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Sample records for affect brain structure

  1. Microhabitat use affects brain size and structure in intertidal gobies.

    PubMed

    White, Gemma E; Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    The ecological cognition hypothesis poses that the brains and behaviours of individuals are largely shaped by the environments in which they live and the associated challenges they must overcome during their lives. Here we examine the effect of environmental complexity on relative brain size in 4 species of intertidal gobies from differing habitats. Two species were rock pool specialists that lived on spatially complex rocky shores, while the remainder lived on dynamic, but structurally simple, sandy shores. We found that rock pool-dwelling species had relatively larger brains and telencephalons in particular, while sand-dwelling species had a larger optic tectum and hypothalamus. In general, it appears that various fish species trade off neural investment in specific brain lobes depending on the environment in which they live. Our previous research suggests that rock pool species have greater spatial learning abilities, enabling them to navigate their spatially complex environment, which may account for their enlarged telencephalon, while sand-dwelling species likely have a reduced need for spatial learning, due to their spatially simple habitat, and a greater need for visual acuity. The dorsal medulla and cerebellum size was unaffected by the habitat in which the fish lived, but there were differences between species indicative of species-specific trade-offs in neural investment. PMID:25896449

  2. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Forde, Natalie J; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J; Cannon, Dara M; Murray, Robin M; McDonald, Colm

    2015-10-30

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its endophenotypic potential. Magnetic resonance diffusion images for 19 BP type I patients in remission, 21 of their first degree unaffected relatives, and 18 unrelated healthy controls underwent tractography. With the automated anatomical labelling atlas being used to define nodes, a connectivity matrix was generated for each subject. Network metrics were extracted with the Brain Connectivity Toolbox and then analysed for group differences, accounting for potential confounding effects of age, gender and familial association. Whole brain analysis revealed no differences between groups. Analysis of specific mainly frontal regions, previously implicated as potentially endophenotypic by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the same cohort, revealed a significant effect of group in the right medial superior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus driven by reduced organisation in patients compared with controls. The organisation of whole brain networks of those affected with BP I does not differ from their unaffected relatives or healthy controls. In discreet frontal regions, however, anatomical connectivity is disrupted in patients but not in their unaffected relatives. PMID:26382105

  3. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory. PMID:27508865

  4. CFH Variants Affect Structural and Functional Brain Changes and Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Jin; Wu, Huan; Cui, Yue; Bi, Rui; Zhou, He-Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Li, Tao; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Tianzi; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The immune response is highly active in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of genetic risk contributed by immune genes to AD may provide essential insight for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we performed a genetic screening for AD-related top immune genes identified in Europeans in a Chinese cohort, followed by a multiple-stage study focusing on Complement Factor H (CFH) gene. Effects of the risk SNPs on AD-related neuroimaging endophenotypes were evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the effects on AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and CFH expression changes were measured in aged and AD brain tissues and AD cellular models. Our results showed that the AD-associated top immune genes reported in Europeans (CR1, CD33, CLU, and TREML2) have weak effects in Chinese, whereas CFH showed strong effects. In particular, rs1061170 (P(meta)=5.0 × 10(-4)) and rs800292 (P(meta)=1.3 × 10(-5)) showed robust associations with AD, which were confirmed in multiple world-wide sample sets (4317 cases and 16 795 controls). Rs1061170 (P=2.5 × 10(-3)) and rs800292 (P=4.7 × 10(-4)) risk-allele carriers have an increased entorhinal thickness in their young age and a higher atrophy rate as the disease progresses. Rs800292 risk-allele carriers have higher CSF tau and Aβ levels and severe cognitive decline. CFH expression level, which was affected by the risk-alleles, was increased in AD brains and cellular models. These comprehensive analyses suggested that CFH is an important immune factor in AD and affects multiple pathological changes in early life and during disease progress. PMID:26243271

  5. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. PMID:25978461

  6. Factors affecting brain structure in men with HIV disease in the post-HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Maruca, Victoria; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Sanders, Joanne M.; Alger, Jeffery R.; Barker, Peter B.; Goodkin, Karl; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N.; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to characterize brain volumetric differences in HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine effects of age, cardiovascular risk, and HIV infection on structural integrity. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data in 160 men aged 50 years and over, including 84 HIV seropositive and 76 seronegative controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. Data from a detailed neuropsychological test battery were recombined into four summary scores representing psychomotor speed, visual memory, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Results Both age and HIV status had a significant effect on both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume. The age-related GM atrophy was primarily in the superior temporal and inferior frontal regions; the HIV-related GM loss included the posterior and inferior temporal lobes, the parietal lobes, and the cerebellum. Among all subjects, the performance on neuropsychological tests, as indexed by a summary variable, was related to the volume of both the GM and WM. Contrary to our predictions, the CVD variables were not linked to brain volume in statistically adjusted models. Conclusion In the post-HAART era, having HIV infection is still linked to atrophy in both GM and WM. Secondly, advancing age, even in this relatively young cohort, is also linked to changes in GM and WM volume. Thirdly, CNS structural integrity is associated with overall cognitive functions, regardless of the HIV infection status of the study volunteers. PMID:21424708

  7. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25893743

  8. Brain lesions affect penile reflexes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, E P; Arjomand, J; Breedlove, S M

    1993-03-01

    Electrolytic lesions of several potential brain afferents to the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) affect the display of penile reflexes. Ablation of the median and pontine raphe areas significantly potentiates the expression of cups and flips. Animals with a bilateral lesion of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus have a shorter latency to the first erection but otherwise display normal reflex behavior. Although bilateral destruction of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) completely eliminated penile reflex activity, it also caused significant motor impairment thus clouding conclusions concerning the normal role of the LVN in penile reflex behavior. These and other results support the hypothesis that these brain regions which project to the SNB region normally modulate spinal reflex behavior of the rat penis. PMID:8440513

  9. Alpha-lipoic acid affects the oxidative stress in various brain structures in mice with methionine and choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Veskovic, Milena; Mladenovic, Dusan; Jorgacevic, Bojan; Stevanovic, Ivana; de Luka, Silvio; Radosavljevic, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Deficiency in methionine or choline can induce oxidative stress in various organs such as liver, kidney, heart, and brain. This study was to examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by methionine and choline deficiency (MCD) in several brain structures. Male mice C57BL/6 (n = 28) were divided into four groups: (1) control - continuously fed with standard chow; (2) LA - fed with standard chow and receiving LA; (3) MCD2 - fed with MCD diet for two weeks, and (4) MCD2+LA - fed with MCD diet for two weeks and receiving LA (100 mg/kg/day intraperitonealy [i.p.]). Brain tissue (cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus) was taken for determination of oxidative stress parameters. MCD diet induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NOx concentration in all brain regions, while LA restored their content to normal values. Similar to this, in MCD2 group, activity of total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD was reduced by MCD diet, while LA treatment improved their activities in all brain structures. Besides, in MCD2 group a decrease in catalase activity in cortex and GSH content in hypothalamus was evident, while LA treatment induced an increase in catalase activity in cortex and striatum and GSH content in hypothalamus. LA treatment can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress, caused by MCD diet, in all brain regions by restoring antioxidant enzymes activities, predominantly total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD, and to a lesser extent by modulating catalase activity and GSH content. LA supplementation may be used in order to prevent brain oxidative injury induced by methionine and choline deficiency. PMID:25193852

  10. Structural brain defects.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Fricke, Stanley T; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    Up to 14% of patients with congenital metabolic disease may show structural brain abnormalities from perturbation of cell proliferation, migration, and/or organization. Most inborn errors of metabolism have a postnatal onset. Abnormalities from genetic disease processes have a prenatal onset. Energy impairment, substrate insufficiency, cell membrane receptor and cell signaling abnormalities, and toxic byproduct accumulation are associations between genetic disorders and structural brain anomalies. Collective imaging patterns of brain abnormalities can provide clues to the underlying etiology. We review selected metabolic diseases associated with brain malformations and highlight characteristic clinical and imaging manifestations that help narrow the differential diagnosis. PMID:26042908

  11. Genetic influences on brain structure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P M; Cannon, T D; Narr, K L; van Erp, T; Poutanen, V P; Huttunen, M; Lönnqvist, J; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C G; Kaprio, J; Khaledy, M; Dail, R; Zoumalan, C I; Toga, A W

    2001-12-01

    Here we report on detailed three-dimensional maps revealing how brain structure is influenced by individual genetic differences. A genetic continuum was detected in which brain structure was increasingly similar in subjects with increasing genetic affinity. Genetic factors significantly influenced cortical structure in Broca's and Wernicke's language areas, as well as frontal brain regions (r2(MZ) > 0.8, p < 0.05). Preliminary correlations were performed suggesting that frontal gray matter differences may be linked to Spearman's g, which measures successful test performance across multiple cognitive domains (p < 0.05). These genetic brain maps reveal how genes determine individual differences, and may shed light on the heritability of cognitive and linguistic skills, as well as genetic liability for diseases that affect the human cortex. PMID:11694885

  12. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  13. Brain temperature could affect neurochemical evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of natural brain temperature fluctuations as a critical factor affecting electrochemical detection of extracellular glutamate in awake rats and proposes a viable strategy to exclude this inescapable influence, thereby increasing the reliability of electrochemical measurements of glutamate in behaving animals.

  14. Connectomics Signatures of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Affected Adolescent Brains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Li, Zhihao; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Coles, Claire; Hu, Xiaoping; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Recent in-vivo neuroimaging studies revealed that several brain networks are altered in prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) affected adolescent brains. However, due to a lack of dense and corresponding cortical landmarks across individuals, the systematical alterations of functional connectivities in large-scale brain networks and the alteration of structural brain architecture in PCE affected brain are largely unknown. In this paper, we adopted a newly-developed data-driven strategy to build a large set of cortical landmarks that are consistent and corresponding across PCE adolescents and their matched controls. Based on these landmarks, we constructed large-scale functional connectomes, and applied the well-established approaches of deriving genomics signatures in genome-wide gene expression studies to discover functional connectomics signatures for the characterization of PCE adolescent brains. Results derived from experimental data demonstrated that 10 structurally disrupted landmarks were identified in PCE, and more importantly, the discovered informative functional connectomics signatures among consistent landmarks distinctively differentiate PCE brains from their matched controls. PMID:22461404

  15. Mapping genetic influences on human brain structure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul; Cannon, Tyrone D; Toga, Arthur W

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics have empowered the mapping of genetic and environmental influences on the human brain. These techniques shed light on the 'nature/nurture' debate, revealing how genes determine individual differences in intelligence quotient (IQ) or risk for disease. They visualize which aspects of brain structure and function are heritable, and to what degree, linking these features with behavioral or cognitive traits or disease phenotypes. In genetically transmitted disorders such as schizophrenia, patterns of brain structure can be associated with increased disease liability, and sites can be mapped where non-genetic triggers may initiate disease. We recently developed a large-scale computational brain atlas, including data components from the Finnish Twin registry, to store information on individual variations in brain structure and their heritability. Algorithms from random field theory, anatomical modeling, and population genetics were combined to detect a genetic continuum in which brain structure is heavily genetically determined in some areas but not others. These algorithmic advances motivate studies of disease in which the normative atlas acts as a quantitative reference for the heritability of structural differences and deficits in patient populations. The resulting genetic brain maps isolate biological markers for inherited traits and disease susceptibility, which may serve as targets for genetic linkage and association studies. Computational methods from brain imaging and genetics can be fruitfully merged, to shed light on the inheritance of personality differences and behavioral traits, and the genetic transmission of diseases that affect the human brain. PMID:12553492

  16. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  17. Diagnosing pseudobulbar affect in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, William; Hammond, Flora M; Malec, James F

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined by episodes of involuntary crying and/or laughing as a result of brain injury or other neurological disease. Epidemiology studies show that 5.3%–48.2% of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have symptoms consistent with (or suggestive of) PBA. Yet it is a difficult and often overlooked condition in individuals with TBI, and is easily confused with depression or other mood disorders. As a result, it may be undertreated and persist for longer than it should. This review presents the signs and symptoms of PBA in patients with existing TBI and outlines how to distinguish PBA from other similar conditions. It also compares and contrasts the different diagnostic criteria found in the literature and briefly mentions appropriate treatments. This review follows a composite case with respect to the clinical course and treatment for PBA and presents typical challenges posed to a provider when diagnosing PBA. PMID:25336956

  18. Brain Structure and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyler, T.J.; Chiaia, N.

    1983-01-01

    Considers basic biology of brain, what is known of how it operates, and something of how it develops. Discusses properties of neurons and specialized regions of the brain in linguistic and higher order processing skills, as well as genetic and environmental influences on brain development. (CMG)

  19. Novel Neuroimaging Methods to Understand How HIV Affects the Brain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul M; Jahanshad, Neda

    2015-06-01

    In much of the developed world, the HIV epidemic has largely been controlled by antiretroviral treatment. Even so, there is growing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for accelerated brain aging and a range of cognitive impairments. What promotes or resists these changes is largely unknown. There is also interest in discovering factors that promote resilience to HIV and combat its adverse effects in children. Here, we review recent developments in brain imaging that reveal how the virus affects the brain. We relate these brain changes to changes in blood markers, cognitive function, and other patient outcomes or symptoms, such as apathy or neuropathic pain. We focus on new and emerging techniques, including new variants of brain MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging, for example, can map the brain's structural connections, while fMRI can uncover functional connections. Finally, we suggest how large-scale global research alliances, such as ENIGMA, may resolve controversies over effects where evidence is now lacking. These efforts pool scans from tens of thousands of individuals and offer a source of power not previously imaginable for brain imaging studies. PMID:25902966

  20. Novel Neuroimaging Methods to Understand How HIV Affects the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In much of the developed world, the HIV epidemic has largely been controlled by anti-retroviral treatment. Even so, there is growing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for accelerated brain aging, and a range of cognitive impairments. What promotes or resists these changes is largely unknown. There is also interest in discovering factors that promote resilience to HIV, and combat its adverse effects in children. Here we review recent developments in brain imaging that reveal how the virus affects the brain. We relate these brain changes to changes in blood markers, cognitive function, and other patient outcomes or symptoms, such as apathy or neuropathic pain. We focus on new and emerging techniques, including new variants of brain MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging, for example, can map the brain’s structural connections while fMRI can uncover functional connections. Finally, we suggest how large-scale global research alliances, such as ENIGMA, may resolve controversies over effects where evidence is now lacking. These efforts pool scans from tens of thousands of individuals, and offer a source of power not previously imaginable for brain imaging studies. PMID:25902966

  1. Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159124.html Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care Those on Medicaid have less access ... May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children with traumatic brain injuries may be less likely to receive rehabilitation ...

  2. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  3. Controllability of structural brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Cieslak, Matthew; Telesford, Qawi K.; Yu, Alfred B.; Kahn, Ari E.; Medaglia, John D.; Vettel, Jean M.; Miller, Michael B.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive function is driven by dynamic interactions between large-scale neural circuits or networks, enabling behaviour. However, fundamental principles constraining these dynamic network processes have remained elusive. Here we use tools from control and network theories to offer a mechanistic explanation for how the brain moves between cognitive states drawn from the network organization of white matter microstructure. Our results suggest that densely connected areas, particularly in the default mode system, facilitate the movement of the brain to many easily reachable states. Weakly connected areas, particularly in cognitive control systems, facilitate the movement of the brain to difficult-to-reach states. Areas located on the boundary between network communities, particularly in attentional control systems, facilitate the integration or segregation of diverse cognitive systems. Our results suggest that structural network differences between cognitive circuits dictate their distinct roles in controlling trajectories of brain network function.

  4. Controllability of structural brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Cieslak, Matthew; Telesford, Qawi K.; Yu, Alfred B.; Kahn, Ari E.; Medaglia, John D.; Vettel, Jean M.; Miller, Michael B.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function is driven by dynamic interactions between large-scale neural circuits or networks, enabling behaviour. However, fundamental principles constraining these dynamic network processes have remained elusive. Here we use tools from control and network theories to offer a mechanistic explanation for how the brain moves between cognitive states drawn from the network organization of white matter microstructure. Our results suggest that densely connected areas, particularly in the default mode system, facilitate the movement of the brain to many easily reachable states. Weakly connected areas, particularly in cognitive control systems, facilitate the movement of the brain to difficult-to-reach states. Areas located on the boundary between network communities, particularly in attentional control systems, facilitate the integration or segregation of diverse cognitive systems. Our results suggest that structural network differences between cognitive circuits dictate their distinct roles in controlling trajectories of brain network function. PMID:26423222

  5. Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159124.html Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care Those ... included providers of physical and occupational therapy; speech, language and cognitive therapy; and mental health services. The ...

  6. Structural and functional brain imaging in schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, J M; Zipursky, R B; List, S J

    1991-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the contribution of structural and functional brain imaging to our understanding of schizophrenia. Methodological influences on the validity of the data generated by these new technologies include problems with measurement and clinical and anatomic heterogeneity. These considerations greatly affect the interpretation of the data generated by these technologies. Work in these fields to date, however, has produced strong evidence which suggests that schizophrenia is a disease which involves abnormalities in the structure and function of many brain areas. Structural brain imaging studies of schizophrenia using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed and their contribution to current theories of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia are discussed. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of brain metabolic activity and dopamine receptor binding in schizophrenia are summarized and the critical questions raised by these studies are outlined. Future studies in these fields have the potential to yield critical insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; new directions for studies of schizophrenia using these technologies are identified. PMID:1911736

  7. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  8. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:23439389

  9. Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T

    2003-10-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  10. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  11. Consensus between Pipelines in Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Christopher S.; Deligianni, Fani; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Daga, Pankaj; Modat, Marc; Dayan, Michael; Clark, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    Structural brain networks may be reconstructed from diffusion MRI tractography data and have great potential to further our understanding of the topological organisation of brain structure in health and disease. Network reconstruction is complex and involves a series of processesing methods including anatomical parcellation, registration, fiber orientation estimation and whole-brain fiber tractography. Methodological choices at each stage can affect the anatomical accuracy and graph theoretical properties of the reconstructed networks, meaning applying different combinations in a network reconstruction pipeline may produce substantially different networks. Furthermore, the choice of which connections are considered important is unclear. In this study, we assessed the similarity between structural networks obtained using two independent state-of-the-art reconstruction pipelines. We aimed to quantify network similarity and identify the core connections emerging most robustly in both pipelines. Similarity of network connections was compared between pipelines employing different atlases by merging parcels to a common and equivalent node scale. We found a high agreement between the networks across a range of fiber density thresholds. In addition, we identified a robust core of highly connected regions coinciding with a peak in similarity across network density thresholds, and replicated these results with atlases at different node scales. The binary network properties of these core connections were similar between pipelines but showed some differences in atlases across node scales. This study demonstrates the utility of applying multiple structural network reconstrution pipelines to diffusion data in order to identify the most important connections for further study. PMID:25356977

  12. Musical Training Shapes Structural Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Krista L.; Lerch, Jason; Norton, Andrea; Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Evans, Alan C.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    The human brain has the remarkable capacity to alter in response to environmental demands. Training-induced structural brain changes have been demonstrated in the healthy adult human brain. However, no study has yet directly related structural brain changes to behavioral changes in the developing brain, addressing the question of whether structural brain differences seen in adults (comparing experts with matched controls) are a product of “nature” (via biological brain predispositions) or “nurture” (via early training). Long-term instrumental music training is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience and offers an ideal opportunity to study structural brain plasticity in the developing brain in correlation with behavioral changes induced by training. Here we demonstrate structural brain changes after only 15 months of musical training in early childhood, which were correlated with improvements in musically relevant motor and auditory skills. These findings shed light on brain plasticity and suggest that structural brain differences in adult experts (whether musicians or experts in other areas) are likely due to training-induced brain plasticity. PMID:19279238

  13. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development.

    PubMed

    Brito, Natalie H; Noble, Kimberly G

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain. PMID:25249931

  14. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Natalie H.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain. PMID:25249931

  15. Pathological display of affect in patients with depression and right frontal brain damage. An alternative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ross, E D; Stewart, R S

    1987-03-01

    Two patients are reported with the acute onset of pathological crying following right inferior frontal brain damage. Both had severe endogenous depression and neither had pseudobulbar palsy. These and other cases argue that two organic brain diseases--one structural and the other "physiopharmacological"--may interact to produce pathological display of affect that cannot be accounted for by traditional neurological explanations. A pharmacological mechanism for the rapid amelioration of pathological affect by tricyclic medications and its possible relationship to the newly discovered descending motor systems of the brain that use norepinephrine and serotonin as neurotransmitters is offered. These cases also suggest that pathological affect is a valuable clinical indicator of an underlying major depression in some brain-injured patients. PMID:3819712

  16. Beyond a bigger brain: Multivariable structural brain imaging and intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Corley, Janie; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Gow, Alan J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Pattie, Alison; Karama, Sherif; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    People with larger brains tend to score higher on tests of general intelligence (g). It is unclear, however, how much variance in intelligence other brain measurements would account for if included together with brain volume in a multivariable model. We examined a large sample of individuals in their seventies (n = 672) who were administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery. Using structural equation modelling, we related six common magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain variables that represent normal and abnormal features—brain volume, cortical thickness, white matter structure, white matter hyperintensity load, iron deposits, and microbleeds—to g and to fluid intelligence. As expected, brain volume accounted for the largest portion of variance (~ 12%, depending on modelling choices). Adding the additional variables, especially cortical thickness (+~ 5%) and white matter hyperintensity load (+~ 2%), increased the predictive value of the model. Depending on modelling choices, all neuroimaging variables together accounted for 18–21% of the variance in intelligence. These results reveal which structural brain imaging measures relate to g over and above the largest contributor, total brain volume. They raise questions regarding which other neuroimaging measures might account for even more of the variance in intelligence. PMID:26240470

  17. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  18. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  19. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  20. The bimusical brain is not two monomusical brains in one: evidence from musical affective processing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Roy, Anil; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2011-12-01

    Complex auditory exposures in ambient environments include systems of not only linguistic but also musical sounds. Because musical exposure is often passive, consisting of listening rather than performing, examining listeners without formal musical training allows for the investigation of the effects of passive exposure on our nervous system without active use. Additionally, studying listeners who have exposure to more than one musical system allows for an evaluation of how the brain acquires multiple symbolic and communicative systems. In the present fMRI study, listeners who had been exposed to Western-only (monomusicals) and both Indian and Western musical systems (bimusicals) since childhood and did not have significant formal musical training made tension judgments on Western and Indian music. Significant group by music interactions in temporal and limbic regions were found, with effects predominantly driven by between-music differences in temporal regions in the monomusicals and by between-music differences in limbic regions in the bimusicals. Effective connectivity analysis of this network via structural equation modeling (SEM) showed significant path differences across groups and music conditions, most notably a higher degree of connectivity and larger differentiation between the music conditions within the bimusicals. SEM was also used to examine the relationships among the degree of music exposure, affective responses, and activation in various brain regions. Results revealed a more complex behavioral-neural relationship in the bimusicals, suggesting that affective responses in this group are shaped by multiple behavioral and neural factors. These three lines of evidence suggest a clear differentiation of the effects of the exposure of one versus multiple musical systems. PMID:21812560

  1. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

  2. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  3. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  4. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  5. Affection of Fundamental Brain Activity By Using Sounds For Patients With Prosodic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Emiko; Katagiri, Yoshitada; Seki, Keiko; Kawamata, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    We present a neural model of the production of modulated speech streams in the brain, referred to as prosody, which indicates the limbic structure essential for producing prosody both linguistically and emotionally. This model suggests that activating the fundamental brain including monoamine neurons at the basal ganglia will potentially contribute to helping patients with prosodic disorders coming from functional defects of the fundamental brain to overcome their speech problem. To establish effective clinical treatment for such prosodic disorders, we examine how sounds affect the fundamental activity by using electroencephalographic measurements. Throughout examinations with various melodious sounds, we found that some melodies with lilting rhythms successfully give rise to the fast alpha rhythms at the electroencephalogram which reflect the fundamental brain activity without any negative feelings.

  6. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  7. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  8. Language affects patterns of brain activation associated with perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Hai; Chan, Alice H D; Kay, Paul; Khong, Pek-Lan; Yip, Lawrance K C; Luke, Kang-Kwong

    2008-03-11

    Well over half a century ago, Benjamin Lee Whorf [Carroll JB (1956) Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)] proposed that language affects perception and thought and is used to segment nature, a hypothesis that has since been tested by linguistic and behavioral studies. Although clear Whorfian effects have been found, it has not yet been demonstrated that language influences brain activity associated with perception and/or immediate postperceptual processes (referred hereafter as "perceptual decision"). Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that brain regions mediating language processes participate in neural networks activated by perceptual decision. When subjects performed a perceptual discrimination task on easy-to-name and hard-to-name colored squares, largely overlapping cortical regions were identified, which included areas of the occipital cortex critical for color vision and regions in the bilateral frontal gyrus. Crucially, however, in comparison with hard-to-name colored squares, perceptual discrimination of easy-to-name colors evoked stronger activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, two regions responsible for word-finding processes, as demonstrated by a localizer experiment that uses an explicit color patch naming task. This finding suggests that the language-processing areas of the brain are directly involved in visual perceptual decision, thus providing neuroimaging support for the Whorf hypothesis. PMID:18316728

  9. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  10. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  11. Affective recognition memory processing and event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory was examined for visual affective stimuli using behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that varied systematically in arousal level (low, high) and valence direction (unpleasant, pleasant) were first viewed passively. Then, during a response phase, the original images were intermixed with an equal number of new images and presented, and participants were instructed to press a button to indicate whether each stimulus picture was previously viewed (target) or new (foil). Participants were more sensitive to unpleasant- than to pleasant-valence stimuli and were biased to respond to high-arousal unpleasant stimuli as targets, whether the stimuli were previously viewed or new. Response times (RTs) to target stimuli were systematically affected by valence, whereas RTs to foil stimuli were influenced by arousal level. ERP component amplitudes were generally larger for high than for low arousal levels. The P300 (late positive component) amplitude was largest for high-arousal unpleasant target images. These and other amplitude effects suggest that high-arousal unpleasant stimuli engage a privileged memory-processing route during stimulus processing. Theoretical relationships between affective and memory processes are discussed. PMID:21384231

  12. How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic…

  13. Affective modulation of the startle reflex following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claire; Wood, Rodger L

    2012-01-01

    Diminished emotional recognition, expression, and responsivity are frequent legacies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can have an adverse impact on relationships and psychosocial recovery. However, assessment of emotion responsivity is often difficult because many patients lack insight into their altered personality. To overcome this obstacle, we used a physiological measure of emotion responsivity, the startle reflex, to examine how this can vary according to the affective valence of stimuli by comparing a TBI group with a matched control group. The study also examined whether weaknesses of attention and speed of information processing could account for differences in startle modulation across groups. Sixty-four TBI patients and controls completed the startle reflex procedure. Participants were presented with pictures that differed in affective valence, and measures were taken of eyeblink startle responses to an acoustic probe. Subjective ratings of affect and arousal for each picture were obtained, and TBI patients completed measures of attention and information processing. Results revealed that the TBI group did not show the pattern of startle modulation observed in the control group. Whilst pleasant pictures produced the usual attenuation of the startle response, startle responses to unpleasant pictures were significantly lower in the TBI group than in controls. No significant correlations emerged between startle responses and performance on neuropsychological measures in the TBI group. The TBI group also rated unpleasant pictures as significantly less arousing than did controls. The results provide partial support for a growing body of evidence that has proposed impaired emotion responsivity following TBI. PMID:22873359

  14. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC. PMID:23900312

  15. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890892

  16. Segmentation of human brain using structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Helms, Gunther

    2016-04-01

    Segmentation of human brain using structural MRI is a key step of processing in imaging neuroscience. The methods have undergone a rapid development in the past two decades and are now widely available. This non-technical review aims at providing an overview and basic understanding of the most common software. Starting with the basis of structural MRI contrast in brain and imaging protocols, the concepts of voxel-based and surface-based segmentation are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the typical contrast features and morphological constraints of cortical and sub-cortical grey matter. In addition to the use for voxel-based morphometry, basic applications in quantitative MRI, cortical thickness estimations, and atrophy measurements as well as assignment of cortical regions and deep brain nuclei are briefly discussed. Finally, some fields for clinical applications are given. PMID:26739264

  17. Reading skill and structural brain development

    PubMed Central

    Houston, S.M.; Lebel, C.; Katzir, T.; Manis, F.R.; Kan, E.; Rodriguez, G.R.; Sowell, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, 8 male, mean age of sample=10.06 ±3.29) received two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, (mean inter-scan interval =2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions. PMID:24407200

  18. Affective mentalizing and brain activity at rest in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Silvia P.; Canessa, Nicola; Cerami, Chiara; Dodich, Alessandra; Crespi, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2015-01-01

    Background bvFTD patients display an impairment in the attribution of cognitive and affective states to others, reflecting GM atrophy in brain regions associated with social cognition, such as amygdala, superior temporal cortex and posterior insula. Distinctive patterns of abnormal brain functioning at rest have been reported in bvFTD, but their relationship with defective attribution of affective states has not been investigated. Objective To investigate the relationship among resting-state brain activity, gray matter (GM) atrophy and the attribution of mental states in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal degeneration (bvFTD). Methods We compared 12 bvFTD patients with 30 age- and education-matched healthy controls on a) performance in a task requiring the attribution of affective vs. cognitive mental states; b) metrics of resting-state activity in known functional networks; and c) the relationship between task-performances and resting-state metrics. In addition, we assessed a connection between abnormal resting-state metrics and GM atrophy. Results Compared with controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction of intra-network coherent activity in several components, as well as decreased strength of activation in networks related to attentional processing. Anomalous resting-state activity involved networks which also displayed a significant reduction of GM density. In patients, compared with controls, higher affective mentalizing performance correlated with stronger functional connectivity between medial prefrontal sectors of the default-mode and attentional/performance monitoring networks, as well as with increased coherent activity in components of the executive, sensorimotor and fronto-limbic networks. Conclusions Some of the observed effects may reflect specific compensatory mechanisms for the atrophic changes involving regions in charge of affective mentalizing. The analysis of specific resting-state networks thus highlights an intermediate level of

  19. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  20. Structured brain computing and its learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ae, Tadashi; Araki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Keiichi

    1999-03-22

    We have proposed a two-level architecture for brain computing, where two levels are introduced for processing of meta-symbol. At level 1 a conventional pattern recognition is performed, where neural computation is included, and its output gives the meta-symbol which is a symbol enlarged from a symbol to a kind of pattern. At Level 2 an algorithm acquisition is made by using a machine for abstract states. We are also developing the VLSI chips at each level for SBC (Structured Brain Computer) Ver.1.0.

  1. Structural brain lesions in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Dolapcioglu, Can; Dolapcioglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications or manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease deserve particular attention because symptomatic conditions can require early diagnosis and treatment, whereas unexplained manifestations might be linked with pathogenic mechanisms. This review focuses on both symptomatic and asymptomatic brain lesions detectable on imaging studies, as well as their frequency and potential mechanisms. A direct causal relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asymptomatic structural brain changes has not been demonstrated, but several possible explanations, including vasculitis, thromboembolism and malnutrition, have been proposed. IBD is associated with a tendency for thromboembolisms; therefore, cerebrovascular thromboembolism represents the most frequent and grave CNS complication. Vasculitis, demyelinating conditions and CNS infections are among the other CNS manifestations of the disease. Biological agents also represent a risk factor, particularly for demyelination. Identification of the nature and potential mechanisms of brain lesions detectable on imaging studies would shed further light on the disease process and could improve patient care through early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26600970

  2. Nonneural Androgen Receptors Affect Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Ramzan, Firyal; Monks, D Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone, acting via estrogenic and androgenic pathways, is the major endocrine mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system and behavior, but we have an incomplete knowledge of which cells and tissues mediate these effects. To distinguish between neural and nonneural actions of androgens in sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, we generated a loxP-based transgenic mouse, which overexpresses androgen receptors (ARs) when activated by Cre. We used this transgene to overexpress AR globally in all tissues using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Cre driver (CMV-AR), and we used a Nestin-Cre driver to overexpress AR only in neural tissue (Nes-AR). We then examined whether neural or global AR overexpression can affect socio-sexual behaviors using a resident-intruder paradigm. We found that both neural and global AR overexpression resulted in decreased aggressive behaviors and increased thrusting during mounting of intruders, consistent with a neural site of action. Global, but not neural, AR overexpression in males led to an increase in same-sex anogenital investigation. Together, these results suggest novel roles for nonneural AR in sexual differentiation of mice, and indicate that excess AR can lead to a paradoxical reduction of male-typical behavior. PMID:26636184

  3. Structural Imaging Measures of Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily “normal” or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer’s disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between “Normal” and “Healthy” brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society. PMID:25146995

  4. Structural and Functional Plasticity in the Maternal Brain Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana

    2016-09-01

    Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social experience while the reciprocal relationship between the mother and her infant forms and develops. These alterations account for the remarkable behavioral plasticity of mothers. This review will examine the molecular and neurobiological modulation and plasticity through which parenting develops and adjusts in new mothers, primarily discussing recent findings in nonhuman animals. A better understanding of how parenting impacts the brain at the molecular, cellular, systems/network, and behavioral levels is likely to significantly contribute to novel strategies for treating postpartum neuropsychiatric disorders in new mothers, and critical for both the mother's physiological and mental health and the development and well-being of her young. PMID:27589496

  5. Migraine and structural changes in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Asma; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) and 3 types of structural brain abnormalities detected by MRI: white matter abnormalities (WMAs), infarct-like lesions (ILLs), and volumetric changes in gray and white matter (GM, WM) regions. Methods: PubMed as well as the reference lists of identified studies and reviews were used to identify potentially eligible studies through January 2013. Candidate studies were reviewed and eligible studies were abstracted. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for WMAs and ILLs. Results: Six population-based and 13 clinic-based studies were identified. The studies suggested that structural brain changes, including WMAs, silent ILLs, and volumetric changes in GM and WM regions, were more common in migraineurs than in control groups. The results were strongest for MA. The meta-analysis of WMAs showed an association for MA (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.07–2.65; p = 0.03) but not for MO (OR 1.34; 95% CI 0.96–1.87; p = 0.08). The association of ILLs was greater for MA (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.02–2.03; p = 0.04) than for MO, but no association was found for MA (p = 0.52) and MO (p = 0.08) compared to controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine the differential influence of migraine without and with aura, to better characterize the effects of attack frequency, and to assess longitudinal changes in brain structure and function. PMID:23986301

  6. Neuroleptics Affect Neuropeptide S and NPSR mRNA Levels in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Artur; Rojczyk, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has a multidirectional regulatory activity, especially when considered as a potent endogenous anxiolytic factor. Accumulating data suggests that neuroleptics affect peptidergic signaling in various brain structures. However, there is no information regarding the influence of treatment with antipsychotics on brain NPS expression. In the current study, we assessed the NPS and NPS receptor (NPSR) mRNA levels in the brains of rats shortly and chronically treated with chlorpromazine and olanzapine using quantitative real-time PCR. Both single-dose and long-term (4 months) olanzapine treatment led to the upregulation of NPS expression in the rat hypothalamus. It supports the hypothesis that NPS is involved in the dopamine-dependent anxiolytic actions of selected neuroleptics and possibly also in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. On the other hand, NPSR expression decreased after single-dose and chronic chlorpromazine administration in the hypothalamus, as well as after chronic olanzapine and chlorpromazine administration in the striatum and hippocampus. These results cast a new light on the pharmacology of antipsychotics and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for their action. Furthermore, our findings underline the complex nature of potential interactions between dopamine receptors and brain peptidergic pathways, which has potential clinical applications. PMID:26227793

  7. Structural brain correlates of human sleep oscillations.

    PubMed

    Saletin, Jared M; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Gray matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, gray matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, gray matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. PMID:23770411

  8. Structural Brain Correlates of Human Sleep Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Saletin, Jared M.; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Grey matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, grey matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, grey matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. PMID:23770411

  9. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults: A STROBE Article.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests.There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05).APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  10. Structural similarity analysis for brain MR image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punga, Mirela Visan; Moldovanu, Simona; Moraru, Luminita

    2014-11-01

    Brain MR images are affected and distorted by various artifacts as noise, blur, blotching, down sampling or compression and as well by inhomogeneity. Usually, the performance of pre-processing operation is quantified by using the quality metrics as mean squared error and its related metrics such as peak signal to noise ratio, root mean squared error and signal to noise ratio. The main drawback of these metrics is that they fail to take the structural fidelity of the image into account. For this reason, we addressed to investigate the structural changes related to the luminance and contrast variation (as non-structural distortions) and to denoising process (as structural distortion)through an alternative metric based on structural changes in order to obtain the best image quality.

  11. Brain networks that track musical structure.

    PubMed

    Janata, Petr

    2005-12-01

    As the functional neuroimaging literature grows, it becomes increasingly apparent that music and musical activities engage diverse regions of the brain. In this paper I discuss two studies to illustrate that exactly which brain areas are observed to be responsive to musical stimuli and tasks depends on the tasks and the methods used to describe the tasks and the stimuli. In one study, subjects listened to polyphonic music and were asked to either orient their attention selectively to individual instruments or in a divided or holistic manner across multiple instruments. The network of brain areas that was recruited changed subtly with changes in the task instructions. The focus of the second study was to identify brain regions that follow the pattern of movement of a continuous melody through the tonal space defined by the major and minor keys of Western tonal music. Such an area was identified in the rostral medial prefrontal cortex. This observation is discussed in the context of other neuroimaging studies that implicate this region in inwardly directed mental states involving decisions about the self, autobiographical memory, the cognitive regulation of emotion, affective responses to musical stimuli, and familiarity judgments about musical stimuli. Together with observations that these regions are among the last to atrophy in Alzheimer disease, and that these patients appear to remain responsive to autobiographically salient musical stimuli, very early evidence is emerging from the literature for the hypothesis that the rostral medial prefrontal cortex is a node that is important for binding music with memories within a broader music-responsive network. PMID:16597758

  12. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  13. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-07-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  14. Automated analysis of fundamental features of brain structures.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jack L; McKay, D Reese; Cykowski, Matthew D; Martinez, Michael J; Tan, Xi; Valaparla, Sunil; Zhang, Yi; Fox, Peter T

    2011-12-01

    Automated image analysis of the brain should include measures of fundamental structural features such as size and shape. We used principal axes (P-A) measurements to measure overall size and shape of brain structures segmented from MR brain images. The rationale was that quantitative volumetric studies of brain structures would benefit from shape standardization as had been shown for whole brain studies. P-A analysis software was extended to include controls for variability in position and orientation to support individual structure spatial normalization (ISSN). The rationale was that ISSN would provide a bias-free means to remove elementary sources of a structure's spatial variability in preparation for more detailed analyses. We studied nine brain structures (whole brain, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus) from the 40-brain LPBA40 atlas. This paper provides the first report of anatomical positions and principal axes orientations within a standard reference frame, in addition to "shape/size related" principal axes measures, for the nine brain structures from the LPBA40 atlas. Analysis showed that overall size (mean volume) for internal brain structures was preserved using shape standardization while variance was reduced by more than 50%. Shape standardization provides increased statistical power for between-group volumetric studies of brain structures compared to volumetric studies that control only for whole brain size. To test ISSN's ability to control for spatial variability of brain structures we evaluated the overlap of 40 regions of interest (ROIs) in a standard reference frame for the nine different brain structures before and after processing. Standardizations of orientation or shape were ineffective when not combined with position standardization. The greatest reduction in spatial variability was seen for combined standardizations of position, orientation and shape. These

  15. Electrical engram: how deep brain stimulation affects memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Fell, Jürgen; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure involving implantation of a pacemaker that sends electric impulses to specific brain regions. DBS has been applied in patients with Parkinson's disease, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (among others), and more recently in patients with Alzheimer's disease to improve memory functions. Current DBS approaches are based on the concept that high-frequency stimulation inhibits or excites specific brain regions. However, because DBS entails the application of repetitive electrical stimuli, it primarily exerts an effect on extracellular field-potential oscillations similar to those recorded with electroencephalography. Here, we suggest a new perspective on how DBS may ameliorate memory dysfunction: it may enhance normal electrophysiological patterns underlying long-term memory processes within the medial temporal lobe. PMID:24126128

  16. Brain structures in the sciences and humanities.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never been investigated directly. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV)/regional white matter volume (rWMV) between science and humanities students to test our hypotheses that brain structures previously robustly shown to be altered in autistic subjects are related to differences in faculty membership. We examined 312 science students (225 males and 87 females) and 179 humanities students (105 males and 74 females). Whole-brain analyses of covariance revealed that after controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume, the science students had significantly larger rGMV in an anatomical cluster around the medial prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar area, whereas the humanities students had significantly larger rWMV in an anatomical cluster mainly concentrated around the right hippocampus. These anatomical structures have been linked to autism in previous studies and may mediate cognitive functions that characterize differences in faculty membership. The present results may support the ideas that autistic traits and characteristics of the science students compared with the humanities students share certain characteristics from neuroimaging perspectives. This study improves our understanding of differences in faculty membership which is the link among cognition, biological factors, disorders, and education (academia). PMID:25079346

  17. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  18. Repeated electrical stimulation of reward-related brain regions affects cocaine but not "natural" reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dino; Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shalev, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Cooper, Ayelet; Zangen, Abraham

    2007-12-19

    Drug addiction is associated with long-lasting neuronal adaptations including alterations in dopamine and glutamate receptors in the brain reward system. Treatment strategies for cocaine addiction and especially the prevention of craving and relapse are limited, and their effectiveness is still questionable. We hypothesized that repeated stimulation of the brain reward system can induce localized neuronal adaptations that may either potentiate or reduce addictive behaviors. The present study was designed to test how repeated interference with the brain reward system using localized electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle at the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or the prefrontal cortex (PFC) affects cocaine addiction-associated behaviors and some of the neuronal adaptations induced by repeated exposure to cocaine. Repeated high-frequency stimulation in either site influenced cocaine, but not sucrose reward-related behaviors. Stimulation of the LH reduced cue-induced seeking behavior, whereas stimulation of the PFC reduced both cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation for its consumption. The behavioral findings were accompanied by glutamate receptor subtype alterations in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, both key structures of the reward system. It is therefore suggested that repeated electrical stimulation of the PFC can become a novel strategy for treating addiction. PMID:18094257

  19. Beyond sex differences: new approaches for thinking about variation in brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Joel, Daphna; Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2016-02-19

    In the study of variation in brain structure and function that might relate to sex and gender, language matters because it frames our research questions and methods. In this article, we offer an approach to thinking about variation in brain structure and function that pulls us outside the sex differences formulation. We argue that the existence of differences between the brains of males and females does not unravel the relations between sex and the brain nor is it sufficient to characterize a population of brains. Such characterization is necessary for studying sex effects on the brain as well as for studying brain structure and function in general. Animal studies show that sex interacts with environmental, developmental and genetic factors to affect the brain. Studies of humans further suggest that human brains are better described as belonging to a single heterogeneous population rather than two distinct populations. We discuss the implications of these observations for studies of brain and behaviour in humans and in laboratory animals. We believe that studying sex effects in context and developing or adopting analytical methods that take into account the heterogeneity of the brain are crucial for the advancement of human health and well-being. PMID:26833844

  20. Structural covariance networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Marco; Bifone, Angelo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of networks of correlation between regional gray matter volume as measured across subjects in a group of individuals has been consistently described in several human studies, an approach termed structural covariance MRI (scMRI). Complementary to prevalent brain mapping modalities like functional and diffusion-weighted imaging, the approach can provide precious insights into the mutual influence of trophic and plastic processes in health and pathological states. To investigate whether analogous scMRI networks are present in lower mammal species amenable to genetic and experimental manipulation such as the laboratory mouse, we employed high resolution morphoanatomical MRI in a large cohort of genetically-homogeneous wild-type mice (C57Bl6/J) and mapped scMRI networks using a seed-based approach. We show that the mouse brain exhibits robust homotopic scMRI networks in both primary and associative cortices, a finding corroborated by independent component analyses of cortical volumes. Subcortical structures also showed highly symmetric inter-hemispheric correlations, with evidence of distributed antero-posterior networks in diencephalic regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed six identifiable clusters of cortical and sub-cortical regions corresponding to previously described neuroanatomical systems. Our work documents the presence of homotopic cortical and subcortical scMRI networks in the mouse brain, thus supporting the use of this species to investigate the elusive biological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of scMRI network development and its derangement in neuropathological states. The identification of scMRI networks in genetically homogeneous inbred mice is consistent with the emerging view of a key role of environmental factors in shaping these correlational networks. PMID:26802512

  1. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  2. Brain structural changes in women and men during midlife.

    PubMed

    Guo, J Y; Isohanni, M; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Kiviniemi, V; Nikkinen, J; Remes, J; Huhtaniska, S; Veijola, J; Jones, P B; Murray, G K

    2016-02-26

    Brain development during childhood and adolescence differs between boys and girls. Structural changes continue during adulthood and old age, particularly in terms of brain volume reductions that accelerate beyond age 35 years. We investigated whether brain structural change in mid-life differs between men and women. 43 men and 28 women from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort underwent MRI brain scans at age 33-35 (SD=0.67) and then again at age 42-44 (SD=0.41). We examined sex differences in total percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and regional brain change with FSL SIENA software. Women showed significant PBVC reduction compared with men between the ages of 33-35 and 42-44 years (Mean=-3.21% in men, Mean=-4.03% in women, F (1, 68)=6.37, p<0.05). In regional analyses, women exhibited greater brain reduction than men in widespread areas. After controlling for total percent brain volume change, men show greater relative regional brain reduction than women in bilateral precentral gyri, bilateral paracingulate gyri, and bilateral supplementary motor cortices. The results indicate sex differences in brain changes in mid-life. Women have more total brain reduction, and more reduction on the outer brain surface than men, whereas men exhibit more brain reduction on the mid-line surface than women after co-varying for total brain volume loss. These changes could contribute to sex differences in midlife behaviour and health. PMID:26777626

  3. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133613

  4. Assessment and Therapeutic Application of the Expressive Therapies Continuum: Implications for Brain Structures and Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusebrink, Vija B.

    2010-01-01

    The Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) provides a theoretical model for art-based assessments and applications of media in art therapy. The three levels of the ETC (Kinesthetic/Sensory, Perceptual/Affective, and Cognitive/Symbolic) appear to reflect different functions and structures in the brain that process visual and affective information.…

  5. Castration affects male rat brain opiate receptor content.

    PubMed

    Hahn, E F; Fishman, J

    1985-07-01

    We previously reported that saturable stereospecific binding of [3H]-naltrexone in rat brain homogenates prepared from castrated male rats was greater than the corresponding binding in intact animals. We now report that we have replicated these results and that the difficulty of other investigators in observing these differences is due to methodological factors. Specifically, when samples were filtered individually and rapidly, differences between castrated and intact rats were maintained. The increase in binding was also observed when tissues were washed to remove endogenous opioids prior to incubation, when [3H]-naloxone was used as the ligand, and when various antagonists were used as displacers in the radioreceptor assay. PMID:2991795

  6. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  7. A brain mechanism for facilitation of insight by positive affect.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Kounios, John; Parrish, Todd B; Jung-Beeman, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has shown that people solve insight or creative problems better when in a positive mood (assessed or induced), although the precise mechanisms and neural substrates of this facilitation remain unclear. We assessed mood and personality variables in 79 participants before they attempted to solve problems that can be solved by either an insight or an analytic strategy. Participants higher in positive mood solved more problems, and specifically more with insight, compared with participants lower in positive mood. fMRI was performed on 27 of the participants while they solved problems. Positive mood (and to a lesser extent and in the opposite direction, anxiety) was associated with changes in brain activity during a preparatory interval preceding each solved problem; modulation of preparatory activity in several areas biased people to solve either with insight or analytically. Analyses examined whether (a) positive mood modulated activity in brain areas showing responsivity during preparation; (b) positive mood modulated activity in areas showing stronger activity for insight than noninsight trials either during preparation or solution; and (c) insight effects occurred in areas that showed mood-related effects during preparation. Across three analyses, the ACC showed sensitivity to both mood and insight, demonstrating that positive mood alters preparatory activity in ACC, biasing participants to engage in processing conducive to insight solving. This result suggests that positive mood enhances insight, at least in part, by modulating attention and cognitive control mechanisms via ACC, perhaps enhancing sensitivity to detect non-prepotent solution candidates. PMID:18578603

  8. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  9. MEG brain activities reflecting affection for visual food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Shinya; Miyamura, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the modulation of alpha rhythm in response to food pictures with distinct affection values. We examined the method to discriminate subject's state, i.e., whether he/she liked the article of food or not, from MEG signals detected over the head. Pictures of familiar foods were used as affective stimuli, while those pictures with complementary color phase were used as non-affective stimuli. Alpha band signals in a narrow frequency window around the spectral peak of individual subjects were wavelet analyzed and phase-locked component to the stimulus onset was obtained as a complex number. The amplitude of the phase-locked component was averaged during 0-1 s after stimulus onset for 30 epochs in a measurement session and across 76 channels of MEG sensor. In statistical test of individual subjects, significant difference was found in the real part of the averaged phase-locked amplitude between the normal-color and reverse-color pictures. These results suggest that affective information processing of food pictures is reflected in the synchronized component of narrow band alpha rhythm. PMID:21096510

  10. Insights into Brain Glycogen Metabolism: THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN BRAIN GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Cécile; de la Sierra-Gallay, Ines Li; Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Cocaign, Angélique; Léger, Thibaut; Woffendin, Gary; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Etchebest, Catherine; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-08-26

    Brain glycogen metabolism plays a critical role in major brain functions such as learning or memory consolidation. However, alteration of glycogen metabolism and glycogen accumulation in the brain contributes to neurodegeneration as observed in Lafora disease. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism, catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycogen mobilization. Moreover, the allosteric regulation of the three GP isozymes (muscle, liver, and brain) by metabolites and phosphorylation, in response to hormonal signaling, fine-tunes glycogenolysis to fulfill energetic and metabolic requirements. Whereas the structures of muscle and liver GPs have been known for decades, the structure of brain GP (bGP) has remained elusive despite its critical role in brain glycogen metabolism. Here, we report the crystal structure of human bGP in complex with PEG 400 (2.5 Å) and in complex with its allosteric activator AMP (3.4 Å). These structures demonstrate that bGP has a closer structural relationship with muscle GP, which is also activated by AMP, contrary to liver GP, which is not. Importantly, despite the structural similarities between human bGP and the two other mammalian isozymes, the bGP structures reveal molecular features unique to the brain isozyme that provide a deeper understanding of the differences in the activation properties of these allosteric enzymes by the allosteric effector AMP. Overall, our study further supports that the distinct structural and regulatory properties of GP isozymes contribute to the different functions of muscle, liver, and brain glycogen. PMID:27402852

  11. Brain Structure Network Analysis in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun-gang; Wang, Defeng; Liu, Kai; Weng, Jian; Guan, Yuefeng; Chan, Kate C. C.; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Shi, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years) and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years). A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32–0.44 (p < 0.05). Regionally, the OSAs showed a tendency of decreased betweenness centrality in the left angular gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part) gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected). We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective. PMID:26413809

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing: effects on brain structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Macey, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is accompanied by neural injury that affects a wide range of physiological systems which include processes for sensing chemoreception and airflow, driving respiratory musculature, timing circuitry for coordination of breathing patterning, and integration of blood pressure mechanisms with respiration. The damage also occurs in regions mediating emotion and mood, as well as areas regulating memory and cognitive functioning, and appears in structures that serve significant glycemic control processes. The injured structures include brain areas involved in hormone release and action of major neurotransmitters, including those playing a role in depression. The injury is reflected in a range of structural magnetic resonance procedures, and also appears as functional distortions of evoked activity in brain areas mediating vital autonomic and breathing functions. The damage is preferentially unilateral, and includes axonal projections; the asymmetry of the injury poses unique concerns for sympathetic discharge and potential consequences for arrhythmia. Sleep-disordered breathing should be viewed as a condition that includes central nervous system injury and impaired function; the processes underlying injury remain unclear. PMID:23643610

  13. Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  14. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  15. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  16. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  17. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    PubMed

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  18. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  19. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness. PMID:23041193

  20. Structural Similarities between Brain and Linguistic Data Provide Evidence of Semantic Relations in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Crangle, Colleen E.; Perreau-Guimaraes, Marcos; Suppes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA), which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model. PMID:23799009

  1. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  2. Brain Potentials During Affective Picture Processing in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, Greg; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2008-01-01

    In adults, emotional (e.g., both unpleasant and pleasant) compared to neutral pictures elicit an increase in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP); modulation of these ERP components are thought to reflect the facilitated processing of, and increased attention to, motivationally salient stimuli. To determine whether the EPN and LPP are sensitive to emotional content in children, high-density EEG was recorded from 18 children who were 5 to 8 years of age (mean age = 77 months, SD = 11 months) while they viewed developmentally appropriate pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reported ratings of valence and arousal were also obtained. An EPN was not evident following emotional compared to neutral pictures; however, a positivity maximal at occipital-parietal recording sites was increased from 500 to 1,000 ms following pleasant pictures and from 500 to 1,500 ms following unpleasant pictures. Comparisons between the EPN and LPP observed in children and adults, and implications for developmental studies of emotion, are discussed. PMID:19103249

  3. Cholinesterase inhibitors affect brain potentials in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Irimajiri, Rie; Michalewski, Henry J; Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an isolated episodic memory disorder that has a high likelihood of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Auditory sensory cortical responses (P50, N100) have been shown to be increased in amplitude in MCI compared to older controls. We tested whether (1) cortical potentials to other sensory modalities (somatosensory and visual) were also affected in MCI and (2) cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), one of the therapies used in this disorder, modulated sensory cortical potentials in MCI. Somatosensory cortical potentials to median nerve stimulation and visual cortical potentials to reversing checkerboard stimulation were recorded from 15 older controls and 15 amnestic MCI subjects (single domain). Results were analyzed as a function of diagnosis (Control, MCI) and ChEIs treatment (Treated MCI, Untreated MCI). Somatosensory and visual potentials did not differ significantly in amplitude in MCI subjects compared to controls. When ChEIs use was considered, somatosensory potentials (N20, P50) but not visual potentials (N70, P100, N150) were of larger amplitude in untreated MCI subjects compared to treated MCI subjects. Three individual MCI subjects showed increased N20 amplitude while off ChEIs compared to while on ChEIs. An enhancement of N20 somatosensory cortical activity occurs in amnestic single domain MCI and is sensitive to modulation by ChEIs. PMID:17320833

  4. The neurobiology of childhood structural brain development: conception through adulthood.

    PubMed

    Houston, Suzanne M; Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    The study of the function and structure of the human brain dates back centuries, when philosophers and physicians theorized about the localization of specific cognitive functions and the structure and organization of underlying brain tissue. In more recent years, the advent of non-invasive techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has allowed scientists unprecedented opportunities to further our understanding not only of structure and function, but of trajectories of brain development in typical and a-typical child and adult populations. In this chapter, we hope to provide a system-level approach to introduce what we have learned about structural brain development from conception through adulthood. We discuss important findings from MRI studies, and the directions that future imaging studies can take in the concerted effort to enhance our understanding of brain development, and thus to enhance our ability to develop interventions for various neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24357437

  5. The Neurobiology of Childhood Structural Brain Development: Conception Through Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Suzanne M.; Herting, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of the function and structure of the human brain dates back centuries, when philosophers and physicians theorized about the localization of specific cognitive functions and the structure and organization of underlying brain tissue. In more recent years, the advent of non-invasive techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has allowed scientists unprecedented opportunities to further our understanding not only of structure and function, but of trajectories of brain development in typical and a-typical child and adult populations. In this chapter, we hope to provide a system-level approach to introduce what we have learned about structural brain development from conception through adulthood. We discuss important findings from MRI studies, and the directions that future imaging studies can take in the concerted effort to enhance our understanding of brain development, and thus to enhance our ability to develop interventions for various neuro developmental disorders. PMID:24357437

  6. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. PMID:26203003

  7. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. PMID:26203003

  8. Non-steroidal antifertility agents affecting brain mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Piva, F.; Sterescu, N.; Zanisi, M.; Martini, L.

    1969-01-01

    Many non-steroidal agents prevent ovulation by acting on the nervous structures that control the secretion of gonadotrophins. Information on the neuroendocrine factors involved in the process of ovulation in mammals is presented in this paper and is then used as the background for explaining the mode of action of drugs which inhibit ovulation through an effect on the central nervous system. Such drugs are found among the following classes of compounds: CNS depressants, tranquillizers, cholinergic blocking agents, and adrenergic blocking agents. Although it is unlikely that any of the specific agents discussed in this paper will have clinical application, because of associated behavioural effects, the knowledge gained by studying the mode of action of these compounds indicates pathways to follow in the search for new anti-ovulatory drugs. PMID:4905149

  9. Structural and functional connectivity in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Yang, Yang; Xi, Ji-hui; Chen, Zi-qian

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury survivors often experience cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific impairments are not fully understood. Advances in neuroimaging techniques (such as diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI) have given us new insights on structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain in both health and disease. The connectome derived from connectivity maps reflects the entire constellation of distributed brain networks. Using these powerful neuroimaging approaches, changes at the microstructural level can be detected through regional and global properties of neuronal networks. Here we will review recent developments in the study of brain network abnormalities in traumatic brain injury, mainly focusing on structural and functional connectivity. Some connectomic studies have provided interesting insights into the neurological dysfunction that occurs following traumatic brain injury. These techniques could eventually be helpful in developing imaging biomarkers of cognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae, as well as predicting outcome and prognosis. PMID:26889200

  10. Brain structural changes in women and men during midlife

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J.Y.; Isohanni, M.; Miettunen, J.; Jääskeläinen, E.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Remes, J.; Huhtaniska, S.; Veijola, J.; Jones, P.B.; Murray, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain development during childhood and adolescence differs between boys and girls. Structural changes continue during adulthood and old age, particularly in terms of brain volume reductions that accelerate beyond age 35 years. We investigated whether brain structural change in mid-life differs between men and women. 43 men and 28 women from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort underwent MRI brain scans at age 33–35 (SD = 0.67) and then again at age 42–44 (SD = 0.41). We examined sex differences in total percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and regional brain change with FSL SIENA software. Women showed significant PBVC reduction compared with men between the ages of 33–35 and 42–44 years (Mean = −3.21% in men, Mean = −4.03% in women, F (1, 68) = 6.37, p < 0.05). In regional analyses, women exhibited greater brain reduction than men in widespread areas. After controlling for total percent brain volume change, men show greater relative regional brain reduction than women in bilateral precentral gyri, bilateral paracingulate gyri, and bilateral supplementary motor cortices. The results indicate sex differences in brain changes in mid-life. Women have more total brain reduction, and more reduction on the outer brain surface than men, whereas men exhibit more brain reduction on the mid-line surface than women after co-varying for total brain volume loss. These changes could contribute to sex differences in midlife behaviour and health. PMID:26777626

  11. Brain Activity, Personality Traits and Affect: Electrocortical Activity in Reaction to Affective Film Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makvand Hosseini, Sh.; Azad Fallah, P.; Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei, S. K.; Ghannadyan Ladani, S. H.; Heise, C.

    We studied the patterns of activation over the cerebral cortex in reaction to affective film stimuli in four groups of extroverts, introverts, neurotics and emotionally stables. Measures of extraversion and neuroticism were collected and resting EEG was recorded from 40 right handed undergraduate female students (19-23) on one occasion for five 30s periods in baseline condition and in affective states. Mean log-transformed absolute alpha power was extracted from 12 electrode sites and analyzed. Patterns of activation were different in personality groups. Different patterns of asymmetries were observed in personality groups in reaction to affective stimuli. Results were partly consistent with approach and withdrawal model and provided supportive evidence for the role of right frontal asymmetry in negative affects in two groups (introverts and emotionally stables) as well as the role of right central asymmetry (increase on right and decrease on left) in active affective states (anxiety and happiness) in all personality groups. Results were also emphasized on the role of decrease activity relative to baseline in cortical regions (bilaterally in frontal and unilaterally in left parietal and temporal regions) in moderating of positive and negative emotion.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of affective lability after pediatric traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Vasa, Roma A.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Thorn, Julia M.; Kalb, Luther; Grados, Marco A.; Slomine, Beth S.; Salorio, Cynthia F.; Gerring, Joan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Paediatric severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant postinjury affective and behavioral problems. Few studies have examined the prevalence and characteristics of affective lability after paediatric TBI. Methods 97 children with severe TBI were evaluated one year postinjury for the presence of affective lability using the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Demographic, clinical, and brain lesion characteristics were also assessed. Results Affective lability significantly increased after injury. Eighty-six children had a preinjury CALS score of 1SD or less from the group preinjury mean (M = 8.11, SD = 9.31) of which 35 and 15 children had a 1SD and 2SD increase in their CALS score from pre- to postinjury, respectively. A variety of affective shifts manifested postinjury including anxiety, silliness, dysphoria, and irritability. The most severe symptoms were irritability and unpredictable temper outbursts. Risk factors for affective lability included elevated preinjury affective lability and psychosocial adversity as well as greater damage to the orbitofrontal cortex. Postinjury affective lability was most frequently associated with a postinjury diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusions Affective lability is common after paediatric TBI and frequently manifests as irritability and unpredictable outbursts. Early intervention is needed to improve psychiatric outcomes. PMID:25950263

  13. Intelligence and Giftedness: Changes in the Structure of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatella, Maria Lucia Prado

    1999-01-01

    Explores research on the concepts of intelligences and giftedness. Considers the importance of the brain, its organization and functions, different theories about intelligence and the possibility of boosting it, and changes that occur in brain structure as a consequence of the interactions between genetic traits and experiences. (Author/CR)

  14. Brief Report: Brain Mechanisms in Autism: Functional and Structural Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of research on functional and structural abnormalities of the brain in autism. The current concept of causation is seen to involve multiple biologic levels. A consistent profile of brain function and dysfunction across methods has been found and specific neuropathologic findings have been found; but some research…

  15. Using computational models to relate structural and functional brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Coombes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Modern imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional brain connectivity. This has lead to the identification of disease-related alterations affecting functional connectivity. The mechanism of how such alterations in functional connectivity arise in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which this can arise and to highlight the important role that local population dynamics can have in shaping emergent spatial functional connectivity patterns. The local dynamics for a neural population is taken to be of the Wilson–Cowan type, whilst the structural connectivity patterns used, describing long-range anatomical connections, cover both realistic scenarios (from the CoComac database) and idealized ones that allow for more detailed theoretical study. We have calculated graph–theoretic measures of functional network topology from numerical simulations of model networks. The effect of the form of local dynamics on the observed network state is quantified by examining the correlation between structural and functional connectivity. We document a profound and systematic dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters controlling the dynamics. Importantly, we show that a weakly coupled oscillator theory explaining these correlations and their variation across parameter space can be developed. This theoretical development provides a novel way to characterize the mechanisms for the breakdown of functional connectivity in diseases through changes in local dynamics. PMID:22805059

  16. The Sad, the Angry, and the Asymmetrical Brain: Dichotic Listening Studies of Negative Affect and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…

  17. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  18. Developing Connections for Affective Regulation: Age-Related Changes in Emotional Brain Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of affective arousal is a critical aspect of children's social and cognitive development. However, few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in the development of this aspect of "hot" executive functioning. This process has been conceptualized as involving prefrontal control of the amygdala. Here, using functional…

  19. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  20. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  1. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to "comfort zones" that support survival, and negative affects reflect "discomfort zones" that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living--evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  2. Brain Structural Effects of Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Suarez-Pinilla, Paula; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-01-01

    The findings about the progressive brain changes in schizophrenia are controversial, and the potential confounding effect of antipsychotics on brain structure is still under debate. The goal of the current article was to review the existing longitudinal neuroimaging studies addressing the impact of antipsychotic drug treatment on brain changes in schizophrenia. A comprehensive search of PubMed was performed using combinations of key terms distributed into four blocks: "MRI", "longitudinal", "schizophrenia" and "antipsychotic". Studies were considered to be eligible for the review if they were original articles. Studies that examined only changes in brain density were excluded. A total of 41 MRI studies were identified and reviewed. Longitudinal MRI studies did not provide a consistent notion of the effects of antipsychotic treatment on the pattern of brain changes over time in schizophrenia. Overall, most of the included articles did not find a linear relationship between the degree of exposure and progressive brain changes. Further short- and longterm studies are warranted to a better understanding of the influence of antipsychotics in brain structural changes in schizophrenia and also to verify whether first and second generation antipsychotics may differentially affect brain morphometry. PMID:26412062

  3. Label-free structural photoacoustic tomography of intact mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Capitalizing on endogenous hemoglobin contrast, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a deep-tissue highresolution imaging modality, has drawn increasing interest in neuro-imaging. However, most existing studies are limited to functional imaging on the cortical surface, and the deep-brain structural imaging capability of PACT has never been demonstrated. Here, we explicitly studied the limiting factors of deep-brain PACT imaging. We found that the skull distorted the acoustic signal and blood suppressed the structural contrast from other chromophores. When the two effects are mitigated, PACT can provide high-resolution label-free structural imaging through the entire mouse brain. With 100 μm in-plane resolution, we can clearly identify major structures of the brain, and the image quality is comparable to that of magnetic resonance microscopy. Spectral PACT studies indicate that structural contrasts mainly originate from cytochrome and lipid. The feasibility of imaging the structure of the brain in vivo has also been discussed. Our results demonstrate that PACT is a promising modality for both structural and functional brain imaging.

  4. Sensitivity to musical structure in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests that regions in the temporal lobes, distinct from those engaged in lower-level auditory analysis, process the pitch and rhythmic structure in music. In contrast, neuroimaging studies targeting the representation of music structure have primarily implicated regions in the inferior frontal cortices. Combining individual-subject fMRI analyses with a scrambling method that manipulated musical structure, we provide evidence of brain regions sensitive to musical structure bilaterally in the temporal lobes, thus reconciling the neuroimaging and patient findings. We further show that these regions are sensitive to the scrambling of both pitch and rhythmic structure but are insensitive to high-level linguistic structure. Our results suggest the existence of brain regions with representations of musical structure that are distinct from high-level linguistic representations and lower-level acoustic representations. These regions provide targets for future research investigating possible neural specialization for music or its associated mental processes. PMID:23019005

  5. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character Through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Aranyi, Gabor; Pecune, Florian; Charles, Fred; Pelachaud, Catherine; Cavazza, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Affective brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this article, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent's facial expressions, in which action units (AUs) are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent's responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment. PMID:27462216

  6. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character Through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Aranyi, Gabor; Pecune, Florian; Charles, Fred; Pelachaud, Catherine; Cavazza, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Affective brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this article, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent’s facial expressions, in which action units (AUs) are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent’s responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment. PMID:27462216

  7. Protein crowding affects hydration structure and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Ryuhei; Sugita, Yuji; Feig, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The effect of protein crowding on the structure and dynamics of water was examined from explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of a series of protein G and protein G/villin systems at different protein concentrations. Hydration structure was analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions, three-dimensional hydration sites, and preservation of tetrahedral coordination. Analysis of hydration dynamics focused on self-diffusion rates and dielectric constants as a function of crowding. The results show significant changes in both structure and dynamics of water under highly crowded conditions. The structure of water is altered mostly beyond the first solvation shell. Diffusion rates and dielectric constants are significantly reduced following linear trends as a function of crowding reflecting highly constrained water in crowded environments. The reduced dynamics of diffusion is expected to be strongly related to hydrodynamic properties of crowded cellular environments while the reduced dielectric constant under crowded conditions has implications for the stability of biomolecules in crowded environments. The results from this study suggest a prescription for modeling solvation in simulations of cellular environments. PMID:22352398

  8. Understanding the brain through its spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Will Zachary

    The spatial location of cells in neural tissue can be easily extracted from many imaging modalities, but the information contained in spatial relationships between cells is seldom utilized. This is because of a lack of recognition of the importance of spatial relationships to some aspects of brain function, and the reflection in spatial statistics of other types of information. The mathematical tools necessary to describe spatial relationships are also unknown to many neuroscientists, and biologists in general. We analyze two cases, and show that spatial relationships can be used to understand the role of a particular type of cell, the astrocyte, in Alzheimer's disease, and that the geometry of axons in the brain's white matter sheds light on the process of establishing connectivity between areas of the brain. Astrocytes provide nutrients for neuronal metabolism, and regulate the chemical environment of the brain, activities that require manipulation of spatial distributions (of neurotransmitters, for example). We first show, through the use of a correlation function, that inter-astrocyte forces determine the size of independent regulatory domains in the cortex. By examining the spatial distribution of astrocytes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease, we determine that astrocytes are not actively transported to fight the disease, as was previously thought. The paths axons take through the white matter determine which parts of the brain are connected, and how quickly signals are transmitted. The rules that determine these paths (i.e. shortest distance) are currently unknown. By measurement of axon orientation distributions using three-point correlation functions and the statistics of axon turning and branching, we reveal that axons are restricted to growth in three directions, like a taxicab traversing city blocks, albeit in three-dimensions. We show how geometric restrictions at the small scale are related to large-scale trajectories. Finally we discuss the

  9. Complex modular structure of large-scale brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, M.; Pastor, M. A.; Fernández-Seara, M. A.; Artieda, J.; Martinerie, J.; Chavez, M.

    2009-06-01

    Modular structure is ubiquitous among real-world networks from related proteins to social groups. Here we analyze the modular organization of brain networks at a large scale (voxel level) extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. By using a random-walk-based method, we unveil the modularity of brain webs and show modules with a spatial distribution that matches anatomical structures with functional significance. The functional role of each node in the network is studied by analyzing its patterns of inter- and intramodular connections. Results suggest that the modular architecture constitutes the structural basis for the coexistence of functional integration of distant and specialized brain areas during normal brain activities at rest.

  10. Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences.

    PubMed

    Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the brain is constantly changing from birth throughout the lifetime, meaning that normal aging, free from dementia, is associated with structural brain changes. This paper reviews recent evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies about age-related changes in the brain. The main conclusions are that (1) the brain shrinks in volume and the ventricular system expands in healthy aging. However, the pattern of changes is highly heterogeneous, with the largest changes seen in the frontal and temporal cortex, and in the putamen, thalamus, and accumbens. With modern approaches to analysis of MRI data, changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume can be tracked over periods as short as one year, with annual reductions of between 0.5% and 1.0% in most brain areas. (2) The volumetric brain reductions in healthy aging are likely only to a minor extent related to neuronal loss. Rather, shrinkage of neurons, reductions of synaptic spines, and lower numbers of synapses probably account for the reductions in grey matter. In addition, the length of myelinated axons is greatly reduced, up to almost 50%. (3) Reductions in specific cognitive abilities--for instance processing speed, executive functions, and episodic memory--are seen in healthy aging. Such reductions are to a substantial degree mediated by neuroanatomical changes, meaning that between 25% and 100% of the differences between young and old participants in selected cognitive functions can be explained by group differences in structural brain characteristics. PMID:20879692

  11. Recent Experience Affects the Strength of Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Loney, Renrick A.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, we explore how recent experience with particular syntactic constructions affects the strength of the structural priming observed for those constructions. The results suggest that (1) the strength of structural priming observed for double object and prepositional object constructions is affected by the relative frequency with…

  12. The log-dynamic brain: how skewed distributions affect network operations

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Mizuseki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We often assume that the variables of functional and structural brain parameters — such as synaptic weights, the firing rates of individual neurons, the synchronous discharge of neural populations, the number of synaptic contacts between neurons and the size of dendritic boutons — have a bell-shaped distribution. However, at many physiological and anatomical levels in the brain, the distribution of numerous parameters is in fact strongly skewed with a heavy tail, suggesting that skewed (typically lognormal) distributions are fundamental to structural and functional brain organization. This insight not only has implications for how we should collect and analyse data, it may also help us to understand how the different levels of skewed distributions — from synapses to cognition — are related to each other. PMID:24569488

  13. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  14. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  15. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  16. Bayesian approach for network modeling of brain structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anand A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Leahy, Richard M.; Shattuck, David W.; Dinov, Ivo; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-03-01

    Brain connectivity patterns are useful in understanding brain function and organization. Anatomical brain connectivity is largely determined using the physical synaptic connections between neurons. In contrast statistical brain connectivity in a given brain population refers to the interaction and interdependencies of statistics of multitudes of brain features including cortical area, volume, thickness etc. Traditionally, this dependence has been studied by statistical correlations of cortical features. In this paper, we propose the use of Bayesian network modeling for inferring statistical brain connectivity patterns that relate to causal (directed) as well as non-causal (undirected) relationships between cortical surface areas. We argue that for multivariate cortical data, the Bayesian model provides for a more accurate representation by removing the effect of confounding correlations that get introduced due to canonical dependence between the data. Results are presented for a population of 466 brains, where a SEM (structural equation modeling) approach is used to generate a Bayesian network model, as well as a dependency graph for the joint distribution of cortical areas.

  17. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  18. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  19. Optogenetic Tools for Confined Stimulation in Deep Brain Structures.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Thomas, Sébastien; Lesage, Frédéric; Casanova, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has emerged in the past decade as a technique to modulate brain activity with cell-type specificity and with high temporal resolution. Among the challenges associated with this technique is the difficulty to target a spatially restricted neuron population. Indeed, light absorption and scattering in biological tissues make it difficult to illuminate a minute volume, especially in the deep brain, without the use of optical fibers to guide light. This work describes the design and the in vivo application of a side-firing optical fiber adequate for delivering light to specific regions within a brain subcortical structure. PMID:26965129

  20. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  1. Brain Structural Effects of Antidepressant Treatment in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dusi, Nicola; Barlati, Stefano; Vita, Antonio; Brambilla, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive disorder is a very frequent and heterogeneous syndrome. Structural imaging techniques offer a useful tool in the comprehension of neurobiological alterations that concern depressive disorder. Altered brain structures in depressive disorder have been particularly located in the prefrontal cortex (medial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, OFC) and medial temporal cortex areas (hippocampus). These brain areas belong to a structural and functional network related to cognitive and emotional processes putatively implicated in depressive symptoms. These volumetric alterations may also represent biological predictors of response to pharmacological treatment. In this context, major findings of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in relation to treatment response in depressive disorder, will here be presented and discussed. PMID:26412065

  2. Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces As Enabling Technology for Responsive Psychiatric Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Widge, Alik S.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing clinical need for responsive neurostimulators, which sense a patient’s brain activity and deliver targeted electrical stimulation to suppress unwanted symptoms. This is particularly true in psychiatric illness, where symptoms can fluctuate throughout the day. Affective BCIs, which decode emotional experience from neural activity, are a candidate control signal for responsive stimulators targeting the limbic circuit. Present affective decoders, however, cannot yet distinguish pathologic from healthy emotional extremes. Indiscriminate stimulus delivery would reduce quality of life and may be actively harmful. We argue that the key to overcoming this limitation is to specifically decode volition, in particular the patient’s intention to experience emotional regulation. Those emotion-regulation signals already exist in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and could be extracted with relatively simple BCI algorithms. We describe preliminary data from an animal model of PFC-controlled limbic brain stimulation and discuss next steps for pre-clinical testing and possible translation. PMID:25580443

  3. Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: fMRI evidence

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; White, Richard; Omari, Amro; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Diwadka, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. Attention-driven Go No-Go and X-CPT (continuous performance test) protocols, using positive, negative and neutral Ekman faces, targeted the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. A stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, using images from the International Affective Pictures System, targeted the hippocampus (HIP). Participants comprised 23 women with BPD, who were compared with 15 healthy controls. When Negative>Positive faces were compared in the Go No-Go task, BPD subjects had hyper-activation relative to controls in areas reflecting task-relevant processing: the superior parietal/precuneus and thebasal ganglia. Decreased activation was also noted in the OFC, and increased activation in the amygdala (AMY). In the X-CPT, BPD subjects again showed hyper-activation in task-relevant areas: the superior parietal/precuneus and the ACC. In the stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, BPD subjects had decreased activation relative to controls in the HIP, ACC, superior parietal/precuneus, and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (for encoding), and the ACC, dPFC, and HIP for retrieval of Negative>Positive pictures, reflecting impairment of task-relevant functions. Negative affective interference with cognitive processing in BPD differs from that in healthy controls and is associated with functional abnormalities in brain networks reported to have structural or metabolic

  4. Neurobiological mechanisms associated with facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dawn; McDonald, Brenna C; West, John; Keiski, Michelle A; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not yet been identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), study aims were to 1) determine if there are differences in brain activation during facial affect processing in people with TBI who have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-I) relative to people with TBI and healthy controls who do not have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-N and HC, respectively); and 2) identify relationships between neural activity and facial affect recognition performance. A facial affect recognition screening task performed outside the scanner was used to determine group classification; TBI patients who performed greater than one standard deviation below normal performance scores were classified as TBI-I, while TBI patients with normal scores were classified as TBI-N. An fMRI facial recognition paradigm was then performed within the 3T environment. Results from 35 participants are reported (TBI-I = 11, TBI-N = 12, and HC = 12). For the fMRI task, TBI-I and TBI-N groups scored significantly lower than the HC group. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals for facial affect recognition compared to a baseline condition of viewing a scrambled face, revealed lower neural activation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) in the TBI-I group than the HC group. Right fusiform gyrus activity correlated with accuracy on the facial affect recognition tasks (both within and outside the scanner). Decreased FG activity suggests facial affect recognition deficits after TBI may be the result of impaired holistic face processing. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26040980

  5. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E.; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing. PMID:26190989

  6. Impairment in cognitive and affective empathy in patients with brain lesions: anatomical and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Tomer, R; Goldsher, D; Berger, B D; Aharon-Peretz, J

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairment in cognitive and affective empathy among patients with focal brain lesions, and the contribution of specific cognitive abilities (such as cognitive flexibility and processing of emotional information), to empathy. The cognitive and affective empathic response of patients with localized prefrontal lesions (n=36) was compared to responses of patients with parietal lesions (n=15) and healthy control subjects (n=19). Results indicate that patients with prefrontal lesions (especially those with lesions involving the orbitoprefrontal and medial regions) were significantly impaired in both cognitive and affective empathy as compared to parietal patients and healthy controls. When the damage was restricted to the prefrontal cortex, either left- or right-hemisphere lesions resulted in impaired empathy. However, when the lesion involved the right hemisphere, patients with parietal lesions were also impaired. The pattern of relationships between cognitive performance and empathy suggested dissociation between the cognitive correlates of affective and cognitive empathy. PMID:15590464

  7. Linking structure and function: Information processing in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gremillion, M.A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Traditionally, theories of function in neuroscience have emerged from physiology. Physiologists have suggested a number of means by which information in the brain can be processed, yet the principles underlying the generation of these phenomena are not well understood. A complex systems approach would be to examine the overall structure and function of the system and to attempt to establish a common framework for information processing interactions. This paper will use the structure-function relationship as a basis for exploring units of information processing. It will examine the brain as a whole, first providing the non-specialists with an short overview of the structure and some of the functions or outputs of the brain. It then very briefly reviews three of the prominent theoretical concepts that have emerged in the last few decades: receptive fields, feature extraction, and parallel processing. Next, it addresses the question of information processing and outlines the structures which have traditionally been proposed to be the basic unit of information processing. An alternative unit on which information processing in the brain might be based is then proposed, and data outlined to support it. Finally, the implications of this different mode of processing are discussed, both for the brain and for other complex systems. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. ErbB4 in Laminated Brain Structures: A Neurodevelopmental Approach to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Garcia, Carlos G.

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility genes for schizophrenia Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and ErbB4 have critical functions during brain development and in the adult. Alterations in the ErbB4 signaling pathway cause a variety of neurodevelopmental defects including deficiencies in neuronal migration, synaptic plasticity, and myelination. I have used the ErbB4-/- HER4heart KO mice to study the neurodevelopmental insults associated to deficiencies in the NRG1-ErbB4 signaling pathway and their potential implication with brain disorders such as schizophrenia, a chronic psychiatric disease affecting 1% of the population worldwide. ErbB4 deletion results in an array of neurodevelopmental deficits that are consistent with a schizophrenic model. First, similar defects appear in multiple brain structures, from the cortex to the cerebellum. Second, these defects affect multiple aspects of brain development, from deficits in neuronal migration to impairments in excitatory/inhibitory systems, including reductions in brain volume, cortical and cerebellar heterotopias, alterations in number and distribution of specific subpopulations of interneurons, deficiencies in the astrocytic and oligodendrocytic lineages, and additional insults in major brain structures. This suggests that alterations in specific neurodevelopmental genes that play similar functions in multiple neuroanatomical structures might account for some of the symptomatology observed in schizophrenic patients, such as defects in cognition. ErbB4 mutation uncovers flaws in brain development that are compatible with a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, and it establishes a comprehensive model to study the basis of the disorder before symptoms are detected in the adult. PMID:26733804

  9. Effects of dopaminergic modulation on electrophysiological brain response to affective stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Nijs, Ilse; Pepplinkhuizen, Lolke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Several theoretical accounts of the role of dopamine suggest that dopamine has an influence on the processing of affective stimuli. There is some indirect evidence for this from studies showing an association between the treatment with dopaminergic agents and self-reported affect. Materials and methods We addressed this issue directly by examining the electrophysiological correlates of affective picture processing during a single-dose treatment with a dopamine D2 agonist (bromocriptine), a dopamine D2 antagonist (haloperidol), and a placebo. We compared early and late event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that have been associated with affective processing in the three medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind crossover design amongst healthy males. In each treatment condition, subjects attentively watched neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures while ERPs were recorded. Results Results indicate that neither bromocriptine nor haloperidol has a selective effect on electrophysiological indices of affective processing. In concordance with this, no effects of dopaminergic modulation on self-reported positive or negative affect was observed. In contrast, bromocriptine decreased overall processing of all stimulus categories regardless of their affective content. Discussion The results indicate that dopaminergic D2 receptors do not seem to play a crucial role in the selective processing of affective visual stimuli. PMID:17891382

  10. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player's unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6-12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  11. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  12. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Cheng, Yuqi; Lai, Aiyun; Lv, Zhaoping; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Chunrong; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE). Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD) and white matter (WMD) were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA), and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL) or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients. PMID:26090505

  13. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Cheng, Yuqi; Lai, Aiyun; Lv, Zhaoping; Campbell, Robert A A; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Chunrong; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE). Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD) and white matter (WMD) were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA), and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL) or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients. PMID:26090505

  14. Long-term reorganization of structural brain networks in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Illa, Miriam; Figueras, Francesc; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-10-15

    Characterization of brain changes produced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is among the main challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. This condition affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Better understanding of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR opens a window of opportunity to find potential imaging biomarkers in order to identify the infants with a high risk of having neurodevelopmental problems and apply therapies to improve their outcomes. Structural brain networks obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to study brain reorganization and to be used as a biomarker of neurodevelopmental alterations. In the present study this technique is applied to a rabbit animal model of IUGR, which presents some advantages including a controlled environment and the possibility to obtain high quality MRI with long acquisition times. Using a Q-Ball diffusion model, and a previously published rabbit brain MRI atlas, structural brain networks of 15 IUGR and 14 control rabbits at 70 days of age (equivalent to pre-adolescence human age) were obtained. The analysis of graph theory features showed a decreased network infrastructure (degree and binary global efficiency) associated with IUGR condition and a set of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) weighted measures associated with abnormal neurobehavior. Interestingly, when assessing the brain network organization independently of network infrastructure by means of normalized networks, IUGR showed increased global and local efficiencies. We hypothesize that this effect could reflect a compensatory response to reduced infrastructure in IUGR. These results present new evidence on the long-term persistence of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR that could underlie behavioral and developmental alterations previously described. The described changes in network organization have the potential to be used

  15. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Liaoliao; Wang, Zhi; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day) fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat) for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice). Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals. PMID:23755298

  16. Decreased Zinc Availability Affects Glutathione Metabolism in Neuronal Cells and in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Yo; Salvador, Gabriela A.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    A deficit in zinc (Zn) availability can increase cell oxidant production, affect the antioxidant defense system, and trigger oxidant-sensitive signals in neuronal cells. This work tested the hypothesis that a decreased Zn availability can affect glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the developing rat brain and in neuronal cells in culture, as well as the capacity of human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells to upregulate GSH when challenged with dopamine (DA). GSH levels were low in the brain of gestation day 19 (GD19) fetuses from dams fed marginal Zn diets throughout gestation and in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCL), the first enzyme in the GSH synthetic pathway, was altered by Zn deficiency (ZD). The protein and mRNA levels of the GCL modifier (GCLM) and catalytic (GCLC) subunits were lower in the Zn-deficient GD19 fetal brain and in IMR-32 cells compared with controls. The nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which controls GCL transcription, was impaired by ZD. Posttranslationally, the caspase-3-dependent GCLC cleavage was high in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. Cells challenged with DA showed an increase in GCLM and GCLC protein and mRNA levels and a consequent increase in GSH concentration. Although Zn-deficient cells partially upregulated GCL subunits after exposure to DA, GSH content remained low. In summary, results show that a low Zn availability affects the GSH synthetic pathway in neuronal cells and fetal brain both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This can in part underlie the GSH depletion associated with ZD and the high sensitivity of Zn-deficient neurons to pro-oxidative stressors. PMID:23377617

  17. Non-Gaussian Diffusion Imaging for Enhanced Contrast of Brain Tissue Affected by Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geffroy, Françoise; Le Bihan, Denis; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) considered so far as the “gold standard”. The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI). As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF), the stretched exponential model (SEM), and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes. PMID:24586610

  18. Estimating brain's functional graph from the structural graph's Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, F.; Dayan, M.; Devinsky, O.; Thesen, T.; Raj, A.

    2015-09-01

    The interplay between the brain's function and structure has been of immense interest to the neuroscience and connectomics communities. In this work we develop a simple linear model relating the structural network and the functional network. We propose that the two networks are related by the structural network's Laplacian up to a shift. The model is simple to implement and gives accurate prediction of function's eigenvalues at the subject level and its eigenvectors at group level.

  19. Brain Structural Signatures of Negative Symptoms in Depression and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; Murray, Graham K.; Metastasio, Antonio; Segarra, Nuria; Tait, Roger; Spencer, Jenny; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Dudas, Robert B.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Suckling, John

    2014-01-01

    Negative symptoms occur in several major mental health disorders with undetermined mechanisms and unsatisfactory treatments; identification of their neural correlates might unveil the underlying pathophysiological basis and pinpoint the therapeutic targets. In this study, participants with major depressive disorder (n = 24), schizophrenia (n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 20) were assessed with 10 frequently used negative symptom scales followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the scores. A linear model with the prominent components identified by PCA was then regressed on gray and white-matter volumes estimated from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. In depressed patients, negative symptoms such as blunted affect, alogia, withdrawal, and cognitive impairment, assessed mostly via clinician-rated scales were inversely associated with gray matter volume in the bilateral cerebellum. In patients with schizophrenia, anhedonia, and avolition evaluated via self-rated scales inversely related to white-matter volume in the left anterior limb of internal capsule/anterior thalamic radiation and positively in the left superior longitudinal fasiculus. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying negative symptoms might differ between depression and schizophrenia. These results also point to future negative symptom scale development primarily focused on detecting and monitoring the corresponding changes to brain structure or function. PMID:25221526

  20. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. PMID:23685774

  1. Brain Regions Affected by Impaired Control Modulate Responses to Alcohol and Smoking Cues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Despite the commonly observed comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use disorders and years of research, the mechanism underlying concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco is not yet clear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the relationship between brain responses to alcohol and smoking cues in 45 subjects with episodic drinking and regular smoking. Method: fMRI data were collected from two studies performing an alcohol-craving task and a smoking-craving task. First, we identified brain voxels significantly activated for both substance cues and then associated the activation of these voxels with various alcohol- and nicotine-dependence measures. Significant clusters (cluster-wise p < .05) correlated with behavioral assessments were extracted, and clusters identified from both cues were compared. Results: The association tests with various dependence scores showed that the loss of behavioral control subcategory in the Alcohol Dependence Scale was significantly correlated with brain activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right posterior insula regardless of cue types. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCC and right posterior insula, each playing a role in the salience network, are affected significantly by impaired control for alcohol and in turn influence brain responses to not only alcohol but also smoking cues, providing insight to neuronal mechanisms for concurrent use or comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence. PMID:25208199

  2. Transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalopsin in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Flyktman, Antti; Mänttäri, Satu; Nissilä, Juuso; Timonen, Markku; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-15

    Encephalopsin (OPN3) belongs to the light-sensitive transmembrane receptor family mainly expressed in the brain and retina. It is believed that light affects mammalian circadian rhythmicity only through the retinohypothalamic tract, which transmits light information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. However, it has been shown that light penetrates the skull. Here, we present the effect of transcranial light treatment on OPN3 expression and monoamine concentrations in mouse brain and other tissues. Mice were randomly assigned to control group, morning-light group and evening-light group, and animals were illuminated transcranially five times a week for 8 min for a total of 4 weeks. The concentrations of OPN3 and monoamines were analysed using western blotting and HPLC, respectively. We report that transcranial light treatment affects OPN3 expression in different brain areas and plasma/adrenal gland monoamine concentrations. In addition, when light was administered at a different time of the day, the response varied in different tissues. These results provide new information on the effects of light on transmitters mediating mammalian rhythmicity. PMID:25805701

  3. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  4. Structural brain MRI studies in eye diseases: are they clinically relevant? A review of current findings.

    PubMed

    Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-03-01

    Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. For this reason, over the past several years, numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined the association of eye diseases with pathway and brain changes. Here, we review structural MRI studies performed in human patients with the eye diseases albinism, amblyopia, hereditary retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. We focus on two main questions. First, what have these studies revealed? Second, what is the potential clinical relevance of their findings? We find that all the aforementioned eye diseases are indeed associated with structural changes in the visual pathways and brain. As such changes have been described in very different eye diseases, in our view the most parsimonious explanation is that these are caused by the loss of visual input and the subsequent deprivation of the visual pathways and brain regions, rather than by transsynaptic degeneration. Moreover, and of clinical relevance, for some of the diseases - in particular glaucoma and AMD - present results are compatible with the view that the eye disease is part of a more general neurological or neurodegenerative disorder that also affects the brain. Finally, establishing structural changes of the visual pathways has been relevant in the context of new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function: it implies that restoring retinal function may not suffice to also effectively restore vision. Future structural MRI studies can contribute to (i) further establish relationships between ocular and neurological neurodegenerative disorders, (ii) investigate whether brain degeneration in eye diseases is reversible, (iii) evaluate the use

  5. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. PMID:26609811

  6. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  7. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL BRAIN CONNECTIVITY USING DICCCOL MODELS OF DIFFUSION MRI IN 522 TWINS

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dajiang; Zhan, Liang; Faskowitz, Joshua; Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect white matter connectivity in the normal brain, and they also influence diseases in which brain connectivity is altered. Little is known about genetic influences on brain connectivity, despite wide variations in the brain's neural pathways. Here we applied the “DICCCOL” framework to analyze structural connectivity, in 261 twin pairs (522 participants, mean age: 21.8 y ± 2.7SD). We encoded connectivity patterns by projecting the white matter (WM) bundles of all “DICCCOLs” as a tracemap (TM). Next we fitted an A/C/E structural equation model to estimate additive genetic (A), common environmental (C), and unique environmental/error (E) components of the observed variations in brain connectivity. We found 44 “heritable DICCCOLs” whose connectivity was genetically influenced (a2>1%); half of them showed significant heritability (a2>20%). Our analysis of genetic influences on WM structural connectivity suggests high heritability for some WM projection patterns, yielding new targets for genome-wide association studies. PMID:26413210

  8. Food Web Structure Shapes the Morphology of Teleost Fish Brains.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Nicholas B; McCann, Kevin S; Laberge, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed that teleost fish brain size correlates with the flexible exploitation of habitats and predation abilities in an aquatic food web. Since it is unclear how regional brain changes contribute to these relationships, we quantitatively examined the effects of common food web attributes on the size of five brain regions in teleost fish at both within-species (plasticity or natural variation) and between-species (evolution) scales. Our results indicate that brain morphology is influenced by habitat use and trophic position, but not by the degree of littoral-pelagic habitat coupling, despite the fact that the total brain size was previously shown to increase with habitat coupling in Lake Huron. Intriguingly, the results revealed two potential evolutionary trade-offs: (i) relative olfactory bulb size increased, while relative optic tectum size decreased, across a trophic position gradient, and (ii) the telencephalon was relatively larger in fish using more littoral-based carbon, while the cerebellum was relatively larger in fish using more pelagic-based carbon. Additionally, evidence for a within-species effect on the telencephalon was found, where it increased in size with trophic position. Collectively, these results suggest that food web structure has fundamentally contributed to the shaping of teleost brain morphology. PMID:27216606

  9. Maternal brain response to own baby-cry is affected by cesarean section delivery

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.; Tasgin, Esra; Mayes, Linda C.; Feldman, Ruth; Constable, R. Todd; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    A range of early circumstances surrounding the birth of a child affects peripartum hormones, parental behavior and infant wellbeing. One of these factors, which may lead to postpartum depression, is the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery (VD) or cesarean section delivery (CSD). To test the hypothesis that CSD mothers would be less responsive to own baby-cry stimuli than VD mothers in the immediate postpartum period, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging, 2–4 weeks after delivery, of the brains of six mothers who delivered vaginally and six who had an elective CSD. VD mothers’ brains were significantly more responsive than CSD mothers’ brains to their own baby-cry in the superior and middle temporal gyri, superior frontal gyrus, medial fusiform gyrus, superior parietal lobe, as well as regions of the caudate, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and pons. Also, within preferentially active regions of VD brains, there were correlations across all 12 mothers with out-of-magnet variables. These include correlations between own baby-cry responses in the left and right lenticular nuclei and parental preoccupations (r = .64, p < .05 and .67, p < .05 respectively), as well as in the superior frontal cortex and Beck depression inventory (r = .78, p < .01). First this suggests that VD mothers are more sensitive to own baby-cry than CSD mothers in the early postpartum in sensory processing, empathy, arousal, motivation, reward and habit-regulation circuits. Second, independent of mode of delivery, parental worries and mood are related to specific brain activations in response to own baby-cry. PMID:18771508

  10. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  11. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  12. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  13. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  14. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Sabel, Bernhard A.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Hongwei; Li, Jianhong; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Ningli; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/2), amygdala and hippocampus. While VBA showed no significant differences in the gray matter volumes of patients, SBA revealed significantly reduced cortical thickness in the right frontal pole and ROI-based analysis volume shrinkage in LGN bilaterally, right V1 and left amygdala. Structural abnormalities were correlated with clinical parameters in a subset of the patients revealing that the left LGN volume was negatively correlated with bilateral cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), the right LGN volume was positively correlated with the mean deviation of the right visual hemifield, and the right V1 cortical thickness was negatively correlated with the right CDR in glaucoma. These results demonstrate that POAG affects both vision-related structures and non-visual cortical regions. Moreover, alterations of the brain visual structures reflect the clinical severity of glaucoma. PMID:26743811

  15. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  16. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  17. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  18. Investigating structural brain changes of dehydration using voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Streitbürger, Daniel-Paolo; Möller, Harald E; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Schroeter, Matthias L; Mueller, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Dehydration can affect the volume of brain structures, which might imply a confound in volumetric and morphometric studies of normal or diseased brain. Six young, healthy volunteers were repeatedly investigated using three-dimensional T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during states of normal hydration, hyperhydration, and dehydration to assess volume changes in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The datasets were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a widely used voxel-wise statistical analysis tool, FreeSurfer, a fully automated volumetric segmentation measure, and SIENAr a longitudinal brain-change detection algorithm. A significant decrease of GM and WM volume associated with dehydration was found in various brain regions, most prominently, in temporal and sub-gyral parietal areas, in the left inferior orbito-frontal region, and in the extra-nuclear region. Moreover, we found consistent increases in CSF, that is, an expansion of the ventricular system affecting both lateral ventricles, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Similar degrees of shrinkage in WM volume and increase of the ventricular system have been reported in studies of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease during disease progression. Based on these findings, a potential confound in GM and WM or ventricular volume studies due to the subjects' hydration state cannot be excluded and should be appropriately addressed in morphometric studies of the brain. PMID:22952926

  19. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN; ISAKI, EMI

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.

  20. Causal Structure of Brain Physiology after Brain Injury from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Rahman, Shah Atiqur; Huang, Yuxiao; Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, J. Michael; Albers, David; Falo, Cristina Maria; Park, Soojin; Agarwal, Sachin; Connolly, E. Sander; Kleinberg, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High frequency physiologic data are routinely generated for intensive care patients. While massive amounts of data make it difficult for clinicians to extract meaningful signals, these data could provide insight into the state of critically ill patients and guide interventions. We develop uniquely customized computational methods to uncover the causal structure within systemic and brain physiologic measures recorded in a neurological intensive care unit after subarachnoid hemorrhage. While the data have many missing values, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and are composed from a heterogeneous patient population, our advanced imputation and causal inference techniques enable physiologic models to be learned for individuals. Our analyses confirm that complex physiologic relationships including demand and supply of oxygen underlie brain oxygen measurements and that mechanisms for brain swelling early after injury may differ from those that develop in a delayed fashion. These inference methods will enable wider use of ICU data to understand patient physiology. PMID:27123582

  1. Causal Structure of Brain Physiology after Brain Injury from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Jan; Rahman, Shah Atiqur; Huang, Yuxiao; Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, J Michael; Albers, David; Falo, Cristina Maria; Park, Soojin; Agarwal, Sachin; Connolly, E Sander; Kleinberg, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High frequency physiologic data are routinely generated for intensive care patients. While massive amounts of data make it difficult for clinicians to extract meaningful signals, these data could provide insight into the state of critically ill patients and guide interventions. We develop uniquely customized computational methods to uncover the causal structure within systemic and brain physiologic measures recorded in a neurological intensive care unit after subarachnoid hemorrhage. While the data have many missing values, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and are composed from a heterogeneous patient population, our advanced imputation and causal inference techniques enable physiologic models to be learned for individuals. Our analyses confirm that complex physiologic relationships including demand and supply of oxygen underlie brain oxygen measurements and that mechanisms for brain swelling early after injury may differ from those that develop in a delayed fashion. These inference methods will enable wider use of ICU data to understand patient physiology. PMID:27123582

  2. Altered Structural Brain Networks in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Im, Kiho; Ahtam, Banu; Haehn, Daniel; Peters, Jurriaan M; Warfield, Simon K; Sahin, Mustafa; Ellen Grant, P

    2016-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by benign hamartomas in multiple organs including the brain and its clinical phenotypes may be associated with abnormal neural connections. We aimed to provide the first detailed findings on disrupted structural brain networks in TSC patients. Structural whole-brain connectivity maps were constructed using structural and diffusion MRI in 20 TSC (age range: 3-24 years) and 20 typically developing (TD; 3-23 years) subjects. We assessed global (short- and long-association and interhemispheric fibers) and regional white matter connectivity, and performed graph theoretical analysis using gyral pattern- and atlas-based node parcellations. Significantly higher mean diffusivity (MD) was shown in TSC patients than in TD controls throughout the whole brain and positively correlated with tuber load severity. A significant increase in MD was mainly influenced by an increase in radial diffusivity. Furthermore, interhemispheric connectivity was particularly reduced in TSC, which leads to increased network segregation within hemispheres. TSC patients with developmental delay (DD) showed significantly higher MD than those without DD primarily in intrahemispheric connections. Our analysis allows non-biased determination of differential white matter involvement, which may provide better measures of "lesion load" and lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25750257

  3. Brain Functional and Structural Predictors of Language Performance.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-05-01

    The relation between brain function and behavior on the one hand and the relation between structural changes and behavior on the other as well as the link between the 2 aspects are core issues in cognitive neuroscience. It is an open question, however, whether brain function or brain structure is the better predictor for age-specific cognitive performance. Here, in a comprehensive set of analyses, we investigated the direct relation between hemodynamic activity in 2 pairs of frontal and temporal cortical areas, 2 long-distance white matter fiber tracts connecting each pair and sentence comprehension performance of 4 age groups, including 3 groups of children between 3 and 10 years as well as young adults. We show that the increasing accuracy of processing complex sentences throughout development is correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation of 2 core language processing regions in Broca's area and the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus. Moreover, both accuracy and speed of processing are correlated with the maturational status of the arcuate fasciculus, that is, the dorsal white matter fiber bundle connecting these 2 regions. The present data provide compelling evidence for the view that brain function and white matter structure together best predict developing cognitive performance. PMID:25770126

  4. Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Walton, Esther; Naylor, Melissa; Roessner, Veit; Lim, Kelvin O; Charles Schulz, S; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-10-30

    Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity. PMID:26341950

  5. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    PubMed

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells. PMID:27259217

  6. Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Boyke, Janina; Driemeyer, Joenna; Gaser, Christian; Büchel, Christian; May, Arne

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that learning is associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in healthy young volunteers. It is not clear whether and to what extent the aging brain is still able to exhibit such structural plasticity. We built on our original study, now focusing on healthy senior citizens. We observed that elderly persons were able to learn three-ball cascade juggling, but with less proficiency compared with 20-year-old adolescents. Similar to the young group, gray-matter changes in the older brain related to skill acquisition were observed in area hMT/V5 (middle temporal area of the visual cortex). In addition, elderly volunteers who learned to juggle showed transient increases in gray matter in the hippocampus on the left side and in the nucleus accumbens bilaterally. PMID:18614670

  7. Decoding post-stroke motor function from structural brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Jane M; Filippone, Maurizio; Girolami, Mark; Ward, Nick S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research based on neuroimaging data has benefited from machine learning methods, which have the ability to provide individualized predictions and to account for the interaction among units of information in the brain. Application of machine learning in structural imaging to investigate diseases that involve brain injury presents an additional challenge, especially in conditions like stroke, due to the high variability across patients regarding characteristics of the lesions. Extracting data from anatomical images in a way that translates brain damage information into features to be used as input to learning algorithms is still an open question. One of the most common approaches to capture regional information from brain injury is to obtain the lesion load per region (i.e. the proportion of voxels in anatomical structures that are considered to be damaged). However, no systematic evaluation has yet been performed to compare this approach with using patterns of voxels (i.e. considering each voxel as a single feature). In this paper we compared both approaches applying Gaussian Process Regression to decode motor scores in 50 chronic stroke patients based solely on data derived from structural MRI. For both approaches we compared different ways to delimit anatomical areas: regions of interest from an anatomical atlas, the corticospinal tract, a mask obtained from fMRI analysis with a motor task in healthy controls and regions selected using lesion-symptom mapping. Our analysis showed that extracting features through patterns of voxels that represent lesion probability produced better results than quantifying the lesion load per region. In particular, from the different ways to delimit anatomical areas compared, the best performance was obtained with a combination of a range of cortical and subcortical motor areas as well as the corticospinal tract. These results will inform the appropriate methodology for predicting long term motor outcomes from early post

  8. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  9. Resolving structural variability in network models and the brain.

    PubMed

    Klimm, Florian; Bassett, Danielle S; Carlson, Jean M; Mucha, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling--in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity) do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy). This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful starting point for the

  10. Resolving Structural Variability in Network Models and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klimm, Florian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Carlson, Jean M.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling—in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity) do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy). This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful starting point for

  11. Environmental enrichment lessens cognitive decline in APP23 mice without affecting brain sirtuin expression.

    PubMed

    Polito, Letizia; Chierchia, Armando; Tunesi, Marta; Bouybayoune, Ihssane; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin; Albani, Diego; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a non-pharmacological intervention reported to counteract pathological signs in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed EE protocols in APP23 mice and evaluated how they influenced cognitive decline and brain amyloid-β (Aβ) burden. We also investigated the involvement of sirtuins (SIRTs) as a possible molecular mediator of EE, by assessing hippocampal and cortical mRNA and protein levels of the SIRT family members (SIRT1 to SIRT7). APP23 transgenic mice were moved to EE cages (TG-EEs) starting from 3 months of age. TG-EEs were compared to transgenic mice housed in standard cages (TG-SHs) and to wild-type littermates in the two housing conditions (WT-EEs and WT-SHs). At 7 months of age, all mice were tested for behavioral performance with Morris Water Maze (MWM) and visual novel Object Recognition Test (vORT). After a month, a group underwent biochemical analyses, while another group continued in the EE environment till 18 months of age, when Aβ plaque load was assessed. At 7 months, TG-SHs had impaired behavioral performance in MWM and vORT. In contrast, TG-EE mice had restored behavioral performance. At 8 months, EE did not affect AβPP expression or processing, Aβ40/42, pGlu-Aβ3-40/3-42, or Aβ oligomer level. The expression of two Aβ degrading enzymes (insulin degrading enzyme and neprilysin) was not modulated by EE. Brain sirtuin mRNA and protein levels were unchanged, while brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression increased after EE. Aβ deposition was attenuated in 18-month-old TG-EE mice, without apparent reduction of neuroinflammatory signs. We suggest that EE had a beneficial effect on cognitive performance and lessened long-term Aβ accumulation, but brain sirtuin expression was not modulated when cognitive impairment was restored. PMID:24961946

  12. Predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for brain atrophy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xintao; Guo, Lei; Nie, Jingxin; Li, Kaiming; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present an approach of predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for the detection of brain atrophy based on cross-sectional MRI image. The underlying premise of applying predictive modeling for atrophy detection is that brain atrophy is defined as significant deviation of part of the anatomy from what the remaining normal anatomy predicts for that part. The steps of predictive modeling are as follows. The central cortical surface under consideration is reconstructed from brain tissue map and Regions of Interests (ROI) on it are predicted from other reliable anatomies. The vertex pair-wise distance between the predicted vertex and the true one within the abnormal region is expected to be larger than that of the vertex in normal brain region. Change of white matter/gray matter ratio within a spherical region is used to identify the direction of vertex displacement. In this way, the severity of brain atrophy can be defined quantitatively by the displacements of those vertices. The proposed predictive modeling method has been evaluated by using both simulated atrophies and MRI images of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for alleles that affect gene expression in adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Alexander L; Jones, Lesley; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Gejman, Pablo V; Levinson, Douglas F; Sanders, Alan R; Purcell, Shaun; Visscher, Peter M; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O’Donovan, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    It is widely thought that alleles that influence susceptibility to common diseases, including schizophrenia, will frequently do so through effects on gene expression. Since only a small proportion of the genetic variance for schizophrenia has been attributed to specific loci, this remains an unproven hypothesis. The International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC) recently reported a substantial polygenic contribution to that disorder, and that schizophrenia risk alleles are enriched among SNPs selected for marginal evidence for association (p<0.5) from genome wide association studies (GWAS). It follows that if schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for those that affect gene expression, those marginally associated SNPs which are also eQTLs should carry more true association signals compared with SNPs which are not. To test this, we identified marginally associated (p<0.5) SNPs from two of the largest available schizophrenia GWAS datasets. We assigned eQTL status to those SNPs based upon an eQTL dataset derived from adult human brain. Using the polygenic score method of analysis reported by the ISC, we observed and replicated the observation that higher probability cis-eQTLs predicted schizophrenia better than those with a lower probability for being a cis-eQTL. Our data support the hypothesis that alleles conferring risk of schizophrenia are enriched among those that affect gene expression. Moreover, our data show that notwithstanding the likely developmental origin of schizophrenia, studies of adult brain tissue can in principle allow relevant susceptibility eQTLs to be identified. PMID:21339752

  14. Progranulin Mutations Affects Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fronto-Temporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide V.; Benussi, Luisa; Fostinelli, Silvia; Ciani, Miriam; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin (PGRN) has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD) as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non-carriers in patients with overt FTD. Materials and Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations. PMID:26973510

  15. Affective responses after different intensities of exercise in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Caxa, Luciana; Santolia, Patricia; Antunes, Hanna K. M.; Suriano, Italo; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. Methods: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate-intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects general linear model (GLM) analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses. Results: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d = 1.80), tension (d = 1.31), depression (d = 1.18), anger (d = 1.08), confusion (d = 1.70), psychological distress (d = 1.28), and physical symptoms (d = 1.42) disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. Conclusion: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury. PMID:26161074

  16. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  17. Correlations between brain structures and study time at home in healthy children: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Michiko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Like sleeping and eating habits, the study habits adopted by children when they are at home are important contributors to lifestyle and they affect cognitive ability. It has recently been reported that sleeping and eating habits change the brain structure of children. However, no research on the effect of study habits at home on the brain structure of children has been conducted thus far. We investigated the effects of study habits at home on the brain structures of healthy children by examining correlations between study time at home and changes in brain structure over the course of 3 years. Methods We used the brain magnetic resonance images of 229 healthy children aged 5.6–18.4 years and computed the changes (time 2–time 1) in regional gray matter and white matter volume (rWMV) using voxel-based morphometry. Whole-brain multiple regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between study time at home and changes in rWMV in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Behaviorally, we found a significant positive correlation between study time at home and change in the verbal comprehension index (VCI), one of the subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–third edition (WISC–III). Results and Conclusions Given that the SFG is involved in memory control and that the VCI measures abilities related to vocabulary, our results indicate that greater SFG involvement in the memorization component of longer study times may result in greater increases in the number of axons and more axon branching and myelination, causing plastic changes in the neural network involved in memory processes. PMID:25365804

  18. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  19. Aspartoacylase deficiency does not affect N-acetylaspartylglutamate level or glutamate carboxypeptidase II activity in the knockout mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sankar; Ezell, Edward L; Quast, Michael J; Wei, Jingna; Tyring, Stephen K; Michals-Matalon, Kimberlee; Matalon, Reuben

    2004-08-01

    Aspartoacylase (ASPA)-deficient patients [Canavan disease (CD)] reportedly have increased urinary excretion of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide abundant in the brain. Whether elevated excretion of urinary NAAG is due to ASPA deficiency, resulting in an abnormal level of brain NAAG, is examined using ASPA-deficient mouse brain. The level of NAAG in the knockout mouse brain was similar to that in the wild type. The NAAG hydrolyzing enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II), activity was normal in the knockout mouse brain. These data suggest that ASPA deficiency does not affect the NAAG or GCP II level in the knockout mouse brain, if documented also in patients with CD. PMID:15246864

  20. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain.

    PubMed

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics. PMID:26881224

  1. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the “universal” language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics. PMID:26881224

  2. Impact of fatty acids on brain circulation, structure and function.

    PubMed

    Haast, Roy A M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary intervention has evolved into a promising approach to prevent the onset and progression of brain diseases. The positive relationship between intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFAs) and decreased onset of disease- and aging-related deterioration of brain health is increasingly endorsed across epidemiological and diet-interventional studies. Promising results are found regarding to the protection of proper brain circulation, structure and functionality in healthy and diseased humans and animal models. These include enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF), white and gray matter integrity, and improved cognitive functioning, and are possibly mediated through increased neurovascular coupling, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity, respectively. Contrary, studies investigating diets high in saturated fats provide opposite results, which may eventually lead to irreversible damage. Studies like these are of great importance given the high incidence of obesity caused by the increased and decreased consumption of respectively saturated fats and ω3-LCPUFAs in the Western civilization. This paper will review in vivo research conducted on the effects of ω3-LCPUFAs and saturated fatty acids on integrity (circulation, structure and function) of the young, aging and diseased brain. PMID:24485516

  3. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes. PMID:24297904

  4. An examination of cetacean brain structure with a novel hypothesis correlating thermogenesis to the evolution of a big brain.

    PubMed

    Manger, Paul R

    2006-05-01

    This review examines aspects of cetacean brain structure related to behaviour and evolution. Major considerations include cetacean brain-body allometry, structure of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampal formation, specialisations of the cetacean brain related to vocalisations and sleep phenomenology, paleoneurology, and brain-body allometry during cetacean evolution. These data are assimilated to demonstrate that there is no neural basis for the often-asserted high intellectual abilities of cetaceans. Despite this, the cetaceans do have volumetrically large brains. A novel hypothesis regarding the evolution of large brain size in cetaceans is put forward. It is shown that a combination of an unusually high number of glial cells and unihemispheric sleep phenomenology make the cetacean brain an efficient thermogenetic organ, which is needed to counteract heat loss to the water. It is demonstrated that water temperature is the major selection pressure driving an altered scaling of brain and body size and an increased actual brain size in cetaceans. A point in the evolutionary history of cetaceans is identified as the moment in which water temperature became a significant selection pressure in cetacean brain evolution. This occurred at the Archaeoceti - modern cetacean faunal transition. The size, structure and scaling of the cetacean brain continues to be shaped by water temperature in extant cetaceans. The alterations in cetacean brain structure, function and scaling, combined with the imperative of producing offspring that can withstand the rate of heat loss experienced in water, within the genetic confines of eutherian mammal reproductive constraints, provides an explanation for the evolution of the large size of the cetacean brain. These observations provide an alternative to the widely held belief of a correlation between brain size and intelligence in cetaceans. PMID:16573845

  5. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Effects of training on brain dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan G.; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study, 57 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to (a) computer-based facial affect training that focused on affect discrimination and working memory in 20 daily 1-hour sessions, (b) similarly intense, targeted cognitive training on auditory-verbal discrimination and working memory, or (c) treatment as usual. Neuromagnetic activity was measured before and after training during a dynamic facial affect recognition task (5 s videos showing human faces gradually changing from neutral to fear or to happy expressions). Effects on 10–13 Hz (alpha) power during the transition from neutral to emotional expressions were assessed via MEG based on previous findings that alpha power increase is related to facial affect recognition and is smaller in schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. Targeted affect training improved overt performance on the training tasks. Moreover, alpha power increase during the dynamic facial affect recognition task was larger after affect training than after treatment-as-usual, though similar to that after targeted perceptual–cognitive training, indicating somewhat nonspecific benefits. Alpha power modulation was unrelated to general neuropsychological test performance, which improved in all groups. Results suggest that specific neural processes supporting facial affect recognition, evident in oscillatory phenomena, are modifiable. This should be considered when developing remediation strategies targeting social cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:25379427

  6. Comparative Evaluation for Brain Structural Connectivity Approaches: Towards Integrative Neuroinformatics Tool for Epilepsy Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Ghosh, Kaushik; Lacuey-Lecumberri, Nuria; Lhatoo, Samden D; Sahoo, Satya S

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in brain fiber tractography algorithms and diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collection techniques are providing new approaches to study brain white matter connectivity, which play an important role in complex neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Epilepsy affects approximately 50 million persons worldwide and it is often described as a disorder of the cortical network organization. There is growing recognition of the need to better understand the role of brain structural networks in the onset and propagation of seizures in epilepsy using high resolution non-invasive imaging technologies. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of two techniques to compute structural connectivity, namely probabilistic fiber tractography and statistics derived from fractional anisotropy (FA), using diffusion MRI data from a patient with rare case of medically intractable insular epilepsy. The results of our evaluation demonstrate that probabilistic fiber tractography provides a more accurate map of structural connectivity and may help address inherent complexities of neural fiber layout in the brain, such as fiber crossings. This work provides an initial result towards building an integrative informatics tool for neuroscience that can be used to accurately characterize the role of fiber tract connectivity in neurological disorders such as epilepsy. PMID:27570685

  7. Comparative Evaluation for Brain Structural Connectivity Approaches: Towards Integrative Neuroinformatics Tool for Epilepsy Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sheng; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Ghosh, Kaushik; Lacuey-Lecumberri, Nuria; Lhatoo, Samden D.; Sahoo, Satya S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in brain fiber tractography algorithms and diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collection techniques are providing new approaches to study brain white matter connectivity, which play an important role in complex neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Epilepsy affects approximately 50 million persons worldwide and it is often described as a disorder of the cortical network organization. There is growing recognition of the need to better understand the role of brain structural networks in the onset and propagation of seizures in epilepsy using high resolution non-invasive imaging technologies. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of two techniques to compute structural connectivity, namely probabilistic fiber tractography and statistics derived from fractional anisotropy (FA), using diffusion MRI data from a patient with rare case of medically intractable insular epilepsy. The results of our evaluation demonstrate that probabilistic fiber tractography provides a more accurate map of structural connectivity and may help address inherent complexities of neural fiber layout in the brain, such as fiber crossings. This work provides an initial result towards building an integrative informatics tool for neuroscience that can be used to accurately characterize the role of fiber tract connectivity in neurological disorders such as epilepsy. PMID:27570685

  8. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  9. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  10. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  11. Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score Can be Predicted from Structural Brain Images in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rondina, Jane Maryam; Squarzoni, Paula; Souza-Duran, Fabio Luis; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline Hatsuko; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Vallada, Homero; Lotufo, Paulo A.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania Correa; Busatto Filho, Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies) in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images) enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: (i) we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease). (ii) When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. (iii) We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed. PMID

  12. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

    2008-10-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  13. Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  14. Brain structure resolves the segmental affinity of anomalocaridid appendages.

    PubMed

    Cong, Peiyun; Ma, Xiaoya; Hou, Xianguang; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2014-09-25

    Despite being among the most celebrated taxa from Cambrian biotas, anomalocaridids (order Radiodonta) have provoked intense debate about their affinities within the moulting-animal clade that includes Arthropoda. Current alternatives identify anomalocaridids as either stem-group euarthropods, crown-group euarthropods near the ancestry of chelicerates, or a segmented ecdysozoan lineage with convergent similarity to arthropods in appendage construction. Determining unambiguous affinities has been impeded by uncertainties about the segmental affiliation of anomalocaridid frontal appendages. These structures are variably homologized with jointed appendages of the second (deutocerebral) head segment, including antennae and 'great appendages' of Cambrian arthropods, or with the paired antenniform frontal appendages of living Onychophora and some Cambrian lobopodians. Here we describe Lyrarapax unguispinus, a new anomalocaridid from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota, southwest China, nearly complete specimens of which preserve traces of muscles, digestive tract and brain. The traces of brain provide the first direct evidence for the segmental composition of the anomalocaridid head and its appendicular organization. Carbon-rich areas in the head resolve paired pre-protocerebral ganglia at the origin of paired frontal appendages. The ganglia connect to areas indicative of a bilateral pre-oral brain that receives projections from the eyestalk neuropils and compound retina. The dorsal, segmented brain of L. unguispinus reinforces an alliance between anomalocaridids and arthropods rather than cycloneuralians. Correspondences in brain organization between anomalocaridids and Onychophora resolve pre-protocerebral ganglia, associated with pre-ocular frontal appendages, as characters of the last common ancestor of euarthropods and onychophorans. A position of Radiodonta on the euarthropod stem-lineage implies the transformation of frontal appendages to another structure in crown

  15. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

    PubMed Central

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP) in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension. PMID:26468613

  16. ConnectViz: Accelerated Approach for Brain Structural Connectivity Using Delaunay Triangulation.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R

    2016-03-01

    Stroke is a cardiovascular disease with high mortality and long-term disability in the world. Normal functioning of the brain is dependent on the adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain complex network through the blood vessels. Stroke, occasionally a hemorrhagic stroke, ischemia or other blood vessel dysfunctions can affect patients during a cerebrovascular incident. Structurally, the left and the right carotid arteries, and the right and the left vertebral arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the brain, scalp and the face. However, a number of impairment in the function of the frontal lobes may occur as a result of any decrease in the flow of the blood through one of the internal carotid arteries. Such impairment commonly results in numbness, weakness or paralysis. Recently, the concepts of brain's wiring representation, the connectome, was introduced. However, construction and visualization of such brain network requires tremendous computation. Consequently, previously proposed approaches have been identified with common problems of high memory consumption and slow execution. Furthermore, interactivity in the previously proposed frameworks for brain network is also an outstanding issue. This study proposes an accelerated approach for brain connectomic visualization based on graph theory paradigm using compute unified device architecture, extending the previously proposed SurLens Visualization and computer aided hepatocellular carcinoma frameworks. The accelerated brain structural connectivity framework was evaluated with stripped brain datasets from the Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA. Significantly, our proposed framework is able to generate and extract points and edges of datasets, displays nodes and edges in the datasets in form of a network and clearly maps data volume to the corresponding brain surface. Moreover, with the framework, surfaces of the dataset were simultaneously displayed with the

  17. Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called ‘theory of mind’ or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

  18. Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI in normal and pathological brain networks.

    PubMed

    Guye, Maxime; Bettus, Gaelle; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Cozzone, Patrick J

    2010-12-01

    Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI data (ie. diffusion tractography or cortical volume correlation and resting-state or task-related (effective) fMRI, respectively) has provided new measures of human brain organization in vivo. The most striking discovery is that the whole-brain network exhibits "small-world" properties shared with many other complex systems (social, technological, information, biological). This topology allows a high efficiency at different spatial and temporal scale with a very low wiring and energy cost. Its modular organization also allows for a high level of adaptation. In addition, degree distribution of brain networks demonstrates highly connected hubs that are crucial for the whole-network functioning. Many of these hubs have been identified in regions previously defined as belonging to the default-mode network (potentially explaining the high basal metabolism of this network) and the attentional networks. This could explain the crucial role of these hub regions in physiology (task-related fMRI data) as well as in pathophysiology. Indeed, such topological definition provides a reliable framework for predicting behavioral consequences of focal or multifocal lesions such as stroke, tumors or multiple sclerosis. It also brings new insights into a better understanding of pathophysiology of many neurological or psychiatric diseases affecting specific local or global brain networks such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Graph theoretical analysis of connectivity MRI data provides an outstanding framework to merge anatomical and functional data in order to better understand brain pathologies. PMID:20349109

  19. Structural Brain Correlates Associated with Professional Handball Playing

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Langer, Nicolas; Lutz, Kai; Birrer, Karin; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands. Methodology/Hypotheses We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM) of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA) and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM) of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand. Results Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women. Discussion/Conclusion Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic

  20. Sustained sleep fragmentation affects brain temperature, food intake and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Baud, Maxime O; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Sleep fragmentation is present in numerous sleep pathologies and constitutes a major feature of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity has been shown to be associated to obstructive sleep apnea. While sleep fragmentation has been shown to impact sleep homeostasis, its specific effects on metabolic variables are only beginning to emerge. In this context, it is important to develop realistic animal models that would account for chronic metabolic effects of sleep fragmentation. We developed a 14-day model of instrumental sleep fragmentation in mice, and show an impact on both brain-specific and general metabolism. We first report that sleep fragmentation increases food intake without affecting body weight. This imbalance was accompanied by the inability to adequately decrease brain temperature during fragmented sleep. In addition, we report that sleep-fragmented mice develop glucose intolerance. We also observe that sleep fragmentation slightly increases the circadian peak level of glucocorticoids, a factor that may be involved in the observed metabolic effects. Our results confirm that poor-quality sleep with sustained sleep fragmentation has similar effects on general metabolism as actual sleep loss. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that sleep fragmentation is an aggravating factor for the development of metabolic dysfunctions that may be relevant for sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:22734931

  1. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  2. How Acute and Chronic Alcohol Consumption Affects Brain Networks: Insights from Multimodal Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Tilman; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Kareken, David A.; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Tapert, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimodal imaging combining 2 or more techniques is becoming increasingly important because no single imaging approach has the capacity to elucidate all clinically relevant characteristics of a network. Methods This review highlights recent advances in multimodal neuroimaging (i.e., combined use and interpretation of data collected through magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetoencephalography, MR perfusion, and MR spectroscopy methods) that leads to a more comprehensive understanding of how acute and chronic alcohol consumption affect neural networks underlying cognition, emotion, reward processing, and drinking behavior. Results Several innovative investigators have started utilizing multiple imaging approaches within the same individual to better understand how alcohol influences brain systems, both during intoxication and after years of chronic heavy use. Conclusions Their findings can help identify mechanism-based therapeutic and pharmacological treatment options, and they may increase the efficacy and cost effectiveness of such treatments by predicting those at greatest risk for relapse. PMID:22577873

  3. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy. PMID:19061906

  4. A testosterone-related structural brain phenotype predicts aggressive behavior from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here, we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6-22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. PMID:26431805

  5. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. PMID:26707716

  6. Locomotion without a brain: physical reservoir computing in tensegrity structures.

    PubMed

    Caluwaerts, K; D'Haene, M; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B

    2013-01-01

    Embodiment has led to a revolution in robotics by not thinking of the robot body and its controller as two separate units, but taking into account the interaction of the body with its environment. By investigating the effect of the body on the overall control computation, it has been suggested that the body is effectively performing computations, leading to the term morphological computation. Recent work has linked this to the field of reservoir computing, allowing one to endow morphologies with a theory of universal computation. In this work, we study a family of highly dynamic body structures, called tensegrity structures, controlled by one of the simplest kinds of "brains." These structures can be used to model biomechanical systems at different scales. By analyzing this extreme instantiation of compliant structures, we demonstrate the existence of a spectrum of choices of how to implement control in the body-brain composite. We show that tensegrity structures can maintain complex gaits with linear feedback control and that external feedback can intrinsically be integrated in the control loop. The various linear learning rules we consider differ in biological plausibility, and no specific assumptions are made on how to implement the feedback in a physical system. PMID:23186351

  7. Role of structural inhomogeneities in resting-state brain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vuksanović, Vesna; Hövel, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    Brain imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional connectivity. However, the mechanism of how functional connectivity arises in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which functional correlations arise from underlying structural connections taking into account inhomogeneities in the interactions between the brain regions of interest. The local dynamics of a neural population is assumed to be of phase-oscillator type. The considered structural connectivity patterns describe long-range anatomical connections between interacting neural elements. We find a dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters governing the dynamics. We calculate graph-theoretic measures of the functional network topology obtained from numerical simulations. The effect of structural inhomogeneities in the coupling term on the observed network state is quantified by examining the relation between simulated and empirical functional connectivity. Importantly, we show that simulated and empirical functional connectivity agree for a narrow range of coupling strengths. We conclude that identification of functional connectivity during rest requires an analysis of the network dynamics. PMID:27468323

  8. The structure of creative cognition in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Mead, Brittany S.; Carrasco, Jessica; Flores, Ranee A.

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiry—perhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR). Behaviorally, one can limit the “blind variation” component to idea generation tests as manifested by measures of divergent thinking. The “selective retention” component can be represented by measures of convergent thinking, as represented by measures of remote associates. We summarize results from measures of creative cognition, correlated with structural neuroimaging measures including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We also review lesion studies, considered to be the “gold standard” of brain-behavioral studies. What emerges is a picture consistent with theories of disinhibitory brain features subserving creative cognition, as described previously (Martindale, 1981). We provide a perspective, involving aspects of the default mode network (DMN), which might provide a “first approximation” regarding how creative cognition might map on to the human brain. PMID:23847503

  9. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a ‘sex phenotype’ in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs. PMID:22843414

  10. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments. PMID:26098344

  11. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Nasim; Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-08-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a 'sex phenotype' in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs. PMID:22843414

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Human Glioma Growth Based on Brain Topological Structures: Study of Two Clinical Cases

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Cecilia; Maglietti, Felipe; Colonna, Mario; Breitburd, Karina; Marshall, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and yet almost incurable due mainly to their great invasion capability. This represents a challenge to present clinical oncology. Here, we introduce a mathematical model aiming to improve tumor spreading capability definition. The model consists in a time dependent reaction-diffusion equation in a three-dimensional spatial domain that distinguishes between different brain topological structures. The model uses a series of digitized images from brain slices covering the whole human brain. The Talairach atlas included in the model describes brain structures at different levels. Also, the inclusion of the Brodmann areas allows prediction of the brain functions affected during tumor evolution and the estimation of correlated symptoms. The model is solved numerically using patient-specific parametrization and finite differences. Simulations consider an initial state with cellular proliferation alone (benign tumor), and an advanced state when infiltration starts (malign tumor). Survival time is estimated on the basis of tumor size and location. The model is used to predict tumor evolution in two clinical cases. In the first case, predictions show that real infiltrative areas are underestimated by current diagnostic imaging. In the second case, tumor spreading predictions were shown to be more accurate than those derived from previous models in the literature. Our results suggest that the inclusion of differential migration in glioma growth models constitutes another step towards a better prediction of tumor infiltration at the moment of surgical or radiosurgical target definition. Also, the addition of physiological/psychological considerations to classical anatomical models will provide a better and integral understanding of the patient disease at the moment of deciding therapeutic options, taking into account not only survival but also life quality. PMID:22761843

  13. Brain structure and dynamics across scales: in search of rules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Kennedy, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Louis Henry Sullivan, the father of skyscrapers, famously stated 'Form ever follows function'. In this short review, we will focus on the relationship between form (structure) and function (dynamics) in the brain. We summarize recent advances on the quantification of directed- and weighted-mesoscopic connectivity of mammalian cortex, the exponential distance rule for mesoscopic and microscopic circuit wiring, a spatially embedded random model of inter-areal cortical networks, and a large-scale dynamical circuit model of money's cortex that gives rise to a hierarchy of timescales. These findings demonstrate that inter-areal cortical networks are dense (hence such concepts as 'small-world' need to be refined when applied to the brain), spatially dependent (therefore purely topological approach of graph theory has limited applicability) and heterogeneous (consequently cortical areas cannot be treated as identical 'nodes'). PMID:26868043

  14. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    PubMed

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. PMID:21596060

  15. Maternal interpersonal affiliation is associated with adolescents' brain structure and reward processing

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, S; Brassen, S; Bromberg, U; Banaschewski, T; Conrod, P; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, A; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Büchel, C

    2012-01-01

    Considerable animal and human research has been dedicated to the effects of parenting on structural brain development, focusing on hippocampal and prefrontal areas. Conversely, although functional imaging studies suggest that the neural reward circuitry is involved in parental affection, little is known about mothers' interpersonal qualities in relation to their children's brain structure and function. Moreover, gender differences concerning the effect of maternal qualities have rarely been investigated systematically. In 63 adolescents, we assessed structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as interpersonal affiliation in their mothers. This allowed us to associate maternal affiliation with gray matter density and neural responses during different phases of the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay task. Maternal affiliation was positively associated with hippocampal and orbitofrontal gray matter density. Moreover, in the feedback of reward hit as compared with reward miss, an association with caudate activation was found. Although no significant gender effects were observed in these associations, during reward feedback as compared with baseline, maternal affiliation was significantly associated with ventral striatal and caudate activation only in females. Our findings demonstrate that maternal interpersonal affiliation is related to alterations in both the brain structure and reward-related activation in healthy adolescents. Importantly, the pattern is in line with typical findings in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, suggesting that a lack of maternal affiliation might have a role in the genesis of mental disorders. PMID:23149446

  16. Maternal interpersonal affiliation is associated with adolescents' brain structure and reward processing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Brassen, S; Bromberg, U; Banaschewski, T; Conrod, P; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, A; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Büchel, C

    2012-01-01

    Considerable animal and human research has been dedicated to the effects of parenting on structural brain development, focusing on hippocampal and prefrontal areas. Conversely, although functional imaging studies suggest that the neural reward circuitry is involved in parental affection, little is known about mothers' interpersonal qualities in relation to their children's brain structure and function. Moreover, gender differences concerning the effect of maternal qualities have rarely been investigated systematically. In 63 adolescents, we assessed structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as interpersonal affiliation in their mothers. This allowed us to associate maternal affiliation with gray matter density and neural responses during different phases of the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay task. Maternal affiliation was positively associated with hippocampal and orbitofrontal gray matter density. Moreover, in the feedback of reward hit as compared with reward miss, an association with caudate activation was found. Although no significant gender effects were observed in these associations, during reward feedback as compared with baseline, maternal affiliation was significantly associated with ventral striatal and caudate activation only in females. Our findings demonstrate that maternal interpersonal affiliation is related to alterations in both the brain structure and reward-related activation in healthy adolescents. Importantly, the pattern is in line with typical findings in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, suggesting that a lack of maternal affiliation might have a role in the genesis of mental disorders. PMID:23149446

  17. Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence. PMID:24633558

  18. The Brain Basis of Positive and Negative Affect: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Human Neuroimaging Literature.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Weber, Jochen; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-05-01

    The ability to experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings or to represent objects as "positive" or "negative" is known as representing hedonic "valence." Although scientists overwhelmingly agree that valence is a basic psychological phenomenon, debate continues about how to best conceptualize it scientifically. We used a meta-analysis of 397 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography studies (containing 914 experimental contrasts and 6827 participants) to test 3 competing hypotheses about the brain basis of valence: the bipolarity hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a brain system that monotonically increases and/or decreases along the valence dimension, the bivalent hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by independent brain systems, and the affective workspace hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a flexible set of valence-general regions. We found little evidence for the bipolar or bivalent hypotheses. Findings instead supported the hypothesis that, at the level of brain activity measurable by fMRI, valence is flexibly implemented across instances by a set of valence-general limbic and paralimbic brain regions. PMID:25631056

  19. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  20. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  1. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  2. Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks. PMID:19707539

  3. Structural Brain Network: What is the Effect of LiFE Optimization of Whole Brain Tractography?

    PubMed

    Qi, Shouliang; Meesters, Stephan; Nicolay, Klaas; Ter Haar Romeny, Bart M; Ossenblok, Pauly

    2016-01-01

    Structural brain networks constructed based on diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) have provided a systems perspective to explore the organization of the human brain. Some redundant and nonexistent fibers, however, are inevitably generated in whole brain tractography. We propose to add one critical step while constructing the networks to remove these fibers using the linear fascicle evaluation (LiFE) method, and study the differences between the networks with and without LiFE optimization. For a cohort of nine healthy adults and for 9 out of the 35 subjects from Human Connectome Project, the T 1-weighted images and dMRI data are analyzed. Each brain is parcellated into 90 regions-of-interest, whilst a probabilistic tractography algorithm is applied to generate the original connectome. The elimination of redundant and nonexistent fibers from the original connectome by LiFE creates the optimized connectome, and the random selection of the same number of fibers as the optimized connectome creates the non-optimized connectome. The combination of parcellations and these connectomes leads to the optimized and non-optimized networks, respectively. The optimized networks are constructed with six weighting schemes, and the correlations of different weighting methods are analyzed. The fiber length distributions of the non-optimized and optimized connectomes are compared. The optimized and non-optimized networks are compared with regard to edges, nodes and networks, within a sparsity range of 0.75-0.95. It has been found that relatively more short fibers exist in the optimized connectome. About 24.0% edges of the optimized network are significantly different from those in the non-optimized network at a sparsity of 0.75. About 13.2% of edges are classified as false positives or the possible missing edges. The strength and betweenness centrality of some nodes are significantly different for the non-optimized and optimized networks, but not the node efficiency. The normalized

  4. Structural Brain Network: What is the Effect of LiFE Optimization of Whole Brain Tractography?

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shouliang; Meesters, Stephan; Nicolay, Klaas; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Ossenblok, Pauly

    2016-01-01

    Structural brain networks constructed based on diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) have provided a systems perspective to explore the organization of the human brain. Some redundant and nonexistent fibers, however, are inevitably generated in whole brain tractography. We propose to add one critical step while constructing the networks to remove these fibers using the linear fascicle evaluation (LiFE) method, and study the differences between the networks with and without LiFE optimization. For a cohort of nine healthy adults and for 9 out of the 35 subjects from Human Connectome Project, the T1-weighted images and dMRI data are analyzed. Each brain is parcellated into 90 regions-of-interest, whilst a probabilistic tractography algorithm is applied to generate the original connectome. The elimination of redundant and nonexistent fibers from the original connectome by LiFE creates the optimized connectome, and the random selection of the same number of fibers as the optimized connectome creates the non-optimized connectome. The combination of parcellations and these connectomes leads to the optimized and non-optimized networks, respectively. The optimized networks are constructed with six weighting schemes, and the correlations of different weighting methods are analyzed. The fiber length distributions of the non-optimized and optimized connectomes are compared. The optimized and non-optimized networks are compared with regard to edges, nodes and networks, within a sparsity range of 0.75–0.95. It has been found that relatively more short fibers exist in the optimized connectome. About 24.0% edges of the optimized network are significantly different from those in the non-optimized network at a sparsity of 0.75. About 13.2% of edges are classified as false positives or the possible missing edges. The strength and betweenness centrality of some nodes are significantly different for the non-optimized and optimized networks, but not the node efficiency. The normalized

  5. Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

  6. A Mapping Between Structural and Functional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jil; Tewarie, Prejaas; Hillebrand, Arjan; Douw, Linda; van Dijk, Bob W; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between structural and functional brain networks is still highly debated. Most previous studies have used a single functional imaging modality to analyze this relationship. In this work, we use multimodal data, from functional MRI, magnetoencephalography, and diffusion tensor imaging, and assume that there exists a mapping between the connectivity matrices of the resting-state functional and structural networks. We investigate this mapping employing group averaged as well as individual data. We indeed find a significantly high goodness of fit level for this structure-function mapping. Our analysis suggests that a functional connection is shaped by all walks up to the diameter in the structural network in both modality cases. When analyzing the inverse mapping, from function to structure, longer walks in the functional network also seem to possess minor influence on the structural connection strengths. Even though similar overall properties for the structure-function mapping are found for different functional modalities, our results indicate that the structure-function relationship is modality dependent. PMID:26860437

  7. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A; Grant, Samuel C; Gold, Mark S; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  8. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J.; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A.; Grant, Samuel C.; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  9. Diffusion MRI at 25: Exploring brain tissue structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bihan, Denis Le; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (or dMRI) came into existence in the mid-1980s. During the last 25 years, diffusion MRI has been extraordinarily successful (with more than 300,000 entries on Google Scholar for diffusion MRI). Its main clinical domain of application has been neurological disorders, especially for the management of patients with acute stroke. It is also rapidly becoming a standard for white matter disorders, as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal abnormalities in white matter fiber structure and provide outstanding maps of brain connectivity. The ability to visualize anatomical connections between different parts of the brain, non-invasively and on an individual basis, has emerged as a major breakthrough for neurosciences. The driving force of dMRI is to monitor microscopic, natural displacements of water molecules that occur in brain tissues as part of the physical diffusion process. Water molecules are thus used as a probe that can reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state. PMID:22120012

  10. Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery With Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Backeljauw, Barynia; Holland, Scott K.; Altaye, Mekibib

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anesthetics induce widespread cell death, permanent neuronal deletion, and neurocognitive impairment in immature animals, raising substantial concerns about similar effects occurring in young children. Epidemiologic studies have been unable to sufficiently address this concern, in part due to reliance on group-administered achievement tests, inability to assess brain structure, and limited control for confounders. METHODS: We compared healthy participants of a language development study at age 5 to 18 years who had undergone surgery with anesthesia before 4 years of age (n = 53) with unexposed peers (n = 53) who were matched for age, gender, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Neurocognitive assessments included the Oral and Written Language Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WAIS) or WISC, as appropriate for age. Brain structural comparisons were conducted by using T1-weighted MRI scans. RESULTS: Average test scores were within population norms, regardless of surgical history. However, compared with control subjects, previously exposed children scored significantly lower in listening comprehension and performance IQ. Exposure did not lead to gross elimination of gray matter in regions previously identified as vulnerable in animals. Decreased performance IQ and language comprehension, however, were associated with lower gray matter density in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that general anesthesia for a surgical procedure in early childhood may be associated with long-term diminution of language abilities and cognition, as well as regional volumetric alterations in brain structure. Although causation remains unresolved, these findings nonetheless warrant additional research into the phenomenon’s mechanism and mitigating strategies. PMID:26055844

  11. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization Using Riemann Surface Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yalin; Lui, Lok Ming; Gu, Xianfeng; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Chan, Tony F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2011-01-01

    In medical imaging, parameterized 3-D surface models are useful for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. Here we introduce a parameterization method based on Riemann surface structure, which uses a special curvilinear net structure (conformal net) to partition the surface into a set of patches that can each be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable (their solutions tend to be smooth functions and the boundary conditions of the Dirichlet problem can be enforced). Conformal parameterization also helps transform partial differential equations (PDEs) that may be defined on 3-D brain surface manifolds to modified PDEs on a two-dimensional parameter domain. Since the Jacobian matrix of a conformal parameterization is diagonal, the modified PDE on the parameter domain is readily solved. To illustrate our techniques, we computed parameterizations for several types of anatomical surfaces in 3-D magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. For surfaces that are topologically homeomorphic to each other and have similar geometrical structures, we show that the parameterization results are consistent and the subdivided surfaces can be matched to each other. Finally, we present an automatic sulcal landmark location algorithm by solving PDEs on cortical surfaces. The landmark detection results are used as constraints for building conformal maps between surfaces that also match explicitly defined landmarks. PMID:17679336

  12. Distinct Genetic Influences on Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mather, Karen A; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Wright, Margaret J; Ames, David; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the heritability of brain grey matter structures in a subsample of older adult twins (93 MZ and 68 DZ twin pairs; mean age 70 years) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The heritability estimates of subcortical regions ranged from 0.41 (amygdala) to 0.73 (hippocampus), and of cortical regions, from 0.55 (parietal lobe) to 0.78 (frontal lobe). Corresponding structures in the two hemispheres were influenced by the same genetic factors and high genetic correlations were observed between the two hemispheric regions. There were three genetically correlated clusters, comprising (i) the cortical lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes); (ii) the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen and pallidum) with weak genetic correlations with cortical lobes, and (iii) the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens grouped together, which genetically correlated with both basal ganglia and cortical lobes, albeit relatively weakly. Our study demonstrates a complex but patterned and clustered genetic architecture of the human brain, with divergent genetic determinants of cortical and subcortical structures, in particular the basal ganglia. PMID:27595976

  13. Association between brain structure and phenotypic characteristics in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Nitschke, Joachim; Santtila, Pekka; Schecklmann, Martin; Langguth, Berthold; Greenlee, Mark W; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Studies applying structural neuroimaging to pedophiles are scarce and have shown conflicting results. Although first findings suggested reduced volume of the amygdala, pronounced gray matter decreases in frontal regions were observed in another group of pedophilic offenders. When compared to non-sexual offenders instead of community controls, pedophiles revealed deficiencies in white matter only. The present study sought to test the hypotheses of structurally compromised prefrontal and limbic networks and whether structural brain abnormalities are related to phenotypic characteristics in pedophiles. We compared gray matter volume of male pedophilic offenders and non-sexual offenders from high-security forensic hospitals using voxel-based morphometry in cross-sectional and correlational whole-brain analyses. The significance threshold was set to p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Compared to controls, pedophiles exhibited a volume reduction of the right amygdala (small volume corrected). Within the pedophilic group, pedosexual interest and sexual recidivism were correlated with gray matter decrease in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r = -.64) and insular cortex (r = -.45). Lower age of victims was strongly associated with gray matter reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (r = .98) and angular gyri bilaterally (r = .70 and r = .93). Our findings of specifically impaired neural networks being related to certain phenotypic characteristics might account for the heterogeneous results in previous neuroimaging studies of pedophilia. The neuroanatomical abnormalities in pedophilia seem to be of a dimensional rather than a categorical nature, supporting the notion of a multifaceted disorder. PMID:23399486

  14. Evolving brain structural changes in PSEN1 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Lladó, Albert; Fortea, Juan; Bosch, Beatriz; Antonell, Anna; Balasa, Mircea; Bargalló, Nuria; Bartrés-Faz, David; Molinuevo, José Luis; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    Familial Alzheimer's disease provides the opportunity to investigate brain changes even before the symptoms onset. We performed a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 38 participants from families with presenilin 1 gene mutations: 11 symptomatic mutation carriers, 13 asymptomatic mutation carriers (AMC), with a mean of 16.22 years before the estimated appearance of symptoms, and 14 noncarriers. A subset of subjects was studied longitudinally 2 and 4 years after the first scan. We found decreased cortical thickness (CTh) and volume in cortical and subcortical structures in symptomatic mutation carriers, with progressive loss over time. In AMC, we found increased CTh and volume in temporoparietal regions and in precuneus-posterior cingulate compared with controls at baseline. Longitudinal studies in AMC, by contrast, showed accelerated rates of CTh loss in precuneus-posterior cingulate and superior parietal, right lateral temporal and left orbitofrontal, and middle frontal regions. These findings suggest that brain structure in presenilin 1 mutation carriers follows nonlinear trajectories, with regional increases during the very early presymptomatic period. Initial neuroinflammation and/or accumulation of amyloid species followed by neurodegeneration, or congenital morphometric differences, may explain the observed features. PMID:25638532

  15. Distinct Genetic Influences on Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mather, Karen A.; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Wright, Margaret J.; Ames, David; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the heritability of brain grey matter structures in a subsample of older adult twins (93 MZ and 68 DZ twin pairs; mean age 70 years) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The heritability estimates of subcortical regions ranged from 0.41 (amygdala) to 0.73 (hippocampus), and of cortical regions, from 0.55 (parietal lobe) to 0.78 (frontal lobe). Corresponding structures in the two hemispheres were influenced by the same genetic factors and high genetic correlations were observed between the two hemispheric regions. There were three genetically correlated clusters, comprising (i) the cortical lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes); (ii) the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen and pallidum) with weak genetic correlations with cortical lobes, and (iii) the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens grouped together, which genetically correlated with both basal ganglia and cortical lobes, albeit relatively weakly. Our study demonstrates a complex but patterned and clustered genetic architecture of the human brain, with divergent genetic determinants of cortical and subcortical structures, in particular the basal ganglia. PMID:27595976

  16. Asymmetric bias in user guided segmentations of brain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Smith, Rachel G.; Graves, Michael M.; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Peterson, Sarah; White, Scott; Blocher, Joe; El-Sayed, Mohammed; Hazlett, Heather C.

    2007-03-01

    Brain morphometric studies often incorporate comparative asymmetry analyses of left and right hemispheric brain structures. In this work we show evidence that common methods of user guided structural segmentation exhibit strong left-right asymmetric biases and thus fundamentally influence any left-right asymmetry analyses. We studied several structural segmentation methods with varying degree of user interaction from pure manual outlining to nearly fully automatic procedures. The methods were applied to MR images and their corresponding left-right mirrored images from an adult and a pediatric study. Several expert raters performed the segmentations of all structures. The asymmetric segmentation bias is assessed by comparing the left-right volumetric asymmetry in the original and mirrored datasets, as well as by testing each sides volumetric differences to a zero mean standard t-tests. The structural segmentations of caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala and hippocampus showed a highly significant asymmetric bias using methods with considerable manual outlining or landmark placement. Only the lateral ventricle segmentation revealed no asymmetric bias due to the high degree of automation and a high intensity contrast on its boundary. Our segmentation methods have been adapted in that they are applied to only one of the hemispheres in an image and its left-right mirrored image. Our work suggests that existing studies of hemispheric asymmetry without similar precautions should be interpreted in a new, skeptical light. Evidence of an asymmetric segmentation bias is novel and unknown to the imaging community. This result seems less surprising to the visual perception community and its likely cause is differences in perception of oppositely curved 3D structures.

  17. Treatment resistant schizophrenia: Course of brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Rosenthal, Jennifer B

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 30% of people with schizophrenia manifest a minimal response to conventional and atypical antipsychotic medications and manifest continuous symptoms of psychosis, with this condition referred to as "treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS)". There are several neurobiological consequences of continuous psychosis, including regional cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement. Pharmacological treatments are available for TRS, with at least 1/3 of patients responding to treatment with clozapine. In this paper we review the evidence regarding the course of treatment resistant schizophrenia, as well as changes in brain structure and function in psychosis and on the possible role of clozapine treatment in altering cortical deterioration in patients with TRS. PMID:26925705

  18. Rotarod training in mice is associated with changes in brain structure observable with multimodal MRI.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jan; Niibori, Yosuke; Frankland, Paul W; Lerch, Jason P

    2015-02-15

    The brain has been shown to remain structurally plastic even throughout adulthood. However, little is known how motor-skill training affects different MRI modalities in the adult mouse brain. The aim of this study is to investigate whether rotarod training, a simple motor training task taken from the standard test battery, is associated with structural plasticity observable with different MRI modalities in adult C57BL/6 mice. The rotarod is a standard test that taxes motor coordination and balance. We use T2-weighted MRI followed by deformation-based morphometry to assess local volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from diffusion MRI to assess microstructure ex-vivo. Using deformation-based morphometry we found that the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala are larger in rotarod-trained mice compared to untrained controls. Surprisingly, the cerebellum and white matter in the corpus callosum underlying the primary motor cortex are smaller after training. We also found that the volume of the motor cortex is positively correlated with better rotarod performance. Diffusion imaging indicates group differences and behavioral correlations with FA, a measure of microstructure. Trained mice have higher FA in the hippocampus. Better rotarod performance is associated with higher FA in the hippocampus and lower FA in the primary visual cortex. This is the first study to reveal the substantial structural reorganization of the adult mouse brain following only a relatively brief period of motor-skill training by using complementary measures of microstructure and volume. PMID:25497397

  19. Structural brain aging and speech production: a surface-based brain morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Pascale; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    While there has been a growing number of studies examining the neurofunctional correlates of speech production over the past decade, the neurostructural correlates of this immensely important human behaviour remain less well understood, despite the fact that previous studies have established links between brain structure and behaviour, including speech and language. In the present study, we thus examined, for the first time, the relationship between surface-based cortical thickness (CT) and three different behavioural indexes of sublexical speech production: response duration, reaction times and articulatory accuracy, in healthy young and older adults during the production of simple and complex meaningless sequences of syllables (e.g., /pa-pa-pa/ vs. /pa-ta-ka/). The results show that each behavioural speech measure was sensitive to the complexity of the sequences, as indicated by slower reaction times, longer response durations and decreased articulatory accuracy in both groups for the complex sequences. Older adults produced longer speech responses, particularly during the production of complex sequence. Unique age-independent and age-dependent relationships between brain structure and each of these behavioural measures were found in several cortical and subcortical regions known for their involvement in speech production, including the bilateral anterior insula, the left primary motor area, the rostral supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal sulcus, the bilateral putamen and caudate, and in some region less typically associated with speech production, such as the posterior cingulate cortex. PMID:26336952

  20. Structural brain changes linked to delayed first language acquisition in congenitally deaf individuals.

    PubMed

    Pénicaud, Sidonie; Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Hyde, Krista; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2013-02-01

    Early language experience is essential for the development of a high level of linguistic proficiency in adulthood and in a recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiment, we showed that a delayed acquisition of a first language results in changes in the functional organization of the adult brain (Mayberry et al., 2011). The present study extends the question to explore if delayed acquisition of a first language also modulates the structural development of the brain. To this end, we carried out anatomical MRI in the same group of congenitally deaf individuals who varied in the age of acquisition of a first language, American Sign Language -ASL (Mayberry et al., 2011) and used a neuroanatomical technique, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM), to explore changes in gray and white matter concentrations across the brain related to the age of first language acquisition. The results show that delayed acquisition of a first language is associated with changes in tissue concentration in the occipital cortex close to the area that has been found to show functional recruitment during language processing in these deaf individuals with a late age of acquisition. These findings suggest that a lack of early language experience affects not only the functional but also the anatomical organization of the brain. PMID:23063844

  1. How spatio-temporal habitat connectivity affects amphibian genetic structure

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Alexander G.; Schlichting, Peter E.; Billerman, Shawn M.; Jesmer, Brett R.; Micheletti, Steven; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Funk, W. Chris; Hapeman, Paul; Muths, Erin; Murphy, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous landscapes and fluctuating environmental conditions can affect species dispersal, population genetics, and genetic structure, yet understanding how biotic and abiotic factors affect population dynamics in a fluctuating environment is critical for species management. We evaluated how spatio-temporal habitat connectivity influences dispersal and genetic structure in a population of boreal chorus frogs (Pseudacris maculata) using a landscape genetics approach. We developed gravity models to assess the contribution of various factors to the observed genetic distance as a measure of functional connectivity. We selected (a) wetland (within-site) and (b) landscape matrix (between-site) characteristics; and (c) wetland connectivity metrics using a unique methodology. Specifically, we developed three networks that quantify wetland connectivity based on: (i) P. maculata dispersal ability, (ii) temporal variation in wetland quality, and (iii) contribution of wetland stepping-stones to frog dispersal. We examined 18 wetlands in Colorado, and quantified 12 microsatellite loci from 322 individual frogs. We found that genetic connectivity was related to topographic complexity, within- and between-wetland differences in moisture, and wetland functional connectivity as contributed by stepping-stone wetlands. Our results highlight the role that dynamic environmental factors have on dispersal-limited species and illustrate how complex asynchronous interactions contribute to the structure of spatially-explicit metapopulations. PMID:26442094

  2. How spatio-temporal habitat connectivity affects amphibian genetic structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Alexander G.; Schlichting, P; Billerman, S; Jesmer, B; Micheletti, S; Fortin, M.-J.; Funk, W.C.; Hapeman, P; Muths, Erin L.; Murphy, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous landscapes and fluctuating environmental conditions can affect species dispersal, population genetics, and genetic structure, yet understanding how biotic and abiotic factors affect population dynamics in a fluctuating environment is critical for species management. We evaluated how spatio-temporal habitat connectivity influences dispersal and genetic structure in a population of boreal chorus frogs (Pseudacris maculata) using a landscape genetics approach. We developed gravity models to assess the contribution of various factors to the observed genetic distance as a measure of functional connectivity. We selected (a) wetland (within-site) and (b) landscape matrix (between-site) characteristics; and (c) wetland connectivity metrics using a unique methodology. Specifically, we developed three networks that quantify wetland connectivity based on: (i) P. maculata dispersal ability, (ii) temporal variation in wetland quality, and (iii) contribution of wetland stepping-stones to frog dispersal. We examined 18 wetlands in Colorado, and quantified 12 microsatellite loci from 322 individual frogs. We found that genetic connectivity was related to topographic complexity, within- and between-wetland differences in moisture, and wetland functional connectivity as contributed by stepping-stone wetlands. Our results highlight the role that dynamic environmental factors have on dispersal-limited species and illustrate how complex asynchronous interactions contribute to the structure of spatially-explicit metapopulations.

  3. Large-scale brain network abnormalities in Huntington's disease revealed by structural covariance.

    PubMed

    Minkova, Lora; Eickhoff, Simon B; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Kaller, Christoph P; Peter, Jessica; Scheller, Elisa; Lahr, Jacob; Roos, Raymund A; Durr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be diagnosed with certainty decades before symptom onset. Studies using structural MRI have identified grey matter (GM) loss predominantly in the striatum, but also involving various cortical areas. So far, voxel-based morphometric studies have examined each brain region in isolation and are thus unable to assess the changes in the interrelation of brain regions. Here, we examined the structural covariance in GM volumes in pre-specified motor, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social-affective networks in 99 patients with manifest HD (mHD), 106 presymptomatic gene mutation carriers (pre-HD), and 108 healthy controls (HC). After correction for global differences in brain volume, we found that increased GM volume in one region was associated with increased GM volume in another. When statistically comparing the groups, no differences between HC and pre-HD were observed, but increased positive correlations were evident for mHD, relative to pre-HD and HC. These findings could be explained by a HD-related neuronal loss heterogeneously affecting the examined network at the pre-HD stage, which starts to dominate structural covariance globally at the manifest stage. Follow-up analyses identified structural connections between frontoparietal motor regions to be linearly modified by disease burden score (DBS). Moderator effects of disease load burden became significant at a DBS level typically associated with the onset of unequivocal HD motor signs. Together with existing findings from functional connectivity analyses, our data indicates a critical role of these frontoparietal regions for the onset of HD motor signs. PMID:26453902

  4. Brain structure links everyday creativity to creative achievement.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Tang, Chaoying; Cao, Guikang; Hou, Yuling; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Although creativity is commonly considered to be a cornerstone of human progress and vital to all realms of our lives, its neural basis remains elusive, partly due to the different tasks and measurement methods applied in research. In particular, the neural correlates of everyday creativity that can be experienced by everyone, to some extent, are still unexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the brain structure underlying individual differences in everyday creativity, as measured by the Creative Behavioral Inventory (CBI) (N=163). The results revealed that more creative activities were significantly and positively associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the regional premotor cortex (PMC), which is a motor planning area involved in the creation and selection of novel actions and inhibition. In addition, the gray volume of the PMC had a significant positive relationship with creative achievement and Art scores, which supports the notion that training and practice may induce changes in brain structures. These results indicate that everyday creativity is linked to the PMC and that PMC volume can predict creative achievement, supporting the view that motor planning may play a crucial role in creative behavior. PMID:26855062

  5. Analytical Operations Relate Structural and Functional Connectivity in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Saggio, Maria Luisa; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state large-scale brain models vary in the amount of biological elements they incorporate and in the way they are being tested. One might expect that the more realistic the model is, the closer it should reproduce real functional data. It has been shown, instead, that when linear correlation across long BOLD fMRI time-series is used as a measure for functional connectivity (FC) to compare simulated and real data, a simple model performs just as well, or even better, than more sophisticated ones. The model in question is a simple linear model, which considers the physiological noise that is pervasively present in our brain while it diffuses across the white-matter connections, that is structural connectivity (SC). We deeply investigate this linear model, providing an analytical solution to straightforwardly compute FC from SC without the need of computationally costly simulations of time-series. We provide a few examples how this analytical solution could be used to perform a fast and detailed parameter exploration or to investigate resting-state non-stationarities. Most importantly, by inverting the analytical solution, we propose a method to retrieve information on the anatomical structure directly from functional data. This simple method can be used to complement or guide DTI/DSI and tractography results, especially for a better assessment of inter-hemispheric connections, or to provide an estimate of SC when only functional data are available. PMID:27536987

  6. Analytical Operations Relate Structural and Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saggio, Maria Luisa; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state large-scale brain models vary in the amount of biological elements they incorporate and in the way they are being tested. One might expect that the more realistic the model is, the closer it should reproduce real functional data. It has been shown, instead, that when linear correlation across long BOLD fMRI time-series is used as a measure for functional connectivity (FC) to compare simulated and real data, a simple model performs just as well, or even better, than more sophisticated ones. The model in question is a simple linear model, which considers the physiological noise that is pervasively present in our brain while it diffuses across the white-matter connections, that is structural connectivity (SC). We deeply investigate this linear model, providing an analytical solution to straightforwardly compute FC from SC without the need of computationally costly simulations of time-series. We provide a few examples how this analytical solution could be used to perform a fast and detailed parameter exploration or to investigate resting-state non-stationarities. Most importantly, by inverting the analytical solution, we propose a method to retrieve information on the anatomical structure directly from functional data. This simple method can be used to complement or guide DTI/DSI and tractography results, especially for a better assessment of inter-hemispheric connections, or to provide an estimate of SC when only functional data are available. PMID:27536987

  7. Unidentified Bright Objects on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Affect Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Chan; Chang, Dong Sik; Cho, Chin Saeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in clinical manifestations of in two groups of vestibular neuritis (VN) patients with or without unidentified bright objects (UBOs). Methods A prospective, observational study with 46 patients diagnosed with VN between May 2013 and November 2013 was executed. A caloric test, a cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) test, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spontaneous nystagmus test, head impulse test, and head-shaking nystagmus test were performed. Results Of the patients, 56.5% (n=26) were classified as UBO-positive by MRI. These showed lower caloric weakness and more prominent cVEMP asymmetry compared with the UBO-negative group (P<0.05). Total VN (TVN) was the most common in the UBO-positive group (45.0%), followed by superior VN (SVN, 30.0%), and inferior VN (IVN, 25.0%). However, in the UBO-negative group, SVN (75.0%) was the most common, followed by TVN and IVN (P<0.05). The recovery rate was not influenced by UBOs (P>0.05). Conclusion UBOs on T2-weighted or fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI may affect the patterns of the vestibular nerve in patients with VN. PMID:26622955

  8. A pediatric brain structure atlas from T1-weighted MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Zuyao Y.; Parra, Carlos; Ji, Qing; Ogg, Robert J.; Zhang, Yong; Laningham, Fred H.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we have developed a digital atlas of the pediatric human brain. Human brain atlases, used to visualize spatially complex structures of the brain, are indispensable tools in model-based segmentation and quantitative analysis of brain structures. However, adult brain atlases do not adequately represent the normal maturational patterns of the pediatric brain, and the use of an adult model in pediatric studies may introduce substantial bias. Therefore, we proposed to develop a digital atlas of the pediatric human brain in this study. The atlas was constructed from T1 weighted MR data set of a 9 year old, right-handed girl. Furthermore, we extracted and simplified boundary surfaces of 25 manually defined brain structures (cortical and subcortical) based on surface curvature. Higher curvature surfaces were simplified with more reference points; lower curvature surfaces, with fewer. We constructed a 3D triangular mesh model for each structure by triangulation of the structure's reference points. Kappa statistics (cortical, 0.97; subcortical, 0.91) indicated substantial similarities between the mesh-defined and the original volumes. Our brain atlas and structural mesh models (www.stjude.org/BrainAtlas) can be used to plan treatment, to conduct knowledge and modeldriven segmentation, and to analyze the shapes of brain structures in pediatric patients.

  9. Asymmetric bias in user guided segmentations of brain structures.

    PubMed

    Maltbie, Eric; Bhatt, Kshamta; Paniagua, Beatriz; Smith, Rachel G; Graves, Michael M; Mosconi, Matthew W; Peterson, Sarah; White, Scott; Blocher, Joseph; El-Sayed, Mohammed; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin A

    2012-01-16

    Brain morphometric studies often incorporate comparative hemispheric asymmetry analyses of segmented brain structures. In this work, we present evidence that common user guided structural segmentation techniques exhibit strong left-right asymmetric biases and thus fundamentally influence any left-right asymmetry analyses. In this study, MRI scans from ten pediatric subjects were employed for studying segmentations of amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, and lateral ventricle. Additionally, two pediatric and three adult scans were used for studying hippocampus segmentation. Segmentations of the sub-cortical structures were performed by skilled raters using standard manual and semi-automated methods. The left-right mirrored versions of each image were included in the data and segmented in a random order to assess potential left-right asymmetric bias. Using shape analysis we further assessed whether the asymmetric bias is consistent across subjects and raters with the focus on the hippocampus. The user guided segmentation techniques on the sub-cortical structures exhibited left-right asymmetric volume bias with the hippocampus displaying the most significant asymmetry values (p<0.01). The hippocampal shape analysis revealed the bias to be strongest on the lateral side of the body and medial side of the head and tail. The origin of this asymmetric bias is considered to be based in laterality of visual perception; therefore segmentations with any degree of user interaction contain an asymmetric bias. The aim of our study is to raise awareness in the neuroimaging community regarding the presence of the asymmetric bias and its influence on any left-right hemispheric analyses. We also recommend reexamining previous research results in the light of this new finding. PMID:21889995

  10. Multivariate genetic analysis of brain structure in an extended twin design.

    PubMed

    Posthuma, D; de Geus, E J; Neale, M C; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Baaré WEC; Kahn, R S; Boomsma, D

    2000-07-01

    The hunt for genes influencing behavior may be aided by the study of intermediate phenotypes for several reasons. First, intermediate phenotypes may be influenced by only a few genes, which facilitates their detection. Second, many intermediate phenotypes can be measured on a continuous quantitative scale and thus can be assessed in affected and unaffected individuals. Continuous measures increase the statistical power to detect genetic effects (Neale et al., 1994), and allow studies to be designed to collect data from informative subjects such as extreme concordant or discordant pairs. Intermediate phenotypes for discrete traits, such as psychiatric disorders, can be neurotransmitter levels, brain function, or structure. In this paper we conduct a multivariate analysis of data from 111 twin pairs and 34 additional siblings on cerebellar volume, intracranial space, and body height. The analysis is carried out on the raw data and specifies a model for the mean and the covariance structure. Results suggest that cerebellar volume and intracranial space vary with age and sex. Brain volumes tend to decrease slightly with age, and males generally have a larger brain volume than females. The remaining phenotypic variance of cerebellar volume is largely genetic (88%). These genetic factors partly overlap with the genetic factors that explain variance in intracranial space and body height. The applied method is presented as a general approach for the analysis of intermediate phenotypes in which the effects of correlated variables on the observed scores are modeled through multivariate analysis. PMID:11206086

  11. Transport of essential nutrients across the blood-brain barrier of individual structures.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R A

    1986-06-01

    The movement of essential substrates from plasma into cerebral structures has been studied in detail in normal alert rats as well as in rats with various metabolic abnormalities. Briefly, radioactive substrates were infused i.v. to rapidly establish and maintain a trace concentration in arterial blood. The rats were killed shortly thereafter, the brain was removed and frozen, and thin sections were cut for quantitative autoradiography. The permeability-to-surface area product (PA) was calculated from the amount of radioactivity accumulated by the brain and the integral of plasma radioactivity. Influx was calculated as the product of PA times plasma substrate concentration. This approach was used to measure the influx of glucose, neutral amino acids, basic amino acids, and ketone bodies. Studies were made of normal rats, rats with portacaval shunts (a model of hepatic encephalopathy), starved rats, diabetic rats, and normal rats infused with ammonium acetate. The results demonstrate specific changes in individual transport systems, which in most cases occurred throughout the brain, although some structures were affected more than others. PMID:3519289

  12. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280488

  13. Environment temperature affects cell proliferation in the spinal cord and brain of juvenile turtles.

    PubMed

    Radmilovich, Milka; Fernández, Anabel; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar

    2003-09-01

    The spinal cords and brains--comprising dorsal cortex (DC), medial cortex (MC) and diencephalon (Dien)--of juvenile turtles acclimated to warm temperature [27-30 degrees C; warm-acclimated turtles (WATs)] revealed higher density values of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells (BrdU-LCs) than those acclimated to a cooler environment [5-14 degrees C; cold-acclimated turtles (CATs)]. Both populations were under the influence of the seasonal daily light-dark rhythms. Pronounced differences between WATs and CATs (independent t-test; confidence level, P<0.01) were found in the central area of the spinal gray matter and in the ependymal epithelium lining the brain ventricles. Forebrain regions (DC, MC and Dien) also revealed significant differences between WATs and CATs (independent t-test; confidence level, P<0.01-0.05). Unexplored biological clocks that may be affecting cell proliferation were equalized by performing paired experiments involving one WAT and one CAT. Both animals were injected on the same day at the same time and both were sacrificed 24 h later. These experiments confirmed that a warm environment increased cell proliferation in the CNS of turtles. Double- and triple-labeling experiments involving anti-BrdU antibody together with anti-glial protein antibodies revealed that temperature modulates not only cell populations expressing glial markers but also other cells that do not express them. As expected, in the case of short post-injection (BrdU) surviving time points, no cells were found colabeling for BrdU and NeuN (neuronal marker). The probable direct effect of temperature on the cell division rate should be analyzed together with potential indirect effects involving increased motor activity and increased food intake. The fate of the increased BrdU-LCs (death, permanence as progenitor cells or differentiation following neuronal or glial lines) remains a matter for further investigation. Results are discussed in the light of current opinions concerned with

  14. Emotional sounds and the brain: the neuro-affective foundations of musical appreciation.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak; Bernatzky, Günther

    2002-11-01

    This article summarizes the potential role of evolved brain emotional systems in the mediation of music appreciation. A variety of examples of how music may promote behavioral change are summarized, including effects on memory, mood, brain activity as well as autonomic responses such as the experience of 'chills'. Studies on animals (e.g. young chicks) indicate that musical stimulation have measurable effects on their behaviors and brain chemistries, especially increased brain norepinephrine (NE) turnover. The evolutionary sources of musical sensitivity are discussed, as well as the potential medical-therapeutic implications of this knowledge. PMID:12426066

  15. Insulin Resistance, Diabetes Mellitus, and Brain Structure in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Tomas; Calkin, Cynthia; Blagdon, Ryan; Slaney, Claire; Uher, Rudolf; Alda, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) damages the brain, especially the hippocampus, and frequently co-occurs with bipolar disorders (BD). Reduced hippocampal volumes are found only in some studies of BD subjects and may thus be secondary to the presence of certain clinical variables. Studying BD patients with abnormal glucose metabolism could help identify preventable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy in BD. We compared brain structure using optimized voxel-based morphometry of 1.5T MRI scans in 33 BD subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (19 with insulin resistance/glucose intolerance (IR/GI), 14 with T2DM), 15 euglycemic BD participants and 11 euglycemic, nonpsychiatric controls. The group of BD patients with IR, GI or T2DM had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes than the euglycemic BD participants (corrected p=0.02) or euglycemic, nonpsychiatric controls (corrected p=0.004). Already the BD subjects with IR/GI had smaller hippocampal volumes than euglycemic BD participants (t(32)=−3.15, p=0.004). Age was significantly more negatively associated with hippocampal volumes in BD subjects with IR/GI/T2DM than in the euglycemic BD participants (F(2, 44)=9.96, p=0.0003). The gray matter reductions in dysglycemic subjects extended to the cerebral cortex, including the insula. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that T2DM or even prediabetes may be risk factors for smaller hippocampal and cortical volumes in BD. Abnormal glucose metabolism may accelerate the age-related decline in hippocampal volumes in BD. These findings raise the possibility that improving diabetes care among BD subjects and intervening already at the level of prediabetes could slow brain aging in BD. PMID:25074491

  16. Can the structure of an explosive caldera affect eruptive behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcox, C. P.; Branney, M.; Carrasco-Nuñez, G.; Barford, D.

    2010-12-01

    Explosive caldera volcanoes cause catastrophic events at the Earth’s surface, yet we know little about how their internal structures evolve with time, and whether this can affect both differentiation and eruptive behaviour. Distinguishing how structural evolution impacts upon eruption behaviour and periodicity is challenging because the resolution of eruption frequencies can be difficult at ancient exhumed calderas, whereas at young volcanoes, most of the caldera floor faults and associated conduits are hidden. Some exhumed calderas reveal caldera floor faults and conduits; some of these apparently underwent a single collapse event that was piecemeal, i.e. fragmentation into several, variously subsided fault-blocks (e.g. Scafell caldera, UK). In contrast, the present study tests whether some caldera volcanoes may become more intensely fractured with time as a result of successive distinct caldera-collapse eruptions (“multi-cyclic calderas”). It has been proposed that this scenario could lead to an increase in eruption frequency, with smaller eruptions over time. Magma leakage through the increasingly fractured volcano might also lead to less evolved compositions with time due to shorter residence times. We have returned to the volcano where this hypothesis was formulated, the ~ 20 km diameter, hydrothermally active Los Humeros caldera in eastern central México. We aim to see how well the structural evolution of this modern caldera can be reconstructed, and whether changes in structure affected the styles and periodicity of large explosive eruptions. How a caldera evolves structurally could have important implications for predicting future catastrophic eruptions. Detailed structural mapping (e.g. of fault scarps, vent positions, and tilted strata), documentation of draping and cross-cutting field relations, together with logging, optical and SEM petrography, XRF major and trace element geochemistry and new 40Ar-39Ar and radiocarbon dating of the pyroclastic

  17. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Michael T.; Swaddle, John P.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  18. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  19. Dissection of the hippocampus proper and the associated structures in preserved horse brains.

    PubMed

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2010-01-01

    The limbic system is a complicated region of the brain to teach in an undergraduate neuroanatomy course. The students often struggled with the complexity and interconnection of the structures of this system to other cortical regions. The following is a description of two dissections that used preserved horse brains to help students visualize the major components of this system and also comprehend the topographic organization of some of these structures to other regions or structures of the brain. PMID:23494866

  20. Stability constraints on large-scale structural brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Richard T.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Stability is an important dynamical property of complex systems and underpins a broad range of coherent self-organized behavior. Based on evidence that some neurological disorders correspond to linear instabilities, we hypothesize that stability constrains the brain's electrical activity and influences its structure and physiology. Using a physiologically-based model of brain electrical activity, we investigated the stability and dispersion solutions of networks of neuronal populations with propagation time delays and dendritic time constants. We find that stability is determined by the spectrum of the network's matrix of connection strengths and is independent of the temporal damping rate of axonal propagation with stability restricting the spectrum to a region in the complex plane. Time delays and dendritic time constants modify the shape of this region but it always contains the unit disk. Instabilities resulting from changes in connection strength initially have frequencies less than a critical frequency. For physiologically plausible parameter values based on the corticothalamic system, this critical frequency is approximately 10 Hz. For excitatory networks and networks with randomly distributed excitatory and inhibitory connections, time delays and non-zero dendritic time constants have no impact on network stability but do effect dispersion frequencies. Random networks with both excitatory and inhibitory connections can have multiple marginally stable modes at low delta frequencies. PMID:23630490

  1. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  2. A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bona, Sergio; Lutzemberger, Ludovico; Salvetti, Ovidio

    2003-12-01

    Recent developments of medical software applications—from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations—have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.

  3. Age at First Episode Modulates Diagnosis-Related Structural Brain Abnormalities in Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Janssen, Joost; Bioque, Miquel; González-Pinto, Ana; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sarró, Salvador; Desco, Manuel; Sanjuan, Julio; Lacalle-Aurioles, Maria; Cuesta, Manuel J; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Brain volume and thickness abnormalities have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it is unclear if and how they are modulated by brain developmental stage (and, therefore, by age at FEP as a proxy). This is a multicenter cross-sectional case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Patients with FEP (n = 196), 65.3% males, with a wide age at FEP span (12-35 y), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 157), matched for age, sex, and handedness, were scanned at 6 sites. Gray matter volume and thickness measurements were generated for several brain regions using FreeSurfer software. The nonlinear relationship between age at scan (a proxy for age at FEP in patients) and volume and thickness measurements was explored in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), affective psychoses (AFP), and HC. Earlier SSD cases (ie, FEP before 15-20 y) showed significant volume and thickness deficits in frontal lobe, volume deficits in temporal lobe, and volume enlargements in ventricular system and basal ganglia. First-episode AFP patients had smaller cingulate cortex volume and thicker temporal cortex only at early age at FEP (before 18-20 y). The AFP group also had age-constant (12-35-y age span) volume enlargements in the frontal and parietal lobe. Our study suggests that age at first episode modulates the structural brain abnormalities found in FEP patients in a nonlinear and diagnosis-dependent manner. Future MRI studies should take these results into account when interpreting samples with different ages at onset and diagnosis. PMID:26371339

  4. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  5. Vitamin D as a neurosteroid affecting the developing and adult brain.

    PubMed

    Groves, Natalie J; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and growing evidence supports a requirement for optimal vitamin D levels for the healthy developing and adult brain. Vitamin D has important roles in proliferation and differentiation, calcium signaling within the brain, and neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it may also alter neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Recent experimental studies highlight the impact that vitamin D deficiency has on brain function in health and disease. In addition, results from recent animal studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during adulthood may exacerbate underlying brain disorders and/or worsen recovery from brain stressors. An increasing number of epidemiological studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation is readily available and affordable, and this review highlights the need for further research. PMID:25033060

  6. A Digital Atlas of Middle to Large Brain Vessels and Their Relation to Cortical and Subcortical Structures

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    While widely distributed, the vascular supply of the brain is particularly prominent in certain anatomical structures because of the high vessel density or their large size. A digital atlas of middle to large vessels in Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates is here presented, obtained from a sample of N = 38 healthy participants scanned with the time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance technique, and normalized with procedures analogous to those commonly used in functional neuroimaging studies. Spatial colocalization of brain parenchyma and vessels is shown to affect specific structures such as the anteromedial face of the temporal lobe, the cortex surrounding the Sylvian fissure (Sy), the anterior cingular cortex, and the ventral striatum. The vascular frequency maps presented here provide objective information about the vascularization of the brain, and may assist in the interpretation of data in studies where vessels are a potential confound. PMID:26924965

  7. Brain structural substrates of reward dependence during behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Hamann, Janne M; Averbeck, Bruno B; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-12-01

    Interindividual differences in the effects of reward on performance are prevalent and poorly understood, with some individuals being more dependent than others on the rewarding outcomes of their actions. The origin of this variability in reward dependence is unknown. Here, we tested the relationship between reward dependence and brain structure in healthy humans. Subjects trained on a visuomotor skill-acquisition task and received performance feedback in the presence or absence of reward. Reward dependence was defined as the statistical trial-by-trial relation between reward and subsequent performance. We report a significant relationship between reward dependence and the lateral prefrontal cortex, where regional gray-matter volume predicted reward dependence but not feedback alone. Multivoxel pattern analysis confirmed the anatomical specificity of this relationship. These results identified a likely anatomical marker for the prospective influence of reward on performance, which may be of relevance in neurorehabilitative settings. PMID:25471581

  8. Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young adults at risk for psychosis - The Oulu Brain and Mind Study.

    PubMed

    Koivukangas, Jenni; Björnholm, Lassi; Tervonen, Osmo; Miettunen, Jouko; Nordström, Tanja; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Mukkala, Sari; Moilanen, Irma; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Nikkinen, Juha; Veijola, Juha

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotic medications and psychotic illness related factors may affect both weight and brain structure in people with psychosis. Genetically high-risk individuals offer an opportunity to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and brain structure free from these potential confounds. We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20-25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. We also measured axial, radial and mean diffusivities. Most of the participants were normal weight rather than obese. In the FR group, decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial diffusivity were associated with an increase in BMI in several brain areas. In controls the opposite pattern was seen in participants with higher BMI. There was a statistically significant interaction between group and BMI on FA and radial and mean diffusivities. Our results suggest that the effect of BMI on WM differs between individuals with FR for psychosis and controls. PMID:27474847

  9. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures. PMID:26782664

  10. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  11. Methamphetamine effects on blood-brain barrier structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Northrop, Nicole A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a widely abuse psychostimulant. Traditionally, studies have focused on the neurotoxic effects of Meth on monoaminergic neurotransmitter terminals. Recently, both in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the effects of Meth on the BBB and found that Meth produces a decrease in BBB structural proteins and an increase in BBB permeability to various molecules. Moreover, preclinical studies are validated by clinical studies in which human Meth users have increased concentrations of toxins in the brain. Therefore, this review will focus on the structural and functional disruption of the BBB caused by Meth and the mechanisms that contribute to Meth-induced BBB disruption. The review will reveal that the mechanisms by which Meth damages dopamine and serotonin terminals are similar to the mechanisms by which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged. Furthermore, this review will cover the factors that are known to potentiate the effects of Meth (McCann et al., 1998) on the BBB, such as stress and HIV, both of which are co-morbid conditions associated with Meth abuse. Overall, the goal of this review is to demonstrate that the scope of damage produced by Meth goes beyond damage to monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems to include BBB disruption as well as provide a rationale for investigating therapeutics to treat Meth-induced BBB disruption. Since a breach of the BBB can have a multitude of consequences, therapies directed toward the treatment of BBB disruption may help to ameliorate the long-term neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits produced by Meth and possibly even Meth addiction. PMID:25788874

  12. Examining brain microstructure using structure tensor analysis of histological sections.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Frank, Joseph A

    2012-10-15

    The mammalian central nervous system has a tremendous structural complexity, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is unique in its ability to extract microstructural tissue properties at a macroscopic scale. However, despite its widespread use and applications in clinical and research settings, accurate validation of DTI has notoriously lagged the advances in image acquisition and analysis. In this report, we demonstrate an approach to visualize and quantify the microscopic features of histological sections on multiple length scales using techniques derived from image texture analysis. Structure tensor (ST) analysis was applied to fluorescence microscopy images of rat brain sections to visualize and quantify tissue microstructure. Images were digitally color-coded based on the local orientation in the pixelwise ST implementation, which allowed direct visualization of white matter complexity at the microscopic level. A piecewise ST algorithm was also employed to quantify anisotropy and orientation at a resolution comparable to that typically acquired with DTI. Anisotropy measured with ST analysis of stained histological sections was highly correlated with anisotropy measured by ex vivo DTI of the same brains (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, angular histograms, or Fiber Orientation Distributions (FODs), were computed to mimic similar measures derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods. The FODs for each pixel were fit to a mixture of von Mises distributions to identify putative regions of multiple fiber populations (i.e. crossing fibers). Despite its current application to two-dimensional microscopy, the ST analysis is a novel approach to visualize and quantify microstructure in the central nervous system in both health and disease, and advances the available set of tools for validating DTI and other diffusion MRI techniques. PMID:22759994

  13. Structural Brain Atlases: Design, Rationale, and Applications in Normal and Pathological Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Pravat K.; Mahajan, Rashima; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides anatomical information about the brain in healthy as well as in diseased conditions. On the other hand, functional MRI (fMRI) provides information on the brain activity during performance of a specific task. Analysis of fMRI data requires the registration of the data to a reference brain template in order to identify the activated brain regions. Brain templates also find application in other neuroimaging modalities, such as diffusion tensor imaging and multi-voxel spectroscopy. Further, there are certain differences (e.g., brain shape and size) in the brains of populations of different origin and during diseased conditions like in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), population and disease-specific brain templates may be considered crucial for accurate registration and subsequent analysis of fMRI as well as other neuroimaging data. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the history, construction and application of brain atlases. A chronological outline of the development of brain template design, starting from the Talairach and Tournoux atlas to the Chinese brain template (to date), along with their respective detailed construction protocols provides the backdrop to this manuscript. The manuscript also provides the automated workflow-based protocol for designing a population-specific brain atlas from structural MRI data using LONI Pipeline graphical workflow environment. We conclude by discussing the scope of brain templates as a research tool and their application in various neuroimaging modalities. PMID:22647262

  14. Hyperlipidemia affects multiscale structure and strength of murine femur

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Lutz, Andre; Du, Xia; Klimecky, Laureen; Kawas, Neal; Hourany, Talia; Jahng, Joelle; Chin, Jesse; Tintut, Yin; Nackenhors, Udo; Keyak, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    To improve bone strength prediction beyond limitations of assessment founded solely on the bone mineral component, we investigated the effect of hyperlipidemia, present in more than 40% of osteoporotic patients, on multiscale structure of murine bone. Our overarching purpose is to estimate bone strength accurately, to facilitate mitigating fracture morbidity and mortality in patients. Because i) orientation of collagen type I affects, independently of degree of mineralization, cortical bone’s micro-structural strength; and, ii) hyperlipidemia affects collagen orientation and µCT volumetric tissue mineral density (vTMD) in murine cortical bone, we have constructed the first multiscale finite element (mFE), mouse-specific femoral model to study the effect of collagen orientation and vTMD on strength in Ldlr−/−, a mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and its control wild type, on either high fat diet or normal diet. Each µCT scan-based mFE model included either element-specific elastic orthotropic properties calculated from collagen orientation and vTMD (collagen-density model) by experimentally validated formulation, or usual element-specific elastic isotropic material properties dependent on vTMD-only (density-only model). We found that collagen orientation, assessed by circularly polarized light and confocal microscopies, and vTMD, differed among groups; and that microindentation results strongly correlate with elastic modulus of collagen-density models (r2=0.85, p=10−5). Collagen-density models yielded 1) larger strains, and therefore lower strength, in simulations of 3-point bending and physiological loading; and 2) higher correlation between mFE-predicted strength and 3-point bending experimental strength, than density-only models. This novel method supports ongoing translational research to achieve the as yet elusive goal of accurate bone strength prediction. PMID:24795172

  15. Hyperlipidemia affects multiscale structure and strength of murine femur.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Lutz, Andre; Du, Xia; Klimecky, Laureen; Kawas, Neal; Hourany, Talia; Jahng, Joelle; Chin, Jesse; Tintut, Yin; Nackenhors, Udo; Keyak, Joyce

    2014-07-18

    To improve bone strength prediction beyond limitations of assessment founded solely on the bone mineral component, we investigated the effect of hyperlipidemia, present in more than 40% of osteoporotic patients, on multiscale structure of murine bone. Our overarching purpose is to estimate bone strength accurately, to facilitate mitigating fracture morbidity and mortality in patients. Because (i) orientation of collagen type I affects, independently of degree of mineralization, cortical bone׳s micro-structural strength; and, (ii) hyperlipidemia affects collagen orientation and μCT volumetric tissue mineral density (vTMD) in murine cortical bone, we have constructed the first multiscale finite element (mFE), mouse-specific femoral model to study the effect of collagen orientation and vTMD on strength in Ldlr(-/-), a mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and its control wild type, on either high fat diet or normal diet. Each µCT scan-based mFE model included either element-specific elastic orthotropic properties calculated from collagen orientation and vTMD (collagen-density model) by experimentally validated formulation, or usual element-specific elastic isotropic material properties dependent on vTMD-only (density-only model). We found that collagen orientation, assessed by circularly polarized light and confocal microscopies, and vTMD, differed among groups and that microindentation results strongly correlate with elastic modulus of collagen-density models (r(2)=0.85, p=10(-5)). Collagen-density models yielded (1) larger strains, and therefore lower strength, in simulations of 3-point bending and physiological loading; and (2) higher correlation between mFE-predicted strength and 3-point bending experimental strength, than density-only models. This novel method supports ongoing translational research to achieve the as yet elusive goal of accurate bone strength prediction. PMID:24795172

  16. Designing transthyretin mutants affecting tetrameric structure: implications in amyloidogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, C; Damas, A M; Saraiva, M J

    2000-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that convert soluble transthyretin (TTR) tetramers into insoluble amyloid fibrils are still unknown; dissociation of the TTR tetramer is a pre-requisite for amyloid formation in vitro and involvement of monomers and/or dimers in fibril formation has been suggested by structural studies. We have designed four mutated proteins with the purpose of stabilizing [Ser(117)-->Cys (S117C) and Glu(92)-->Cys (E92C)] or destabilizing [Asp(18)-->Asn (D18N) and Leu(110)-->Ala (D110A)] the dimer/tetramer interactions in TTR, aiming at elucidating structural determinants in amyloidogenesis. The resistance of the mutated proteins to dissociation was analysed by HPLC studies of diluted TTR preparations. Both 'stabilized' mutants migrated as tetramers and, upon dilution, no other TTR species was observed, confirming the increased resistance to dissociation. For the 'destabilized' mutants, a mixture of tetrameric and monomeric forms co-existed at low dilution and the latter increased upon 10-fold dilution. Both of the destabilizing mutants formed amyloid in vitro when acidified. This result indicated that both the AB loop of TTR, destabilized in D18N, and the hydrophobic interactions affecting the dimer-dimer interfaces in L110A are implicated in the stability of the tetrameric structure. The stabilized mutants, which were dimeric in nature through disulphide bonding, were unable to polymerize into amyloid, even at pH 3.2. When the amyloid formation assay was repeated in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, upon disruption of the S-S bridges of these stable dimers, amyloid fibril formation was observed. This experimental evidence suggests that monomers, rather than dimers, are the repeating structural subunit comprising the amyloid fibrils. PMID:10794728

  17. Alzheimer’s disease: relevant molecular and physiopathological events affecting amyloid-β brain balance and the putative role of PPARs

    PubMed Central

    Zolezzi, Juan M.; Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Santos, Manuel J.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia. With the expected aging of the human population, the estimated morbidity of AD suggests a critical upcoming health problem. Several lines of research are focused on understanding AD pathophysiology, and although the etiology of the disease remains a matter of intense debate, increased brain levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) appear to be a critical event in triggering a wide range of molecular alterations leading to AD. It has become evident in recent years that an altered balance between production and clearance is responsible for the accumulation of brain Aβ. Moreover, Aβ clearance is a complex event that involves more than neurons and microglia. The status of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus, along with hepatic functionality, should be considered when Aβ balance is addressed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of metals, such as copper, could both directly affect these secondary structures and act as a seeding or nucleation core that facilitates Aβ aggregation. Recently, we have addressed peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-related mechanisms, including the direct modulation of mitochondrial dynamics through the PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) axis and the crosstalk with critical aging- and neurodegenerative-related cellular pathways. In the present review, we revise the current knowledge regarding the molecular aspects of Aβ production and clearance and provide a physiological context that gives a more complete view of this issue. Additionally, we consider the different structures involved in AD-altered Aβ brain balance, which could be directly or indirectly affected by a nuclear receptor (NR)/PPAR-related mechanism. PMID:25120477

  18. A case-control study of brain structure and behavioral characteristics in 47,XXX syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lenroot, R K; Blumenthal, J D; Wallace, G L; Clasen, L S; Lee, N R; Giedd, J N

    2014-11-01

    Trisomy X, the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX), is a relatively common but under-recognized chromosomal disorder associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioral features of varying severity. The objective of this study was to determine whether there were neuroanatomical differences in girls with Trisomy X that could relate to cognitive and behavioral differences characteristic of the disorder during childhood and adolescence. MRI scans were obtained on 35 girls with Trisomy X (mean age 11.4, SD 5.5) and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cognitive and behavioral testing was also performed. Trisomy X girls underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Regional brain volumes and cortical thickness were compared between the two groups. Total brain volume was significantly decreased in subjects with Trisomy X, as were all regional volumes with the exception of parietal gray matter. Differences in cortical thickness had a mixed pattern. The subjects with Trisomy X had thicker cortex in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right medial temporal lobe, but decreased cortical thickness in both lateral temporal lobes. The most common psychiatric disorders present in this sample of Trisomy X girls included anxiety disorders (40%), attention-deficit disorder (17%) and depressive disorders (11%). The most strongly affected brain regions are consistent with phenotypic characteristics such as language delay, poor executive function and heightened anxiety previously described in population-based studies of Trisomy X and also found in our sample. PMID:25287572

  19. A case-control study of brain structure and behavioral characteristics in 47,XXX Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Clasen, Liv S.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

    2014-01-01

    Trisomy X, the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX), is a relatively common but under-recognized chromosomal disorder associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioral features of varying severity. The objective of this study was to determine whether there were neuroanatomical differences in girls with Trisomy X that could relate to cognitive and behavioral differences characteristic of the disorder during childhood and adolescence. MRI scans were obtained on 35 girls with Trisomy X (mean age 11.4, s.d. 5.5) and 70 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Cognitive and behavioral testing was also performed. Trisomy X girls underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Regional brain volumes and cortical thickness were compared between the two groups. Total brain volume was significantly decreased in subjects with Trisomy X, as were all regional volumes with the exception of parietal gray matter. Differences in cortical thickness had a mixed pattern. The subjects with Trisomy X had thicker cortex in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right medial temporal lobe, but decreased cortical thickness in both lateral temporal lobes. The most common psychiatric disorders present in this sample of Trisomy X girls included anxiety disorders, (40%), Attention-Deficit Disorder (17%), and depressive disorders (11%). The most strongly affected brain regions are consistent with phenotypic characteristics such as language delay, poor executive function, and heightened anxiety previously described in population-based studies of Trisomy X and also found in our sample. PMID:25287572

  20. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  1. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  2. Brain Structure Correlates of Individual Differences in the Acquisition and Inhibition of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Fischl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Research employing aversive conditioning paradigms has elucidated the neurocircuitry involved in acquiring and diminishing fear responses. However, the factors underlying individual differences in fear acquisition and inhibition are not presently well understood. In this study, we explored whether the magnitude of individuals' acquired fear responses and the modulation of these responses via 2 fear reduction methods were correlated with structural differences in brain regions involved in affective processing. Physiological and structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from experiments exploring extinction retention and intentional cognitive regulation. Our results identified 2 regions in which individual variation in brain structure correlated with subjects' fear-related arousal. Confirming previous results, increased thickness in ventromedial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the degree of extinction retention. Additionally, subjects with greater thickness in the posterior insula exhibited larger conditioned responses during acquisition. The data suggest a trend toward a negative correlation between amygdala volume and fear acquisition magnitude. There was no significant correlation between fear reduction via cognitive regulation and thickness in our prefrontal regions of interest. Acquisition and regulation measures were uncorrelated, suggesting that while certain individuals may have a propensity toward increased expression of conditioned fear, these responses can be diminished via both extinction and cognitive regulation. PMID:21263037

  3. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  4. Writing affects the brain network of reading in Chinese: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Vu, Marianne; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Lawrence, Jason M; Harris, Lindsay N; Guan, Qun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. PMID:22378588

  5. Brain: a complex adaptive structure at multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Bradley G.

    2001-10-01

    The human brain is comprised of over 100 billion neurons organized into tracts, nuclei, circuits and systems. This provides innumerable elegant abilities that rely on the nervous system to act as a complex adaptive structure (CAS). This property is apparent with respect to overall function, the function of individual neurons and the function of sensory and motor systems. At the overall functional level, the nervous system monitors the environments and can alter that environment. Alterations such as turning on a light switch or changing the diameter of neural vasculature, can improve the performance or chance for survival of the nervous system. Individual neurons can alter the activity of their electrogenic pumps, their rate of transmitter synthesis, their neurotransmitter release and their receptor density in order to maintain optimal functioning in a circuit following changes in their micro-environment. At the systems level, the visual system adjusts the orientation of the eyes or pupillary diameter to receive the highest quality visual information. In the motor system, the myotatic reflex maintains muscle position in the face of changing load, and the gain of the muscle organ responsible for the myotatic reflex can also be automatically adjusted. Internal homeostasis, essential for optimal performance of the nervous system, can be achieved through complex behavioral actions such as feeding. The hypothalamus plays an important role in such behaviors and in the type of sensorimotor integration responsible for the CAS nature of overall nervous system function. Thinking about the CAS characteristics of the nervous system may lead to development of non-biological CAS prostheses for the brain.

  6. Widespread structural brain changes in OCD: a systematic review of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    PubMed

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Chiapponi, Chiara; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    The most widely accepted model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assumes brain abnormalities in the "affective circuit", mainly consisting of volume reduction in the medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and temporolimbic cortices, and tissue expansion in the striatum and thalamus. The advent of whole-brain, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has provided increasing evidence that regions outside the "affective" orbitofronto-striatal circuit are involved in OCD. Nevertheless, potential confounds from the different image analysis methods, as well as other factors, such as patients' medication and comorbidity status, may limit generalization of results. In the present paper, we systematically reviewed the whole-brain VBM literature on OCD by focussing specifically on degree of consistency between studies, extent to which findings have been replicated and interrelation between clinical variables and OCD anatomy, a potentially crucial factor that has been systematically examined only in a limited number of studies. The PubMed database was searched through February 2012. A total of 156 studies were identified; 18 of them fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria and included 511 patients and 504 controls. Results support the notion that the brain alterations responsible for OCD are represented at the network level, and that widespread structural abnormalities may contribute to neurobiological vulnerability to OCD. Apart from defects in regions within the classic "affective" circuit, volume reduction of the cortical source of the dorsolateral (DL) prefronto-striatal "executive" circuit (dorsomedial, DL, ventrolateral and frontopolar prefrontal cortices), and of reciprocally connected regions (temporo-parieto-occipital associative areas) is consistently described in OCD patients. Moreover, increased volume of the internal capsule and reduced frontal and parietal white matter volumes may account for altered anatomical connectivity in fronto-subcortical circuitry

  7. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF SYNAPTIC STRUCTURE OF OCTOPUS BRAIN.

    PubMed

    GRAY, E G; YOUNG, J Z

    1964-04-01

    The well known type of synapse between a presynaptic process containing vesicles and a "clear" postsynaptic process can be commonly observed in the various lobes of the brain of Octopus. The presynaptic vesicles are aggregated near regions of the synaptic membranes which show specialisation and asymmetric "thickening" indicating functional polarisation, and here chemical transmission is presumed to take place. In addition, in the vertical lobe a very interesting serial arrangement of synaptic contacts occurs. Presynaptic bags, formed from varicosities of fibres from the superior frontal lobe, contact the trunks of amacrine cells in the manner just described. The trunks, however, although apparently postsynaptic are themselves packed with synaptic vesicles. The trunks, in turn, make "presynaptic" contacts with clear spinous processes of other neurons of yet undetermined origin. Typical polarised membrane specialisations occur at the contact regions. The trunk vesicles aggregated closest to the contact regions have a shell of particles round their walls. At present, there is no way of telling whether the membrane conductance to the various ions is differently affected at either of the transmission sites, and, if an inhibitory mechanism is involved, whether it is of the presynaptic or postsynaptic variety. PMID:14154498

  8. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.

    1994-03-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  9. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Macroscale Structural Connectivity in the Macaque and Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bezgin, Gleb; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Roebroeck, Alard; Stiers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity of the two species. Our findings suggest that the human and macaque brain as a whole are similarly wired. A region-wise analysis reveals many interspecies similarities of connectivity patterns, but also lack thereof, primarily involving cingulate regions. We unravel a common structural backbone in both species involving a highly overlapping set of regions. This structural backbone, important for mediating information across the brain, seems to constitute a feature of the primate brain persevering evolution. Our findings illustrate novel evolutionary aspects at the macroscale connectivity level and offer a quantitative translational bridge between macaque and human research. PMID:24676052

  11. Associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities in an affectively positive situation.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Kimura, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Kanayama, Noriaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Konagaya, Toshihiro; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2009-03-31

    It is hypothesized that experiencing positive emotions such as pleasure leads to a perception of the body being in a positive state. This study demonstrated associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities by simultaneously recording these activities when positive emotions were evoked in participants watching films revolving around a love story. Heart rate variability analysis revealed increased parasympathetic nervous activity while watching the film. The following brain regions were significantly activated in the positive condition relative to the control condition: medial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. Further, covariate analyses indicated that these brain regions were temporally associated with subjective positive mood. Activities of brain regions considered to be related to interoceptive awareness, such as the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex, were also temporally associated with the cardiovascular change. These results suggest that while an individual experiences positive emotions, activities of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system may be interrelated, and the brain may perceive the body to be in a positive state. PMID:19368841

  12. Spectral properties of the temporal evolution of brain network structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution properties of the brain network are crucial for complex brain processes. In this paper, we investigate the differences in the dynamic brain network during resting and visual stimulation states in a task-positive subnetwork, task-negative subnetwork, and whole-brain network. The dynamic brain network is first constructed from human functional magnetic resonance imaging data based on the sliding window method, and then the eigenvalues corresponding to the network are calculated. We use eigenvalue analysis to analyze the global properties of eigenvalues and the random matrix theory (RMT) method to measure the local properties. For global properties, the shifting of the eigenvalue distribution and the decrease in the largest eigenvalue are linked to visual stimulation in all networks. For local properties, the short-range correlation in eigenvalues as measured by the nearest neighbor spacing distribution is not always sensitive to visual stimulation. However, the long-range correlation in eigenvalues as evaluated by spectral rigidity and number variance not only predicts the universal behavior of the dynamic brain network but also suggests non-consistent changes in different networks. These results demonstrate that the dynamic brain network is more random for the task-positive subnetwork and whole-brain network under visual stimulation but is more regular for the task-negative subnetwork. Our findings provide deeper insight into the importance of spectral properties in the functional brain network, especially the incomparable role of RMT in revealing the intrinsic properties of complex systems.

  13. Spectral properties of the temporal evolution of brain network structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution properties of the brain network are crucial for complex brain processes. In this paper, we investigate the differences in the dynamic brain network during resting and visual stimulation states in a task-positive subnetwork, task-negative subnetwork, and whole-brain network. The dynamic brain network is first constructed from human functional magnetic resonance imaging data based on the sliding window method, and then the eigenvalues corresponding to the network are calculated. We use eigenvalue analysis to analyze the global properties of eigenvalues and the random matrix theory (RMT) method to measure the local properties. For global properties, the shifting of the eigenvalue distribution and the decrease in the largest eigenvalue are linked to visual stimulation in all networks. For local properties, the short-range correlation in eigenvalues as measured by the nearest neighbor spacing distribution is not always sensitive to visual stimulation. However, the long-range correlation in eigenvalues as evaluated by spectral rigidity and number variance not only predicts the universal behavior of the dynamic brain network but also suggests non-consistent changes in different networks. These results demonstrate that the dynamic brain network is more random for the task-positive subnetwork and whole-brain network under visual stimulation but is more regular for the task-negative subnetwork. Our findings provide deeper insight into the importance of spectral properties in the functional brain network, especially the incomparable role of RMT in revealing the intrinsic properties of complex systems. PMID:26723151

  14. No association between schizophrenia susceptibility variants and macroscopic structural brain volume variation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Huang, Liang; Wang, Jinkai; Su, Bing; Luo, Xiong-Jian

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that genetic variants for schizophrenia susceptibility might contribute to structural brain volume variations in schizophrenia patients, including total brain volume, hippocampal volume, and amygdalar volume. However, whether these schizophrenia susceptibility variants are associated with macroscopic structural brain volume (i.e., intracranial volume, total brain volume, and hippocampal volume) in healthy subjects is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the associations between 47 schizophrenia susceptibility variants (from 25 well-characterized schizophrenia susceptibility genes) and cranial volume variation in a healthy Chinese sample (N = 1,013). We also extracted the association between these 47 schizophrenia risk variants and the macroscopic structural brain volume (intracranial volume, total brain volume and hippocampal volume) in a large healthy sample of European ancestry (ENIGMA sample, N = 5,775). We identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nominally associated with intracranial volume, total brain volume, and hippocampal volume at P < 0.05 (uncorrected). However, after Bonferroni corrections for multiple testing, no SNP showed significant association. Hence, our results do not support previous observations that schizophrenia susceptibility variants are associated with brain structure (e.g., hippocampal volume) in healthy individuals, and indicate that single schizophrenia risk variant may not contribute significantly to macroscopic brain structure (e.g., intracranial volume or hippocampal volume) variation in healthy subjects. PMID:26437209

  15. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  16. Melatonin affects the order, dynamics and hydration of brain membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkas, Sara B.; Inci, Servet; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2007-05-01

    The brain is especially susceptible to free radical attack since it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and consumes very high amounts of oxygen. Melatonin is a non-enzymatic amphiphilic antioxidant hormone that is widely used in medicine for protective and treatment purposes in cases of oxidative stress. In the present work, the effects of the clinically used dose of melatonin (a single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg) on rat brain homogenate were investigated as a function of temperature using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the lipid to protein ratio decreases in the melatonin treated brain samples. Moreover, it is revealed that melatonin disorders and decreases the dynamics of lipids and induces a strengthening in the hydrogen bonding between the functional groups of both melatonin and the polar parts of lipids and/or water at physiological temperatures.

  17. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  18. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice. PMID:24973705

  19. Two dimensional affective state distribution of the brain under emotion stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Hamwira; Karim, Izzah; Wahab, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Norhaslinda

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are ambiguous. Many techniques have been employed to perform emotion prediction and to understand emotional elicitations. Brain signals measured using electroencephalogram (EEG) are also used in studies about emotions. Using KDE as feature extraction technique and MLP for performing supervised learning on the brain signals. It has shown that all channels in EEG can capture emotional experience. In addition it was also indicated that emotions are dynamic as represented by the level of valence and the intensity of arousal. Such findings are useful in biomedical studies, especially in dealing with emotional disorders which can results in using a two-channel EEG device for neurofeedback applications. PMID:23367309

  20. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  1. A Structural Parametrization of the Brain Using Hidden Markov Models-Based Paths in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Murcia, Francisco J; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier; Ortiz, Andres

    2016-11-01

    The usage of biomedical imaging in the diagnosis of dementia is increasingly widespread. A number of works explore the possibilities of computational techniques and algorithms in what is called computed aided diagnosis. Our work presents an automatic parametrization of the brain structure by means of a path generation algorithm based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The path is traced using information of intensity and spatial orientation in each node, adapting to the structure of the brain. Each path is itself a useful way to characterize the distribution of the tissue inside the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image by, for example, extracting the intensity levels at each node or generating statistical information of the tissue distribution. Additionally, a further processing consisting of a modification of the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to characterize the textural changes that occur throughout the path, yielding more meaningful values that could be associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as providing a significant feature reduction. This methodology achieves moderate performance, up to 80.3% of accuracy using a single path in differential diagnosis involving Alzheimer-affected subjects versus controls belonging to the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). PMID:27354189

  2. Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure.

    PubMed

    Sarter, M; Berntson, G G; Cacioppo, J T

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has emerged from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology as a scientific discipline that aims at the determination of "how brain function gives rise to mental activity" (S. M. Kosslyn & L. M. Shin, 1992, p. 146). While research in cognitive neuroscience combines many levels of neuroscientific and psychological analyses, modern imaging techniques that monitor brain activity during behavioral or cognitive operations have significantly contributed to the emergence of this discipline. The conclusions deduced from these studies are inherently localizationistic in nature; in other words, they describe cognitive functions as being localized in focal brain regions (brain activity in a defined brain region, phi, is involved in specific cognitive function, psi). A broad discussion about the virtues and limitations of such conclusions may help avoid the emergence of a mentalistic localizationism (i.e., the attribution of mentalistic concepts such as happiness, morality, or consciousness to brain structure) and illustrates the importance of a convergence with information generated by different research strategies (such as, for example, evidence generated by studies in which the effects of experimental manipulations of local neuronal processes on cognitive functions are assessed). Progress in capitalizing on brain-imaging studies to investigate questions of the form "brain structure or event phi is associated with cognitive function psi" may be impeded because of the way in which inferences are typically formulated in the brain imaging literature. A conceptual framework to advance the interpretation of data describing the relationships between cognitive phenomena and brain structure activity is provided. PMID:8585670

  3. Brain structure is related to speech perception abilities in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Baus, Cristina; Díaz, Begoña; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2014-07-01

    Morphology of the human brain predicts the speed at which individuals learn to distinguish novel foreign speech sounds after laboratory training. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical basis of individual differences in speech perception when a second language (L2) has been learned in natural environments for extended periods of time. In the present study, two samples of highly proficient bilinguals were selected according to their ability to distinguish between very similar L2 sounds, either isolated (prelexical) or within words (lexical). Structural MRI was acquired and processed to estimate vertex-wise indices of cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (CSA), and the association between cortical morphology and behavioral performance was inspected. Results revealed that performance in the lexical task was negatively associated with the thickness of the left temporal cortex and angular gyrus, as well as with the surface area of the left precuneus. Our findings, consistently with previous fMRI studies, demonstrate that morphology of the reported areas is relevant for word recognition based on phonological information. Further, we discuss the possibility that increased CT and CSA in sound-to-meaning mapping regions, found for poor non-native speech sounds perceivers, would have plastically arisen after extended periods of increased functional activity during L2 exposure. PMID:23686398

  4. Brain structure correlates of emotion-based rash impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Muhlert, N.; Lawrence, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Negative urgency (the tendency to engage in rash, ill-considered action in response to intense negative emotions), is a personality trait that has been linked to problematic involvement in several risky and impulsive behaviours, and to various forms of disinhibitory psychopathology, but its neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. Here, we explored whether inter-individual variation in levels of trait negative urgency was associated with inter-individual variation in regional grey matter volumes. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample (n = 152) of healthy participants, we found that smaller volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, regions previously linked to emotion appraisal, emotion regulation and emotion-based decision-making, were associated with higher levels of trait negative urgency. When controlling for other impulsivity linked personality traits (sensation seeking, lack of planning/perseverance) and negative emotionality per se (neuroticism), these associations remained, and an additional relationship was found between higher levels of trait negative urgency and smaller volumes of the left ventral striatum. This latter finding mirrors recent VBM findings in an animal model of impulsivity. Our findings offer novel insight into the brain structure correlates of one key source of inter-individual differences in impulsivity. PMID:25957991

  5. Simulating ‘structure-function’ patterns of malignant brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansury, Yuri; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid growth and extensive tissue infiltration are characteristics of highly malignant neuroepithelial brain tumors. Very little is known, however, about the existence of structure-function relationships in these types of neoplasm. Therefore, using a previously developed two-dimensional agent-based model, we have investigated the emergent patterns of multiple tumor cells that proliferate and migrate on an adaptive grid lattice, driven by a local-search mechanism and guided by the presence of distinct environmental conditions. Numerical results indicate a strong correlation between the fractal dimensions of the tumor surface and the average velocity of the tumor's spatial expansion. In particular, when the so called ‘beaten-path advantage’ intensifies, i.e., rising ‘mechanical rewards’ for cells to follow each other along preformed pathways, it results in an increase of the tumor system's fractal dimensions leading to a concomitant acceleration of its spatial expansion. Whereas cell migration is the dominant phenotype responsible for the more extensive branching patterns exhibiting higher fractal dimensions, cell proliferation appears to become more active primarily at lower fracticality associated with stronger mechanical confinements. Implications of these results for experimental and clinical cancer research are discussed.

  6. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  7. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  8. MicroRNA-155 negatively affects blood-brain barrier function during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro; Wu, Dongsheng; Pryce, Gareth; Simpson, Julie E; Reijerkerk, Arie; King-Robson, Josh; Kay, Oliver; de Vries, Helga E; Hirst, Mark C; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David Kingsley; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio Andres

    2014-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous system (CNS) microvascular disorders is largely unknown. We have identified miR-155 as a critical miRNA in neuroinflammation at the BBB. miR-155 is expressed at the neurovascular unit of individuals with MS and of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, loss of miR-155 reduced CNS extravasation of systemic tracers, both in EAE and in an acute systemic inflammation model induced by lipopolysaccharide. In cultured human brain endothelium, miR-155 was strongly and rapidly upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. miR-155 up-regulation mimicked cytokine-induced alterations in junctional organization and permeability, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-155 partially prevented a cytokine-induced increase in permeability. Furthermore, miR-155 modulated brain endothelial barrier function by targeting not only cell-cell complex molecules such as annexin-2 and claudin-1, but also focal adhesion components such as DOCK-1 and syntenin-1. We propose that brain endothelial miR-155 is a negative regulator of BBB function that may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CNS neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:24604078

  9. Sisters and Brothers, Brothers and Sisters in the Family Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Betty

    This report is based on a qualitative research study which utilized a nominal group process to identify major life stressors for parents of children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). It focuses first on effects of TBI on siblings and then on effective interventions. The first section uses quotes from participating parents to identify their…

  10. The Cell Birth Marker BrdU Does Not Affect Recruitment of Subsequent Cell Divisions in the Adult Avian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cattan, Anat

    2015-01-01

    BrdU is commonly used to quantify neurogenesis but also causes mutation and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects. In mammalian studies, attention had been given to its dosage, but in birds such examination was not conducted. Our previous study suggested that BrdU might affect subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment in the brain. Furthermore, this effect seemed to increase with time from treatment. Accordingly, we examined whether BrdU might alter neurogenesis in the adult avian brain. We compared recruitment of [3H]-thymidine+ neurons in brains of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) when no BrdU was involved and when BrdU was given 1 or 3 months prior to [3H]-thymidine. In nidopallium caudale, HVC, and hippocampus, no differences were found between groups in densities and percentages of [3H]-thymidine+ neurons. The number of silver grains per [3H]-thymidine+ neuronal nucleus and their distribution were similar across groups. Additionally, time did not affect the results. The results indicate that the commonly used dosage of BrdU in birds has no long-term effects on subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment. This conclusion is also important in neuronal replacement experiments, where BrdU and another cell birth marker are given, with relatively long intervals between them. PMID:25759813

  11. The cell birth marker BrdU does not affect recruitment of subsequent cell divisions in the adult avian brain.

    PubMed

    Cattan, Anat; Ayali, Amir; Barnea, Anat

    2015-01-01

    BrdU is commonly used to quantify neurogenesis but also causes mutation and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects. In mammalian studies, attention had been given to its dosage, but in birds such examination was not conducted. Our previous study suggested that BrdU might affect subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment in the brain. Furthermore, this effect seemed to increase with time from treatment. Accordingly, we examined whether BrdU might alter neurogenesis in the adult avian brain. We compared recruitment of [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neurons in brains of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) when no BrdU was involved and when BrdU was given 1 or 3 months prior to [(3)H]-thymidine. In nidopallium caudale, HVC, and hippocampus, no differences were found between groups in densities and percentages of [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neurons. The number of silver grains per [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neuronal nucleus and their distribution were similar across groups. Additionally, time did not affect the results. The results indicate that the commonly used dosage of BrdU in birds has no long-term effects on subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment. This conclusion is also important in neuronal replacement experiments, where BrdU and another cell birth marker are given, with relatively long intervals between them. PMID:25759813

  12. How treatment affects the brain: meta-analysis evidence of neural substrates underpinning drug therapy and psychotherapy in major depression.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-06-01

    The idea that modifications of affect, behavior and cognition produced by psychotherapy are mediated by biological underpinnings predates the advent of the modern neurosciences. Recently, several studies demonstrated that psychotherapy outcomes are linked to modifications in specific brain regions. This opened the debate over the similarities and dissimilarities between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate the effects of psychotherapy (PsyTh) and pharmacotherapy (DrugTh) on brain functioning in Major Depression (MD). Our results demonstrate that the two therapies modify different neural circuits. Specifically, PsyTh induces selective modifications in the left inferior and superior frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus and middle cingulate cortex, as well as in the right middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus. Otherwise, DrugTh selectively affected brain activation in the right insula in MD patients. These results are in line with previous evidence of the synergy between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy but they also demonstrate that the two therapies have different neural underpinnings. PMID:26164169

  13. Double jeopardy! The additive consequences of negative affect on performance-monitoring decrements following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Kaufman, David A S; Kellison, Ida L; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Perlstein, William M

    2009-07-01

    Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk for emotional sequelae. The current study utilized the error-related negativity (ERN) and posterror positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP) to test the hypothesis that negative affect disproportionately impairs performance-monitoring following severe TBI. High-density ERPs were acquired while 20 survivors of severe TBI and 20 demographically matched controls performed a single-trial Stroop task. Response-locked ERPs were separately averaged for correct and error trials. Negative affect was measured as the single latent factor of measures of depression and anxiety. Groups did not differ on overall level of negative affect. Control and TBI participants did not differ on error rates as a function of negative affect, but differed in response times. ERP results revealed disproportionately smaller ERN amplitudes in participants with TBI relative to controls as a function of negative affect. Pe amplitude did not differ between groups. Negative affect inversely correlated with ERN amplitude in TBI but not control participants. Overall, results support a "double jeopardy" hypothesis of disproportionate impairments in performance monitoring when negative affect is overlaid on severe TBI. PMID:19586208

  14. Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sungji; Sohn, In-Jung; Kim, Namwook; Sim, Hyeon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). Over the past decade, neuroimaging studies have provided considerable insights underlying neurobiological mechanisms of ASD. In this review, we introduce recent findings from brain imaging studies to characterize the brains of ASD across the human lifespan. Results of structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies dealing with total brain volume, regional brain structure and cortical area are summarized. Using task-based functional MRI (fMRI), many studies have shown dysfunctional activation in critical areas of social communication and RRBs. We also describe several data to show abnormal connectivity in the ASD brains. Finally, we suggest the possible strategies to study ASD brains in the future. PMID:26713076

  15. A systematic review of the evidence that brain structure is related to muscle structure and their relationship to brain and muscle function in humans over the lifecourse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between cognition and physical function has been shown to exist but the roles of muscle and brain structure in this relationship are not fully understood. A greater understanding of these relationships may lead to identification of the underlying mechanisms in this important area of research. This systematic review examines the evidence for whether: a) brain structure is related to muscle structure; b) brain structure is related to muscle function; and c) brain function is related to muscle structure in healthy children and adults. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched on March 6th 2014. A grey literature search was performed using Google and Google Scholar. Hand searching through citations and references of relevant articles was also undertaken. Results 53 articles were included in the review; mean age of the subjects ranged from 8.8 to 85.5 years old. There is evidence of a positive association between both whole brain volume and white matter (WM) volume and muscle size. Total grey matter (GM) volume was not associated with muscle size but some areas of regional GM volume were associated with muscle size (right temporal pole and bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex). No evidence was found of a relationship between grip strength and whole brain volume however there was some evidence of a positive association with WM volume. Conversely, there is evidence that gait speed is positively associated with whole brain volume; this relationship may be driven by total WM volume or regional GM volumes, specifically the hippocampus. Markers of brain ageing, that is brain atrophy and greater accumulation of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), were associated with grip strength and gait speed. The location of WMH is important for gait speed; periventricular hyperintensities and brainstem WMH are associated with gait speed but subcortical WMH play less of a role. Cognitive function does not appear to be associated with muscle

  16. Baseline brain perfusion and brain structure in patients with major depression: a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Vasic, Nenad; Wolf, Nadine D.; Grön, Georg; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Connemann, Bernhard J.; Sambataro, Fabio; von Strombeck, Anna; Lang, Dirk; Otte, Stefanie; Dudek, Manuela; Wolf, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and grey matter volume have been frequently reported in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear to what extent structural and functional change co-occurs in patients with MDD and whether markers of neural activity, such as rCBF, can be predicted by structural change. Methods Using MRI, we investigated resting-state rCBF and brain structure in patients with MDD and healthy controls between July 2008 and January 2013. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling, used voxel-based morphometry to assess grey matter volume and integrated biological parametric mapping analyses to investigate the impact of brain atrophy on rCBF. Results We included 43 patients and 29 controls in our study. Frontotemporal grey matter volume was reduced in patients compared with controls. In patients, rCBF was reduced in the anterior cingulate and bilateral parahippocampal areas and increased in frontoparietal and striatal regions. These abnormalities were confirmed by analyses with brain volume as a covariate. In patients with MDD there were significant negative correlations between the extent of depressive symptoms and bilateral parahippocampal rCBF. We found a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and rCBF for right middle frontal cortical blood flow. Limitations Medication use in patients has to be considered as a limitation of our study. Conclusion Our data suggest that while changes of cerebral blood flow and brain volume co-occur in patients with MDD, structural change is not sufficient to explain altered neural activity in patients at rest. Abnormal brain structure and function in patients with MDD appear to reflect distinct levels of neuropathology. PMID:26125119

  17. Dissecting structure-activity-relationships of crebinostat: Brain penetrant HDAC inhibitors for neuroepigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Balaram; Zhao, Wen-Ning; Reis, Surya A; Patnaik, Debasis; Fass, Daniel M; Tsai, Li-Huei; Mazitschek, Ralph; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2016-02-15

    Targeting chromatin-mediated epigenetic regulation has emerged as a potential avenue for developing novel therapeutics for a wide range of central nervous system disorders, including cognitive disorders and depression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been pursued as cognitive enhancers that impact the regulation of gene expression and other mechanisms integral to neuroplasticity. Through systematic modification of the structure of crebinostat, a previously discovered cognitive enhancer that affects genes critical to memory and enhances synaptogenesis, combined with biochemical and neuronal cell-based screening, we identified a novel hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitor, here named neurinostat, with increased potency compared to crebinostat in inducing neuronal histone acetylation. In addition, neurinostat was found to have a pharmacokinetic profile in mouse brain modestly improved over that of crebinostat. This discovery of neurinostat and demonstration of its effects on neuronal HDACs adds to the available pharmacological toolkit for dissecting the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuroepigenetic regulation in health and disease. PMID:26804233

  18. Structural brain alterations associated with dyslexia predate reading onset.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Chang, Maria; Gaab, Nadine

    2011-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reduced activation in parietotemporal and occipitotemporal areas in adults and children with developmental dyslexia compared to controls during reading and reading related tasks. These patterns of regionally reduced activation have been linked to behavioral impairments of reading-related processes (e.g., phonological skills and rapid automatized naming). The observed functional and behavioral differences in individuals with developmental dyslexia have been complemented by reports of reduced gray matter in left parietotemporal, occipitotemporal areas, fusiform and lingual gyrus and the cerebellum. An important question for education is whether these neural differences are present before reading is taught. Developmental dyslexia can only be diagnosed after formal reading education starts. However, here we investigate whether the previously detected gray matter alterations in adults and children with developmental dyslexia can already be observed in a small group of pre-reading children with a family-history of developmental dyslexia compared to age and IQ-matched children without a family-history (N = 20/mean age: 5:9 years; age range 5:1-6:5 years). Voxel-based morphometry revealed significantly reduced gray matter volume indices for pre-reading children with, compared to children without, a family-history of developmental dyslexia in left occipitotemporal, bilateral parietotemporal regions, left fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus. Gray matter volume indices in left hemispheric occipitotemporal and parietotemporal regions of interest also correlated positively with rapid automatized naming. No differences between the two groups were observed in frontal and cerebellar regions. This discovery in a small group of children suggests that previously described functional and structural alterations in developmental dyslexia may not be due to experience-dependent brain changes but may be present at birth or

  19. Findings from Structural MR Imaging in Military Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Riedy, Gerard; Senseney, Justin S; Liu, Wei; Ollinger, John; Sham, Elyssa; Krapiva, Pavel; Patel, Jigar B; Smith, Alice; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Graner, John; Nathan, Dominic; Caban, Jesus; French, Louis M; Harper, Jamie; Eskay, Victoria; Morissette, John; Oakes, Terrence R

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To describe the initial neuroradiology findings in a cohort of military service members with primarily chronic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast by using an integrated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center institutional review board and is compliant with HIPAA guidelines. All participants were military service members or dependents recruited between August 2009 and August 2014. There were 834 participants with a history of TBI and 42 participants in a control group without TBI (not explicitly age- and sex-matched). MR examinations were performed at 3 T primarily with three-dimensional volume imaging at smaller than 1 mm(3) voxels for the structural portion of the examination. The structural portion of this examination, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, before and after contrast agent administrtion T2 fluid attenuation inversion recovery, and susceptibility-weighted images, was evaluated by neuroradiologists by using a modified version of the neuroradiology TBI common data elements (CDEs). Incident odds ratios (ORs) between the TBI participants and a comparison group without TBI were calculated. Results The 834 participants were diagnosed with predominantly chronic (mean, 1381 days; median, 888 days after injury) and mild (92% [768 of 834]) TBI. Of these participants, 84.2% (688 of 817) reported one or more blast-related incident and 63.0% (515 of 817) reported loss of consciousness at the time of injury. The presence of white matter T2-weighted hyperintense areas was the most common pathologic finding, observed in 51.8% (432 of 834; OR, 1.75) of TBI participants. Cerebral microhemorrhages were observed in a small percentage of participants (7.2% [60 of 834]; OR, 6.64) and showed increased incidence with TBI severity (P < .001, moderate and severe vs mild). T2-weighted hyperintense areas and microhemorrhages did not collocate by visual

  20. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    PubMed

    Heldmann, Marcus; Berding, Georg; Voges, Jürgen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Galazky, Imke; Müller, Ulf; Baillot, Gunther; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc) on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2)[(15)O]-PET (positron emission tomography) in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control. PMID:22629317

  1. Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.

    PubMed

    Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth. PMID:23456584

  2. Preferential Detachment During Human Brain Development: Age- and Sex-Specific Structural Connectivity in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Data

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sol; Han, Cheol E.; Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Human brain maturation is characterized by the prolonged development of structural and functional properties of large-scale networks that extends into adulthood. However, it is not clearly understood which features change and which remain stable over time. Here, we examined structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 121 participants between 4 and 40 years of age. DTI data were analyzed for small-world parameters, modularity, and the number of fiber tracts at the level of streamlines. First, our findings showed that the number of fiber tracts, small-world topology, and modular organization remained largely stable despite a substantial overall decrease in the number of streamlines with age. Second, this decrease mainly affected fiber tracts that had a large number of streamlines, were short, within modules and within hemispheres; such connections were affected significantly more often than would be expected given their number of occurrences in the network. Third, streamline loss occurred earlier in females than in males. In summary, our findings suggest that core properties of structural brain connectivity, such as the small-world and modular organization, remain stable during brain maturation by focusing streamline loss to specific types of fiber tracts. PMID:24343892

  3. Testosterone selectively affects aromatase and 5α-reductase activities in the green anole lizard brain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Rachel E.; Wade, Juli

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and its metabolites are important in the regulation of reproductive behavior in males of a variety of vertebrate species. Aromatase converts T to estradiol and 5α-reductase converts T to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Male green anole reproduction depends on androgens, yet 5α-reductase in the brain is not sexually dimorphic and does not vary with season. In contrast, aromatase activity in the male brain is increased during the breeding compared to non-breeding season, and males have higher levels than females during the breeding season. Aromatase is important for female, but not male, sexual behaviors. The present experiment was conducted to determine whether 5α-reductase and aromatase are regulated by T. Enzyme activity was quantified in whole brain homogenates in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons in males and females that had been treated with either a T or blank implant. In males only, T increased 5α-reductase activity regardless of season and up-regulated aromatase during the breeding season specifically. Thus, regulation of both enzymes occurs in males, whereas females do not show parallel sensitivity to T. When considered with previous results, the data suggest that aromatase might influence a male function associated with the breeding season other than sexual behavior. 5α-Reductase can be mediated by T availability, but this regulation may not serve a sex- or season-specific purpose. PMID:19917285

  4. Brain Levels of Prostaglandins, Endocannabinoids, and Related Lipids Are Affected by Mating Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Jordyn M.; Paris, Jason J.; Frye, Cheryl; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in the development and regulation of reproductive behaviors. Likewise, prostaglandins (PGs) drive sexual differentiation and initiation of ovulation. Here, we use lipidomics strategies to test the hypotheses that mating immediately activates the biosynthesis and/or metabolism of eCBs and PGs and that specific mating strategies differentially regulate these lipids in the brain. Methods. Lipid extractions and tandem mass spectrometric analysis were performed on brains from proestrous rats that had experienced one of two mating strategies (paced or standard mating) and two nonmated groups (chamber exposed and home cage controls). Levels of PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha), eCBs (AEA and 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl glycine), and 4 related lipids (4 N-acylethanolamides) were measured in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. Results. Overall, levels of these lipids were significantly lower among paced compared to standard mated rats with the most dramatic decreases observed in brainstem, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum. However, chamber exposed rats had significantly higher levels of these lipids compared to home cage controls and paced mated wherein the hippocampus showed the largest increases. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that mating strategies and exposure to mating arenas influence lipid signaling in the brain. PMID:24369463

  5. Brain Mechanisms for Processing Affective (and Nonaffective) Touch Are Atypical in Autism.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Martha D; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Gordon, Ilanit; Pretzsch, Charlotte; Beam, Danielle; Keifer, Cara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; McGlone, Francis; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents encode caress-like touch that supports social-emotional development, and stimulation of the CT system engages the insula and cortical circuitry involved in social-emotional processing. Very few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of touch processing in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often exhibit atypical responses to touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the hypothesis that children and adolescents with ASD would exhibit atypical brain responses to CT-targeted touch. Children and adolescents with ASD, relative to typically developing (TD) participants, exhibited reduced activity in response to CT-targeted (arm) versus non-CT-targeted (palm) touch in a network of brain regions known to be involved in social-emotional information processing including bilateral insula and insular operculum, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, bilateral temporoparietal junction extending into the inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus, right amygdala, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex including the inferior frontal and precentral gyri, suggesting atypical social brain hypoactivation. Individuals with ASD (vs. TD) showed an enhanced response to non-CT-targeted versus CT-targeted touch in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting atypical sensory cortical hyper-reactivity. PMID:26048952

  6. A Mathematical Model to Elucidate Brain Tumor Abrogation by Immunotherapy with T11 Target Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2015-01-01

    T11 Target structure (T11TS), a membrane glycoprotein isolated from sheep erythrocytes, reverses the immune suppressed state of brain tumor induced animals by boosting the functional status of the immune cells. This study aims at aiding in the design of more efficacious brain tumor therapies with T11 target structure. We propose a mathematical model for brain tumor (glioma) and the immune system interactions, which aims in designing efficacious brain tumor therapy. The model encompasses considerations of the interactive dynamics of glioma cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8+ T-cells), TGF-β, IFN-γ and the T11TS. The system undergoes sensitivity analysis, that determines which state variables are sensitive to the given parameters and the parameters are estimated from the published data. Computer simulations were used for model verification and validation, which highlight the importance of T11 target structure in brain tumor therapy. PMID:25955428

  7. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  8. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  9. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    PubMed

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship. PMID:26468140

  10. The fine structure of the vertical lobe of octopus brain.

    PubMed

    Gray, E G

    1970-07-30

    Although much is known about the structural organization and connexions of the various lobes of the octopus brain from light microscopy, this is the first attempt at a detailed analysis of one of the lobes- the vertical lobe, with the electron microscope. The vertical lobe consists of five lobules. The median superior frontal (MSF) axons enter each lobule from the MSF lobe. The MSF axons contain both microtubules and neurofilaments. The varicosities of the MSF axons contain both agranular and dense-cored vesicles and synapse with trunks of the amacrine cells. These trunks run together in bundles termed amacrine tracts into the centres of the lobules. The amacrine trunks contain microtubules but no neurofilaments. The trunks contain large and small agranular synaptic vesicles and synapse with what are in all probability branches of the trunks of the large cells. These trunks contain microtubules but no neurofilaments. They run out through the bases of the lobules probably without forming synaptic contacts within the lobule. Fibres signalling 'pain' (nocifensor) enter the lobules from below. They can be recognized by their content of neurofilaments. Their terminals contain numerous very small synaptic vesicles and a few larger and dense-cored ones. These 'pain' fibres appear to synapse mostly with processes of the large cells. J. Z. Young has shown that the vertical lobe is especially concerned with the integrative action of the visual system, linked with the chemo-tactile system. Electron microscopy supports Young's suggestion that the superior frontal and interconnected vertical lobe systems constitute a loop which could sustain a positive feed-back mechanism (MSF -- amacrine -- large cell -- lateral superior frontal -- MSF) while the 'pain' (nocifensor) input could exert a suppressor (inhibitory) effect on the loop by its action on the large cells. PMID:22408833

  11. Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christine T; Wais, Joshua; Crawford, Dorota A

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been on the rise over recent years. The presence of diverse subsets of candidate genes in each individual with an ASD and the vast variability of phenotypical differences suggest that the interference of an exogenous environmental component may greatly contribute to the development of ASDs. The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is released from phospholipids of cell membranes, and is important in brain development and function; PGE2 is involved in differentiation, synaptic plasticity and calcium regulation. The previous review already described extrinsic factors, including deficient dietary supplementation, and exposure to oxidative stress, infections and inflammation that can disrupt signaling of the PGE2 pathway and contribute to ASDs. In this review, the structure and establishment of two key protective barriers for the brain during early development are described: the blood-brain barrier; and the placental barrier. Then, the first comprehensive summary of other environmental factors, such as exposure to chemicals in air pollution, pesticides and consumer products, which can also disturb PGE2 signaling and increase the risk for developing ASDs is provided. Also, how these exogenous agents are capable of crossing the protective barriers of the brain during critical developmental periods when barrier components are still being formed is described. This review underlines the importance of avoiding or limiting exposure to these factors during vulnerable periods in development. PMID:26215319

  12. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Yvette N.; Thompson, Christopher S.; McKay, Nicole S.; Waldie, Karen E.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III). COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e., met carriers relative to val homozygotes) was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research. PMID:26347681

  13. Advancing multiscale structural mapping of the brain through fluorescence imaging and analysis across length scales.

    PubMed

    Hogstrom, L J; Guo, S M; Murugadoss, K; Bathe, M

    2016-02-01

    Brain function emerges from hierarchical neuronal structure that spans orders of magnitude in length scale, from the nanometre-scale organization of synaptic proteins to the macroscopic wiring of neuronal circuits. Because the synaptic electrochemical signal transmission that drives brain function ultimately relies on the organization of neuronal circuits, understanding brain function requires an understanding of the principles that determine hierarchical neuronal structure in living or intact organisms. Recent advances in fluorescence imaging now enable quantitative characterization of neuronal structure across length scales, ranging from single-molecule localization using super-resolution imaging to whole-brain imaging using light-sheet microscopy on cleared samples. These tools, together with correlative electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the nanoscopic and macroscopic scales, respectively, now facilitate our ability to probe brain structure across its full range of length scales with cellular and molecular specificity. As these imaging datasets become increasingly accessible to researchers, novel statistical and computational frameworks will play an increasing role in efforts to relate hierarchical brain structure to its function. In this perspective, we discuss several prominent experimental advances that are ushering in a new era of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging in neuroscience along with novel computational and statistical strategies that are helping to distil our understanding of complex brain structure. PMID:26855758

  14. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain. PMID:26037235

  15. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function.

    PubMed

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain. PMID:26037235

  16. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Assess Functional Connectivity in the Brain: Power and Sample Size Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios; Simos, Panagiotis; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Fletcher, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of sample size on the power and fit of structural equation modeling applied to functional brain connectivity hypotheses. The data consisted of time-constrained minimum norm estimates of regional brain activity during performance of a reading task obtained with magnetoencephalography. Power analysis was first…

  17. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  18. Children with New-Onset Epilepsy: Neuropsychological Status and Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana; Sheth, Raj; Dow, Christian; Koehn, Monica; Seidenberg, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities in cognition, academic performance and brain volumetrics have been reported in children with chronic epilepsy. The nature and degree to which these problems may be present at epilepsy onset or may instead become more evident over time remains to be determined. This study characterizes neuropsychological status, brain structure and…

  19. The Histamine N-Methyltransferase T105I Polymorphism Affects Active Site Structure and Dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Karen; Parson, William W.; Daggett, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the sole enzyme responsible for inactivating histamine in the mammalian brain. The human HNMT gene contains a common threonine-isoleucine polymorphism at residue 105, distal from the active site. The 105I variant has decreased activity and lower protein levels relative to the 105T protein. Crystal structures of both variants have been solved, but reveal little regarding how the T105I polymorphism affects activity. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of both 105T and 105I at 37°C to explore the structural and dynamic consequences of the polymorphism. The simulations indicate that replacing Thr with the larger Ile residue leads to greater burial of residue 105 and heightened packing interactions between residue105 and residues within helix α3 and strand β3. This altered packing is directly translated to the active site resulting in the reorientation of several co-substrate-binding residues. The simulations also show that the hydrophobic histamine-binding domain in both proteins undergoes a large-scale breathing motion that exposes key catalytic residues and lessens the hydrophobicity of the substrate-binding site. PMID:18154359

  20. Extreme brain events: Higher-order statistics of brain resting activity and its relation with structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, T. A.; Russo, R.; Diez, I.; Bharath, P.; Zirovich, M.; Stramaglia, S.; Cortes, J. M.; de Arcangelis, L.; Chialvo, D. R.

    2015-09-01

    The brain exhibits a wide variety of spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging as the so-called blood-oxygenated-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. An active area of work includes efforts to best describe the plethora of these patterns evolving continuously in the brain. Here we explore the third-moment statistics of the brain BOLD signals in the resting state as a proxy to capture extreme BOLD events. We find that the brain signal exhibits typically nonzero skewness, with positive values for cortical regions and negative values for subcortical regions. Furthermore, the combined analysis of structural and functional connectivity demonstrates that relatively more connected regions exhibit activity with high negative skewness. Overall, these results highlight the relevance of recent results emphasizing that the spatiotemporal location of the relatively large-amplitude events in the BOLD time series contains relevant information to reproduce a number of features of the brain dynamics during resting state in health and disease.

  1. Low and moderate concentrations of lysobisphosphatidic acid in brain and liver of patients affected by some storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Kahma, K; Brotherus, J; Haltia, M; Renkonen, O

    1976-07-01

    The relative amount of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), known also as bis(monoacylglycerly)phosphate, among the total phospholipids was analyzed in post mortem samples of brain and liver of patients affected by four storage diseases. In spite of the extensive accumulation of storage lysosomes, none of the samples revealed a highly evelated LBPA content comparable to that found in the liver in Niemann-Pick disease and in the liver in lipidosis induced by 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol. We conclude that, although LBPA is often present in high concentration in lysosomes of many types of cells, it is not always a major component of these organelles. PMID:948249

  2. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Changlian; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Qian; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongfu; Kuhn, Hans-Georg; Blomgren, Klas

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. {yields} Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. {yields} Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. {yields} Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. {yields} Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 {sup o}C. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  3. The impact of television viewing on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-05-01

    Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities. PMID:24256892

  4. Structural Brain Anomalies and Chronic Pain: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Rachel F.; Laird, Angela R.; Ramage, Amy E.; Parkinson, Amy L.; Lewis, Jeffrey; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Farrell, Michael J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Robin, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of chronic pain syndromes and the methods employed to study them make integrating experimental findings challenging. This study performed coordinate-based meta-analyses using voxel-based morphometry imaging results to examine gray matter volume (GMV) differences between chronic pain patients and healthy controls. There were 12 clusters where GMV was decreased in patients compared with controls, including many regions thought to be part of the “pain matrix” of regions involved in pain perception, but also including many other regions that are not commonly regarded as pain-processing areas. The right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus were the only regions noted to have increased GMV in patients. Functional characterizations were implemented using the BrainMap database to determine which behavioral domains were significantly represented in these regions. The most common behavioral domains associated with these regions were cognitive, affective, and perceptual domains. Because many of these regions are not classically connected with pain and because there was such significance in functionality outside of perception, it is proposed that many of these regions are related to the constellation of comorbidities of chronic pain, such as fatigue and cognitive and emotional impairments. Further research into the mechanisms of GMV changes could provide a perspective on these findings. Perspective Quantitative meta-analyses revealed structural differences between brains of individuals with chronic pain and healthy controls. These differences may be related to comorbidities of chronic pain. PMID:23685185

  5. The effects of bilingualism on the white matter structure of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Moschopoulou, Elisavet; Saddy, James Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that learning and using a second language (L2) can affect brain structure, including the structure of white matter (WM) tracts. This observation comes from research looking at early and older bilingual individuals who have been using both their first and second languages on an everyday basis for many years. This study investigated whether young, highly immersed late bilinguals would also show structural effects in the WM that can be attributed to everyday L2 use, irrespective of critical periods or the length of L2 learning. Our Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis revealed higher fractional anisotropy values for bilinguals vs. monolinguals in several WM tracts that have been linked to language processing and in a pattern closely resembling the results reported for older and early bilinguals. We propose that learning and actively using an L2 after childhood can have rapid dynamic effects on WM structure, which in turn may assist in preserving WM integrity in older age. PMID:25583505

  6. The effects of bilingualism on the white matter structure of the brain.

    PubMed

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Moschopoulou, Elisavet; Saddy, James Douglas

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that learning and using a second language (L2) can affect brain structure, including the structure of white matter (WM) tracts. This observation comes from research looking at early and older bilingual individuals who have been using both their first and second languages on an everyday basis for many years. This study investigated whether young, highly immersed late bilinguals would also show structural effects in the WM that can be attributed to everyday L2 use, irrespective of critical periods or the length of L2 learning. Our Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis revealed higher fractional anisotropy values for bilinguals vs. monolinguals in several WM tracts that have been linked to language processing and in a pattern closely resembling the results reported for older and early bilinguals. We propose that learning and actively using an L2 after childhood can have rapid dynamic effects on WM structure, which in turn may assist in preserving WM integrity in older age. PMID:25583505

  7. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  8. Structural brain alterations in heart failure: a review of the literature and implications for risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Hayes, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a recognized contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heart failure (HF) is a cardiovascular subtype that can be used to model the contribution of cardiovascular disease to AD. Neuroimaging research indicates that HF patients exhibit a diverse range of structural brain alterations and epidemiological studies suggest HF may be an important risk factor for AD. The neural alterations observed in HF may overlap with those observed in AD and contribute to increased risk of AD in HF patients. To examine this possibility, we reviewed structural MRI studies in persons with HF. We examined subcortical brain regions affected in the early stages of AD (medial temporal lobes), as well as cortical alterations that typically occur in the later stages of AD. Our review indicates that patients with HF exhibit greater neural atrophy and white matter microstructural alterations of nearly every region of the Papez circuit (e.g., hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and fornix), as well-significant alterations in cortical and cerebellar regions. Based on animal research and past work in AD patients, the mechanisms for structural brain changes in HF may stem from reductions in cerebral blood flow subsequent to cardiac deficiency. This review supports the hypothesis that HF may contribute to AD risk via widespread structural brain changes, including many of the same regions affected by AD. Case-controlled prospective neuroimaging studies with long-term follow-ups are needed to clarify the risk of AD in HF and elucidate the neural underpinnings of AD risk in HF. PMID:25896528

  9. Brain structural connectivity distinguishes patients at risk for cognitive decline after carotid interventions.

    PubMed

    Soman, Salil; Prasad, Gautam; Hitchner, Elizabeth; Massaband, Payam; Moseley, Michael E; Zhou, Wei; Rosen, Allyson C

    2016-06-01

    While brain connectivity analyses have been demonstrated to identify ill patients for a number of diseases, their ability to predict cognitive impairment after brain injury is not well established. Traditional post brain injury models, such as stroke, are limited for this evaluation because pre-injury brain connectivity patterns are infrequently available. Patients with severe carotid stenosis, in contrast, often undergo non-emergent revascularization surgery, allowing the collection of pre and post-operative imaging, may experience brain insult due to perioperative thrombotic/embolic infarcts or hypoperfusion, and can suffer post-operative cognitive decline. We hypothesized that a distributed function such as memory would be more resilient in patients with brains demonstrating higher degrees of modularity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed preoperative structural connectivity graphs (using T1 and DWI MRI) for 34 patients that underwent carotid intervention, and evaluated differences in graph metrics using the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We found that patients with lower binary component number, binary community number and weighted community number prior to surgery were at greater risk for developing cognitive decline. These findings highlight the promise of brain connectivity analyses to predict cognitive decline following brain injury and serve as a clinical decision support tool. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2185-2194, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028955

  10. Reproducibility of the Structural Brain Connectome Derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Nesland, Travis; Paulus, Walter; Helms, Gunther; Focke, Niels K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Disruptions of brain anatomical connectivity are believed to play a central role in several neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The structural brain connectome is typically derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which may be influenced by methodological factors related to signal processing, MRI scanners and biophysical properties of neuroanatomical regions. In this study, we evaluated how these variables affect the reproducibility of the structural connectome. Methods Twenty healthy adults underwent 3 MRI scanning sessions (twice in the same MRI scanner and a third time in a different scanner unit) within a short period of time. The scanning sessions included similar T1 weighted and DTI sequences. Deterministic or probabilistic tractography was performed to assess link weight based on the number of fibers connecting gray matter regions of interest (ROI). Link weight and graph theory network measures were calculated and reproducibility was assessed through intra-class correlation coefficients, assuming each scanning session as a rater. Results Connectome reproducibility was higher with data from the same scanner. The probabilistic approach yielded larger reproducibility, while the individual variation in the number of tracked fibers from deterministic tractography was negatively associated with reproducibility. Links connecting larger and anatomically closer ROIs demonstrated higher reproducibility. In general, graph theory measures demonstrated high reproducibility across scanning sessions. Discussion Anatomical factors and tractography approaches can influence the reproducibility of the structural connectome and should be factored in the interpretation of future studies. Our results demonstrate that connectome mapping is a largely reproducible technique, particularly as it relates to the geometry of network architecture measured by graph theory methods. PMID:26332788

  11. Statistical machine learning to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI) from structural disconnections of white matter networks.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jhimli; Shen, Kai-kai; Ghose, Soumya; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Salvado, Olivier; Pannek, Kerstin; Taylor, D Jamie; Mathias, Jane L; Rose, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting with normal appearing radiological MRI presents a significant challenge. Neuroimaging methods such as diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography, which probe the connectivity of neural networks, show significant promise. We present a machine learning approach to classify TBI participants primarily with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on altered structural connectivity patterns derived through the network based statistical analysis of structural connectomes generated from TBI and age-matched control groups. In this approach, higher order diffusion models were used to map white matter connections between 116 cortical and subcortical regions. Tracts between these regions were generated using probabilistic tracking and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) measures along these connections were encoded in the connectivity matrices. Network-based statistical analysis of the connectivity matrices was performed to identify the network differences between a representative subset of the two groups. The affected network connections provided the feature vectors for principal component analysis and subsequent classification by random forest. The validity of the approach was tested using data acquired from a total of 179 TBI patients and 146 controls participants. The analysis revealed altered connectivity within a number of intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter pathways associated with DAI, in consensus with existing literature. A mean classification accuracy of 68.16%±1.81% and mean sensitivity of 80.0%±2.36% were achieved in correctly classifying the TBI patients evaluated on the subset of the participants that was not used for the statistical analysis, in a 10-fold cross-validation framework. These results highlight the potential for statistical machine learning approaches applied to structural connectomes to identify patients with diffusive axonal injury. PMID

  12. Tracking the dynamics of the social brain: ERP approaches for social cognitive and affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, David M.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) approaches to social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) are not as widely used as other neuroimaging techniques, yet they offer several unique advantages. In particular, the high temporal resolution of ERP measures of neural activity make them ideally suited for studying the dynamic interplay of rapidly unfolding cognitive and affective processes. In this article, we highlight the utility of ERP methods for scientists investigating questions of SCAN. We begin with a brief description of the physiological basis of ERPs and discussion of methodological practices. We then discuss how ERPs may be used to address a range of questions concerning social perception, social cognition, attitudes, affect and self-regulation, with examples of research that has used the ERP approach to contribute important theoretical advances in these areas. Whether used alone or in combination with other techniques, the ERP is an indispensable part of the social and affective neuroscientist’s methodological toolkit. PMID:24319116

  13. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1 mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1. PMID:26214024

  14. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  15. Brain parcellation choice affects disease-related topology differences increasingly from global to local network levels.

    PubMed

    Lord, Anton; Ehrlich, Stefan; Borchardt, Viola; Geisler, Daniel; Seidel, Maria; Huber, Stefanie; Murr, Julia; Walter, Martin

    2016-03-30

    Network-based analyses of deviant brain function have become extremely popular in psychiatric neuroimaging. Underpinning brain network analyses is the selection of appropriate regions of interest (ROIs). Although ROI selection is fundamental in network analysis, its impact on detecting disease effects remains unclear. We investigated the impact of parcellation choice when comparing results from different studies. We investigated the effects of anatomical (AAL) and literature-based (Dosenbach) parcellation schemes on comparability of group differences in 35 female patients with anorexia nervosa and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Global and local network properties, including network-based statistics (NBS), were assessed on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at 3T. Parcellation schemes were comparably consistent on global network properties, while NBS and local metrics differed in location, but not metric type. Location of local metric alterations varied for AAL (parietal and cingulate cortices) versus Dosenbach (insula, thalamus) parcellation approaches. However, consistency was observed for the occipital cortex. Patient-specific global network properties can be robustly observed using different parcellation schemes, while graph metrics characterizing impairments of individual nodes vary considerably. Therefore, the impact of parcellation choice on specific group differences varies depending on the level of network organization. PMID:27000302

  16. The molecular mechanisms affecting N-acetylaspartate homeostasis following experimental graded traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Valentina; Amorini, Angela Maria; Tavazzi, Barbara; Vagnozzi, Roberto; Logan, Ann; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Signoretti, Stefano; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the molecular mechanisms of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) metabolism following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we measured the NAA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentrations and calculated the ATP/ADP ratio at different times from impact, concomitantly evaluating the gene and protein expressions controlling NAA homeostasis (the NAA synthesizing and degrading enzymes N-acetyltransferase 8-like and aspartoacylase, respectively) in rats receiving either mild or severe TBI. The reversible changes in NAA induced by mild TBI were due to a combination of transient mitochondrial malfunctioning with energy crisis (decrease in ATP and in the ATP/ADP ratio) and modulation in the gene and protein levels of N-acetyltransferase 8-like and increase of aspartoacylase levels. The irreversible decrease in NAA following severe TBI, was instead characterized by profound mitochondrial malfunctioning (constant 65% decrease of the ATP/ADP indicating permanent impairment of the mitochondrial phosphorylating capacity), dramatic repression of the N-acetyltransferase 8-like gene and concomitant remarkable increase in the aspartoacylase gene and protein levels. The mechanisms underlying changes in NAA homeostasis following graded TBI might be of note for possible new therapeutic approaches and will help in understanding the effects of repeat concussions occurring during particular periods of the complex NAA recovery process, coincident with the so called window of brain vulnerability. PMID:24515258

  17. How Knowledge Management Is Affected by Organizational Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoudsalehi, Mehdi; Moradkhannejad, Roya; Safari, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying the impact of organizational structure on knowledge management (KM) is the aim of this study, as well as recognizing the importance of each variable indicator in creating, sharing and utility of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: For understanding relationships between the main variables (organizational structure-KM), the…

  18. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Fletcher, Jack M

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n = 29) or did not (n = 36) meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-IQ (n = 18) or a higher IQ (n = 44) subgroup served as controls. Minimum norm estimates of regional cortical activity revealed that the degree of hypoactivation in the left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in both RD subgroups was not affected by IQ. Moreover, IQ did not moderate the positive association between degree of activation in the left fusiform gyrus and phonological decoding ability. We did find, however, that the hypoactivation of the left pars opercularis in RD was restricted to lower-IQ participants. In accordance with previous morphometric and fMRI studies, degree of activity in inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions correlated with IQ across reading ability subgroups. Results are consistent with current views questioning the relevance of IQ-discrepancy criteria in the diagnosis of dyslexia. PMID:24409136

  19. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Simos, Panagiotis G.; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n = 29) or did not (n = 36) meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-IQ (n = 18) or a higher IQ (n = 44) subgroup served as controls. Minimum norm estimates of regional cortical activity revealed that the degree of hypoactivation in the left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in both RD subgroups was not affected by IQ. Moreover, IQ did not moderate the positive association between degree of activation in the left fusiform gyrus and phonological decoding ability. We did find, however, that the hypoactivation of the left pars opercularis in RD was restricted to lower-IQ participants. In accordance with previous morphometric and fMRI studies, degree of activity in inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions correlated with IQ across reading ability subgroups. Results are consistent with current views questioning the relevance of IQ-discrepancy criteria in the diagnosis of dyslexia. PMID:24409136

  20. Brain Science, Brain Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Three big ideas from brain science have arisen during the past 20 to 30 years: neural connections form rapidly early in life; critical periods occur in development; and enriched environments profoundly affect brain development during the early years. Current brain research has little to offer educational practice or policy. (10 references) (MLH)

  1. Cross-frequency coupling in deep brain structures upon processing the painful sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Chien, J H; Kim, J H; Chuang, Y F; Cheng, D T; Anderson, W S; Lenz, F A

    2015-09-10

    Cross-frequency coupling has been shown to be functionally significant in cortical information processing, potentially serving as a mechanism for integrating functionally relevant regions in the brain. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that pain-related gamma oscillatory responses are coupled with low-frequency oscillations in the frontal lobe, amygdala and hippocampus, areas known to have roles in pain processing. We delivered painful laser pulses to random locations on the dorsal hand of five patients with uncontrolled epilepsy requiring depth electrode implantation for seizure monitoring. Two blocks of 40 laser stimulations were delivered to each subject and the pain-intensity was controlled at five in a 0-10 scale by adjusting the energy level of the laser pulses. Local-field-potentials (LFPs) were recorded through bilaterally implanted depth electrode contacts to study the oscillatory responses upon processing the painful laser stimulations. Our results show that painful laser stimulations enhanced low-gamma (LH, 40-70 Hz) and high-gamma (HG, 70-110 Hz) oscillatory responses in the amygdala and hippocampal regions on the right hemisphere and these gamma responses were significantly coupled with the phases of theta (4-7 Hz) and alpha (8-1 2 Hz) rhythms during pain processing. Given the roles of these deep brain structures in emotion, these findings suggest that the oscillatory responses in these regions may play a role in integrating the affective component of pain, which may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the affective information processing in humans. PMID:26168707

  2. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  3. Highlighting the Structure-Function Relationship of the Brain with the Ising Model and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Das, T. K.; Abeyasinghe, P. M.; Crone, J. S.; Sosnowski, A.; Laureys, S.; Owen, A. M.; Soddu, A.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model) or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model) have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions. PMID:25276772

  4. Highlighting the structure-function relationship of the brain with the Ising model and graph theory.

    PubMed

    Das, T K; Abeyasinghe, P M; Crone, J S; Sosnowski, A; Laureys, S; Owen, A M; Soddu, A

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model) or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model) have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions. PMID:25276772

  5. Evidence for training-induced plasticity in multisensory brain structures: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory learning and resulting neural brain plasticity have recently become a topic of renewed interest in human cognitive neuroscience. Music notation reading is an ideal stimulus to study multisensory learning, as it allows studying the integration of visual, auditory and sensorimotor information processing. The present study aimed at answering whether multisensory learning alters uni-sensory structures, interconnections of uni-sensory structures or specific multisensory areas. In a short-term piano training procedure musically naive subjects were trained to play tone sequences from visually presented patterns in a music notation-like system [Auditory-Visual-Somatosensory group (AVS)], while another group received audio-visual training only that involved viewing the patterns and attentively listening to the recordings of the AVS training sessions [Auditory-Visual group (AV)]. Training-related changes in cortical networks were assessed by pre- and post-training magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of an auditory, a visual and an integrated audio-visual mismatch negativity (MMN). The two groups (AVS and AV) were differently affected by the training. The results suggest that multisensory training alters the function of multisensory structures, and not the uni-sensory ones along with their interconnections, and thus provide an answer to an important question presented by cognitive models of multisensory training. PMID:22570723

  6. Evidence for Training-Induced Plasticity in Multisensory Brain Structures: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory learning and resulting neural brain plasticity have recently become a topic of renewed interest in human cognitive neuroscience. Music notation reading is an ideal stimulus to study multisensory learning, as it allows studying the integration of visual, auditory and sensorimotor information processing. The present study aimed at answering whether multisensory learning alters uni-sensory structures, interconnections of uni-sensory structures or specific multisensory areas. In a short-term piano training procedure musically naive subjects were trained to play tone sequences from visually presented patterns in a music notation-like system [Auditory-Visual-Somatosensory group (AVS)], while another group received audio-visual training only that involved viewing the patterns and attentively listening to the recordings of the AVS training sessions [Auditory-Visual group (AV)]. Training-related changes in cortical networks were assessed by pre- and post-training magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of an auditory, a visual and an integrated audio-visual mismatch negativity (MMN). The two groups (AVS and AV) were differently affected by the training. The results suggest that multisensory training alters the function of multisensory structures, and not the uni-sensory ones along with their interconnections, and thus provide an answer to an important question presented by cognitive models of multisensory training. PMID:22570723

  7. The sesquiterpenes polygodial and drimanial in vitro affect glutamatergic transport in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Cereser, Lucas; Junior, Isaac Zanonato; Jardim, Fluvia Melina Alves; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2006-03-01

    Natural products including those derived from plants, have over the years greatly contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Polygodial and drimanial are sesquiterpenes isolated from the bark of the plant Drymis Winteri (Winteraceae) that exhibit antinociceptive properties. Since peripheral glutamate presents nociceptive actions, in this study it was investigated the effects of hydroalcooholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial) on the glutamatergic system in rat brain. Polygodial and drimanial inhibited glutamate uptake by astrocytes, as well as by cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices, and increased synaptosomal glutamate release. These concurrent effects would predispose to an increase in the extracellular glutamate concentrations, leading to possible neurotoxic effects (excitotoxicity) of these natural compounds, which would suggest the need for some caution in their therapeutic application. PMID:16733820

  8. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Peter; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Stout, Julie C; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The 'rich club' is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub 'rich club' brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington's disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington's disease and manifest Huntington's disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic pattern of structural

  9. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Seunarine, Kiran K.; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H.; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Stout, Julie C.; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I.; Clark, Chris A.; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The ‘rich club’ is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub ‘rich club’ brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington’s disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington’s disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington’s disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington’s disease and manifest Huntington’s disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic

  10. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Thomas, Theresa C

    2016-07-01

    As many as 20-55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  11. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  12. Information fusion approach for detection of brain structures in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shademan, Azad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents an information fusion approach for automatic detection of mid-brain nuclei (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus) from MRI. The method is based on fusion of anatomical information, obtained from brain atlases and expert physicians, into MRI numerical information within a fuzzy framework, employed to model intrinsic uncertainty of problem. First step of this method is segmentation of brain tissues (gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid). Physical landmarks such as inter-hemispheric plane alongside numerical information from segmentation step are then used to describe the nuclei. Each nucleus is defined according to a unique description according to physical landmarks and anatomical landmarks, most of which are the previously detected nuclei. Also, a detected nucleus in slice n serves as key landmark to detect same nucleus in slice n+1. These steps construct fuzzy decision maps. Overall decision is made after fusing all of decisions according to a fusion operator. This approach has been implemented to detect caudate, putamen, and thalamus from a sequence of axial T1-weighted brain MRI's. Our experience shows that final nuclei detection results are highly dependent upon primary tissue segmentation. The method is validated by comparing resultant nuclei volumes with those obtained using manual segmentation performed by expert physicians.

  13. Brain structural and functional alterations in patients with unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Chen, Hua-Jun; Liu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Yuan; Li, Jing; Chen, Jing-Ya; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Ji, Hui; Feng, Xu; Zhu, Xin; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Alterations of brain structure and functional connectivity have been described in patients with hearing impairments due to distinct pathogenesis; however, the influence of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) on brain morphology and regional brain activity is still not completely understood. In this study, we aim to investigate regional brain structural and functional alterations in patients with UHL. T1-weighted volumetric images and task-free fMRIs were acquired from 14 patients with right-sided UHL (pure tone average ≥ 40 dB HL) and 19 healthy controls. Hearing ability was assessed by pure tone audiometry. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to detect brain regions with changed gray matter volume or white matter volume in UHL. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to analyze brain activity at the baseline and was compared between two groups. Compared with controls, UHL patients showed decreased gray matter volume in bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, left superior/middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus and lingual gyrus. Meanwhile, patients showed significantly decreased ALFF in bilateral precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right inferior frontal gyrus and insula and increased ALFF in right inferior and middle temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that chronic UHL could induce brain morphological changes and is associated with aberrant baseline brain activity. PMID:25093284

  14. Training your brain to be more creative: brain functional and structural changes induced by divergent thinking training.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Yadan; Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Creativity is commonly defined as the ability to produce something both novel and useful. Stimulating creativity has great significance for both individual success and social improvement. Although increasing creative capacity has been confirmed to be possible and effective at the behavioral level, few longitudinal studies have examined the extent to which the brain function and structure underlying creativity are plastic. A cognitive stimulation (20 sessions) method was used in the present study to train subjects and to explore the neuroplasticity induced by training. The behavioral results revealed that both the originality and the fluency of divergent thinking were significantly improved by training. Furthermore, functional changes induced by training were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and posterior brain regions. Moreover, the gray matter volume (GMV) was significantly increased in the dACC after divergent thinking training. These results suggest that the enhancement of creativity may rely not only on the posterior brain regions that are related to the fundamental cognitive processes of creativity (e.g., semantic processing, generating novel associations), but also on areas that are involved in top-down cognitive control, such as the dACC and DLPFC. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3375-3387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27159407

  15. Computational Morphometry for Detecting Changes in Brain Structure Due to Development, Aging, Learning, Disease and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mietchen, Daniel; Gaser, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The brain, like any living tissue, is constantly changing in response to genetic and environmental cues and their interaction, leading to changes in brain function and structure, many of which are now in reach of neuroimaging techniques. Computational morphometry on the basis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images has become the method of choice for studying macroscopic changes of brain structure across time scales. Thanks to computational advances and sophisticated study designs, both the minimal extent of change necessary for detection and, consequently, the minimal periods over which such changes can be detected have been reduced considerably during the last few years. On the other hand, the growing availability of MR images of more and more diverse brain populations also allows more detailed inferences about brain changes that occur over larger time scales, way beyond the duration of an average research project. On this basis, a whole range of issues concerning the structures and functions of the brain are now becoming addressable, thereby providing ample challenges and opportunities for further contributions from neuroinformatics to our understanding of the brain and how it changes over a lifetime and in the course of evolution. PMID:19707517

  16. Can microcystins affect zooplankton structure community in tropical eutrophic reservoirs?

    PubMed

    Paes, T A S V; Costa, I A S; Silva, A P C; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess whether cyanotoxins (microcystins) can affect the composition of the zooplankton community, leading to domination of microzooplankton forms (protozoans and rotifers). Temporal variations in concentrations of microcystins and zooplankton biomass were analyzed in three eutrophic reservoirs in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil. The concentration of microcystins in water proved to be correlated with the cyanobacterial biovolume, indicating the contributions from colonial forms such as Microcystis in the production of cyanotoxins. At the community level, the total biomass of zooplankton was not correlated with the concentration of microcystin (r2 = 0.00; P > 0.001), but in a population-level analysis, the biomass of rotifers and cladocerans showed a weak positive correlation. Cyclopoid copepods, which are considered to be relatively inefficient in ingesting cyanobacteria, were negatively correlated (r2 = - 0.01; P > 0.01) with the concentration of cyanotoxins. Surprisingly, the biomass of calanoid copepods was positively correlated with the microcystin concentration (r2 = 0.44; P > 0.001). The results indicate that allelopathic control mechanisms (negative effects of microcystin on zooplankton biomass) do not seem to substantially affect the composition of mesozooplankton, which showed a constant and high biomass compared to the microzooplankton (rotifers). These results may be important to better understand the trophic interactions between zooplankton and cyanobacteria and the potential effects of allelopathic compounds on zooplankton. PMID:26959954

  17. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  18. Affect differentially modulates brain activation in uni- and multisensory body-voice perception.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Emotion perception naturally entails multisensory integration. It is also assumed that multisensory emotion perception is characterized by enhanced activation of brain areas implied in multisensory integration, such as the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). However, most previous studies have employed designs and stimuli that preclude other forms of multisensory interaction, such as crossmodal prediction, leaving open the question whether classical integration is the only relevant process in multisensory emotion perception. Here, we used video clips containing emotional and neutral body and vocal expressions to investigate the role of crossmodal prediction in multisensory emotion perception. While emotional multisensory expressions increased activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FFG), neutral expressions compared to emotional ones enhanced activation in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and posterior STS. Hence, while neutral stimuli activate classical multisensory areas, emotional stimuli invoke areas linked to unisensory visual processing. Emotional stimuli may therefore trigger a prediction of upcoming auditory information based on prior visual information. Such prediction may be stronger for highly salient emotional compared to less salient neutral information. Therefore, we suggest that multisensory emotion perception involves at least two distinct mechanisms; classical multisensory integration, as shown for neutral expressions, and crossmodal prediction, as evident for emotional expressions. PMID:25445782

  19. Brief sensory experience differentially affects the volume of olfactory brain centres in a moth.

    PubMed

    Anton, Sylvia; Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Gadenne, Bruno; Iqbal, Javaid; Juchaux, Marjorie; List, Olivier; Gaertner, Cyril; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Experience modifies behaviour in animals so that they adapt to their environment. In male noctuid moths, Spodoptera littoralis, brief pre-exposure to various behaviourally relevant sensory signals modifies subsequent behaviour towards the same or different sensory modalities. Correlated with a behavioural increase in responses of male moths to the female-emitted sex pheromone after pre-exposure to olfactory, acoustic or gustatory stimuli, an increase in sensitivity of olfactory neurons within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe, is found for olfactory and acoustic stimuli, but not for gustatory stimuli. Here, we investigated whether anatomical changes occurring in the antennal lobes and in the mushroom bodies (the secondary olfactory centres) possibly correlated with the changes observed in behaviour and in olfactory neuron physiology. Our results showed that significant volume changes occurred in glomeruli (olfactory units) responsive to sex pheromone following exposure to both pheromone and predator sounds. The volume of the mushroom body input region (calyx) also increased significantly after pheromone and predator sound treatment. However, we found no changes in the volume of antennal lobe glomeruli or of the mushroom body calyx after pre-exposure to sucrose. These findings show a relationship of antennal lobe sensitivity changes to the pheromone with changes in the volume of the related glomeruli and the output area of antennal lobe projection neurons elicited by sensory cues causing a behavioural change. Behavioural changes observed after sucrose pre-exposure must originate from changes in higher integration centres in the brain. PMID:26463049

  20. Integrating databases and expert systems for the analysis of brain structures: connections, similarities, and homologies.

    PubMed

    Bota, Mihail; Arbib, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    The NeuroHomology Database system (NHDB) combines databases related to brain structures from different species with different knowledge management systems (KMSs) for systematization, evaluation and processing neurobiological data. Special attention is assessment of similarity of data from different species as a basis for exploring neural homologies. NHDB includes modules that handle brain structure and connectivity data, as well as inference engines for evaluation of the stored neurobiological information. The spatial inference engine evaluates the possible topological relations between cortical structures in different neuroanatomical atlases. The connectivity inference engine evaluates the reliability of information pertaining to fiber tracts as those are reflected in the literature. The inference engine for translation of neuroanatomical connections in different atlases evaluates the probability of existence of connections of interest in different parcellation schemes. Finally, the similarity inference engine calculates the overall degree of similarity of pairs of brain structures from different species by taking into account a set of eight criteria. We present examples of search for information in NHDB system, inferences of relations between cortical structures from equivalent neuroanatomical atlases, reconstruction of functional networks of brain structures from data collated from the literature, translation of connectivity matrices in equivalent parcellation schemes, and evaluations of similarities of brain structures from humans, macaques and rats. PMID:15067167

  1. Atomistic modeling of the structural components of the blood-brain barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Grishina, O. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Blood-brain barrier, which is a barrage system between the brain and blood vessels, plays a key role in the "isolation" of the brain of unnecessary information, and reduce the "noise" in the interneuron communication. It is known that the barrier function of the BBB strictly depends on the initial state of the organism and changes significantly with age and, especially in developing the "vascular accidents". Disclosure mechanisms of regulation of the barrier function will develop new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in the newborn. The aim of this work is the construction of atomistic models of structural components of the blood-brain barrier to reveal the mechanisms of regulation of the barrier function.

  2. 3D brain atlas reconstructor service--online repository of three-dimensional models of brain structures.

    PubMed

    Majka, Piotr; Kowalski, Jakub M; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2013-10-01

    Brain atlases are important tools of neuroscience. Traditionally prepared in paper book format, more and more commonly they take digital form which extends their utility. To simplify work with different atlases, to lay the ground for developing universal tools which could abstract from the origin of the atlas, efforts are being made to provide common interfaces to these atlases. 3D Brain Atlas Reconstructor service (3dBARs) described here is a repository of digital representations of different brain atlases in CAF format which we recently proposed and a repository of 3D models of brain structures. A graphical front-end is provided for creating and viewing the reconstructed models as well as the underlying 2D atlas data. An application programming interface (API) facilitates programmatic access to the service contents from other websites. From a typical user's point of view, 3dBARs offers an accessible way to mine publicly available atlasing data with a convenient browser based interface, without the need to install extra software. For a developer of services related to brain atlases, 3dBARs supplies mechanisms for enhancing functionality of other software. The policy of the service is to accept new datasets as delivered by interested parties and we work with the researchers who obtain original data to make them available to the neuroscience community at large. The functionality offered by the 3dBARs situates it at the core of present and future general atlasing services tying it strongly to the global atlasing neuroinformatics infrastructure. PMID:23943281

  3. Stage structure alters how complexity affects stability of ecological networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudolf, V.H.W.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Resolving how complexity affects stability of natural communities is of key importance for predicting the consequences of biodiversity loss. Central to previous stability analysis has been the assumption that the resources of a consumer are substitutable. However, during their development, most species change diets; for instance, adults often use different resources than larvae or juveniles. Here, we show that such ontogenetic niche shifts are common in real ecological networks and that consideration of these shifts can alter which species are predicted to be at risk of extinction. Furthermore, niche shifts reduce and can even reverse the otherwise stabilizing effect of complexity. This pattern arises because species with several specialized life stages appear to be generalists at the species level but act as sequential specialists that are hypersensitive to resource loss. These results suggest that natural communities are more vulnerable to biodiversity loss than indicated by previous analyses.

  4. Structural and leakage integrity of tubes affected by circumferential cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Hernalsteen, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the author deals with the notion that circumferential cracks are generally considered unacceptable. He argues for the need to differentiate two facets of such cracks: the issue of the size and growth rate of a crack; and the issue of the structural strength and leakage potential of the tube in the presence of the crack. In this paper the author tries to show that the second point is not a major concern for such cracks. The paper presents data on the structural strength or burst pressure characteristics of steam generator tubes derived from models and data bases of experimental work. He also presents a leak rate model, and compares the performance of circumferential and axial cracks as far as burst strength and leak rate. The final conclusion is that subject to improvement in NDE capabilities (sizing, detection, growth), that Steam Generator Defect Specific Management can be used to allow circumferentially degraded tubes to remain in service.

  5. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, David D.; Brown, P. Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2007-01-01

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (∼0.6°C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs. PMID:17466279

  6. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kazunori; Qi, Haochen; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of change in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of change in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old) and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain. PMID:23565087

  7. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26231917

  8. MRI as a tool to study brain structure from mouse models for mental retardation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoye, Marleen; Sijbers, Jan; Kooy, R. F.; Reyniers, E.; Fransen, E.; Oostra, B. A.; Willems, Peter; Van der Linden, Anne-Marie

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, transgenic mice are a common tool to study brain abnormalities in neurological disorders. These studies usually rely on neuropathological examinations, which have a number of drawbacks, including the risk of artefacts introduced by fixation and dehydration procedures. Here we present 3D Fast Spin Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in combination with 2D and 3D segmentation techniques as a powerful tool to study brain anatomy. We set up MRI of the brain in mouse models for the fragile X syndrome (FMR1 knockout) and Corpus callosum hypoplasia, mental Retardation, Adducted thumbs, Spastic paraplegia and Hydrocephalus (CRASH) syndrome (L1CAM knockout). Our major goal was to determine qualitative and quantitative differences in specific brain structures. MRI of the brain of fragile X and CRASH patients has revealed alterations in the size of specific brain structures, including the cerebellar vermis and the ventricular system. In the present MRI study of the brain from fragile X knockout mice, we have measured the size of the brain, cerebellum and 4th ventricle, which were reported as abnormal in human fragile X patients, but found no evidence for altered brain regions in the mouse model. In CRASH syndrome, the most specific brain abnormalities are vermis hypoplasia and abnormalities of the ventricular system with some degree of hydrocephalus. With the MRI study of L1CAM knockout mice we found vermis hypoplasia, abnormalities of the ventricular system including dilatation of the lateral and the 4th ventricles. These subtle abnormalities were not detected upon standard neuropathological examination. Here we proved that this sensitive MRI technique allows to measure small differences which can not always be detected by means of pathology.

  9. Function-Structure Associations of the Brain: Evidence from Multimodal Connectivity and Covariance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Jing; Huster, Rene; Yu, Qingbao; Segall, Judith M.; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in multimodal imaging techniques and analysis approaches, unimodal studies are still the predominant way to investigate brain changes or group differences, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Multimodal brain studies can be used to understand the complex interplay of anatomical, functional and physiological brain alterations or development, and to better comprehend the biological significance of multiple imaging measures. To examine the function-structure associations of the brain in a more comprehensive and integrated manner, we reviewed a number of multimodal studies that combined two or more functional (fMRI and/or EEG) and structural (sMRI and/or DTI) modalities. In this review paper, we specifically focused on multimodal neuroimaging studies on cognition, aging, disease and behavior. We also compared multiple analysis approaches, including univariate and multivariate methods. The possible strengths and limitations of each method are highlighted, which can guide readers when selecting a method based on a given research question. In particular, we believe that multimodal fusion approaches will shed further light on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the major structural and functional pathophysiological features of both the healthy brain (e.g. development) or the diseased brain (e.g. mental illness). And in the latter case, may provide a more sensitive measure than unimodal imaging for disease classification, e.g. multimodal biomarkers, which potentially can be used to support clinical diagnosis based on neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24084066

  10. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M.; Henry, Owen S.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18–22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  11. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  12. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model of brain white matter in biaxial tension and structural-mechanical relationships.

    PubMed

    Labus, Kevin M; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-09-01

    Computational models of the brain require accurate and robust constitutive models to characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue. The anisotropy of white matter has been previously demonstrated; however, there is a lack of data describing the effects of multi-axial loading, even though brain tissue experiences multi-axial stress states. Therefore, a biaxial tensile experiment was designed to more fully characterize the anisotropic behavior of white matter in a quasi-static loading state, and the mechanical data were modeled with an anisotropic hyperelastic continuum model. A probabilistic analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty in model predictions because the mechanical data of brain tissue can show a high degree of variability, and computational studies can benefit from reporting the probability distribution of model responses. The axonal structure in white matter can be heterogeneous and regionally dependent, which can affect computational model predictions. Therefore, corona radiata and corpus callosum regions were tested, and histology and transmission electron microscopy were performed on tested specimens to relate the distribution of axon orientations and the axon volume fraction to the mechanical behavior. These measured properties were implemented into a structural constitutive model. Results demonstrated a significant, but relatively low anisotropic behavior, yet there were no conclusive mechanical differences between the two regions tested. The inclusion of both biaxial and uniaxial tests in model fits improved the accuracy of model predictions. The mechanical anisotropy of individual specimens positively correlated with the measured axon volume fraction, and, accordingly, the structural model exhibited slightly decreased uncertainty in model predictions compared to the model without structural properties. PMID:27214689

  13. Resolving Anatomical and Functional Structure in Human Brain Organization: Identifying Mesoscale Organization in Weighted Network Representations

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease. PMID:25275860

  14. Genetic and environmental contributions to the relationships between brain structure and average lifetime cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Maes, Hermine H M; Schmitt, J Eric; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Eyler, Lisa T; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Kremen, William S; Neale, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Chronic cigarette use has been consistently associated with differences in the neuroanatomy of smokers relative to nonsmokers in case-control studies. However, the etiology underlying the relationships between brain structure and cigarette use is unclear. A community-based sample of male twin pairs ages 51-59 (110 monozygotic pairs, 92 dizygotic pairs) was used to determine the extent to which there are common genetic and environmental influences between brain structure and average lifetime cigarette use. Brain structure was measured by high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging, from which subcortical volume and cortical volume, thickness and surface area were derived. Bivariate genetic models were fitted between these measures and average lifetime cigarette use measured as cigarette pack-years. Widespread, negative phenotypic correlations were detected between cigarette pack-years and several cortical as well as subcortical structures. Shared genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the phenotypic correlations shared between cigarette pack-years and subcortical volume as well as cortical volume and surface area. Brain structures involved in many of the correlations were previously reported to play a role in specific aspects of networks of smoking-related behaviors. These results provide evidence for conducting future research on the etiology of smoking-related behaviors using measures of brain morphology. PMID:25690561

  15. Error-monitoring brain activity is associated with affective behaviors in young children☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent evidence that neural correlates of error monitoring such as the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) are visible in children sooner than previously thought, little is known about these components early in life. Error-monitoring components can be noninvasively recorded from a very early age and have been proposed as biological markers of risk for psychopathology. Therefore, the current study represents an attempt to examine the presence of these components in a sample of very young children and explore their associations with affect and attentional control. Fifteen children between ages 4 and 8 participated in two laboratory episodes: interacting with a stranger and completing a computerized flanker task. Shy and bold behaviors were scored during the stranger interaction and parents reported on temperament-based affective behaviors. Both ERN and Pe were visible in children as young as age 4. A trend-level interaction was observed between age and gender in association with ERN amplitudes. Age and gender were unrelated to the Pe. Greater ERN and Pe were associated with better poorer orienting and greater attentional focusing, respectively. Greater Pe was also linked to less observed boldness. Implications for studies of the development of performance monitoring in children are discussed. PMID:21572941

  16. Does cannabis affect dopaminergic signaling in the human brain? A systematic review of evidence to date.

    PubMed

    Sami, Musa Basser; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2015-08-01

    A significant body of epidemiological evidence has linked psychotic symptoms with both acute and chronic use of cannabis. Precisely how these effects of THC are mediated at the neurochemical level is unclear. While abnormalities in multiple pathways may lead to schizophrenia, an abnormality in dopamine neurotransmission is considered to be the final common abnormality. One would thus expect cannabis use to be associated with dopamine signaling alterations. This is the first systematic review of all studies, both observational as well as experimental, examining the acute as well as chronic effect of cannabis or its main psychoactive ingredient, THC, on the dopamine system in man. We aimed to review all studies conducted in man, with any reported neurochemical outcomes related to the dopamine system after cannabis, cannabinoid or endocannabinoid administration or use. We identified 25 studies reporting outcomes on over 568 participants, of which 244 participants belonged to the cannabis/cannabinoid exposure group. In man, there is as yet little direct evidence to suggest that cannabis use affects acute striatal dopamine release or affects chronic dopamine receptor status in healthy human volunteers. However some work has suggested that acute cannabis exposure increases dopamine release in striatal and pre-frontal areas in those genetically predisposed for, or at clinical high risk of psychosis. Furthermore, recent studies are suggesting that chronic cannabis use blunts dopamine synthesis and dopamine release capacity. Further well-designed studies are required to definitively delineate the effects of cannabis use on the dopaminergic system in man. PMID:26068702

  17. A rare case of solitary brain Langerhans cell histiocytosis with intratumoral hemorrhage in a patient affected by Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Francesca; Morabito, Rosa; Grasso, Giovanni; Alafaci, Elisabetta; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Alafaci, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of cells with characteristics similar to bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells. The case of a young woman, affected by Turner syndrome and a solitary intraparenchymal LCH associated with an osteolytic lesion of the overlying skull, is presented. Case Description: The patient, with an insidious history of headache and a growing soft mass in the left frontal region, presented with a sudden generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure. Neuroradiological investigations showed an osteolytic lesion of the left frontal bone and an underlying brain lesion associated with recent signs of bleeding. The patient was operated on with a complete removal of the lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusions: The clinical, neuroradiological, and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a review of the literature. Although rare, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a scalp lesion occurs with a progressive growing. PMID:27127696

  18. Cyanobacteria Affect Fitness and Genetic Structure of Experimental Daphnia Populations.

    PubMed

    Drugă, Bogdan; Turko, Patrick; Spaak, Piet; Pomati, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Zooplankton communities can be strongly affected by cyanobacterial blooms, especially species of genus Daphnia, which are key-species in lake ecosystems. Here, we explored the effect of microcystin/nonmicrocystin (MC/non-MC) producing cyanobacteria in the diet of experimental Daphnia galeata populations composed of eight genotypes. We used D. galeata clones hatched from ephippia 10 to 60 years old, which were first tested in monocultures, and then exposed for 10 weeks as mixed populations to three food treatments consisting of green algae combined with cyanobacteria able/unable of producing MC. We measured the expression of nine genes potentially involved in Daphnia acclimation to cyanobacteria: six protease genes, one ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene, and two rRNA genes, and then we tracked the dynamics of the genotypes in mixed populations. The expression pattern of one protease and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes was positively correlated with the increased fitness of competing clones in the presence of cyanobacteria, suggesting physiological plasticity. The genotype dynamics in mixed populations was only partially related to the growth rates of clones in monocultures and varied strongly with the food. Our results revealed strong intraspecific differences in the tolerance of D. galeata clones to MC/non-MC-producing cyanobacteria in their diet, suggesting microevolutionary effects. PMID:26943751

  19. Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Brito, Natalie H.; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kennedy, David N.; Zijl, Peter Van; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed. PMID:25821911

  20. The Human Functional Brain Network Demonstrates Structural and Dynamical Resilience to Targeted Attack

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Karen E.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the field of network science has enabled researchers to represent the highly complex interactions in the brain in an approachable yet quantitative manner. One exciting finding since the advent of brain network research was that the brain network can withstand extensive damage, even to highly connected regions. However, these highly connected nodes may not be the most critical regions of the brain network, and it is unclear how the network dynamics are impacted by removal of these key nodes. This work seeks to further investigate the resilience of the human functional brain network. Network attack experiments were conducted on voxel-wise functional brain networks and region-of-interest (ROI) networks of 5 healthy volunteers. Networks were attacked at key nodes using several criteria for assessing node importance, and the impact on network structure and dynamics was evaluated. The findings presented here echo previous findings that the functional human brain network is highly resilient to targeted attacks, both in terms of network structure and dynamics. PMID:23358557

  1. Earthworm ecology affects the population structure of their Verminephrobacter symbionts.

    PubMed

    Viana, Flávia; Jensen, Christopher Erik; Macey, Michael; Schramm, Andreas; Lund, Marie Braad

    2016-05-01

    Earthworms carry species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, can only colonize the host during early embryonic development, and have co-speciated with their host for about 100 million years. Although several studies have addressed Verminephrobacter diversity between worm species, the intra-species diversity of the symbiont population has never been investigated. In this study, symbiont population structure was examined by using a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) approach on Verminephrobacter isolated from two contrasting ecological types of earthworm hosts: the high population density, fast reproducing compost worms, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, and the low-density, slow reproducing Aporrectodea tuberculata, commonly found in garden soils. Three distinct populations were investigated for both types and, according to MLST analysis of 193 Verminephrobacter isolates, the symbiont community in each worm individual was very homogeneous. The more solitary A. tuberculata carried unique symbiont populations in 9 out of 10 host individuals, whereas the symbiont populations in the social compost worms were homogeneous across host individuals from the same population. These data suggested that host ecology shaped the population structure of Verminephrobacter symbionts. The homogeneous symbiont populations in the compost worms led to the hypothesis that Verminephrobacter could be transferred bi-parentally or via leaky horizontal transmission in high-density, frequently mating worm populations. PMID:27040820

  2. Does small scale structure significantly affect cosmological dynamics?

    PubMed

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today-which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations-a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology. PMID:25699430

  3. Assessing brain structural associations with working-memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christine Lycke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Tønnesen, Siren; Agartz, Ingrid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC). Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA), a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure-function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96) and HC (n = 142). We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal) and task-negative (default-mode) brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons) was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure-function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation. PMID:26509112

  4. Spontaneous functional network dynamics and associated structural substrates in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuhong; Yuan, Lin; Zhao, Tengda; Dai, Zhengjia; Shu, Ni; Xia, Mingrui; Yang, Yihong; Evans, Alan; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recent imaging connectomics studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous human brain functional networks derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) include many non-trivial topological properties, such as highly efficient small-world architecture and densely connected hub regions. However, very little is known about dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC) patterns of spontaneous human brain networks during rest and about how these spontaneous brain dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connectivity. Here, we combined sub-second multiband R-fMRI data with graph-theoretical approaches to comprehensively investigate the dynamic characteristics of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks, and then employed diffusion imaging data in the same participants to further explore the associated structural substrates. At the connection level, we found that human whole-brain D-FC patterns spontaneously fluctuated over time, while homotopic D-FC exhibited high connectivity strength and low temporal variability. At the network level, dynamic functional networks exhibited time-varying but evident small-world and assortativity architecture, with several regions (e.g., insula, sensorimotor cortex and medial prefrontal cortex) emerging as functionally persistent hubs (i.e., highly connected regions) while possessing large temporal variability in their degree centrality. Finally, the temporal characteristics (i.e., strength and variability) of the connectional and nodal properties of the dynamic brain networks were significantly associated with their structural counterparts. Collectively, we demonstrate the economical, efficient, and flexible characteristics of dynamic functional coordination in large-scale human brain networks during rest, and highlight their relationship with underlying structural connectivity, which deepens our understandings of spontaneous brain network dynamics in humans. PMID:26388757

  5. Elasticity of vesicles affects hairless mouse skin structure and permeability.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, B A; Bouwstra, J A; Junginger, H E; Wertz, P W

    1999-12-01

    One of the possibilities for increasing the penetration rate of drugs through the skin is the use of vesicular systems. Currently, special attention is paid to the elastic properties of liquid-state vesicles, which are supposed to have superior properties compared to gel-state vesicles with respect to skin interactions. In this study, the effects of vesicles on hairless mouse skin, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied in relation to the composition of vesicles. The interactions of elastic vesicles containing the single chain surfactant octaoxyethylene laurate-ester (PEG-8-L) and sucrose laurate-ester (L-595) with hairless mouse skin were studied, in vivo, after non-occlusive application for 1, 3 and 6 h. The skin ultrastructure was examined by ruthenium tetroxide electron microscopy (TEM) and histology. The extent, to which vesicle constituents penetrated into the stratum corneum, was quantified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The interactions of the elastic vesicles containing PEG-8-L and L-595 surfactants were compared with those observed after treatment with rigid vesicles containing the surfactant sucrose stearate-ester (Wasag-7). Furthermore, skin permeability experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of treatment with PEG-8-L micelles, elastic vesicles (containing PEG-8-L and L-595 surfactants) or rigid Wasag-7 vesicles on the 3H(2)O transport through hairless mouse skin, in vitro, after non-occlusive application. Treatment of hairless mouse skin with the elastic vesicles affected the ultrastructure of the stratum corneum: distinct regions with lamellar stacks derived from the vesicles were observed in intercellular spaces of the stratum corneum. These stacks disrupted the organization of skin bilayers leading to an increased skin permeability, whereas no changes in the ultrastructure of the underlying viable epidermis were observed. Treatment with rigid Wasag-7 vesicles did not affect the skin ultrastructure or skin permeability. TLC

  6. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  7. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian; Wang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  8. Perinatal Risk Factors Altering Regional Brain Structure in the Preterm Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Warfield, Simon K.; Carlin, John B.; Pavlovic, Masa; Wang, Hong X.; Bear, Merilyn; Kean, Michael J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between…

  9. Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

  10. Sleep Duration and Age-Related Changes in Brain Structure and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K.Y.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Design: Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Setting: Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Participants: Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Citation: Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1171-1178. PMID:25061245

  11. Brain structure variation in great apes, with attention to the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Chet C; Cranfield, Michael R; Mehlman, Patrick T; Lilly, Alecia A; Garbe, Jo Anne L; Whittier, Christopher A; Nutter, Felicia B; Rein, Thomas R; Bruner, Harlan J; Holloway, Ralph L; Tang, Cheuk Y; Naidich, Thomas P; Delman, Bradley N; Steklis, H Dieter; Erwin, Joseph M; Hof, Patrick R

    2004-07-01

    This report presents data regarding the brain structure of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in comparison with other great apes. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of three mountain gorilla brains were obtained with a 3T scanner, and the volume of major neuroanatomical structures (neocortical gray matter, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, and cerebellum) was measured. These data were included with our existing database that includes 23 chimpanzees, three western lowland gorillas, and six orangutans. We defined a multidimensional space by calculating the principal components (PCs) from the correlation matrix of brain structure fractions in the well-represented sample of chimpanzees. We then plotted data from all of the taxa in this space to examine phyletic variation in neural organization. Most of the variance in mountain gorillas, as well as other great apes, was contained within the chimpanzee range along the first two PCs, which accounted for 61.73% of the total variance. Thus, the majority of interspecific variation in brain structure observed among these ape taxa was no greater than the within-species variation seen in chimpanzees. The loadings on PCs indicated that the brain structure of great apes differs among taxa mostly in the relative sizes of the striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings suggest possible functional differences among taxa in terms of neural adaptations for ecological and locomotor capacities. Importantly, these results fill a critical gap in current knowledge regarding great ape neuroanatomical diversity. PMID:15258959

  12. Network structure of brain atrophy in de novo Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeighami, Yashar; Ulla, Miguel; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Dadar, Mahsa; Zhang, Yu; Larcher, Kevin Michel-Herve; Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C; Collins, D Louis; Dagher, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We mapped the distribution of atrophy in Parkinson's disease (PD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data from 232 PD patients and 117 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Deformation-based morphometry and independent component analysis identified PD-specific atrophy in the midbrain, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, medial temporal lobe, and discrete cortical regions. The degree of atrophy reflected clinical measures of disease severity. The spatial pattern of atrophy demonstrated overlap with intrinsic networks present in healthy brain, as derived from functional MRI. Moreover, the degree of atrophy in each brain region reflected its functional and anatomical proximity to a presumed disease epicenter in the substantia nigra, compatible with a trans-neuronal spread of the disease. These results support a network-spread mechanism in PD. Finally, the atrophy pattern in PD was also seen in healthy aging, where it also correlated with the loss of striatal dopaminergic innervation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08440.001 PMID:26344547

  13. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22809542

  14. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Iolanda; Kosson, David; Menchón, José M; Pifarré, Josep; Bosque, Javier; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices), somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths’ impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects. PMID:27175777

  15. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Batalla, Iolanda; Kosson, David; Menchón, José M; Pifarré, Josep; Bosque, Javier; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices), somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths' impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects. PMID:27175777

  16. Whole-brain structural topology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preserved global - disturbed local network organization.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrate altered organization of functional brain networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the structural underpinnings of these functional disturbances are poorly understood. In the current study, we applied a graph-theoretic approach to whole-brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the organization of structural brain networks in adults with ADHD and unaffected controls using deterministic fiber tractography. Groups did not differ in terms of global network metrics - small-worldness, global efficiency and clustering coefficient. However, there were widespread ADHD-related effects at the nodal level in relation to local efficiency and clustering. The affected nodes included superior occipital, supramarginal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, angular and inferior frontal gyri, as well as putamen, thalamus and posterior cerebellum. Lower local efficiency of left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri was associated with higher ADHD symptom scores. Also greater local clustering of right putamen and lower local clustering of left supramarginal gyrus correlated with ADHD symptom severity. Overall, the findings indicate preserved global but altered local network organization in adult ADHD implicating regions underpinning putative ADHD-related neuropsychological deficits. PMID:26640763

  17. Individual differences in brain structure and resting brain function underlie cognitive styles: evidence from the Embedded Figures Test.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT) score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)]/functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style. PMID:24348991

  18. Efficient Docosahexaenoic Acid Uptake by the Brain from a Structured Phospholipid.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Mayssa; Géloën, Alain; Van, Amanda Lo; Foumaux, Baptiste; Fenart, Laurence; Gosselet, Fabien; Da Silva, Pedro; Breton, Gildas; Lagarde, Michel; Picq, Madeleine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main essential omega-3 fatty acid in brain tissues required for normal brain development and function. An alteration of brain DHA in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is observed. Targeted intake of DHA to the brain could compensate for these deficiencies. Blood DHA is transported across the blood-brain barrier more efficiently when esterified at the sn-2 position of lyso-phosphatidylcholine. We used a structured phosphatidylcholine to mimic 2-docosahexaenoyl-lysoPC (lysoPC-DHA), named AceDoPC (1-acetyl,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine), that may be considered as a stabilized form of the physiological lysoPC-DHA and that is neuroprotective in experimental ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AceDoPC is a relevant delivery form of DHA to the brain in comparison with other forms of the fatty acid. By combining in vitro and in vivo experiments, our findings report for the first time that AceDoPC is a privileged and specific carrier of DHA to the brain, when compared with DHA-containing PC and non-esterified DHA. We also show that AceDoPC was hydrolyzed, in part, into lysoPC-DHA. Ex vivo autoradiography of rat brain reveals that DHA from AceDoPC was localized in specific brain regions playing key roles in memory, thoughts, and cognitive functions. Finally, using molecular modeling approaches, we demonstrate that electrostatic and lipophilic potentials are distributed very similarly at the surfaces of AceDoPC and lysoPC-DHA. Our findings identify AceDoPC as an efficient way to specifically target DHA to the brain, which would allow potential preventive and therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases. PMID:26041661

  19. Structural brain imaging in children and adolescents following prenatal cocaine exposure: preliminary longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Quinn, Brian T; Lala, Meenakshi D; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    The brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-10 years, was studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 noncocaine-exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, the thalamus and the putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine-rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE, 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13-15 years of age. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continued into teenage years. We found that the differences in structural volumes between the CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are controlled for or matched by study design. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort and, while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions regarding the longitudinal findings reported, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  20. Structural Brain Imaging in Children and Adolescents Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V.; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Quinn, Brian T.; Lala, Meenakshi D.; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M.; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 8–10 years, were studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 non-cocaine exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, thalamus and putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse-correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes, for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE and 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13–15 years old. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continues into 13–15 years of age. We found that the differences in structural volumes between CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are matched by study design or controlled for. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort, and while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  1. Modulation of brain structure by catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158) Met polymorphism in chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Batalla, Albert; Soriano-Mas, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Torrens, Marta; Crippa, José A; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B; Harrison, Ben J; Nogué, Santiago; de la Torre, Rafael; Farré, Magí; Pujol, Jesús; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2014-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that chronic consumption of cannabis may result in alterations in brain morphology. Recent work focusing on the relationship between brain structure and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphism suggests that functional COMT variants may affect brain volume in healthy individuals and in schizophrenia patients. We measured the influence of COMT genotype on the volume of four key regions: the prefrontal cortex, neostriatum (caudate-putamen), anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus-amygdala complex, in chronic early-onset cannabis users and healthy control subjects. We selected 29 chronic cannabis users who began using cannabis before 16 years of age and matched them to 28 healthy volunteers in terms of age, educational level and IQ. Participants were male, Caucasians aged between 18 and 30 years. All were assessed by a structured psychiatric interview (PRISM) to exclude any lifetime Axis-I disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition. COMT genotyping was performed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data was analyzed by voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that the COMT polymorphism influenced the volume of the bilateral ventral caudate nucleus in both groups, but in an opposite direction: more copies of val allele led to lesser volume in chronic cannabis users and more volume in controls. The opposite pattern was found in left amygdala. There were no effects of COMT genotype on volumes of the whole brain or the other selected regions. Our findings support recent reports of neuroanatomical changes associated with cannabis use and, for the first time, reveal that these changes may be influenced by the COMT genotype. PMID:23311613

  2. Structural Growth Trajectories and Rates of Change in the First 3 Months of Infant Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Dominic; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Curran, Megan; Buchthal, Steven D.; Alicata, Daniel; Skranes, Jon; Johansen, Heather; Hernandez, Antonette; Yamakawa, Robyn; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Dale, Anders M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. OBJECTIVE To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We segmented whole-brain and multiple subcortical regions of interest using a novel application of Bayesian-based methods. We modeled growth and rate of growth trajectories nonparametrically and assessed left-right asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms. RESULTS Whole-brain volume at birth was approximately one-third of healthy elderly brain volume, and did not differ significantly between male and female infants (347 388 mm3 and 335 509 mm3, respectively, P = .12). The growth rate was approximately 1%/d, slowing to 0.4%/d by the end of the first 3 months, when the brain reached just more than half of elderly adult brain volume. Overall growth in the first 90 days was 64%. There was a significant age-by-sex effect leading to widening separation in brain sizes with age between male and female infants (with male infants growing faster than females by 200.4 mm3/d, SE = 67.2, P = .003). Longer gestation was associated with larger brain size (2215 mm3/d, SE = 284, P = 4×10−13). The expected brain size of an infant born one week earlier than average was 5% smaller than average; at 90 days it will not have caught up, being 2% smaller than average. The cerebellum grew at the highest rate, more than doubling in 90 days, and the hippocampus

  3. Evolving Knowledge of Sex Differences in Brain Structure, Function and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Staley, Julie K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical and epidemiologic evidence demonstrates sex differences in the prevalence and course of various psychiatric disorders. Understanding sex-specific brain differences in healthy individuals is a critical first step towards understanding sex-specific expression of psychiatric disorders. Here, we evaluate evidence on sex differences in brain structure, chemistry and function using imaging methodologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mentally healthy individuals. Methods MEDLINE searches of English-language literature (1980-November 2006) using the terms sex, gender, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, morphometry, neurochemistry and neurotransmission were performed to extract relevant sources. Results The literature suggests that while there are many similarities in brain structure, function and neurotransmission in healthy men and women, there are important differences that distinguish the male from the female brain. Overall brain volume is greater in men than women, yet, when controlling for total volume, women have a higher percentage of gray matter and men a higher percentage of white matter. Regional volume differences are less consistent. Global cerebral blood flow is higher in women than in men. Sex-specific differences in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic markers indicate that male and female brains are neurochemically distinct. Conclusions Insight into the etiology of sex differences in the normal living human brain provides an important foundation to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders and to guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders. PMID:17544382

  4. Singlet oxygen scavengers affect laser-dye impairment of endothelium-dependent responses of brain arterioles.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, W I; Nelson, G H

    1996-04-01

    This study investigates the possible role of singlet oxygen in accounting for the inhibitory effect of laser-dye injury on endothelium-dependent dilations. The combination of helium-neon (HeNe) laser (20-s exposure) and intravascular Evans blue impairs endothelium-dependent dilation of mouse pial arterioles by acetylcholine (ACh), bradykinin (BK), and calcium ionophore A23187. Each has a different endothelium-derived mediator (EDRFACh, EDRFBK, EDRFionophore, respectively). In this study, diameters at a craniotomy site were monitored in vivo with an image splitter-television microscope. The laser-dye injury, as usual, abolished the responses 10 and 30 min after injury, with recovery, complete or partial, at 60 min. Dilations by sodium nitroprusside, an endothelium-independent dilator, were not affected by laser-dye. When the singlet oxygen scavengers L-histidine (10(-3) M) and L-tryptophan (10(-2) M) were added to the suffusate over the site, the responses to ACh at 10 and 30 min were relatively intact, the response to BK was partly protected at 10 min only, and the response to ionophore was still totally impaired at 10 and 30 min. Lysine, a nonscavenging amino acid, had no protective effects with any dilator. We postulate that a heat-induced injury initiates a chain of events resulting in prolonged singlet oxygen generation by the endothelial cell (not by the dye). We postulate further that destruction of EDRFACh by singlet oxygen is responsible for laser-dye inhibition of ACh and that generation of the radical must continue for > or = 30 min. On the other hand, the heat injury itself is probably responsible for the elimination of the response to ionophore. Heat plus singlet oxygen generated by heat-damaged tissue may initially impair the response to BK, but by 30 min only the effects of some other factor, presumably heat injury, account for the impaired response to BK. PMID:8967364

  5. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI. PMID:27482782

  6. In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Nicholas G.; Wang, Ke; Kobat, Demirhan; Clark, Catharine G.; Wise, Frank W.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Xu, Chris

    2013-03-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy enables scientists in various fields including neuroscience, embryology and oncology to visualize in vivo and ex vivo tissue morphology and physiology at a cellular level deep within scattering tissue. However, tissue scattering limits the maximum imaging depth of two-photon fluorescence microscopy to the cortical layer within mouse brain, and imaging subcortical structures currently requires the removal of overlying brain tissue or the insertion of optical probes. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive, high-resolution, in vivo imaging of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain using three-photon fluorescence microscopy at a spectral excitation window of 1,700 nm. Vascular structures as well as red fluorescent protein-labelled neurons within the mouse hippocampus are imaged. The combination of the long excitation wavelength and the higher-order nonlinear excitation overcomes the limitations of two-photon fluorescence microscopy, enabling biological investigations to take place at a greater depth within tissue.

  7. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    PubMed

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it. PMID:26737511

  8. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

  9. Sex-dependent association of common variants of microcephaly genes with brain structure.

    PubMed

    Rimol, Lars M; Agartz, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Brown, Andrew A; Roddey, J Cooper; Kähler, Anna K; Mattingsdal, Morten; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Joyner, Alexander H; Schork, Nicholas J; Halgren, Eric; Sundet, Kjetil; Melle, Ingrid; Dale, Anders M; Andreassen, Ole A

    2010-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the genes associated with primary microcephaly (MCPH) reduce human brain size by about two-thirds, without producing gross abnormalities in brain organization or physiology and leaving other organs largely unaffected [Woods CG, et al. (2005) Am J Hum Genet 76:717-728]. There is also evidence suggesting that MCPH genes have evolved rapidly in primates and humans and have been subjected to selection in recent human evolution [Vallender EJ, et al. (2008) Trends Neurosci 31:637-644]. Here, we show that common variants of MCPH genes account for some of the common variation in brain structure in humans, independently of disease status. We investigated the correlations of SNPs from four MCPH genes with brain morphometry phenotypes obtained with MRI. We found significant, sex-specific associations between common, nonexonic, SNPs of the genes CDK5RAP2, MCPH1, and ASPM, with brain volume or cortical surface area in an ethnically homogenous Norwegian discovery sample (n = 287), including patients with mental illness. The most strongly associated SNP findings were replicated in an independent North American sample (n = 656), which included patients with dementia. These results are consistent with the view that common variation in brain structure is associated with genetic variants located in nonexonic, presumably regulatory, regions. PMID:20080800

  10. Brain Structure Correlates of Urban Upbringing, an Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Leila; Schäfer, Axel; Streit, Fabian; Lederbogen, Florian; Grimm, Oliver; Wüst, Stefan; Deuschle, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing has consistently been associated with schizophrenia, but which specific environmental exposures are reflected by this epidemiological observation and how they impact the developing brain to increase risk is largely unknown. On the basis of prior observations of abnormal functional brain processing of social stress in urban-born humans and preclinical evidence for enduring structural brain effects of early social stress, we investigated a possible morphological correlate of urban upbringing in human brain. In a sample of 110 healthy subjects studied with voxel-based morphometry, we detected a strong inverse correlation between early-life urbanicity and gray matter (GM) volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 9). Furthermore, we detected a negative correlation of early-life urbanicity and GM volumes in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) in men only. Previous work has linked volume reductions in the DLPFC to the exposure to psychosocial stress, including stressful experiences in early life. Besides, anatomical and functional alterations of this region have been identified in schizophrenic patients and high-risk populations. Previous data linking functional hyperactivation of pACC during social stress to urban upbringing suggest that the present interaction effect in brain structure might contribute to an increased risk for schizophrenia in males brought up in cities. Taken together, our results suggest a neural mechanism by which early-life urbanicity could impact brain architecture to increase the risk for schizophrenia. PMID:24894884

  11. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. PMID:27129758

  12. Surface area and cortical thickness descriptors reveal different attributes of the structural human brain networks.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Diaz, Gretel; Melie-García, Lester; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Hernández-González, Gertrudis; Valdés-Urrutia, Lourdes; Galán, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Recently, a related morphometry-based connection concept has been introduced using local mean cortical thickness and volume to study the underlying complex architecture of the brain networks. In this article, the surface area is employed as a morphometric descriptor to study the concurrent changes between brain structures and to build binarized connectiv