used in studies about emotions. Using KDE as feature extraction technique and MLP for performing supervised learning on the brain signals. It has shown that all channels in EEG can capture emotional experience. In addition it was also indicated that emotions are dynamic as represented by the level of valence and the intensity of arousal. Such findings are useful in biomedical studies, especially in dealing with emotional disorders which can results in using a two-channel EEG device for neurofeedback applications. PMID:23367309

  9. Does thalidomide affect IL-2 response and production?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L P; Schlegel, P G; Baker, J; Chen, Y; Chao, N J

    1995-08-01

    The exact mechanism of immunosuppression by thalidomide is poorly understood. A common denominator in the pathogenesis of graft-vs.-host disease, graft rejection, reactional lepromatous leprosy, and autoimmune disorders modulated by thalidomide is the activation of T lymphocytes culminating in the synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors, and the induction of proliferation. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on the production of IL-2 by the human leukemia cell line Jurkat through induction of IL-2 gene enhancer activity and through the presence of IL-2 in supernatants. beta-galactosidase activity, encoded by a reporter lac z construct and controlled by a transcription factor in thalidomide-treated PMA- and ionomycin-stimulated Jurkat cells, was similar (97 +/- 1.33%; p > 0.1) to non-thalidomide-treated controls at all drug concentrations tested. IL-2 enhancer-driven beta-galactose activity of thalidomide-treated and stimulated cells was also similar to that of untreated controls (p > 0.2). The IL-2 production of activated nontransfected Jurkat cells was gauged by using the IL-2-dependent cell line HT-2 as a readout and by ELISA. Jurkat cells were subcloned by limiting dilution. Bulk cultures and three subclones (J.5.2.5., J.5.2.9., and J.5.3.8.) were assayed at 6, 12, and 24 hours after PHA/PMA-induced stimulation. No inhibitory effect on the IL-2 production by thalidomide could be detected at any of the drug concentrations tested (5-30 micrograms/mL), whereas 10 to 100 ng/mL of cyclosporine inhibited the IL-2 production by 95 to 100%. In addition, we observed neither inhibition of IL-2-dependent proliferation of HT-2 nor inhibition of PHA-induced proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells by thalidomide at all drug concentrations used (5-30 micrograms/mL). These results do not support the possibility of a modulatory effect on the immune response by thalidomide via IL-2 production and IL-2 response. PMID:7635184

  10. Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words is normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia ME; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. Methods Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 12–17 years, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affective go/no-go task at baseline. Participants were instructed to withhold their responses upon seeing happy or sad words. Among these participants, 13 patients had CBT over approximately 30 weeks. These participants and 20 matched controls then repeated the task. Results At baseline, increased activation in response to happy relative to neutral distractors was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex in depressed patients which was normalised after CBT. No significant group differences were found behaviourally or in brain activation in response to sad distractors. Improvements in symptoms (mean: 9.31, 95% CI: 5.35–13.27) were related at trend-level to activation changes in orbitofrontal cortex. Limitations In the follow-up section, a limited number of post-CBT patients were recruited. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study addressing the effect of CBT in adolescent depression. Although a bias toward negative information is widely accepted as a hallmark of depression, aberrant brain hyperactivity to positive distractors was found and normalised after CBT. Research, assessment and treatment focused on positive stimuli could be a future consideration. Moreover, a pathophysiological mechanism distinct from adult depression may be suggested and awaits further exploration. PMID:26406969

  11. Decoding brain responses to pixelized images in the primary visual cortex: implications for visual cortical prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bing-bing; Zheng, Xiao-lin; Lu, Zhen-gang; Wang, Xing; Yin, Zheng-qin; Hou, Wen-sheng; Meng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Visual cortical prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by visual cortical prostheses, implant wearers can currently only “see” pixelized images, and how to obtain the specific brain responses to different pixelized images in the primary visual cortex (the implant area) is still unknown. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment on normal human participants to investigate the brain activation patterns in response to 18 different pixelized images. There were 100 voxels in the brain activation pattern that were selected from the primary visual cortex, and voxel size was 4 mm × 4 mm × 4 mm. Multi-voxel pattern analysis was used to test if these 18 different brain activation patterns were specific. We chose a Linear Support Vector Machine (LSVM) as the classifier in this study. The results showed that the classification accuracies of different brain activation patterns were significantly above chance level, which suggests that the classifier can successfully distinguish the brain activation patterns. Our results suggest that the specific brain activation patterns to different pixelized images can be obtained in the primary visual cortex using a 4 mm × 4 mm × 4 mm voxel size and a 100-voxel pattern. PMID:26692860

  12. Radiological Follow-up of a Cerebral Tuberculoma with a Paradoxical Response Mimicking a Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Kwon; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Seul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a paradoxical response of a tuberculoma in the brain mimicking a brain tumor. A 76-year-old woman presented with a 2 week history of headache, dysarthia, and orthopnea. Brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed two rim-enhancing lesions on the pons and occipital lobe, and chest computed tomography showed randomly distributed miliary nodules. The tentative diagnosis was tuberculosis (TB) of the brain and lung. She complained of right hemiparesis and worsening general weakness after taking the anti-TB medication. On the monthly follow-up images, the enhanced lesions were enlarged with increased perfusion and choline/creatinine ratio, suggesting a high grade glioma. A surgical resection was completed to diagnose the occipital lesion, and the tuberculoma was pathologically confirmed by a positive TB-polymerase chain reaction. The anti-TB medication was continued for 13 months. A follow-up MRI showed decreased size of the brain lesions associated with perilesional edema, and the clinical symptoms had improved. Brain tuberculoma could be aggravated mimicking brain malignancy during administration of anti-TB medication. This paradoxical response can be effectively managed by continuing the anti-TB drugs. PMID:25932302

  13. An unusual response with long term survival using erlotinib in NSCLC lung with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Madhup; Nanda, Sambit Swarup; Prakash, Chandra; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung and metastatic brain lesions. In view of her poor general condition and poor compliance to first-line chemotherapy, the patient was kept on tablet erlotinib after whole brain radiotherapy. This novel treatment resulted in a dramatic response with radiological regression in both the primary lung lesion and metastatic intracranial lesions translating in unexpected and ongoing 24-month survival. PMID:26729829

  14. The relationship between years of cocaine use and brain activation to cocaine and response inhibition cues

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Joseph, Jane E.; Myrick, Hugh; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Henderson, Scott; Pfeifer, James; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging research has attempted to elucidate the neurobehavioral underpinnings of cocaine dependence by evaluating differences in brain activation to cocaine and response inhibition cues between cocaine dependent individuals and controls. Less research has investigated associations between task-related brain activation and cocaine use characteristics; the present study was designed to address this gap in the literature. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The Center for Brain Imaging at the Medical University of South Carolina. Participants 51 cocaine users (41 dependent). Measurements Brain activation to cocaine-cue exposure and go no-go tasks in six a priori selected brain regions of interest and cocaine use characteristics (i.e., cocaine dependence status, years of cocaine use, cocaine use in the past 90 days) assessed via standardized interviews. Findings Participants demonstrated elevated activation to cocaine (bilateral ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, amygdala; mean F=19.00, mean p<.001) and response inhibition (bilateral anterior cingulate, insula, inferior frontal gyrus; mean F=7.01, mean p=.02) cues in all hypothesized brain regions. Years of cocaine use was associated with task-related brain activation, with more years of cocaine use associated with greater activation to cocaine cues in right (F=7.97,p=.01) and left (F=5.47,p=.02) ventral striatum and greater activation to response inhibition cues in left insula (F=5.10,p=.03) and inferior frontal gyrus (F=4.12,p=.05) controlling for age, cocaine dependence status, and cocaine use in the past 90 days. Conclusions Years of cocaine use may be more centrally related to cocaine cue and response inhibition brain activation as compared to cocaine dependence diagnosis or amount of recent use. PMID:24938849

  15. The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: findings of fusiform activity and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Karen; Haist, Frank; Sedaghat, Farshad; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Past functional MRI (FMRI) studies of autism have reported reduced activation in response to the faces of strangers primarily in the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). An alternative and potentially stronger test of FFA function in autism is one that attempts to affect levels of FFA activity using factors believed to modulate function in this brain region, such as face familiarity and the perception of face identity. The current study presented personally meaningful faces, such as mother and co-worker, as well as stranger faces in a rapid event-related FMRI design. Seven autistic and nine normal control adults participated and pressed a button in response to all female faces. A deconvolution analysis revealed significant FFA activity in response to familiar and stranger faces in both autism and normal control groups. Individuals with autism also showed greater fusiform activity in response to familiar faces than stranger faces, as well as the prototypical right hemisphere dominance in response to both types of faces. Normal subjects showed additional activation to familiar faces in the posterior cingulate, amygdala and medial frontal lobes, including the anterior cingulate. Subjects with autism showed a similar, but more limited, network in response to familiar faces. This network included the amygdala and implies that this structure, involved in multiple socio-emotional functions, can be responsive in autism in the presence of stimuli that represent high reward value, such as mother's face. Furthermore, the presence of a distinct network to process familiar faces in autism, one that included limbic structures and was not found in response to the faces of strangers, suggests socio-emotional processing in autism. A potentially noteworthy trend, however, was evidence for a reduction in medial frontal lobe function in the autism group. The main finding of FFA activity in autism stands in contrast to most past FMRI studies of face processing in this disorder. This positive

  16. Understanding Fluid Shifts in the Brain: Choroidal Regulation Involved in the Cerebral Fluid Response to Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrion, Jaqueline; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fluid balance and regulation of body fluid production are critical aspects of life and survival on Earth. In space, without gravity exerting its usual downward pulling effect, the fluids of the human body shift in an unnatural, headward direction. After awhile, humans and other mammalian species adapt to the microgravity environment which leads to changes in the regulation and distribution of these body fluids. Previous spaceflight experiments have indicated that production of fluid in the brain and spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), might be reduced in rats exposed to microgravity. In this experiment conducted by Dr. Jacqueline Gabrion (University of Pierre and Marie Curie, France), proteins important for CSF production, and several molecules that regulate water and mineral transport, will be investigated in rats flown on the Shuttle. Dr. Gabrion and her team will determine the amounts of these proteins and molecules present in the brain in order to evaluate whether any changes have taken place during the rats' adaptation to microgravity. The levels of different aquaporins (proteins that act as a channel for water transport in and out of cells) will also be investigated in other areas of the brain and body to better understand the regulatory responses affecting these important water channel proteins. In addition to producing essential and basic information about fluid production in the brain and body, this experiment will reveal fundamental information about the mechanisms involved in cerebral adaptation and fluid balance during spaceflight.

  17. Individual differences in oscillatory brain activity in response to varying attentional demands during a word recall and oculomotor dual task

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Gusang; Lim, Sanghyun; Kim, Min-Young; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Every day, we face situations that involve multi-tasking. How our brain utilizes cortical resources during multi-tasking is one of many interesting research topics. In this study, we tested whether a dual-task can be differentiated in the neural and behavioral responses of healthy subjects with varying degree of working memory capacity (WMC). We combined word recall and oculomotor tasks because they incorporate common neural networks including the fronto-parietal (FP) network. Three different types of oculomotor tasks (eye fixation, Fix-EM; predictive and random smooth pursuit eye movement, P-SPEM and R-SPEM) were combined with two memory load levels (low-load: five words, high-load: 10 words) for a word recall task. Each of those dual-task combinations was supposed to create varying cognitive loads on the FP network. We hypothesize that each dual-task requires different cognitive strategies for allocating the brain’s limited cortical resources and affects brain oscillation of the FP network. In addition, we hypothesized that groups with different WMC will show differential neural and behavioral responses. We measured oscillatory brain activity with simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings and behavioral performance by word recall. Prominent frontal midline (FM) theta (4–6 Hz) synchronization emerged in the EEG of the high-WMC group experiencing R-SPEM with high-load conditions during the early phase of the word maintenance period. Conversely, significant parietal upper alpha (10–12 Hz) desynchronization was observed in the EEG and MEG of the low-WMC group experiencing P-SPEM under high-load conditions during the same period. Different brain oscillatory patterns seem to depend on each individual’s WMC and varying attentional demands from different dual-task combinations. These findings suggest that specific brain oscillations may reflect different strategies for allocating cortical resources during combined word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks. PMID:26175681

  18. Gangliosides trigger inflammatory responses via TLR4 in brain glia.

    PubMed

    Jou, Ilo; Lee, Jee Hoon; Park, Soo Young; Yoon, Hee Jung; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Eun Jung

    2006-05-01

    Gangliosides participate in various cellular events of the central nervous system and have been closely implicated in many neuronal diseases. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological activity of gangliosides are poorly understood. Here we report that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may mediate the ganglioside-triggered inflammation in glia, brain resident immune cells. Gangliosides rapidly altered the cell surface expression of TLR4 in microglia and astrocytes within 3 hours. Using TLR4-specific siRNA and a dominant-negative TLR4 gene, we clearly demonstrate the functional importance of TLR4 in ganglioside-triggered activation of glia. Inhibition of TLR4 expression by TLR4-siRNA suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-binding activity, NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase activity, and transcription of inflammatory cytokines after exposure to gangliosides. Transient transfection of dominant-negative TLR4 also attenuated NF-kappaB-binding activity and interleukin-6 promoter activity. In contrast, these activities were slightly elevated in cells with wild-type TLR4. In addition, CD14 was required for ganglioside-triggered activation of glia, and lipid raft formation may be associated with ganglioside-stimulated signal propagation. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR4 may provide an explanation for the pathological ability of gangliosides to cause inflammatory conditions in the brain. PMID:16651628

  19. Seeing red: affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Bello, Iruma; Sinclair, S Justin; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found. PMID:23428172

  20. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  1. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  2. Sisters and Brothers, Brothers and Sisters in the Family Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Betty

    This report is based on a qualitative research study which utilized a nominal group process to identify major life stressors for parents of children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). It focuses first on effects of TBI on siblings and then on effective interventions. The first section uses quotes from participating parents to identify their…

  3. The Cell Birth Marker BrdU Does Not Affect Recruitment of Subsequent Cell Divisions in the Adult Avian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cattan, Anat

    2015-01-01

    BrdU is commonly used to quantify neurogenesis but also causes mutation and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects. In mammalian studies, attention had been given to its dosage, but in birds such examination was not conducted. Our previous study suggested that BrdU might affect subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment in the brain. Furthermore, this effect seemed to increase with time from treatment. Accordingly, we examined whether BrdU might alter neurogenesis in the adult avian brain. We compared recruitment of [3H]-thymidine+ neurons in brains of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) when no BrdU was involved and when BrdU was given 1 or 3 months prior to [3H]-thymidine. In nidopallium caudale, HVC, and hippocampus, no differences were found between groups in densities and percentages of [3H]-thymidine+ neurons. The number of silver grains per [3H]-thymidine+ neuronal nucleus and their distribution were similar across groups. Additionally, time did not affect the results. The results indicate that the commonly used dosage of BrdU in birds has no long-term effects on subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment. This conclusion is also important in neuronal replacement experiments, where BrdU and another cell birth marker are given, with relatively long intervals between them. PMID:25759813

  4. The cell birth marker BrdU does not affect recruitment of subsequent cell divisions in the adult avian brain.

    PubMed

    Cattan, Anat; Ayali, Amir; Barnea, Anat

    2015-01-01

    BrdU is commonly used to quantify neurogenesis but also causes mutation and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects. In mammalian studies, attention had been given to its dosage, but in birds such examination was not conducted. Our previous study suggested that BrdU might affect subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment in the brain. Furthermore, this effect seemed to increase with time from treatment. Accordingly, we examined whether BrdU might alter neurogenesis in the adult avian brain. We compared recruitment of [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neurons in brains of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) when no BrdU was involved and when BrdU was given 1 or 3 months prior to [(3)H]-thymidine. In nidopallium caudale, HVC, and hippocampus, no differences were found between groups in densities and percentages of [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neurons. The number of silver grains per [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neuronal nucleus and their distribution were similar across groups. Additionally, time did not affect the results. The results indicate that the commonly used dosage of BrdU in birds has no long-term effects on subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment. This conclusion is also important in neuronal replacement experiments, where BrdU and another cell birth marker are given, with relatively long intervals between them. PMID:25759813

  5. How treatment affects the brain: meta-analysis evidence of neural substrates underpinning drug therapy and psychotherapy in major depression.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-06-01

    The idea that modifications of affect, behavior and cognition produced by psychotherapy are mediated by biological underpinnings predates the advent of the modern neurosciences. Recently, several studies demonstrated that psychotherapy outcomes are linked to modifications in specific brain regions. This opened the debate over the similarities and dissimilarities between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate the effects of psychotherapy (PsyTh) and pharmacotherapy (DrugTh) on brain functioning in Major Depression (MD). Our results demonstrate that the two therapies modify different neural circuits. Specifically, PsyTh induces selective modifications in the left inferior and superior frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus and middle cingulate cortex, as well as in the right middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus. Otherwise, DrugTh selectively affected brain activation in the right insula in MD patients. These results are in line with previous evidence of the synergy between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy but they also demonstrate that the two therapies have different neural underpinnings. PMID:26164169

  6. JAK-STAT signaling mediates gangliosides-induced inflammatory responses in brain microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ohn Soon; Park, Eun Jung; Joe, Eun-hye; Jou, Ilo

    2002-10-25

    Neuronal cell membranes are particularly rich in gangliosides, which play important roles in brain physiology and pathology. Previously, we reported that gangliosides could act as microglial activators and are thus likely to participate in many neuronal diseases. In the present study we provide evidence that JAK-STAT inflammatory signaling mediates gangliosides-stimulated microglial activation. Both in rat primary microglia and murine BV2 microglial cells, gangliosides stimulated nuclear factor binding to GAS/ISRE elements, which are known to be STAT-binding sites. Consistent with this, gangliosides rapidly activated JAK1 and JAK2 and induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. In addition, gangliosides increased transcription of the inflammation-associated genes inducible nitric-oxide synthase, ICAM-1, and MCP-1, which are reported to contain STAT-binding elements in their promoter regions. AG490, a JAK inhibitor, reduced induction of these genes, nuclear factor binding activity, and activation of STAT1 and -3 in gangliosides-treated microglia. AG490 also inhibited gangliosides-induced release of nitric oxide, an inflammation hallmark. Furthermore, AG490 markedly reduced activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, indicating that ERKs act downstream of JAK-STAT signaling during microglial activation. However, AG490 did not affect activation of p38 MAPK. We also report that the sialic acid residues present on gangliosides may be one of the essential components in activation of JAK-STAT signaling. The present study indicates that JAK-STAT signaling is an early event in gangliosides-induced brain inflammatory responses. PMID:12191995

  7. P300 amplitudes in the concealed information test are less affected by depth of processing than electrodermal responses

    PubMed Central

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) has been used in the laboratory as well as in field applications to detect concealed crime related memories. The presentation of crime relevant details to guilty suspects has been shown to elicit enhanced N200 and P300 amplitudes of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as well as greater skin conductance responses (SCRs) as compared to neutral test items. These electrophysiological and electrodermal responses were found to incrementally contribute to the validity of the test, thereby suggesting that these response systems are sensitive to different psychological processes. In the current study, we tested whether depth of processing differentially affects N200, P300, and SCR amplitudes in the CIT. Twenty participants carried out a mock crime and became familiar with central and peripheral crime details. A CIT that was conducted 1 week later revealed that SCR amplitudes were larger for central details although central and peripheral items were remembered equally well in a subsequent explicit memory test. By contrast, P300 amplitudes elicited by crime related details were larger but did not differ significantly between question types. N200 amplitudes did not allow for detecting concealed knowledge in this study. These results indicate that depth of processing might be one factor that differentially affects central and autonomic nervous system responses to concealed information. Such differentiation might be highly relevant for field applications of the CIT. PMID:23162454

  8. Weighing the evidence: Variance in brain responses to milkshake receipt is predictive of eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Nils B; Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Variations in brain responses to sensory stimuli are typically considered to lack information content and treated as "noise". Alternatively, variable response patterns may reflect the adjustment of biological parameters to external factors. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy non-dieting individuals to test whether intra-individual variation in brain response to the receipt of milkshake is associated with a range of behavioral and metabolic parameters. We found that, following a meal, high variability in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) response to milkshake is associated with higher body mass index, greater dietary disinhibition, more variable ad libitum food consumption, faster increases in plasma insulin, faster decreases in plasma glucose, and greater weight loss over 1year. Our results thus uncover a series of physiological parameters encrypted as variable responses in NAcc to food stimuli. They also suggest that variations in striatal activity regulate the activation of behavioral and metabolic responses to food availability. PMID:26724781

  9. Approval and disapproval: infant responsiveness to vocal affect in familiar and unfamiliar languages.

    PubMed

    Fernald, A

    1993-06-01

    In a series of 5 auditory preference experiments, 120 5-month-old infants were presented with Approval and Prohibition vocalizations in infant-directed (ID) and adult-directed (AD) English, and in ID speech in nonsense English and 3 unfamiliar languages, German, Italian, and Japanese. Dependent measures were looking-time to the side of stimulus presentation, and positive and negative facial affect. No consistent differences in looking-time were found. However, infants showed small but significant differences in facial affect in response to ID vocalizations in every language except Japanese. Infants smiled more to Approvals, and when they showed negative affect, it was more likely to occur in response to Prohibitions. Infants did not show differential affect in response to Approvals and Prohibitions in AD speech. The results indicate that young infants can discriminate affective vocal expressions in ID speech in several languages and that ID speech is more effective than AD speech in eliciting infant affect. PMID:8339687

  10. Timeless: A Large Sample Study on the Temporal Robustness of Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Postzich, Christopher; Blask, Katarina; Frings, Christian; Walther, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue. To close this gap, we conducted a large sample study testing for the influence of presentation time on affective response elicitation. Two hundred and forty emotional pictures were presented for either 200 or 1000 ms and were rated by 302 participants on the core affect dimensions valence and arousal. The most important finding was that affective response elicitation was comparable for 200 and 1000 ms presentation times, indicating reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation within the supra-liminal spectrum. Yet, a more detailed look on the data showed that presentation time impacted particularly on high arousing negative stimuli. However, because these interaction effects were exceedingly small, they must be interpreted with caution and do not endanger the main finding, namely the quite reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation. Results are discussed with regard to the comparability of affective response elicitation across varying paradigms. PMID:27313561

  11. The Relationship between Affective Response to Social Comparison and Academic Performance in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehrens, Maike J. P. W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to study the relationship between affective responses to social comparison and test scores among high school students. Our analyses showed that three types of responses to social comparison could be distinguished: an empathic, constructive, and destructive response. Whereas girls scored higher on empathic…

  12. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guanshan; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Scott, David; Sinha, Rajita; Virkkunen, Matti; Mash, Deborah C.; Lipsky, Robert H.; Hu, Xian-Zhang; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Xu, Ke; Buzas, Beata; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Brown, Sarah M.; Hauger, Richard L.; Stohler, Christian S.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic1,2 and its release is induced by stress3. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic system that are implicated in arousal and in the assignment of emotional valences to stimuli and memories4–6. Here we show that haplotype-driven NPY expression predicts brain responses to emotional and stress challenges and also inversely correlates with trait anxiety. NPY haplotypes predicted levels of NPY messenger RNA in postmortem brain and lymphoblasts, and levels of plasma NPY. Lower haplotype-driven NPY expression predicted higher emotion-induced activation of the amygdala, as well as diminished resiliency as assessed by pain/stress-induced activations of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in various brain regions. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs16147) located in the promoter region alters NPY expression in vitro and seems to account for more than half of the variation in expression in vivo. These convergent findings are consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress, a risk factor for many diseases. PMID:18385673

  13. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guanshan; Hariri, Ahmad R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Scott, David; Sinha, Rajita; Virkkunen, Matti; Mash, Deborah C; Lipsky, Robert H; Hu, Xian-Zhang; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Xu, Ke; Buzas, Beata; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Ferrell, Robert E; Manuck, Stephen B; Brown, Sarah M; Hauger, Richard L; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Goldman, David

    2008-04-24

    Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic and its release is induced by stress. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic system that are implicated in arousal and in the assignment of emotional valences to stimuli and memories. Here we show that haplotype-driven NPY expression predicts brain responses to emotional and stress challenges and also inversely correlates with trait anxiety. NPY haplotypes predicted levels of NPY messenger RNA in post-mortem brain and lymphoblasts, and levels of plasma NPY. Lower haplotype-driven NPY expression predicted higher emotion-induced activation of the amygdala, as well as diminished resiliency as assessed by pain/stress-induced activations of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in various brain regions. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs16147) located in the promoter region alters NPY expression in vitro and seems to account for more than half of the variation in expression in vivo. These convergent findings are consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress, a risk factor for many diseases. PMID:18385673

  14. Local modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt.

    PubMed

    Muto, Vincenzo; Jaspar, Mathieu; Meyer, Christelle; Kussé, Caroline; Chellappa, Sarah L; Degueldre, Christian; Balteau, Evelyne; Shaffii-Le Bourdiec, Anahita; Luxen, André; Middleton, Benita; Archer, Simon N; Phillips, Christophe; Collette, Fabienne; Vandewalle, Gilles; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Maquet, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Human performance is modulated by circadian rhythmicity and homeostatic sleep pressure. Whether and how this interaction is represented at the regional brain level has not been established. We quantified changes in brain responses to a sustained-attention task during 13 functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions scheduled across the circadian cycle, during 42 hours of wakefulness and after recovery sleep, in 33 healthy participants. Cortical responses showed significant circadian rhythmicity, the phase of which varied across brain regions. Cortical responses also significantly decreased with accrued sleep debt. Subcortical areas exhibited primarily a circadian modulation that closely followed the melatonin profile. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms involved in maintaining cognition during the day and its deterioration during sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment. PMID:27516598

  15. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found. PMID:24084195

  16. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  17. The Richness of Task-Evoked Hemodynamic Responses Defines a Pseudohierarchy of Functionally Meaningful Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Orban, Pierre; Doyon, Julien; Petrides, Michael; Mennes, Maarten; Hoge, Richard; Bellec, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging can measure distributed and subtle variations in brain responses associated with task performance. However, it is unclear whether the rich variety of responses observed across the brain is functionally meaningful and consistent across individuals. Here, we used a multivariate clustering approach that grouped brain regions into clusters based on the similarity of their task-evoked temporal responses at the individual level, and then established the spatial consistency of these individual clusters at the group level. We observed a stable pseudohierarchy of task-evoked networks in the context of a delayed sequential motor task, where the fractionation of networks was driven by a gradient of involvement in motor sequence preparation versus execution. In line with theories about higher-level cognitive functioning, this gradient evolved in a rostro-caudal manner in the frontal lobe. In addition, parcellations in the cerebellum and basal ganglia matched with known anatomical territories and fiber pathways with the cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrate that subtle variations in brain responses associated with task performance are systematic enough across subjects to define a pseudohierarchy of task-evoked networks. Such networks capture meaningful functional features of brain organization as shaped by a given cognitive context. PMID:24729172

  18. Test-retest reproducibility for regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. |||

    1996-05-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism as assessed with PET and FDG in response to acute administration of benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men were scanned with positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: prior to placebo and prior to lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 weeks later to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained for the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased whole brain metabolism and the magnitude as well as the regional pattern of the changes was comparable for both studies (12.3 {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7 {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were largest in thalamus (22.2 {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures ROI/global were highly reproducible both for drug as well as replication condition. This is the first study to measure test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic response to a pharmacological challenge. While the global and regional absolute metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the regional brain metabolic response to lorazepam was highly reproducible.

  19. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study

    PubMed Central

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  20. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study.

    PubMed

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  1. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  2. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Effects of training on brain dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan G.; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study, 57 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to (a) computer-based facial affect training that focused on affect discrimination and working memory in 20 daily 1-hour sessions, (b) similarly intense, targeted cognitive training on auditory-verbal discrimination and working memory, or (c) treatment as usual. Neuromagnetic activity was measured before and after training during a dynamic facial affect recognition task (5 s videos showing human faces gradually changing from neutral to fear or to happy expressions). Effects on 10–13 Hz (alpha) power during the transition from neutral to emotional expressions were assessed via MEG based on previous findings that alpha power increase is related to facial affect recognition and is smaller in schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. Targeted affect training improved overt performance on the training tasks. Moreover, alpha power increase during the dynamic facial affect recognition task was larger after affect training than after treatment-as-usual, though similar to that after targeted perceptual–cognitive training, indicating somewhat nonspecific benefits. Alpha power modulation was unrelated to general neuropsychological test performance, which improved in all groups. Results suggest that specific neural processes supporting facial affect recognition, evident in oscillatory phenomena, are modifiable. This should be considered when developing remediation strategies targeting social cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:25379427

  3. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    PubMed

    Heldmann, Marcus; Berding, Georg; Voges, Jürgen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Galazky, Imke; Müller, Ulf; Baillot, Gunther; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc) on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2)[(15)O]-PET (positron emission tomography) in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control. PMID:22629317

  4. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R.; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  5. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  6. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  7. Testosterone selectively affects aromatase and 5α-reductase activities in the green anole lizard brain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Rachel E.; Wade, Juli

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and its metabolites are important in the regulation of reproductive behavior in males of a variety of vertebrate species. Aromatase converts T to estradiol and 5α-reductase converts T to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Male green anole reproduction depends on androgens, yet 5α-reductase in the brain is not sexually dimorphic and does not vary with season. In contrast, aromatase activity in the male brain is increased during the breeding compared to non-breeding season, and males have higher levels than females during the breeding season. Aromatase is important for female, but not male, sexual behaviors. The present experiment was conducted to determine whether 5α-reductase and aromatase are regulated by T. Enzyme activity was quantified in whole brain homogenates in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons in males and females that had been treated with either a T or blank implant. In males only, T increased 5α-reductase activity regardless of season and up-regulated aromatase during the breeding season specifically. Thus, regulation of both enzymes occurs in males, whereas females do not show parallel sensitivity to T. When considered with previous results, the data suggest that aromatase might influence a male function associated with the breeding season other than sexual behavior. 5α-Reductase can be mediated by T availability, but this regulation may not serve a sex- or season-specific purpose. PMID:19917285

  8. Brain Levels of Prostaglandins, Endocannabinoids, and Related Lipids Are Affected by Mating Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Jordyn M.; Paris, Jason J.; Frye, Cheryl; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in the development and regulation of reproductive behaviors. Likewise, prostaglandins (PGs) drive sexual differentiation and initiation of ovulation. Here, we use lipidomics strategies to test the hypotheses that mating immediately activates the biosynthesis and/or metabolism of eCBs and PGs and that specific mating strategies differentially regulate these lipids in the brain. Methods. Lipid extractions and tandem mass spectrometric analysis were performed on brains from proestrous rats that had experienced one of two mating strategies (paced or standard mating) and two nonmated groups (chamber exposed and home cage controls). Levels of PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha), eCBs (AEA and 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl glycine), and 4 related lipids (4 N-acylethanolamides) were measured in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. Results. Overall, levels of these lipids were significantly lower among paced compared to standard mated rats with the most dramatic decreases observed in brainstem, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum. However, chamber exposed rats had significantly higher levels of these lipids compared to home cage controls and paced mated wherein the hippocampus showed the largest increases. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that mating strategies and exposure to mating arenas influence lipid signaling in the brain. PMID:24369463

  9. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  10. Genetic effects on source level evoked and induced oscillatory brain responses in a visual oddball task.

    PubMed

    Antonakakis, Marios; Zervakis, Michalis; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Smit, Dirk J A

    2016-02-01

    Stimuli in simple oddball target detection paradigms cause evoked responses in brain potential. These responses are heritable traits, and potential endophenotypes for clinical phenotypes. These stimuli also cause responses in oscillatory activity, both evoked responses phase-locked to stimulus presentation and phase-independent induced responses. Here, we investigate whether phase-locked and phase-independent oscillatory responses are heritable traits. Oscillatory responses were examined in EEG recordings from 213 twin pairs (91 monozygotic and 122 dizygotic twins) performing a visual oddball task. After group Independent Component Analysis (group-ICA) and time-frequency decomposition, individual differences in evoked and induced oscillatory responses were compared between MZ and DZ twin pairs. Induced (phase-independent) oscillatory responses consistently showed the highest heritability (24-55%) compared to evoked (phase-locked) oscillatory responses and spectral energy, which revealed lower heritability at 1-35.6% and 4.5-32.3%, respectively. Since the phase-independent induced response encodes functional aspects of the brain response to target stimuli different from evoked responses, we conclude that the modulation of ongoing oscillatory activity may serve as an additional endophenotype for behavioral phenotypes and psychiatric genetics. PMID:26744236

  11. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  12. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  13. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    PubMed

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship. PMID:26468140

  14. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  15. Neuronal networks and mediators of cortical neurovascular coupling responses in normal and altered brain states.

    PubMed

    Lecrux, C; Hamel, E

    2016-10-01

    Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity, such as blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, rely on the spatial and temporal coupling between changes in neurophysiology and haemodynamics, known as 'neurovascular coupling (NVC)'. Accordingly, NVC responses, mapped by changes in brain haemodynamics, have been validated for different stimuli under physiological conditions. In the cerebral cortex, the networks of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons generating the changes in neural activity and the key mediators that signal to the vascular unit have been identified for some incoming afferent pathways. The neural circuits recruited by whisker glutamatergic-, basal forebrain cholinergic- or locus coeruleus noradrenergic pathway stimulation were found to be highly specific and discriminative, particularly when comparing the two modulatory systems to the sensory response. However, it is largely unknown whether or not NVC is still reliable when brain states are altered or in disease conditions. This lack of knowledge is surprising since brain imaging is broadly used in humans and, ultimately, in conditions that deviate from baseline brain function. Using the whisker-to-barrel pathway as a model of NVC, we can interrogate the reliability of NVC under enhanced cholinergic or noradrenergic modulation of cortical circuits that alters brain states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574304

  16. Head and brain response to blast using sagittal and transverse finite element models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dilaver; Cronin, Duane S; Haladuick, Tyler N

    2014-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury caused by blast exposure from Improvised Explosive Devices has become increasingly prevalent in modern conflicts. To investigate head kinematics and brain tissue response in blast scenarios, two solid hexahedral blast-head models were developed in the sagittal and transverse planes. The models were coupled to an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian model of the surrounding air to model blast-head interaction, for three blast load cases (5 kg C4 at 3, 3.5 and 4 m). The models were validated using experimental kinematic data, where predicted accelerations were in good agreement with experimental tests, and intracranial pressure traces at four locations in the brain, where the models provided good predictions for frontal, temporal and parietal, but underpredicted pressures at the occipital location. Brain tissue response was investigated for the wide range of constitutive properties available. The models predicted relatively low peak principal brain tissue strains from 0.035 to 0.087; however, strain rates ranged from 225 to 571 s-1. Importantly, these models have allowed us to quantify expected strains and strain rates experienced in brain tissue, which can be used to guide future material characterization. These computationally efficient and predictive models can be used to evaluate protection and mitigation strategies in future analysis. PMID:24293124

  17. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  18. Externalizing proneness and brain response during pre-cuing and viewing of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Foell, Jens; Brislin, Sarah J; Strickland, Casey M; Seo, Dongju; Sabatinelli, Dean; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Externalizing proneness, or trait disinhibition, is a concept relevant to multiple high-impact disorders involving impulsive-aggressive behavior. Its mechanisms remain disputed: major models posit hyperresponsive reward circuitry or heightened threat-system reactivity as sources of disinhibitory tendencies. This study evaluated alternative possibilities by examining relations between trait disinhibition and brain reactivity during preparation for and processing of visual affective stimuli. Forty females participated in a functional neuroimaging procedure with stimuli presented in blocks containing either pleasurable or aversive pictures interspersed with neutral, with each picture preceded by a preparation signal. Preparing to view elicited activation in regions including nucleus accumbens, whereas visual regions and bilateral amygdala were activated during viewing of emotional pictures. High disinhibition predicted reduced nucleus accumbens activation during preparation within pleasant/neutral picture blocks, along with enhanced amygdala reactivity during viewing of pleasant and aversive pictures. Follow-up analyses revealed that the augmented amygdala response was related to reduced preparatory activation. Findings indicate that participants high in disinhibition are less able to process implicit cues and mentally prepare for upcoming stimuli, leading to limbic hyperreactivity during processing of actual stimuli. This outcome is helpful for integrating findings from studies suggesting reward-system hyperreactivity and others suggesting threat-system hyperreactivity as mechanisms for externalizing proneness. PMID:26113614

  19. Endogenous neurogenic cell response in the mature mammalian brain following traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In the mature mammalian brain, new neurons are generated throughout life in the neurogenic regions of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Over the past two decades, extensive studies have examined the extent of adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and DG, the role of the adult generated new neurons in normal brain function and the underlying mechanisms regulating the process of adult neurogenesis. The extent and the function of adult neurogenesis under neuropathological conditions have also been explored in varying types of disease models in animals. Increasing evidence has indicated that these endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells may play regenerative and reparative roles in response to CNS injuries or diseases. This review will discuss the potential functions of adult neurogenesis in the injured brain and will describe the recent development of strategies aimed at harnessing this neurogenic capacity in order to repopulate and repair the injured brain following trauma. PMID:25936874

  20. Dissociated stimulus and response conflict effect in the Stroop task: evidence from evoked brain potentials and brain oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingting; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Juan, Chi-Hung; Wang, Lin; Wang, Suiping; Zhu, Zude

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is a classic paradigm that can be used to examine cognitive control as it contains conditions with and without interference. Cumulative evidence suggests that both stimulus and response conflict contribute to the Stroop interference effect. However, it remains unclear whether there are dissociable event-related potential (ERP) or frequency band-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) power changes associated with stimulus conflict and response conflict. To investigate potential markers for each form of conflict, we applied a Stroop 2-1 mapping task in 20 healthy young adults. Results showed that a negative deflection in the 350-500ms time window (N450) and a positive deflection in the 600-900ms time window (late positive component, LPC) were associated with response conflict and stimulus conflict, respectively. Time-frequency analyses found that both stimulus and response conflict induced theta band power changes and that response conflict additionally induced a beta band power change. These results indicate that stimulus and response conflict in the Stroop task are associated with different ERP effects and brain oscillatory features. PMID:25511611

  1. Hemodynamic responses can modulate the brain oscillations in low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Wang, Yi-Feng; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have showed that the steady-state responses were able to be used as an effective index for modulating the neural oscillations in the high frequency ranges (> 1 Hz). However, the neural oscillations in low frequency ranges (<1 Hz) remain unknown. In this study, a series of fNIRS experimental tests were conducted to validate if the low frequency bands (0.1 Hz - 0.8 Hz) steady-state hemoglobin responses (SSHbRs) could be evoked and modulate the neural oscillation during a serial reaction time (SRT) task.

  2. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Rick O; Thomas, Amanda L; Fesi, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG) responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction) at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s). Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood. PMID:27326860

  3. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Amanda L.; Fesi, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG) responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction) at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s). Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood. PMID:27326860

  4. Low and moderate concentrations of lysobisphosphatidic acid in brain and liver of patients affected by some storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Kahma, K; Brotherus, J; Haltia, M; Renkonen, O

    1976-07-01

    The relative amount of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), known also as bis(monoacylglycerly)phosphate, among the total phospholipids was analyzed in post mortem samples of brain and liver of patients affected by four storage diseases. In spite of the extensive accumulation of storage lysosomes, none of the samples revealed a highly evelated LBPA content comparable to that found in the liver in Niemann-Pick disease and in the liver in lipidosis induced by 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol. We conclude that, although LBPA is often present in high concentration in lysosomes of many types of cells, it is not always a major component of these organelles. PMID:948249

  5. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Changlian; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Qian; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongfu; Kuhn, Hans-Georg; Blomgren, Klas

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. {yields} Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. {yields} Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. {yields} Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. {yields} Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 {sup o}C. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  6. Acquired differences in brain responses among monozygotic twins discordant for restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Schur, Ellen A; Kleinhans, Natalia M; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra S; Polivy, Janet; Del Parigi, Angelo; Maravilla, Kenneth R

    2012-01-18

    We studied whether self-reported intent to exert cognitive control over eating was associated with differences in brain response to food cues, independent of genetic background. Subjects were ten pairs of identical twins in which one twin was a restrained eater and the co-twin was unrestrained, as classified by the Herman and Polivy Restraint Scale. Before and after ingestion of a milkshake, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain response to photographs of objects, "fattening" food, and "non-fattening" food. At baseline, restrained eaters had greater activation in the left amygdala and the right thalamus in response to fattening food cues than did their unrestrained co-twins. When restrained eaters drank a milkshake, activation in response to fattening food photographs decreased across multiple brain areas, whereas activation induced by non-fattening food photographs increased. As compared to their unrestrained co-twins, restrained eaters who drank a milkshake had greater decreases in activation by fattening food images in the left amygdala and occipital lobe, and greater increases in activation by non-fattening food images in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Because of the discordant monozygotic twin study design, the findings provide a rigorous level of support for the hypothesis that adopting an intention to restrain eating alters brain response to food cues. PMID:21945867

  7. Brain responses to acupuncture stimulation in the prosthetic hand of an amputee patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seon; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the brain responses to acupuncture in an upper limb amputee patient. A 62-year-old male had previously undergone a lower left arm amputation following an electrical accident. Using functional MRI, we investigated brain responses to acupuncture stimulation in the aforementioned amputee under three conditions: (a) intact hand, (b) prosthetic hand (used by the patient), and (c) fake fabric hand. The patient described greater de qi sensation when he received acupuncture stimulation in his prosthetic hand compared to a fake hand, with both stimulations performed in a similar manner. We found enhanced brain activation in the insula and sensorimotor cortex in response to acupuncture stimulation in the amputee's prosthetic hand, while there was only minimal activation in the visual cortex in response to acupuncture stimulation in a fake hand. The enhanced brain responses to acupuncture stimulation of the patient's prosthetic hand might be derived from cortical reorganisation, as he has been using his prosthetic hand for over 40 years. Our findings suggest the possible use of acupuncture stimulation in a prosthetic hand as an enhanced sensory feedback mechanism, which may represent a new treatment approach for phantom limb pain. PMID:26033865

  8. Inducing Task-Relevant Responses to Speech in the Sleeping Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kouider, Sid; Andrillon, Thomas; Barbosa, Leonardo S.; Goupil, Louise; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Falling asleep leads to a loss of sensory awareness and to the inability to interact with the environment [1]. While this was traditionally thought as a consequence of the brain shutting down to external inputs, it is now acknowledged that incoming stimuli can still be processed, at least to some extent, during sleep [2]. For instance, sleeping participants can create novel sensory associations between tones and odors [3] or reactivate existing semantic associations, as evidenced by event-related potentials [4–7]. Yet, the extent to which the brain continues to process external stimuli remains largely unknown. In particular, it remains unclear whether sensory information can be processed in a flexible and task-dependent manner by the sleeping brain, all the way up to the preparation of relevant actions. Here, using semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks, we studied task-relevant responses triggered by spoken stimuli in the sleeping brain. Awake participants classified words as either animals or objects (experiment 1) or as either words or pseudowords (experiment 2) by pressing a button with their right or left hand, while transitioning toward sleep. The lateralized readiness potential (LRP), an electrophysiological index of response preparation, revealed that task-specific preparatory responses are preserved during sleep. These findings demonstrate that despite the absence of awareness and behavioral responsiveness, sleepers can still extract task-relevant information from external stimuli and covertly prepare for appropriate motor responses. PMID:25220055

  9. Hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle and brain response to faces

    PubMed Central

    Marečková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S.; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A.

    2014-01-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain’s response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle. PMID:23175677

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  12. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  13. Complete response of brain metastases from breast cancer overexpressing Her-2/neu to radiation and concurrent Lapatinib and Capecitabine.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Mirna; Saghir, Nagi S El; Salame, Joseph; Geara, Fady B

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) have a predilection to metastasize to the brain. Therapeutic options for brain metastases with systemic therapy remain a challenge in those patients since targeted and chemotherapeutic agents have limited penetration through the blood-brain barrier. Here we report the case of a patient with brain metastases from breast cancer overexpressing HER-2 who achieved a complete radiologic response after treatment by radiation and concurrent Lapatinib and Capecitabine. PMID:21070441

  14. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  15. Transcriptional responses of the nerve agent-sensitive brain regions amygdala, hippocampus, piriform cortex, septum, and thalamus following exposure to the organophosphonate anticholinesterase sarin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents is known to result from acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of neuropathology following nerve agent-induced seizure are not well understood. To help determine these pathways, we previously used microarray analysis to identify gene expression changes in the rat piriform cortex, a region of the rat brain sensitive to nerve agent exposure, over a 24-h time period following sarin-induced seizure. We found significant differences in gene expression profiles and identified secondary responses that potentially lead to brain injury and cell death. To advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in sarin-induced toxicity, we analyzed gene expression changes in four other areas of the rat brain known to be affected by nerve agent-induced seizure (amygdala, hippocampus, septum, and thalamus). Methods We compared the transcriptional response of these four brain regions to sarin-induced seizure with the response previously characterized in the piriform cortex. In this study, rats were challenged with 1.0 × LD50 sarin and subsequently treated with atropine sulfate, 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride, and diazepam. The four brain regions were collected at 0.25, 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after seizure onset, and total RNA was processed for microarray analysis. Results Principal component analysis identified brain region and time following seizure onset as major sources of variability within the dataset. Analysis of variance identified genes significantly changed following sarin-induced seizure, and gene ontology analysis identified biological pathways, functions, and networks of genes significantly affected by sarin-induced seizure over the 24-h time course. Many of the molecular functions and pathways identified as being most significant across all of the brain regions were indicative of an inflammatory response. There were also a number of

  16. Human traumatic brain injury induces autoantibody response against glial fibrillary acidic protein and its breakdown products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Zoltewicz, J Susie; Mondello, Stefania; Newsom, Kimberly J; Yang, Zhihui; Yang, Boxuan; Kobeissy, Firas; Guingab, Joy; Glushakova, Olena; Robicsek, Steven; Heaton, Shelley; Buki, Andras; Hannay, Julia; Gold, Mark S; Rubenstein, Richard; Lu, Xi-Chun May; Dave, Jitendra R; Schmid, Kara; Tortella, Frank; Robertson, Claudia S; Wang, Kevin K W

    2014-01-01

    The role of systemic autoimmunity in human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other forms of brain injuries is recognized but not well understood. In this study, a systematic investigation was performed to identify serum autoantibody responses to brain-specific proteins after TBI in humans. TBI autoantibodies showed predominant immunoreactivity against a cluster of bands from 38-50 kDa on human brain immunoblots, which were identified as GFAP and GFAP breakdown products. GFAP autoantibody levels increased by 7 days after injury, and were of the IgG subtype predominantly. Results from in vitro tests and rat TBI experiments also indicated that calpain was responsible for removing the amino and carboxyl termini of GFAP to yield a 38 kDa fragment. Additionally, TBI autoantibody staining co-localized with GFAP in injured rat brain and in primary rat astrocytes. These results suggest that GFAP breakdown products persist within degenerating astrocytes in the brain. Anti-GFAP autoantibody also can enter living astroglia cells in culture and its presence appears to compromise glial cell health. TBI patients showed an average 3.77 fold increase in anti-GFAP autoantibody levels from early (0-1 days) to late (7-10 days) times post injury. Changes in autoantibody levels were negatively correlated with outcome as measured by GOS-E score at 6 months, suggesting that TBI patients with greater anti-GFAP immune-responses had worse outcomes. Due to the long lasting nature of IgG, a test to detect anti-GFAP autoantibodies is likely to prolong the temporal window for assessment of brain damage in human patients. PMID:24667434

  17. Altered brain morphology and functional connectivity reflect a vulnerable affective state after cumulative multigenerational stress in rats.

    PubMed

    McCreary, J Keiko; Truica, L Sorina; Friesen, Becky; Yao, Youli; Olson, David M; Kovalchuk, Igor; Cross, Albert R; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-08-25

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for abnormal neuroanatomical, cognitive, behavioral and mental health outcomes with potentially transgenerational consequences. Females in general seem more resilient to the effects of prenatal stress than males. Here, we examined if repeated stress across generations may diminish stress resiliency and cumulatively enhance the susceptibility for adverse health outcomes in females. Pregnant female rats of three successive generations were exposed to stress from gestational days 12-18 to generate multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) in the maternal lineage. Stress response was measured by plasma corticosterone levels and open-field exploration in each generation. Neuromorphological consequences of MPS were investigated in the F3 generation using in vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), T2-relaxometry, and cytoarchitectonics in relation to candidate gene expression involved in brain plasticity and mental health. Each additional generation of prenatal stress incrementally elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, anxiety-like and aversive behaviors in adult female offspring. Elevated stress responses in the MPS F3 generation were accompanied by reduced neural density in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and whole brain along with altered brain activation patterns in in vivo MEMRI. MPS increased ephrin receptor A5 (Epha5), neuronal growth regulator (Negr1) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) gene expression and reduced fibroblast growth factor 12 (Fgf12) in prefrontal cortex. These genes regulate neuronal maturation, arborization and synaptic plasticity and may explain altered brain cytoarchitectonics and connectivity. These findings emphasize that recurrent stress across generations may cumulatively increase stress vulnerability and the risk of adverse health outcomes through perinatal programing in females. PMID:27241944

  18. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. PMID:26609811

  19. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  20. 20 CFR 220.16 - Responsibility to notify the Board of events which affect disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2