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Sample records for affect cardiovascular function

  1. How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Brígida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further

  2. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  3. Promethazine affects autonomic cardiovascular mechanisms minimally.

    PubMed

    Brown, T E; Eckberg, D L

    1997-08-01

    Promethazine hydrochloride, Phenergan, is a phenothiazine derivative with antihistaminic (H1), sedative, antiemetic, anticholinergic, and antimotion sickness properties. These properties have made promethazine a candidate for use in environments such as microgravity, which provoke emesis and motion sickness. Recently, we evaluated carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses during two Space Shuttle missions 18 to 20 hr after the 50 mg intramuscular administration of promethazine. Because the effects of promethazine on autonomic cardiovascular mechanisms in general and baroreflex function in particular were not known, we were unable to exclude a possible influence of promethazine on our results. Our purpose was to determine the ground-based effects of promethazine on autonomic cardiovascular control. Because of promethazine's antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties, we expected that a 50-mg intramuscular injection of promethazine would affect sympathetically and vagally mediated cardiovascular mechanisms. Eight healthy young subjects, five men and three women, were studied at rest in recumbency. All reported drowsiness as a result of the promethazine injection; most also reported nervous excitation, dry mouth, and fatigue. Three subjects had significant reactions: two reported excessive anxiety and one reported dizziness. Measurements were performed immediately prior to injection and 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 19.5 +/- 0.4 hr postinjection. We found no significant effect of promethazine on resting mean R-R interval, arterial pressure, R-R interval power spectra, carotid baroreflex function, and venous plasma catecholamine levels. PMID:9262349

  4. Promethazine affects autonomic cardiovascular mechanisms minimally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. E.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Promethazine hydrochloride, Phenergan, is a phenothiazine derivative with antihistaminic (H1), sedative, antiemetic, anticholinergic, and antimotion sickness properties. These properties have made promethazine a candidate for use in environments such as microgravity, which provoke emesis and motion sickness. Recently, we evaluated carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses during two Space Shuttle missions 18 to 20 hr after the 50 mg intramuscular administration of promethazine. Because the effects of promethazine on autonomic cardiovascular mechanisms in general and baroreflex function in particular were not known, we were unable to exclude a possible influence of promethazine on our results. Our purpose was to determine the ground-based effects of promethazine on autonomic cardiovascular control. Because of promethazine's antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties, we expected that a 50-mg intramuscular injection of promethazine would affect sympathetically and vagally mediated cardiovascular mechanisms. Eight healthy young subjects, five men and three women, were studied at rest in recumbency. All reported drowsiness as a result of the promethazine injection; most also reported nervous excitation, dry mouth, and fatigue. Three subjects had significant reactions: two reported excessive anxiety and one reported dizziness. Measurements were performed immediately prior to injection and 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 19.5 +/- 0.4 hr postinjection. We found no significant effect of promethazine on resting mean R-R interval, arterial pressure, R-R interval power spectra, carotid baroreflex function, and venous plasma catecholamine levels.

  5. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ghchime, Rokia; Benjelloun, Halima; Kiai, Hajar; Belaidi, Halima; Lahjouji, Fatiha; Ouazzani, Reda

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis). All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP). PMID:27006827

  6. Bile Acids Regulate Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandeep; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Pallone, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Research over the last decade has uncovered roles for bile acids (BAs) that extend beyond their traditional functions in regulating lipid digestion and cholesterol metabolism. BAs are now recognized as signaling molecules that interact with both plasma membrane and nuclear receptors. Emerging evidence indicates that by interacting with these receptors BAs regulate their own synthesis, glucose and energy homeostasis, and other important physiological events. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the actions of BAs on cardiovascular function. In the heart and the systemic circulation, BAs interact with plasma membrane G-protein coupled receptors, e.g. TGR5 and muscarinic receptors, and nuclear receptors, e.g. the farnesoid (FXR) and pregnane (PXR) xenobiotic receptors. BA receptors are expressed in cardiovascular tissue, however, the mechanisms underlying BA-mediated regulation of cardiovascular function remain poorly understood. BAs reduce heart rate by regulating channel conductance and calcium dynamics in sino-atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and regulate vascular tone via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. End-stage-liver disease, obstructive jaundice and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are prominent conditions in which elevated serum BAs alter vascular dynamics. This review focuses on BAs as newly-recognized signaling molecules that modulate cardiovascular function. PMID:21707953

  7. The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Jamie R; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    Brevetoxins are produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The toxins are lipophilic polyether toxins that elicit a myriad of effects depending on the route of exposure and the target organism. Brevetoxins are therefore broadly toxic to marine and estuarine animals. By mimicking the maternal route of exposure to the oocytes in finfish, we characterized the adverse effects of the type B brevetoxin brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) on embryonic fish development and survival. The Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), was used as the experimental model in which individual eggs were exposed via microinjection to various known concentrations of PbTx-3 dissolved in an oil vehicle. Embryos injected with doses exceeding 1.0 ng/egg displayed tachycardia, hyperkinetic twitches in the form of sustained convulsions, spinal curvature, clumping of the erythrocytes, and decreased hatching success. Furthermore, fish dosed with toxin were often unable to hatch in the classic tail-first fashion and emerged head first, which resulted in partial hatches and death. We determined that the LD(50) (dose that is lethal to 50% of the fish) for an injected dose of PbTx-3 is 4.0 ng/egg. The results of this study complement previous studies of the developmental toxicity of the type A brevetoxin brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1), by illustrating in vivo the differing affinities of the two congeners for cardiac sodium channels. Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed. PMID:14644667

  8. Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control function.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Snook, Erin M; Jerome, Gerald J

    2003-06-01

    Acute cardiovascular exercise effects on cognitive function were examined using an executive control task by comparing neuroelectric and behavioral performance at baseline with post-exercise in 20 undergraduates. A within-subjects design was used to assess the P3 component of an event-related brain potential (ERP) and behavioral performance using a task that varied the amount of executive control required. The baseline session involved participation on the Eriksen flankers task followed by a graded maximal exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness. The exercise session consisted of a 30-min acute bout of exercise on a treadmill followed by the Eriksen flankers task after heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Across midline recordings sites, results indicated larger P3 amplitude following acute exercise compared to baseline. Shorter P3 latency was observed during the baseline Eriksen flankers task for the neutral compared to the incompatible condition; an effect not found following the acute bout of exercise. These findings suggest that acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise affect neuroelectric processes underlying executive control through the increased allocation of neuroelectric resources and through changes in cognitive processing and stimulus classification speed. PMID:12798990

  9. Androgen actions on endothelium functions and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jing-Jing; Wen, Juan; Jiang, Wei-Hong; Lin, Jian; Hong, Yuan; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The roles of androgens on cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology are controversial as both beneficial and detrimental effects have been reported. Although the reasons for this discrepancy are unclear, multiple factors such as genetic and epigenetic variation, sex-specificity, hormone interactions, drug preparation and route of administration may contribute. Recently, growing evidence suggests that androgens exhibit beneficial effects on cardiovascular function though the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Endothelial cells (ECs) which line the interior surface of blood vessels are distributed throughout the circulatory system, and play a crucial role in cardiovascular function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered an indispensable element for the reconstitution and maintenance of an intact endothelial layer. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as an initiating step in development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The modulation of endothelial functions by androgens through either genomic or nongenomic signal pathways is one possible mechanism by which androgens act on the cardiovascular system. Obtaining insight into the mechanisms by which androgens affect EC and EPC functions will allow us to determine whether androgens possess beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. This in turn may be critical in the prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This article seeks to review recent progress in androgen regulation of endothelial function, the sex-specificity of androgen actions, and its clinical applications in the cardiovascular system. PMID:27168746

  10. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24036417

  11. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  12. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  13. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.; Nicgossian, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L + O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L + 2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

  14. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  15. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  16. Cardiovascular autonomic function in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Maffei, P; Dalla Pozza, A; Carli, M; Della Mea, P; Lupia, M; Rabbia, F; Sonino, N

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. No data on sympathovagal balance are available in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in whom cardiovascular risk is high. We studied 10 patients with newly diagnosed Cushing's syndrome (1 male/9 females; age mean+/-SD, 47+/-10 yr) and 10 control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups there were 7 patients with arterial hypertension, 3 with diabetes mellitus, and 2 with obesity. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by analysis of short time heart rate variability (HRV) measures in frequency domain over 24-h, daytime, and nighttime. The 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiography were also performed. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower 24-h (1.3+/-0.6 vs 3.7+/-1.5, mean+/-SD, p<0.01), daytime (2.0+/-1.4 vs 4.5+/-1.6, p<0.01), and night-time (1.0+/-0.4 vs 3.5+/-2.3, p<0.01) low-frequency/ high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. In the presence of similar LF power, the difference was due to elevation in HF power in Cushing's syndrome compared to controls: 24-h, 12.7+/-6.7 vs 5.8+/-2.8, p<0.01; daytime, 10.2+/-7.3 vs 4.5+/-2.1, p<0.05; nighttime, 14.2+/-7.0 vs 7.8+/-4.7, p<0.05. Eight Cushing patients vs 4 controls had a non-dipping blood pressure profile. At echocardiography, Cushing patients had a greater left ventricular mass index and/or relative wall thickness, and impaired diastolic function, compared with controls. Compared to controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome showed a sympathovagal imbalance, characterized by a relatively increased parasympathetic activity. Whether this autonomic alteration is meant to counterbalance cortisol-induced effects on blood pressure and cardiac structure/function or has a different pathophysiological significance is still unknown. PMID:19337014

  17. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  18. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Richard; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions. In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues, the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system, hormones, and other factors. Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system, but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. PMID:25914789

  19. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  20. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a sustained reduction of physical activity (deconditioning) would alter the cardiovascular regulatory function. METHODS: Nineteen young, healthy volunteers participated in physical deconditioning for a period of 8 wk. Before (pre) and following (post) physical deconditioning, the responses of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV, Doppler), and forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) were determined during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The carotid baroreflex (CBR) function was assessed using a train of pulsatile neck pressure (NP) and suction, and the aortic baroreflex control of HR was assessed during steady-state phenylephrine (PE) infusion superimposed by LBNP and NP to counteract the PE increased CVP and carotid sinus pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Active physical deconditioning significantly decreased maximal oxygen uptake (-7%) and LBNP tolerance (-13%) without a change in baseline hemodynamics. Plasma volume (-3% at P = 0.135), determined by Evans Blue dilution, and blood volume (-4% at P = 0.107) were not significantly altered. During LBNP -20 to -50 torr, there was a significantly greater drop of SV per unit decrease in CVP in the post- (14.7 +/- 1.6%/mm Hg) than predeconditioning (11.2 +/- 0.7%/mm Hg) test accompanied by a greater tachycardia. Deconditioning increased the aortic baroreflex sensitivity (pre vs post: -0.61 +/- 0.12 vs -0.84 +/- 0.14 bpm.mm-1 Hg, P = 0.009) and the slope of forearm vascular resistance (calculated from [MAP-CVP]/FBF) to CVP (-2.75 +/- 0.26 vs -4.94 +/- 0.97 PRU/mm Hg, P = 0.086). However, neither the CBR-HR (-0.28 +/- 0.03 VS -0.39 +/- 0.10 bpm.mm-1 Hg) nor the CBR-MAP (-0.37 +/- 0.16 vs -0.25 +/- 0.07 mm Hg/mm Hg) gains were statistically different between pre- and postdeconditioning. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the functional modification of the cardiac pressure

  1. Changes in cardiovascular function with aging.

    PubMed

    Lakatta, E G

    1990-05-01

    Overall cardiovascular function at rest in most healthy elderly individuals is adequate to meet the body's need for pressure and flow. The resting heart rate is unchanged. Heart size is essentially not different in younger vs older adults, but heart wall thickness increases modestly, due largely to an increase in myocyte size. While the early diastolic filling rate is reduced, an enhanced atrial contribution to ventricular filling in elderly individuals maintains filling volume at a normal level. Although systolic pressure at rest increases with age, the resting end-systolic volume and election fraction are not altered, due partly to the increase in left ventricular thickness. Physical work capacity declines with advancing age, but the extent to which this can be attributed to a decrement in cardiac reserve is not certain. Part of the age-related decline in maximum oxygen consumption appears to be due to peripheral rather than central circulatory factors, e.g. to a decrease in muscle mass with age during exercise, the ability to direct blood flow to muscles, and the ability of muscle to utilize oxygen. Some elderly individuals exhibit cardiac dilatation which produces an increased stroke volume sufficient to counter the well-known age-related decrease in exercise heart rate, such that high levels of cardiac output can be maintained during exercise. Still, in these individuals, the exercise-induced reduction in end-systolic volume and increase in ejection fraction is less than in younger individuals. A similar haemodynamic profile occurs in individuals of any age who exercise in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2188839

  2. Superparamagnetic iron oxide polyacrylic acid coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles do not affect kidney function but cause acute effect on the cardiovascular function in healthy mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Nina K.; Frische, Sebastian; Thomsen, Karen; Laustsen, Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael; Hansen, Pernille B.L.; Bie, Peter; Fresnais, Jérome; Berret, Jean-Francois; Baatrup, Erik; Wang, Tobias

    2013-01-15

    This study describes the distribution of intravenously injected polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (10 mg kg{sup −1}) at the organ, cellular and subcellular levels in healthy BALB/cJ mice and in parallel addresses the effects of NP injection on kidney function, blood pressure and vascular contractility. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed accumulation of NPs in the liver within 1 h after intravenous infusion, accommodated by intracellular uptake in endothelial and Kupffer cells with subsequent intracellular uptake in renal cells, particularly the cytoplasm of the proximal tubule, in podocytes and mesangial cells. The renofunctional effects of NPs were evaluated by arterial acid–base status and measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after instrumentation with chronically indwelling catheters. Arterial pH was 7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.41 ± 0.02 in mice 0.5 h after injections of saline or NP, and did not change over the next 12 h. In addition, the injections of NP did not affect arterial PCO{sub 2} or [HCO{sub 3}{sup −}] either. Twenty-four and 96 h after NP injections, the GFR averaged 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.01 ml min{sup −1} g{sup −1}, respectively, values which were statistically comparable with controls (0.29 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.1 ml{sup –1} min{sup –1} 25 g{sup –1}). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decreased 12–24 h after NP injections (111.1 ± 11.5 vs 123.0 ± 6.1 min{sup −1}) associated with a decreased contractility of small mesenteric arteries revealed by myography to characterize endothelial function. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that accumulation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles does not affect kidney function in healthy mice but temporarily decreases blood pressure. -- Highlights: ► PAA coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were injected intravenously into healthy mice. ► We examine the distribution and physiological effects of

  3. Identification based on fusion of cardiovascular function measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Steven A.; Irvine, John M.; Wiederhold, Brenda K.; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2008-03-01

    Recent investigations indicate cardiovascular function is a viable biometric. This paper explores biometric techniques based on multiple modalities for sensing cardiovascular function. Analysis of data acquired with an electrocardiogram (ECG) combined with corresponding data from pulse oximetry and blood pressure indicates that features can be extracted from the signals, which correspond to individuals. While a person's heart rate can vary with mental and emotional state, certain features corresponding to the heartbeat appear to be unique to the individual. Our protocol induced a range of mental and emotional states in the subject and the analysis identifies features of the cardiovascular signals that are invariant to mental and emotional state. Furthermore, the three measures of cardiovascular function provide independent information, which can be fused to achieve robust performance compared to a single modality.

  4. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  5. Airway reflexes, autonomic function, and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed Central

    Widdicombe, J; Lee, L Y

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we review the cardiovascular responses to the inhalation of irritants and pollutants. Many sensory receptors in the respiratory system, from nose to alveoli, respond to these irritants and set up powerful reflex changes, including those in the cardiovascular system. Systemic hypotension or hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, and dysrhythmias have all been described previously. Most of the experiments have been acute and have been performed on anesthetized experimental animals. Experiments on humans suggest we have similar sensory systems and reflex responses. However, we must use caution when applying the animal results to humans. Most animal experiments, unlike those with humans, have been performed using general anesthesia, with irritants administered in high concentrations, and often to a restricted part of the respiratory tract. Species differences in the response to irritants are well established. We must be even more careful when applying the results of acute experiments in animals to the pathophysiologic changes observed in prolonged exposure to environmental pollution in humans. PMID:11544167

  6. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE (UFCP) INHALATION AFFECTS CARDIOVASCULAR PERFORMANCE IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled UfCP affect cardiovascular performance in healthy rats (Harder et al. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17:29-42) without apparent pulmonary damage. To assess whether geriatric cardiovascular compromised rats are more susceptible to UfCP effects, male adult (6months) and geriatric (13m...

  7. 5'-Chloro-5'-deoxy-(±)-ENBA, a potent and selective adenosine A(1) receptor agonist, alleviates neuropathic pain in mice through functional glial and microglial changes without affecting motor or cardiovascular functions.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Livio; Petrelli, Riccardo; Gatta, Luisa; Giordano, Catia; Guida, Francesca; Vita, Patrizia; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Grifantini, Mario; de Novellis, Vito; Cappellacci, Loredana; Maione, Sabatino

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to investigate the effect of chronic treatment with 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA, a potent and highly selective agonist of human adenosine A(1) receptor, on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of neuropathic pain, the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve. Chronic systemic administration of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia 3 and 7 days post-SNI, in a way prevented by DPCPX (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist, without exerting any significant change on the motor coordination or arterial blood pressure. In addition, a single intraperitoneal injection of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 7 days post-SNI also reduced both symptoms for at least two hours. SNI was associated with spinal changes in microglial activation ipsilaterally to the nerve injury. Activated, hypertrophic microglia were significantly reduced by 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA chronic treatment. Our results demonstrated an involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor in the amplified nociceptive thresholds and in spinal glial and microglial changes occurred in neuropathic pain, without affecting motor coordination or blood pressure. Our data suggest a possible use of adenosine A(1) receptor agonist in neuropathic pain symptoms. PMID:23174891

  8. Functions of microRNAs in cardiovascular biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Hata, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    In 1993, lin-4 was discovered as a critical modulator of temporal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and, most notably, as the first in the class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs now defined as microRNAs (miRNAs). Another eight years elapsed before miRNA expression was detected in mammalian cells. Since then, explosive advancements in the field of miRNA biology have elucidated the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis, regulation, and gene-regulatory function. The discovery of this new class of small RNAs has augmented the complexity of gene-regulatory programs as well as the understanding of developmental and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. Indeed, the contributions of miRNAs in cardiovascular development and function have been widely explored, revealing the extensive role of these small regulatory RNAs in cardiovascular physiology. PMID:23157557

  9. Aging affects the cardiovascular responses to cold stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kari L.; Wilson, Thad E.; Sauder, Charity L.; Gao, Zhaohui; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress is greater with age, we measured physiological responses to 20 min of superficial skin cooling, via water-perfused suit, in 12 younger [25 ± 1 (SE) yr old] and 12 older (65 ± 2 yr old) adults. We found that superficial skin cooling elicited an increase in blood pressure from resting levels (pressor response; P < 0.05) in younger and older adults. However, the magnitude of this pressor response (systolic and mean blood pressure) was more than twofold higher in older adults (P < 0.05 vs. younger adults). The magnitude of the pressor response was similar at peripheral (brachial) and central (estimated in the aorta) measurement sites. Regression analysis revealed that aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of central arterial stiffness obtained before cooling, was the best predictor of the increased pressor response to superficial skin cooling in older adults, explaining ∼63% of its variability. These results indicate that there is a greater pressor response to non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress with age in humans that may be mediated by increased levels of central arterial stiffness. PMID:19679742

  10. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Jens; Lyons, David J.; Sällström, Johan; Vujovic, Milica; Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Warner, Amy; Wallis, Karin; Alkemade, Anneke; Nordström, Kristina; Monyer, Hannah; Broberger, Christian; Arner, Anders; Vennström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s central control of metabolism have been identified, its actions in the central cardiovascular control have remained enigmatic. Here, we describe a previously unknown population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus that requires thyroid hormone receptor signaling for proper development. Specific stereotaxic ablation of these cells in the mouse resulted in hypertension and temperature-dependent tachycardia, indicating a role in the central autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate. Moreover, the neurons exhibited intrinsic temperature sensitivity in patch-clamping experiments, providing a new connection between cardiovascular function and core temperature. Thus, the data identify what we believe to be a novel hypothalamic cell population potentially important for understanding hypertension and indicate developmental hypothyroidism as an epigenetic risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the findings may be beneficial for treatment of the recently identified patients that have a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1. PMID:23257356

  11. Control of respiratory and cardiovascular functions by leptin

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, M.; Werner, I.F.; Zoccal, D.B.; Menani, J.V.; Colombari, E.; Hall, J.E.; da Silva, A.A.; do Carmo, J.M.; Colombari, D.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue, acts in brain centers that control critical physiological functions such as metabolism, breathing and cardiovascular regulation. The importance of leptin for respiratory control is evident by the fact that leptin deficient mice exhibit impaired ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide (CO2), which can be corrected by intracerebroventricular leptin replacement therapy. Leptin is also recognized as an important link between obesity and hypertension. Humans and animal models lacking either leptin or functional leptin receptors exhibit many characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and visceral adiposity, but do not exhibit increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and have normal to lower blood pressure (BP) compared to lean controls. Even though previous studies have extensively focused on the brain sites and intracellular signaling pathways involved in leptin effects on food intake and energy balance, the mechanisms that mediate the actions of leptin on breathing and cardiovascular function are only beginning to be elucidated. This mini-review summarizes recent advances on the effects of leptin on cardiovascular and respiratory control with emphasis on the neural control of respiratory function and autonomic activity. PMID:25645056

  12. Preeclampsia and Vascular Function: A Window to Future Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Enkhmaa, Davaasambuu; Wall, Danielle; Mehta, Puja K; Stuart, Jennifer J; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Shufelt, Chrisandra

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia affects ∼3%-7% of all pregnancies and is the third leading cause of maternal mortality globally. Growing evidence indicates that preeclampsia results from vascular dysfunction, which also increases the risk for future cardiovascular events. Until recently, preeclampsia was considered a disorder limited to pregnancy, which fully resolved with the delivery of the placenta; however, it is now clear that women with a history of preeclampsia have approximately double the risk of future cardiovascular events compared to women with normotensive pregnancies. The aims of this review were to describe the hemodynamic and vascular changes that occur in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies, to review noninvasive methods to test vascular function, and to discuss the associated increased cardiovascular disease risk related to preeclampsia. PMID:26779584

  13. Regulation of sympathetic nervous system function after cardiovascular deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasser, E. M.; Moffitt, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans subjected to prolonged periods of bed rest or microgravity undergo deconditioning of the cardiovascular system, characterized by resting tachycardia, reduced exercise capability, and a predisposition for orthostatic intolerance. These changes in cardiovascular function are likely due to a combination of factors, including changes in control of body fluid balance or cardiac alterations resulting in inadequate maintenance of stroke volume, altered arterial or venous vascular function, reduced activation of cardiovascular hormones, and diminished autonomic reflex function. There is evidence indicating a role for each of these mechanisms. Diminished reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent vasoconstriction appear to play an important role. Studies utilizing the hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat, an animal model of deconditioning, evaluated the potential role of altered arterial baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. These studies indicate that HU results in blunted baroreflex-mediated activation of both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in response to a hypotensive stimulus. HU rats are less able to maintain arterial pressure during hemorrhage, suggesting that diminished ability to increase sympathetic activity has functional consequences for the animal. Reflex control of vasopressin secretion appears to be enhanced following HU. Blunted baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation appears to involve altered central nervous system function. Baroreceptor afferent activity in response to changes in arterial pressure is unaltered in HU rats. However, increases in efferent sympathetic nerve activity for a given decrease in afferent input are blunted after HU. This altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor inputs appears to involve an effect at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Specifically, it appears that tonic GABAA-mediated inhibition of the RVLM is enhanced after HU. Augmented inhibition apparently

  14. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  15. HypoxamiR Regulation and Function in Ischemic Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Simona; Gaetano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated and play a causal role in numerous cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, hypertension, heart failure, stroke, peripheral artery disease, kidney ischemia–reperfusion. Recent Advances: One crucial component of ischemic cardiovascular diseases is represented by hypoxia. Indeed, hypoxia is a powerful stimulus regulating the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, named hypoxia-induced miRNAs (hypoxamiR). These miRNAs are fundamental regulators of the cell responses to decreased oxygen tension. Certain hypoxamiRs seem to have a particularly pervasive role, such as miR-210 that is virtually induced in all ischemic diseases tested so far. However, its specific function may change according to the physiopathological context. Critical Issues: The discovery of HypoxamiR dates back 6 years. Thus, despite a rapid growth in knowledge and attention, a deeper insight of the molecular mechanisms underpinning hypoxamiR regulation and function is needed. Future Directions: An extended understanding of the function of hypoxamiR in gene regulatory networks associated with cardiovascular diseases will allow the identification of novel molecular mechanisms of disease and indicate the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1202–1219. PMID:24053126

  16. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  17. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  18. Cardiovascular function in the heat-stressed human.

    PubMed

    Crandall, C G; González-Alonso, J

    2010-08-01

    Heat stress, whether passive (i.e. exposure to elevated environmental temperatures) or via exercise, results in pronounced cardiovascular adjustments that are necessary for adequate temperature regulation as well as perfusion of the exercising muscle, heart and brain. The available data suggest that generally during passive heat stress baroreflex control of heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity are unchanged, while baroreflex control of systemic vascular resistance may be impaired perhaps due to attenuated vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the cutaneous circulation. Heat stress improves left ventricular systolic function, evidenced by increased cardiac contractility, thereby maintaining stroke volume despite large reductions in ventricular filling pressures. Heat stress-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion likely contribute to the recognized effect of this thermal condition in reducing orthostatic tolerance, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is not completely understood. The combination of intense whole-body exercise and environmental heat stress or dehydration-induced hyperthermia results in significant cardiovascular strain prior to exhaustion, which is characterized by reductions in cardiac output, stroke volume, arterial pressure and blood flow to the brain, skin and exercising muscle. These alterations in cardiovascular function and regulation late in heat stress/dehydration exercise might involve the interplay of both local and central reflexes, the contribution of which is presently unresolved. PMID:20345414

  19. Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Inhibition Function: An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tai-Fen; Chi, Lin; Chu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Feng-Tzu; Zhou, Chenglin; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18–25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH) group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH) group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL) group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL) group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the NL and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of cognitive function. PMID:27512383

  20. Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Inhibition Function: An Electrophysiological Study.

    PubMed

    Song, Tai-Fen; Chi, Lin; Chu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Feng-Tzu; Zhou, Chenglin; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18-25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH) group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH) group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL) group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL) group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the NL and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of cognitive function. PMID:27512383

  1. NMR techniques in the study of cardiovascular structure and functions

    SciTech Connect

    Osbakken, M.; Haselgrove, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter titles of this book are: Introduction to NMR Techniques;Theory of NMR Probe Design;Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Study the Cardiovascular System;Vascular Anatomy and Physiology Studied with NMR Techniques;Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging;The Use of MRI in Congenital Heart Disease;Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis Studied with NMR Techniques;Determination of Myocardial Mechanical Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques;Determination of Flow Using NMR Techniques;The Use of Contrast Agents in Cardiac MRI;Can Cardiovascular Disease Be Effectively Evaluated with NMR Spectroscopy. NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis Reactions in the Isolated Heart;Studies of Intermediary Metabolism in the Heart by 13C NMR Spectroscopy;23Na and 39K NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Intact Beating Heart;and Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Using Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

  2. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Alteration in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In this project we apply a powerful, new method - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system so that effective countermeasures can be developed. CSI involves the mathematical analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in non-invasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV - respiratory activity) in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of all the physiologic mechanisms coupling these signals, CSI provides a model of the closed-loop cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject. The model includes quantitative descriptions of the heart rate baroreflex, autonomic function, as well as other important physiologic mechanisms. We are in the process of incorporating beat-to-beat fluctuations of stroke volume into the CSI technique in order to quantify additional physiologic mechanisms such as those involved in control of peripheral vascular resistance and alterations in cardiac contractility. We apply CSI in conjunction with the two general protocols of the Human Studies Core project. The first protocol involves ground-based, human head down tilt bed rest to simulate microgravity and acute stressors - upright tilt, standing and bicycle exercise - to provide orthostatic and exercise challenges. The second protocol is intended to be the same as the first but with the addition of sleep deprivation to determine whether

  3. Alterations in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Long-Term Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Alterations Team is conducting studies of hemodynamic regulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias resulting from sixteen days of simulated microgravity exposure. In these studies very intensive measurements are made during a short duration of bed rest. In this collaborative effort are making many of the same measurements, however much less frequently, on subjects who are exposed to a much longer duration of simulated microgravity. Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In addition, numerous reports from the past 30 years suggest that the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias among astronauts is increased during space flight. However, the effects of space flight and the associated physiologic stresses on cardiac conduction processes are not known, and an increase in cardiac susceptibility to arrhythmias has never been quantified. In this project we are applying the most powerful technologies available to determine, in a ground-based study of long duration space flight, the mechanisms by which space flight affects cardiovascular function, and then on the basis of an understanding of these mechanisms to develop rational and specific countermeasures. To this end we are conducting a collaborative project with the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The Bone Team is conducting bed rest studies in human subjects lasting 17 weeks, which provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of long duration microgravity exposure on the human cardiovascular system. We are applying a number of powerful new

  4. Vitamin D3 and cardiovascular function in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, R E; Simpson, R U

    1987-01-01

    We have previously identified a receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in myocardial cells (Simpson, R.U. 1983. Circulation. 68:239.). To establish the relevance of this observation, we evaluated the role of the prohormone vitamin D3 in regulating cardiovascular function. In rats maintained on a vitamin D3-deficient diet for nine weeks, increases in systolic blood pressure (BP) and serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were observed. These increases coincided with a reduction of serum calcium from 10.3 to 5.6 mg/dl. However, while serum calcium remained depressed throughout the study, increases in BP and serum CPK were transient. After nine weeks of vitamin D3-depletion, but not after six weeks, ventricular and vascular muscle contractile function were also markedly enhanced. The increase in ventricular contractile function could not be prevented by maintaining serum calcium at 9.0 mg/dl during the period of D3-depletion. These observations suggest a primary role for the vitamin D3-endocrine system in regulating cardiovascular function. PMID:3034981

  5. Exercise and autonomic function in health and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenwinkel, E T; Bloomfield, D M; Arwady, M A; Goldsmith, R L

    2001-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity contributes to the regulation of cardiac output during rest, exercise, and cardiovascular disease. Measurement of HRV has been particularly useful in assessing parasympathetic activity, while its utility for assessing sympathetic function and overall sympathovagal balance remains controversial. Studies have revealed that parasympathetic tone dominates the resting state, while exercise is associated with prompt withdrawal of vagal tone and subsequent sympathetic activation. Conversely, recovery is characterized by parasympathetic activation followed by sympathetic withdrawal, although clarification of the normal trajectory and autonomic basis of heart rate decay following exercise is needed. Abnormalities in autonomic physiology--especially increased sympathetic activity, attenuated vagal tone, and delayed heart rate recovery--have been associated with increased mortality. Exercise training is associated with a relative enhancement of vagal tone, improved heart rate recovery after exercise, and reduced morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, whether exercise training leads to reduced mortality in this population because of its ability to specifically modulate autonomic function is unknown at the present time. Although the results of a recent randomized study in patients with CHF and a meta-analysis in the setting of a recent myocardial infarction determined that exercise training leads to improved outcomes in these populations, neither study measured autonomic function. Improved autonomic function due to exercise training is a promising rationale for explaining improvements in outcome, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:11570111

  6. Effect of Sustained Human Centrifugation on Autonomic Cardiovascular and Vestibular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated exposure to +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, both sustained exposure to +Gx and changes in otolith function resulting from the gravitational changes of space flight and parabolic flight may adversely affect autonomic cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance. HYPOTHESES: Baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single sustained (30 min) exposure to +3Gz but not +3Gx. Moreover, after 30 min of +3Gx, any changes that occur in autonomic cardiovascular function will relate commensurately to changes in otolith function. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy human subjects were first exposed to 5 min of +3 Gz centrifugation and then subsequently up to a total of30 min of either +3Gz (n = 15) or +3Gx (n = 7) centrifugation. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after both types of centrifugation included: (a) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; (b) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; ( c) Valsalva tests; and (d) 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: All four +3Gz subjects who were intolerant to HUT before centrifugation became tolerant to HUT after centrifugation. The operational point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex and the Valsalva-related baroreflex were also enhanced in the +3Gz group but not in the +3Gx group. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected, other than a significant vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: A single, sustained exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance whereas a similar exposure to +3 Gx centrifugation appears to have less effect.

  7. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Connie M; Brent, Gregory A; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Soldin, Offie P; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J; Brunelli, Steven M; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  8. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Connie M.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Soldin, Offie P.; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  9. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  10. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  11. Cardiovascular function and basics of physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Aubert, André E; Beckers, Frank; Verheyden, Bart

    2005-04-01

    Space exploration is a dream of mankind. However, this intriguing environment is not without risks. Life, and the human body, has developed all over evolution in the constant presence of gravity, especially from the moment on when living creatures left the ocean. When this gravitational force is no longer acting on the body, drastic changes occur. Some of these changes occur immediately, others progress only slowly. In the past 40 years of human space flight (first orbital flight by Yuri Gagarin on 12 April, 1961) several hazards for the human body have been identified. Bone mineral density is lost, muscle atrophy and cardiovascular deconditioning occur; pulmonary function, fluid regulating systems of the body, the sensory and the balance system are all disturbed by the lack of gravity. These changes in human physiology have to be reversed again when astronauts return to earth. This can cause adaptation problems, especially after long-duration space flights. Also the reaction of human physiology to radiation in space poses a huge risk at this moment. In this review the accent will be on cardiovascular function in space: how normal function is modified to reach a new equilibrium in space after short- and long-duration exposure to microgravity. In order to make long-duration space flight possible the mechanisms of this physiological adaptation must be understood to full extent. Only with this knowledge, effective countermeasures can be developed. PMID:15887469

  12. Sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Differences in cardiovascular function between sexes have been documented at rest and maximal exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal constant-load exercise, which is not well understood. Thirty-one male and 33 female subjects completed nine minutes moderate and nine minutes vigorous intensity submaximal exercise (40 and 75% of peak watts determined by maximal exercise test). Measurements included: intra-arterial blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cardiac index (QI), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and arterial catecholamines (epinephrine = EPI and norepinephrine = NE), and blood gases. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume index (SVI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), arterial to venous O2 difference (AVO2) and systemic oxygen transport (SOT) were calculated. At rest and during submaximal exercise QI, SVI, SBP, MAP, NE, CaO2, and SOT were lower in females compared to males. VO2, AVO2, EPI were lower in females throughout exercise. When corrected for wattage, females had a higher Q, HR, SV, VO2 and AVO2 despite lower energy expenditure and higher mechanical efficiency. This study demonstrates sex differences in the cardiovascular response to constant-load submaximal exercise. Specifically, females presented limitations in cardiac performance in which they are unable to compensate for reductions in stroke volume through increases in HR, potentially a consequence of a female's blunted sympathetic response and higher vasodilatory state. Females demonstrated greater cardiac work needed to meet the same external work demand, and relied on increased peripheral oxygen extraction, lower energy expenditure and improvements in mechanical efficiency as compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25191635

  13. Vitamin D and its effects on glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function and immune function.

    PubMed

    El-Fakhri, N; McDevitt, H; Shaikh, M G; Halsey, C; Ahmed, S F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D. It has been suggested that vitamin D deficiency may influence the development of diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of vitamin D and its deficiency on cardiovascular function, glucose homeostasis and immune function, with a particular focus on children. Although, there is good evidence to show that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and an abnormality of the above systems, there is little evidence to show that vitamin D supplementation leads to an improvement in function, especially in childhood. PMID:24776698

  14. Alcohol and cardiovascular disease--modulation of vascular cell function.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Paul A; Redmond, Eileen M

    2012-04-01

    Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking patterns, with frequent moderate consumption of alcohol being salutary and binge drinking or chronic abuse being deleterious to one's health. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the many effects of alcohol consumption is beginning to emerge, as well as a clearer picture as to whether these effects are due to the direct actions of alcohol itself, or caused in part by its metabolites, e.g., acetaldehyde, or by incidental components present in the alcoholic beverage (e.g., polyphenols in red wine). This review will discuss evidence to date as to how alcohol (ethanol) might affect atherosclerosis that underlies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and the putative mechanisms involved, focusing on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects. PMID:22606372

  15. What is the Ultimate Goal in Neural Regulation of Cardiovascular Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, E. S.; Madanmohan; Pal, Gopal Krushna

    2004-01-01

    We used the following multiple-choice question after a series of lectures in cardiovascular physiology in the first year of an undergraduate medical curriculum (n = 66) to assess whether students had understood the neural regulation of cardiovascular function. In health, neural cardiovascular mechanisms are geared toward maintaining A) cardiac…

  16. Fetal in vivo continuous cardiovascular function during chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Allison, B J; Brain, K L; Niu, Y; Kane, A D; Herrera, E A; Thakor, A S; Botting, K J; Cross, C M; Itani, N; Skeffington, K L; Beck, C; Giussani, D A

    2016-03-01

    Although the fetal cardiovascular defence to acute hypoxia and the physiology underlying it have been established for decades, how the fetal cardiovascular system responds to chronic hypoxia has been comparatively understudied. We designed and created isobaric hypoxic chambers able to maintain pregnant sheep for prolonged periods of gestation under controlled significant (10% O2) hypoxia, yielding fetal mean P(aO2) levels (11.5 ± 0.6 mmHg) similar to those measured in human fetuses of hypoxic pregnancy. We also created a wireless data acquisition system able to record fetal blood flow signals in addition to fetal blood pressure and heart rate from free moving ewes as the hypoxic pregnancy is developing. We determined in vivo longitudinal changes in fetal cardiovascular function including parallel measurement of fetal carotid and femoral blood flow and oxygen and glucose delivery during the last third of gestation. The ratio of oxygen (from 2.7 ± 0.2 to 3.8 ± 0.8; P < 0.05) and of glucose (from 2.3 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.6; P < 0.05) delivery to the fetal carotid, relative to the fetal femoral circulation, increased during and shortly after the period of chronic hypoxia. In contrast, oxygen and glucose delivery remained unchanged from baseline in normoxic fetuses. Fetal plasma urate concentration increased significantly during chronic hypoxia but not during normoxia (Δ: 4.8 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 1.4 μmol l(-1), P<0.05). The data support the hypotheses tested and show persisting redistribution of substrate delivery away from peripheral and towards essential circulations in the chronically hypoxic fetus, associated with increases in xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26926316

  17. Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Md S; Weakley, Sarah M; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Resistin, originally described as an adipocyte-specific hormone, has been suggested to be an important link between obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Although its expression was initially defined in adipocytes, significant levels of resistin expression in humans are mainly found in mononuclear leukocytes, macrophages, spleen and bone marrow cells. Increasing evidence indicates that resistin plays important regulatory roles apart from its role in insulin resistance and diabetes in a variety of biological processes: atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune disease, malignancy, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic kidney disease. As CVD accounts for a significant amount of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes and without diabetes, it is important to understand the role that adipokines such as resistin play in the cardiovascular system. Evidence suggests that resistin is involved in pathological processes leading to CVD including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, angiogenesis and smooth muscle cell dysfunction. The modes of action and signalling pathways whereby resistin interacts with its target cells are beginning to be understood. In this review, the current knowledge about the functions and pathophysiological implications of resistin in CVD development is summarized; clinical translations, therapeutic considerations and future directions in the field of resistin research are discussed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21545576

  18. [Effects of the 520-day isolation on the functional state of the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, G P; Buĭlov, S P; Eshchenko, A I; Skedina, M A; Voronkov, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to study the cardiovascular effects of simulated factors in a 520-day crewed mission to Mars, and to validate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic investigation of microcirculation and endothelium-dependent dilation of the right brachial artery in 6 male volunteers at the age of 28 to 39 years. It appears that 520-d isolation affected intracardiac hemodynamics and endothelium function more dramatically compared with 105-d isolation, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. These findings add insight into the "cost of human adaptation" to very long isolation. PMID:25365873

  19. Effects of hydraulic circuit training on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Haennel, R; Teo, K K; Quinney, A; Kappagoda, T

    1989-10-01

    The effect of hydraulic circuit training (HCT) on cardiovascular (CV) function was assessed in 32 healthy middle-aged males (X age = 42.2 +/- 2.1 yr). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max), with simultaneous measurement of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO), by impedance cardiography, was assessed pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to a nonexercising control group, a cycle training group (cycle), or one of the two HCT groups. Training groups participated in a 9 wk program, 3 d.wk-1. Subjects assigned to HCT exercised on a 9 station circuit, completing 3 circuits.d-1. Each circuit consisted of three 20 s work intervals at each station with a 1:1 work:rest ratio. One HCT group (HCTmax) completed the maximal repetitions possible (RM) during each work interval. The other HCT group (HCTsub) exercised at 70-85% of RM. Following training VO2max (ml.kg-1 min-1) was significantly increased in all training groups (18.0, 12.5, and 11.3% for cycle, HCTsub, and HCTmax groups, respectively; P less than 0.05). The increase in VO2max observed in the cycle group was significantly greater than that recorded by the two HCT groups (P less than 0.05). For all three training groups, the increase in VO2max was associated with increases in SVmax and COmax (P less than 0.05 for both). These findings suggest that both maximal and submaximal HCT programs can elicit improvements in cardiovascular fitness. PMID:2607948

  20. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20702747

  1. The Multifaceted Functions of CXCL10 in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quax, Paul H. A.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10), or interferon-inducible protein-10, is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Its members are responsible for leukocyte trafficking and act on tissue cells, like endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. CXCL10 is secreted by leukocytes and tissue cells and functions as a chemoattractant, mainly for lymphocytes. After binding to its receptor CXCR3, CXCL10 evokes a range of inflammatory responses: key features in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The role of CXCL10 in CVD has been extensively described, for example for atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, and myocardial infarction. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between experimental and clinical settings. This discrepancy occurs from differences in biological actions between species (e.g. mice and human), which is dependent on CXCL10 signaling via different CXCR3 isoforms or CXCR3-independent signaling. This makes translation from experimental to clinical settings challenging. Furthermore, the overall consensus on the actions of CXCL10 in specific CVD models is not yet reached. The purpose of this review is to describe the functions of CXCL10 in different CVDs in both experimental and clinical settings and to highlight and discuss the possible discrepancies and translational difficulties. Furthermore, CXCL10 as a possible biomarker in CVD will be discussed. PMID:24868552

  2. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p<0.006) than inter-session variability (p>0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1

  3. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    Microgravity-induced physiological changes, including cardiovascular deconditioning may impair crewmembers f capabilities during exploration missions on the Moon and Mars. The Functional Task Test (FTT), which will be used to assess task performance in short and long duration astronauts, consists of 7 functional tests to evaluate crewmembers f ability to perform activities to be conducted in a partial-gravity environment or following an emergency landing on Earth. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) tests both the subject fs ability to get up from a prone position and orthostatic intolerance. PURPOSE: Crewmembers have never become presyncopal in the first 3 min of quiet stand, yet it is unknown whether 3 min is long enough to cause similar heart rate fluctuations to a 5-min stand. The purpose of this study was to validate and test the reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3-min quiet stand. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5-min of standing to assess HRV, 7 healthy subjects remained in a prone position for 2 min, stood up quickly and stood quietly for 6 min. ECG and continuous blood pressure data were recorded. Mean R-R interval and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the complete FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3-min stand test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. RESULTS: Spectral HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not different (p>0.05) during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segment (mean R-R interval: 738+/-74 ms, 728+/-69 ms; low frequency to high frequency ratio: 6.5+/-2.2, 7.7+/-2.7; normalized high frequency: 0.19+/-0.03, 0.18+/-0.04). The average coefficient of variation for mean R-R interval, systolic and diastolic blood pressures

  4. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  5. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  6. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes. PMID:15840727

  7. Pathologic Function and Therapeutic Potential of Exosomes in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Shaina; Wang, Xiaohong; Gu, Haitao; Fan, Guo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a very complex conglomeration of organized interactions between various different cell types that all aid in facilitating myocardial function through contractility, sufficient perfusion, and cell-to-cell reception. In order to make sure all features of the heart work effectively, it is imperative to have a well-controlled communication system among the different types of cells. One of the most important ways the heart regulates itself is by the use of extracellular vesicles, more specifically, exosomes. Exosomes are types of nano-vesicles, naturally released from living cells. They are believed to play a critical role in intercellular communication through the means of certain mechanisms including direct cell-to-cell contact, long-range signals as well as electrical and extracellular chemical molecules. Exosomes contain many unique features like surface proteins/receptors, lipids, mRNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors and other proteins. Recent studies indicate that the exosomal contents are highly regulated by various stress and disease conditions, in turn reflective of the parent cell status. At present, exosomes are well appreciated to be involved in the process of tumor and infection disease. However, the research on cardiac exosomes is just emerging. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the pathologic effects of exosomes on cardiac remodeling under stress and disease conditions, including cardiac hypertrophy, peripartum cardiomyopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy and sepsis-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. In addition, the cardio-protective effects of stress-preconditioned exosomes and stem cell-derived exosomes are also summarized. Finally, we discuss how to epigenetically reprogram exosome contents in host cells which makes them beneficial for the heart. PMID:25463630

  8. Cardiovascular autonomic functions & cerebral autoregulation in patients with orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Ekta; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Deepak, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Patients of orthostatic hypotension may or may not have symptoms of the cerebral hypoperfusion despite fall in the blood pressure. The present study was done to quantify autonomic functions and cerebral autoregulation in patients of orthostatic hypotension with or without symptoms. Methods: The study was conducted in 15 patients of orthostatic hypotension and 15 age, sex matched control subjects. The sympathetic reactivity was measured by diastolic blood pressure response to handgrip test (ΔDBP in HGT) and cold pressor test (ΔDBP in CPT). The parasympathetic reactivity was measured by E:I ratio during deep breathing test (DBT) and Valsalva ratio (VR) during Valsalva maneuver. The cerebral autoregulation was computed from the changes in the cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular conductance and blood pressure measured during different time points during head-up tilt (HUT). Results: The sympathetic reactivity was lower in patients as compared to controls [ΔDBP in HGT: 10 (4 - 16) vs 18 (12 - 22) mmHg, P<0.01; ΔDBP in CPT : 10 (4-12) vs 16 (10-20) mmHg, P<0.01]. The parasympathetic reactivity was also lower in patients as compared to controls. The sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity was comparable in the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The maximum fall in blood pressure during HUT was comparable between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (29.14 ± 10.94 vs 29.50 ± 6.39 mmHg), however, the percentage fall in the cerebral blood flow was significantly higher in the symptomatic (P<0.05) compared to asymptomatics. Interpretation & conclusions: Patients with orthostatic hypotension had deficits in sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cardiovascular system. Cerebral autoregulation was present in asymptomatic patients (increase in cerebrovascular conductance) during HUT while it was lost in symptomatic patients. PMID:22089608

  9. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M.; Brosschot, Jos F.; Thayer, Julian F.; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  10. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  11. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  12. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernanda C.; Paiva, Franciny A.; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C.; Caldeira, Henrique M. A.; Fontes, Marco A. P.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C. A.; Casali, Karina R.; Fortes, Gláucia H.; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine—a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mm

  13. Neurohumoral Integration of Cardiovascular Function by the Lamina Terminalis.

    PubMed

    Cancelliere, Nicole M; Black, Emily A E; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation, such as vascular tone, fluid volume and blood osmolarity, are quite often mediated by signals circulating in the periphery, such as angiotensin II and sodium concentration. Research has identified areas within the lamina terminalis (LT), specifically the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, as playing crucial roles detecting and integrating information derived from these circulating signals. The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) is a third integrative structure within the LT that influences cardiovascular homeostasis, although to date, its role is not as clearly elucidated. More recent studies have demonstrated that the CVOs are not only essential in the detection of traditional cardiovascular signals but also signals primarily considered to be important in the regulation of metabolic, reproductive and inflammatory processes that have now also been implicated in cardiovascular regulation. In this review, we highlight the critical roles played by the LT in the detection and integration of circulating signals that provide critical feedback control information contributing to cardiovascular regulation. PMID:26531751

  14. Delaying cord clamping until ventilation onset improves cardiovascular function at birth in preterm lambs

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Sasmira; Alison, Beth J; Wallace, Euan M; Crossley, Kelly J; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; te Pas, Arjan B; Morley, Colin J; Polglase, Graeme R; Hooper, Stuart B

    2013-01-01

    Delayed cord clamping improves circulatory stability in preterm infants at birth, but the underlying physiology is unclear. We investigated the effects of umbilical cord clamping, before and after ventilation onset, on cardiovascular function at birth. Prenatal surgery was performed on lambs (123 days) to implant catheters into the pulmonary and carotid arteries and probes to measure pulmonary (PBF), carotid (CaBF) and ductus arteriosus blood flows. Lambs were delivered at 126 ± 1 days and: (1) the umbilical cord was clamped at delivery and ventilation was delayed for about 2 min (Clamp 1st; n = 6), and (2) umbilical cord clamping was delayed for 3–4 min, until after ventilation was established (Vent 1st; n = 6). All lambs were subsequently ventilated for 30 min. In Clamp 1st lambs, cord clamping rapidly (within four heartbeats), but transiently, increased pulmonary and carotid arterial pressures (by ∼30%) and CaBF (from 30.2 ± 5.6 to 40.1 ± 4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), which then decreased again within 30–60 s. Following ventilation onset, these parameters rapidly increased again. In Clamp 1st lambs, cord clamping reduced heart rate (by ∼40%) and right ventricular output (RVO; from 114.6 ± 14.4 to 38.8 ± 9.7 ml min−1 kg−1), which were restored by ventilation. In Vent 1st lambs, cord clamping reduced RVO from 153.5 ± 3.8 to 119.2 ± 10.6 ml min−1 kg−1, did not affect heart rates and resulted in stable blood flows and pressures during transition. Delaying cord clamping for 3–4 min until after ventilation is established improves cardiovascular function by increasing pulmonary blood flow before the cord is clamped. As a result, cardiac output remains stable, leading to a smoother cardiovascular transition throughout the early newborn period. PMID:23401615

  15. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  16. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed. PMID:26679833

  17. Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Trinity, Joel D.; Pahnke, Matthew D.; Trombold, Justin R.; Coyle, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT) following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12). Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61). Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. PMID:24667134

  18. Cardiovascular functioning, personality, and the social world: the domain of hierarchical power.

    PubMed

    Newton, Tamara L

    2009-02-01

    The present paper considers connections between cardiovascular functioning (i.e., disease status and acute stress responses) and social dominance, and its counterpart, social submissiveness, both of which are part of the broader domain of "hierarchical power" [Bugental, D.B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126, 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression, whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed. PMID:18706926

  19. Cardiovascular Functioning, Personality, and the Social World: The Domain of Hierarchical Power

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Tamara L.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers connections between cardiovascular functioning (i.e., disease status and acute stress responses) and social dominance, and its counterpart, social submissiveness, both of which are part of the broader domain of “hierarchical power” (Bugental, 2000, p. 187). Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression, whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed. PMID:18706926

  20. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  1. Spectrofluorimetric methods of stability-indicating assay of certain drugs affecting the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, B. A.; Mohamed, M. F.; Youssef, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    Two stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the determination of ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil, drugs affecting the cardiovascular system, and validated in the presence of their degradation products. The first method, for ezetimibe, is based on an oxidative coupling reaction of ezetimibe with 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone hydrochloride in the presence of cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate in an acidic medium. The quenching effect of ezetimibe on the fluorescence of excess cerous ions is measured at the emission wavelength, λem, of 345 nm with the excitation wavelength, λex, of 296 nm. Factors affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The second method, for olmesartan medoxomil, is based on measuring the native fluorescence intensity of olmesartan medoxomil in methanol at λem = 360 nm with λex = 286 nm. Regression plots revealed good linear relationships in the assay limits of 10-120 and 8-112 g/ml for ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil, respectively. The validity of the methods was assessed according to the United States Pharmacopeya guidelines. Statistical analysis of the results exposed good Student's t-test and F-ratio values. The introduced methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil in drug substances and drug products as well as in the presence of their degradation products.

  2. Cardiovascular function during sustained +G/z/ stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    The development of aerospace systems capable of very high levels of positive vertical accelerators stress has created a need for a better understanding of the cardiovascular responses to acceleration. Using a canine model, the heart and cardiovascular system were instrumented to continuously measure coronary blood flow, cardiac output, left ventricular and aortic root pressure, and oxygen saturation in the aorta, coronary sinus, and right ventricle. The animals were exposed to acceleration profiles up to +6 G, 120 s at peak G; a seatback angle of 45 deg was simulated in some experiments. Radiopaque contrast medium was injected to visualize the left ventricular chamber, coronary vasculature, aorta, and branches of the aorta. The results suggest mechanisms responsible for arrhythmias which may occur, and subendocardial hemorrhage which has been reported in other animals.

  3. Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25548592

  4. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  5. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Engi, Sheila A.; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  6. Association between renal function and cardiovascular structure and function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Mauro; Senni, Michele; Gupta, Deepak K.; Charytan, David M.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Pieske, Burkert; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M.; Santos, Angela B. S.; Zile, Michael R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Martin; Solomon, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Renal dysfunction is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We sought to determine whether renal dysfunction was associated with measures of cardiovascular structure/function in patients with HFpEF. Methods We studied 217 participants from the PARAMOUNT study with HFpEF who had echocardiography and measures of kidney function. We evaluated the relationships between renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or albuminuria] and cardiovascular structure/function. Results The mean age of the study population was 71 years, 55% were women, 94% hypertensive, and 40% diabetic. Impairment of at least one parameter of kidney function was present in 62% of patients (16% only albuminuria, 23% only low eGFR, 23% both). Renal dysfunction was associated with abnormal LV geometry (defined as concentric hypertrophy, or eccentric hypertrophy, or concentric remodelling) (adjusted P = 0.048), lower midwall fractional shortening (MWFS) (P = 0.009), and higher NT-proBNP (P = 0.006). Compared with patients without renal dysfunction, those with low eGFR and no albuminuria had a higher prevalence of abnormal LV geometry (P = 0.032) and lower MWFS (P < 0.01), as opposed to those with only albuminuria. Conversely, albuminuria alone was associated with greater LV dimensions (P < 0.05). Patients with combined renal impairment had mixed abnormalities (higher LV wall thicknesses, NT-proBNP; lower MWFS). Conclusion Renal dysfunction, as determined by both eGFR and albuminuria, is highly prevalent in HFpEF, and associated with cardiac remodelling and subtle systolic dysfunction. The observed differences in cardiac structure/function between each type of renal damage suggest that both parameters of kidney function might play a distinct role in HFpEF. PMID:24980489

  7. Relationship between body composition and both cardiovascular risk factors and lung function in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Biasi, Domenico; Caimmi, Cristian; Barausse, Giovanni; Gatti, Davide; Ferrari, Marcello; Pieropan, Sara; Sabbagh, Dania; Adami, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate body composition in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to assess its association with the traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis and parameters of lung function. Eighty-six patients affected by SSc (13 men and 73 women, mean age 58.5 years, mean disease duration 10.7 years, 31 with diffuse form and 55 with limited pattern) underwent evaluation of body composition using a dual-energy X-ray (DXA) fan beam densitometer (GE Lunar iDXA) in order to assess total and regional body fat mass and fat-free mass. Clinical features, pulmonary function parameters, and the concomitant presence of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Android fat resulted to be higher in SSc patients with coexistence of hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.021), hypertension (P = 0.028), and overweight/obesity (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with body mass index (P < 0.001). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was inversely correlated with android fat (P = 0.034) and with the android fat/gynoid fat ratio (P = 0.013) and positively correlated with android lean (P = 0.041); the correlations were improved when FVC data were adjusted for sex, age, disease duration, and smoking habits (P = 0.010 for android fat, P = 0.010 for android fat/gynoid fat ratio, P = 0.011 for android lean). In this study, we showed that visceral abdominal fat, measured by DXA, is correlated with the main cardiovascular risk factors and lung volumes in SSc patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate if decrease of abdominal fat would improve lung function. PMID:24052413

  8. Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Results Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition. PMID:24595096

  9. Pressure and coverage effects of sporting compression garments on cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Braid A; Laing, Raechel M; Niven, Brian E; Cotter, James D

    2012-05-01

    Sporting compression garments (CG) are used widely during exercise despite little evidence of benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate coverage and pressure effects of full-body CG on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function at rest and during prolonged exercise, and on exercise performance. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists [mean (SD) age, 26 (7) years; VO(2 max), 53 (8) mL kg(-1) min(-1)] completed three sessions (counterbalanced order), wearing either correctly-sized CG (CSG; 11-15 mmHg), over-sized CG (OSG; 8-13 mmHg), or gym shorts (CONT). Test sessions were conducted in temperate conditions [24 (1)°C, 60 (4)% relative humidity; ~2 m s(-1) air velocity during exercise], consisting of resting on a chair then on a cycle ergometer, before 60-min fixed-load cycling at ~65% VO(2 max) and a 6-km time trial. Wearing CG (CSG or OSG) did not mitigate cardiovascular strain during mild orthostatic stress at rest (p = 0.20-0.93 for garment effects). During exercise, cardiac output was ~5% higher in the CG conditions (p < 0.05), which appears to be accounted for via non-significant higher end-exercise heart rate (~4-7%, p = 0.30; p = 0.06 for greater heart rate drift in CSG); other cardiovascular variables, including stroke volume, were similar among conditions (p = 0.23-0.91). Covered-skin temperature was higher in CG conditions (p < 0.001) but core (oesophageal) temperature was not (p = 0.79). Time-trial performance (mean power, time taken) was similar with or without CG (p = 0.24-0.44). In conclusion, any demonstrable physiological or psychophysical effects of full-body CG were mild and seemingly reflective more of surface coverage than pressure. No benefit was evident for exercise performance. PMID:21901265

  10. The impact of the circadian timing system on cardiovascular and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Yang, Jessica N.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning (i.e., between 6 AM and noon) and that shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. The endogenous circadian timing system modulates certain cardiovascular risk markers to be highest (e.g., cortisol, nonlinear dynamic heart rate control, and platelet activation) or to respond most unfavorably to stressors such as exercise (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vagal cardiac modulation) at an internal body time corresponding to the time of day when adverse cardiovascular events most likely occur. This indicates that the circadian timing system and its interaction with external cardiovascular stressors (e.g., physical activity) could contribute to the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events. Moreover, circadian misalignment and simulated night work have adverse effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function. This suggests that misalignment between the behavioral cycle and the circadian timing system in shift workers contributes to that population’s increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22877674

  11. Spleen and cardiovascular function during short apneas in divers.

    PubMed

    Palada, Ivan; Eterovic, Davor; Obad, Ante; Bakovic, Darija; Valic, Zoran; Ivancev, Vladimir; Lojpur, Mihajlo; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Dujic, Zeljko

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the spleen volume changes as related to the cardiovascular responses during short-duration apneas at rest. We used dynamic ultrasound splenic imaging and noninvasive photoplethysmographic cardiovascular measurements before, during, and after 15-20 s apneas in seven trained divers. The role of baroreflex was studied by intravenous bolus of vasodilating drug trinitrosan during tidal breathing. The role of lung volume was studied by comparing the apneas at near-maximal lung volume with apneas after inhaling tidal volume, with and without cold forehead stimulation. In apneas at near maximal lung volume, a 20% reduction in splenic volume (P = 0.03) was observed as early as 3 s after the onset of breath holding. Around that time the heart rate increased, the mean arterial pressure abruptly decreased from 89.6 to 66.7 mmHg (P = 0.02), and cardiac output decreased, on account of reduction in stroke volume. Intravenous application of trinitrosan resulted in approximately 6-mmHg decrement in mean arterial pressure, while the splenic volume decreased for approximately 13%. In apneas at low lung volume, the early splenic contraction was also observed, 10% without and 12% with cold forehead stimulation, although the mean arterial pressure did not change or even increased, respectively. In conclusion, the spleen contraction is present at the beginning of apnea, accentuated by cold forehead stimulation. At large, but not small, lung volume, this initial contraction is probably facilitated by downloaded baroreflex in conditions of decreased blood pressure and cardiac output. PMID:17947504

  12. Endothelial Markers May Link Kidney Function to Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Christina; Clodi, Martin; Neuhold, Stephanie; Resl, Michael; Elhenicky, Marie; Prager, Rudolf; Moertl, Deddo; Strunk, Guido; Luger, Anton; Struck, Joachim; Pacher, Richard; Hülsmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes has been linked to endothelial and renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stable fragments of the precursors of adrenomedullin, endothelin-1, vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide in progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective, observational study design with a composite end point (death or unexpected admission to hospital due to a cardiovascular event) on 781 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 events, median duration of observation 15 months). The four stable precursor peptides midregional adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), COOH-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), and COOH-terminal provasopressin or copeptin (CT-proAVP) were determined at baseline, and their association to renal function and cardiovascular events was studied using stepwise linear and Cox logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis, respectively. RESULTS MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, CT-proAVP, and MR-proANP were all elevated in patients with future cardiovascular events and independently correlated to serum creatinine. MR-proADM and MR-proANP were significant predictors of a future cardiovascular event, with MR-proANP being the stronger (area under the curve 0.802 ± 0.034, sensitivity 0.833, specificity 0.576, positive predictive value 0.132, and negative predictive value 0.978 with a cutoff value of 75 pmol/l). CONCLUSIONS The four serum markers of vasoactive and natriuretic peptides are related to both kidney function and cardiovascular events, thus linking two major complications of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19564455

  13. Endothelial function in a cardiovascular risk population with borderline ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Korhonen, Päivi; Partanen, Auli; Aarnio, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be made by measuring the ankle–brachial index (ABI). Traditionally ABI values > 1.00–1.40 have been considered normal and ABI ≤ 0.90 defines PAD. Recent studies, however, have shown that individuals with ABI values between 0.90–1.00 are also at risk of cardiovascular events. We studied this cardiovascular risk population subgroup in order to determine their endothelial function using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Methods: We selected 66 individuals with cardiovascular risk and borderline ABI. They all had hypertension, newly diagnosed glucose disorder, metabolic syndrome, obesity, or a ten year risk of cardiovascular disease death of 5% or more according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation System (SCORE). Subjects with previously diagnosed diabetes or cardiovascular disease were excluded. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) from fingertips using an Endo-PAT device. Results: The mean ABI was 0.95 and mean RHI 2.11. Endothelial dysfunction, defined as RHI < 1.67, was detected in 15/66 (23%) of the subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in RHI values between subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. The only exception was that subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) had slightly lower RHI values (mean RHI 1.91) than subjects without IFG (mean RHI 2.24) (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In a cardiovascular risk population with borderline ABI nearly every fourth subject had endothelial dysfunction, indicating an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. This might point out a subgroup of individuals in need of more aggressive treatment for their risk factors. PMID:21415923

  14. Exposure to ultrafine carbon particles at levels below detectable pulmonary inflammation affects cardiovascular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Swapna; Stoeger, Tobias; Harder, Volkar; Thomas, Ronald F; Schladweiler, Mette C; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Takenaka, Shinji; Karg, Erwin; Reitmeir, Peter; Bader, Michael; Stampfl, Andreas; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Schulz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we sought to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) following inhalation of UfCPs (24 h, 172 μg·m-3), to assess whether compromised animals (SHR) exhibit a different response pattern compared to the previously studied healthy rats (WKY). Methods Cardiophysiological response in SHRs was analyzed using radiotelemetry. Blood pressure (BP) and its biomarkers plasma renin-angiotensin system were also assessed. Lung and cardiac mRNA expressions for markers of oxidative stress (hemeoxygenase-1), blood coagulation (tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), and endothelial function (endothelin-1, and endothelin receptors A and B) were analyzed following UfCPs exposure in SHRs. UfCPs-mediated inflammatory responses were assessed from broncho-alveolar-lavage fluid (BALF). Results Increased BP and heart rate (HR) by about 5% with a lag of 1–3 days were detected in UfCPs exposed SHRs. Inflammatory markers of BALF, lung (pulmonary) and blood (systemic) were not affected. However, mRNA expression of hemeoxygenase-1, endothelin-1, endothelin receptors A and B, tissue factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor showed a significant induction (~2.5-fold; p < 0.05) with endothelin 1 being the maximally induced factor (6-fold; p < 0.05) on the third recovery day in the lungs of UfCPs exposed SHRs; while all of these factors – except hemeoxygenase-1 – were not affected in cardiac tissues. Strikingly, the UfCPs-mediated altered BP is paralleled by the induction of renin-angiotensin system in plasma. Conclusion Our finding shows that UfCPs exposure at levels which does not induce detectable pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, triggers distinct effects in the lung and also at the systemic level in compromised SHRs. These effects are characterized by

  15. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  16. Prenatal developmental safety of functional polyurethanes for cardiovascular implants.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yongjiang; Sun, Fan; Xie, Xingyi; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Ze; Guidoin, Robert; Fu, Qiang; Zhong, Yinping; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    Historically, polyurethanes have been regarded as promising materials for cardiovascular implants such as vascular grafts and heart valves. Their biocompatibility has been thoroughly investigated. However, their developmental toxicity is seldom reported. We recently developed two polycarbonate urethanes with polyethylene glycol side chains capped with epoxy or amino groups that can further react with specific biomolecules. Both materials in microfibrillar morphology were subjected to saline extraction at 70 °C to prompt material hydrolysis. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography all confirmed the degradation of the polyurethanes. The saline extracts containing the degradation products were administered to Sprague-Dawley female rats on day 7 to 16 of gestation via tail vein injection at a dose of 5 mL/kg/day. No maternal toxicity was observed. No external, skeletal, and visceral malformations in fetuses were found associated with the test materials, implying their safety to both adult rats and the offspring. Further investigations for applications in vascular grafts are under way. PMID:25953432

  17. Effects of noise exposure and task demand on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Wu, T N; Huang, J T; Chou, P F; Chang, P Y

    1988-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects under various noise-exposure and task-demand conditions were studied among 40 senior highschool students. The subjects consisted of 20 males and 20 females with a mean age of 16.7 +/- 0.7 years. All subjects had equivalent abacus performance ratings. Each subject was tested with a random sequence of six sessions. The time limit set for each session was 33 min. Six experimental sessions were constructed by a random combination of noise exposure (60, 85 or 90 dB (A] white noise) and task demand (task presence or task absence) variables. Blood pressure measures were taken at the beginning and ending phases of each session. A task-demand variable was defined as a conjoint of mental arithmetic (3 min) and abacus arithmetic (30 min). The results from the present study show that the effect of noise exposure on task performance is remarkable. Only noise exposure tended to influence the performance of male students in abacus arithmetic. The effect of task demand on blood pressure was higher than that of noise exposure. No interaction effect (noise exposure x task demand) on blood pressure, was found via analyses of within-subjects two-way ANOVA. PMID:3346087

  18. Myocardial 123I-MIBG Uptake and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Akira; Asahina, Masato; Araki, Nobuyuki; Poudel, Anupama; Fujinuma, Yoshikatsu; Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) showed reduced myocardial 123I-MIBG uptake, which may affect autonomic regulation. We investigated correlation between MIBC accumulation and cardiovascular autonomic function in PD. Methods. We performed myocardial MIBG scintigraphy, heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, and the head-up tilt test (HUT) in 50 PD patients (66.4 ± 7.8 years; duration 5.5 ± 5.9 years). Autonomic function tests were also performed in 50 healthy controls (66.5 ± 8.9 years). As HRV parameters, a high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.4 Hz), a low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), and LF/HF ratio were used. Results. Our PD patients had a significant reduction in LF and HF compared with the controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.01). In HUT, systolic and diastolic blood pressure falls in the PD group were significantly greater than those in the controls (P = 0.02 and P = 0.02). The washout rate of MIBG was negatively correlated with blood pressure changes during HUT. Conclusion. Our PD patients showed reduced HRV, blood pressure dysregulation, and reduced MIBG accumulation, which was correlated with blood pressure dysregulation. Orthostatic hypotension in PD may be mainly caused by sympathetic postganglionic degeneration. PMID:26649224

  19. Does calcium intake affect cardiovascular risk factors and/or events?

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intervention is an important approach in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Over the last decade, some studies have suggested that a calcium-rich diet could help to control body weight, with anti-obesity effects. The potential mechanism underlying the impact of calcium on body fat has been investigated, but it is not fully understood. Recent evidence has also suggested that a calcium-rich diet could have beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and inflammatory states. In a series of studies, it was observed that a high intake of milk and/or dairy products (the main sources of dietary calcium) is associated with a reduction in the relative risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a few studies suggest that supplemental calcium (mainly calcium carbonate or citrate) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This review will discuss the available evidence regarding the relationship between calcium intake (dietary and supplemental) and different cardiovascular risk factors and/or events. PMID:22892932

  20. Corticosteroids Are Essential for Maintaining Cardiovascular Function in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Myers, Page H; Foley, Julie F; Willis, Monte S; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in the release of hormones from the adrenal glands, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The physiological association between corticosteroids and cardiac disease is becoming increasingly recognized; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. To determine the biological effects of corticosteroids on the heart, we investigated the impact of adrenalectomy in C57BL/6 male mice. Animals were adrenalectomized (ADX) at 1 month of age and maintained for 3-6 months after surgery to evaluate the effects of long-term adrenalectomy on cardiac function. Morphological evaluation suggested that ADX mice showed significantly enlarged hearts compared with age-matched intact controls. These changes in morphology correlated with deficits in left ventricular (LV) function and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in ADX mice. Correlating with these functional defects, gene expression analysis of ADX hearts revealed aberrant expression of a large cohort of genes associated with cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmia. Combined corticosterone and aldosterone replacement treatment prevented the emergence of cardiac abnormalities in ADX mice, whereas corticosterone replacement prevented the effects of adrenalectomy on LV function but did not block the emergence of ECG alterations. Aldosterone replacement did not preserve the LV function but prevented ECG abnormalities. Together, the data indicate that adrenal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids either directly or indirectly have selective effects in the heart and their signaling pathways are essential in maintaining normal cardiac function. PMID:27219275

  1. EFFECTS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS. PART 1. LETHALITY AND ARRHYTHMOGENICITY IN THE GERIATRIC RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlordimeform (CDM), a formamidine pesticide, had a profound effect on the cardiovascular function of geriatric rats. Two-year-old pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) received sequential intravenous CDM injections of 5, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg. A control group of ra...

  2. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

  3. POLYMORPHISMS IN CYTOPLASMIC SERINE HYDROXYMETHYLTRANSFERASE AND METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE AFFECT THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN MEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation in folate-regulating enzymes contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) enzyme is proposed to regulate a key metabolic intersection in folate metabolism. We hypothesized that a variant in cSHMT (cSHMT 1420CT) aff...

  4. Left ventricular concentric geometry during treatment adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Monteduro, Cristina; Bonzi, Bianca; Paini, Anna; Viola, Sara; Poisa, Paolo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Castellano, Maurizio; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2004-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry predict risk for cardiovascular events in hypertension. Regression of LV hypertrophy (LVH) may imply an important prognostic significance. The relation between changes in LV geometry during antihypertensive treatment and subsequent prognosis has not yet been determined. A total of 436 prospectively identified uncomplicated hypertensive subjects with a baseline and follow-up echocardiogram (last examination 72+/-38 months apart) were followed for an additional 42+/-16 months. Their family doctor gave antihypertensive treatment. After the last follow-up echocardiogram, a first cardiovascular event occurred in 71 patients. Persistence of LVH from baseline to follow-up was confirmed as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were significantly greater in patients with concentric (relative wall thickness > or =0.44) than in those with eccentric geometry (relative wall thickness <0.44) in patients presenting with LVH (P=0.002) and in those without LVH (P=0.002) at the follow-up echocardiogram. The incidence of cardiovascular events progressively increased from the first to the third tertile of LV mass index at follow-up (partition values 91 and 117 g/m2), but for a similar value of LV mass index it was significantly greater in those with concentric geometry (OR: 4.07; 95% CI: 1.49 to 11.14; P=0.004 in the second tertile; OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.62 to 7.32; P=0.001 in the third tertile; P<0.0001 in concentric versus eccentric geometry). Persistence or development of concentric geometry during follow-up may have additional prognostic significance in hypertensive patients with and without LVH. PMID:15007041

  5. Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-12-01

    A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial. PMID:20003590

  6. IMPACT OF AGING ON CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION AND REACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally thought that senescence in mammals is accompanied by an overall decline in functional integrity of the organism and its ability to adapt to various environmental challenges. onsiderable body of evidence has shown that in both human and laboratory animals, advancin...

  7. Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Pereira, Olívia R.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Pinto, Diana C. G. A.; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits. PMID:26569268

  8. Intrauterine growth restriction: impact on cardiovascular development and function throughout infancy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily; Wong, Flora Y; Horne, Rosemary S C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the situation where a fetus does not grow according to its genetic growth potential. One of the main causes of IUGR is uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. Under these circumstances of chronic oxygen and nutrient deprivation, the growth-restricted fetus often displays typical circulatory changes, which in part represent adaptations to the suboptimal intrauterine environment. These fetal adaptations aim to preserve oxygen and nutrient supply to vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the adrenals. These prenatal circulatory adaptations are thought to lead to an altered development of the cardiovascular system and "program" the fetus for life long cardiovascular morbidities. In this review, we discuss the alterations to cardiovascular structure, function, and control that have been observed in growth-restricted fetuses, neonates, and infants following uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. We also discuss the current knowledge on early life surveillance and interventions to prevent progression into chronic disease. PMID:26866903

  9. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  10. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  11. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea; Tranchita, Eliana; Ciminelli, Emanuela; Caserotti, Paolo; Duranti, Guglielmo; Sabatini, Stefania; Parisi, Paolo; Parisi, Attilio; Caporossi, Daniela

    2014-04-01

    Current recommendations aimed at reducing neuromuscular and functional loss in aged muscle have identified muscle power as a key target for intervention trials, although little is known about the biological and cardiovascular systemic response in the elderly. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle damage, cardiovascular risk, and cellular stress response. The present study provides the first evidence that EMRT was highly effective in achieving a significant enhancement in muscular strength and power as well as in functional performance without causing any detrimental modification in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and damage parameters. Moreover, trained elderly subjects showed an adaptive response at both systemic and cellular levels by modulation of antioxidant and stress-induced markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and 27 (Hsp27), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1). PMID:24136652

  12. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values. PMID:26963317

  13. Associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities in an affectively positive situation.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Kimura, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Kanayama, Noriaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Konagaya, Toshihiro; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2009-03-31

    It is hypothesized that experiencing positive emotions such as pleasure leads to a perception of the body being in a positive state. This study demonstrated associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities by simultaneously recording these activities when positive emotions were evoked in participants watching films revolving around a love story. Heart rate variability analysis revealed increased parasympathetic nervous activity while watching the film. The following brain regions were significantly activated in the positive condition relative to the control condition: medial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. Further, covariate analyses indicated that these brain regions were temporally associated with subjective positive mood. Activities of brain regions considered to be related to interoceptive awareness, such as the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex, were also temporally associated with the cardiovascular change. These results suggest that while an individual experiences positive emotions, activities of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system may be interrelated, and the brain may perceive the body to be in a positive state. PMID:19368841

  14. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection. PMID:22570771

  15. Correlation of macro and micro cardiovascular function during weightlessness and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, P. M.; Marshburn, T. H.; Smith, T. L.; Osborne, S. W.; Lynch, C. D.; Moultsby, S. J.

    The investigation of cardiovascular function necessarily involves a consideration of the exchange of substances at the capillary. If cardiovascular function is compromised or in any way altered during exposure to zero gravity in space, then it stands to reason that microvascular function is also modified. We have shown that an increase in cardiac output similar to that reported during simulated weightlessness is associated with a doubling of the number of post-capillary venules and a reduction in the number of arterioles by 35%. If the weightlessness of space travel produces similar changes in cardiopulmonary volume and cardiac output, a reasonable expectation is that astronauts will undergo venous neovascularization. We have developed an animal model in which to correlate microvascular and systemic cardiovascular function. The microcirculatory preparation consists of a lightweight, thermoneutral chamber implanted around intact skeletal muscle on the back of a rat. Using this technique, the preformed microvasculature of the cutaneous maximus muscle may be observed in the conscious, unanesthetized animal. Microcirculatory variables which may be obtained include venular and arteriolar numbers, lengths and diameters, single vessel flow velocities, vasomotion, capillary hematocrit anastomoses and orders of branching. Systemic hemodynamic monitoring of cardiac output by electromagnetic flowmetry, and arterial and venous pressures allows correlation of macro- and microcirculatory changes at the same time, in the same animal. Observed and calculated hemodynamic variables also include pulse pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, aortic compliance, minute work, peak aortic flow velocity and systolic time interval. In this manner, an integrated assessment of total cardiovascular function may be obtained in the same animal without the complicating influence of anesthetics.

  16. Effects of Pomegranate Extract Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Function in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Tzu; Fitschen, Peter J; Kistler, Brandon M; Jeong, Jin Hee; Chung, Hae Ryong; Aviram, Michael; Phillips, Shane A; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation with pomegranate extract on cardiovascular risk, physical function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-three HD subjects were randomized to the pomegranate (POM) or placebo (CON) group. Patients in POM ingested a 1000 mg capsule of a purified pomegranate polyphenol extract 7 days/week for 6 months. Individuals in CON ingested a noncaloric placebo capsule using the same protocol. Measurements were conducted at baseline and repeated 6 months following the start of the intervention. Brachial blood pressure (BP) was obtained using an automatic digital BP monitor. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using ultrasound and arterial tonometry. Blood samples were collected for the measurements of circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Muscle strength and physical function were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry, a validated shuttle walk test, and a battery of tests to assess functional fitness. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by 24 ± 13.7 and 10 ± 5.3 mmHg, respectively, in POM (P < .05). However, the BP differences in POM were no longer significant after controlling for baseline BP. The paraoxonase-1 activity increased by 26.6% (P < .05) in POM, compared to no significant change in CON. However, pomegranate supplementation had no effect on other markers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation and oxidative stress, or measures of physical function and muscle strength. While pomegranate extract supplementation may reduce BP and increase the antioxidant activity in HD patients, it does not improve other markers of cardiovascular risk, physical function, or muscle strength. PMID:25826143

  17. Correlation of macro and micro cardiovascular function during weightlessness and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, P. M.; Marshburn, T. H.; Smith, T. L.; Osborne, S. W.; Lynch, C. D.; Moultsby, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation of cardiovascular function necessarily involves a consideration of the exchange of substances at the capillary. If cardiovascular function is compromised or in any way altered during exposure to zero gravity in space, then it stands to reason that microvascular function is also modified. We have shown that an increase in cardiac output similar to that reported during simulated weightlessness is associated with a doubling of the number of post-capillary venules and a reduction in the number of arterioles by 35%. If the weightlessness of space travel produces similar changes in cardiopulmonary volume and cardiac output, a reasonable expectation is that astronauts will undergo venous neovascularization. We have developed an animal model in which to correlate microvascular and systemic cardiovascular function. The microcirculatory preparation consists of a lightweight, thermo-neutral chamber implanted around intact skeletal muscle on the back of a rat. Using this technique, the performed microvasculature of the cutaneous maximus muscle may be observed in the conscious, unanesthetized animal. Microcirculatory variables which may be obtained include venular and arteriolar numbers, lengths and diameters, single vessel flow velocities, vasomotion, capillary hematocrit anastomoses and orders of branching. Systemic hemodynamic monitoring of cardiac output by electromagnetic flowmetry, and arterial and venous pressures allows correlation of macro- and microcirculatory changes at the same time, in the same animal. Observed and calculated hemodynamic variables also include pulse pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, aortic compliance, minute work, peak aortic flow velocity and systolic time interval. In this manner, an integrated assessment of total cardiovascular function may be obtained in the same animal without the complicating influence of anesthetics.

  18. The impact of consecutive freshwater trimix dives at altitude on human cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Lozo, Mislav; Madden, Dennis; Gunjaca, Grgo; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-03-01

    Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is regularly associated with numerous asymptomatic changes in cardiovascular function. Freshwater SCUBA diving presents unique challenges compared with open sea diving related to differences in water density and the potential for dive locations at altitude. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of freshwater trimix diving at altitude on human cardiovascular function. Ten divers performed two dives in consecutive days at 294 m altitude with the surface interval of 24 h. Both dives were at a depth of 45 m with total dive time 29 and 26 min for the first and second dive, respectively. Assessment of venous gas embolization, hydration status, cardiac function and arterial stiffness was performed. Production of venous gas emboli was low, and there were no significant differences between the dives. After the first dive, diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced, which persisted up to 24 h. Left ventricular stroke volume decreased, and heart rate increased after both dives. Pulse wave velocity was unchanged following the dives. However, the central and peripheral augmentation index became more negative after both dives, indicating reduced wave reflection. Ejection duration and round trip travel time were prolonged 24 h after the first dive, suggesting longer-lasting suppression of cardiac and endothelial function. This study shows that freshwater trimix dives with conservative profiles and low venous gas bubble loads can result in multiple asymptomatic acute cardiovascular changes some of which were present up to 24 h after dive. PMID:24528802

  19. Cardiovascular function in nonclinical drug safety assessment: current issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sarazan, R Dustan; Mittelstadt, Scott; Guth, Brian; Koerner, John; Zhang, Joanne; Pettit, Syril

    2011-05-01

    There are several recent examples where clinically significant, safety-related, drug effects on hemodynamics or cardiac function were not apparent until large clinical trials were completed or the drugs entered the consumer market. Such late-stage safety issues can have significant impact on patient health and consumer confidence, as well as ramifications for the regulatory, pharmaceutical, and financial communities. This manuscript provides recommendations that evolved from a 2009 HESI workshop on the need for improved translation of nonclinical cardiovascular effects to the clinical arena. The authors conclude that expanded and improved efforts to perform sensitive yet specific evaluations of functional cardiovascular parameters in nonclinical studies will allow pharmaceutical companies to identify suspect drugs early in the discovery and development process while allowing promising drugs to proceed into clinical development. PMID:21527643

  20. The effects of acute oral antioxidants on diving-induced alterations in human cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Obad, Ante; Palada, Ivan; Valic, Zoran; Ivančev, Vladimir; Baković, Darija; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O; Dujić, Željko

    2007-01-01

    Diving-induced acute alterations in cardiovascular function such as arterial endothelial dysfunction, increased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and reduced heart function have been recently reported. We tested the effects of acute antioxidants on arterial endothelial function, PAP and heart function before and after a field dive. Vitamins C (2 g) and E (400 IU) were given to subjects 2 h before a second dive (protocol 1) and in a placebo-controlled crossover study design (protocol 2). Seven experienced divers performed open sea dives to 30 msw with standard decompression in a non-randomized protocol, and six of them participated in a randomized trial. Before and after the dives ventricular volumes and function and pulmonary and brachial artery function were assessed by ultrasound. The control dive resulted in a significant reduction in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and heart function with increased mean PAP. Twenty-four hours after the control dive FMD was still reduced 37% below baseline (8.1 versus 5.1%, P = 0.005), while right ventricle ejection fraction (RV-EF), left ventricle EF and endocardial fractional shortening were reduced much less (∼2–3%). At the same time RV end-systolic volume was increased by 9% and mean PAP by 5%. Acute antioxidants significantly attenuated only the reduction in FMD post-dive (P < 0.001), while changes in pulmonary artery and heart function were unaffected by antioxidant ingestion. These findings were confirmed by repeating the experiments in a randomized study design. FMD returned to baseline values 72 h after the dive with pre-dive placebo, whereas for most cardiovascular parameters this occurred earlier (24–48 h). Right ventricular dysfunction and increased PAP lasted longer. Acute antioxidants attenuated arterial endothelial dysfunction after diving, while reduction in heart and pulmonary artery function were unchanged. Cardiovascular changes after diving are not fully reversed up to 3 days after a dive, suggesting

  1. Height, infant-feeding practices and cardiovascular functioning among 3 or 4 year old children in three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Bryan, G T; Harrison, J A; Rassin, D K; Greaves, K A; Baranowski, J H

    1992-05-01

    Barker recently hypothesized that factors affecting prenatal and infant growth are related to adult blood pressure and CVD mortality. Predictions from Barker's hypothesis in regard to infant feeding were tested among a sample of 3 or 4 year old children. The relationship of infant-feeding characteristics (duration of breast-feeding, times of introduction of high fat, high carbohydrate, high potassium foods and table salt) to indicators of cardiovascular functioning (resting blood pressures and heart rates, and heart rate response to graded activity) while controlling for anthropometric (height, sum of seven skinfolds, BMI) and demographic (ethnicity, gender, social status) characteristics revealed that infant-feeding practices were not related to CV functioning in the predicted directions among this sample of 3 or 4 year old children. Furthermore, the positive relationship between height and systolic blood pressure was inconsistent with the Barker hypothesis. PMID:1588357

  2. Antihypertensive treatment with verapamil and amlodipine. Their effect on the functional autonomic and cardiovascular stress responses.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, P; Manzari, M; Merlo, M; Triggiani, R; Scarano, A M; Lasciarrea, A; Pirrelli, A

    1995-09-01

    Many biological and psychological factors induce haemodynamic and extra-cardiovascular functional changes mediated by the autonomic nervous system. Pharmacological blood pressure reduction, as a neurovegetative stimulus, can change the arousal of the sympathetic nervous system. We evaluated the effects of two calcium channel blockers, verapamil and amlodipine, both administered as monotherapies, upon the sympathetic stress response in 23 randomized mild-to-moderate essential hypertensives (161 +/- 2/98 +/- 1 mmHg). Patients performed four stress tests (mental arithmetic, colour word Stroop, cold pressor and handgrip) while extracardiovascular and haemodynamic functions were assessed non-invasively at every heart beat, during baseline, stress and recovery phases. The sympathetic response was evaluated by computing the 'area-under-the-curve' (value x time) measured during the psychophysiological session. The session was repeated at run-in, after placebo and during treatment. After one month's treatment, baseline blood pressure was significantly reduced in patients treated with amlodipine (139 +/- 1/84 +/- 1 mmHg; P < 0.001) and verapamil (140 +/- 2/85 +/- 1 mmHg; P < 0.001). The emotional arousal (frontalis muscular contraction, skin conductance) was unchanged, but the cutaneous vascular response was reduced (P < 0.05) in patients treated with verapamil. No changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure were detectable, but amlodipine increased the heart rate response (P < 0.05). In contrast, verapamil reduced the heart rate (P < 0.05) without depressing the cardiac output response, which was increased with amlodipine (P < 0.05). Total vascular resistance was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced with both the treatments. Consequently, functional cardiac load, expressed by pressure-rate product and cardiac power, was significantly enhanced with amlodipine and reduced with verapamil. In conclusion, the abnormal sympathetic stress response, which characterizes the

  3. Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System Function and Aerobic Capacity in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Harriet; Uusitalo, Arja; Peltonen, Juha E.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki; Tiinanen, Suvi; Seppänen, Tapio; Tulppo, Mikko; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has been reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in healthy subjects, but this relationship is unknown in T1D. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in T1D individuals. Ten T1D patients (34 ± 7 years) and 11 healthy control (CON; 31 ± 6 years) age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. ANS function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with a graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to maneuvers in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians) than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05). VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml kg−1 min−1) than in CON (45 ± 9 ml kg−1 min−1, p < 0.05). Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF, and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05) and when analyzing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to maneuvers, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in T1D. PMID:22973238

  4. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life

    PubMed Central

    Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Tulppo, Mikko P.; Hautala, Arto J.; Perkiömäki, Juha; Karhunen, Ville; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Huikuri, Heikki V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects. Methods At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD) from R-R intervals (RRi) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965–1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking) and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status) potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function. Results In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014) and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001), as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006). These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500–3,999 g; ≥4,000 g). In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010), but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth

  5. Hostility and Facial Affect Recognition: Effects of a Cold Pressor Stressor on Accuracy and Cardiovascular Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herridge, Matt L.; Harrison, David W.; Mollet, Gina A.; Shenal, Brian V.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of hostility and a cold pressor stressor on the accuracy of facial affect perception were examined in the present experiment. A mechanism whereby physiological arousal level is mediated by systems which also mediate accuracy of an individual's interpretation of affective cues is described. Right-handed participants were classified as…

  6. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  7. Homocysteine, Grey Matter and Cognitive Function in Adults with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Andrew H.; Garrido, Griselda J.; Beer, Christopher; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Arnolda, Leonard; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with cognitive impairment, vascular disease and brain atrophy. Methods We investigated 150 volunteers to determine if the association between high tHcy and cerebral grey matter volume and cognitive function is independent of cardiovascular disease. Results Participants with high tHcy (≥15 µmol/L) showed a widespread relative loss of grey matter compared with people with normal tHcy, although differences between the groups were minimal once the analyses were adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and prevalent cardiovascular disease. Individuals with high tHcy had worse cognitive scores across a range of domains and less total grey matter volume, although these differences were not significant in the adjusted models. Conclusions Our results suggest that the association between high tHcy and loss of cerebral grey matter volume and decline in cognitive function is largely explained by increasing age and cardiovascular diseases and indicate that the relationship is not causal. PMID:22413017

  8. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  9. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  10. Function formula oriented construction of Bayesian inference nets for diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Booma Devi; Dong, Mingchui

    2014-01-01

    An intelligent cardiovascular disease (CVD) diagnosis system using hemodynamic parameters (HDPs) derived from sphygmogram (SPG) signal is presented to support the emerging patient-centric healthcare models. To replicate clinical approach of diagnosis through a staged decision process, the Bayesian inference nets (BIN) are adapted. New approaches to construct a hierarchical multistage BIN using defined function formulas and a method employing fuzzy logic (FL) technology to quantify inference nodes with dynamic values of statistical parameters are proposed. The suggested methodology is validated by constructing hierarchical Bayesian fuzzy inference nets (HBFIN) to diagnose various heart pathologies from the deduced HDPs. The preliminary diagnostic results show that the proposed methodology has salient validity and effectiveness in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25247174

  11. Function Formula Oriented Construction of Bayesian Inference Nets for Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Booma Devi; Dong, Mingchui

    2014-01-01

    An intelligent cardiovascular disease (CVD) diagnosis system using hemodynamic parameters (HDPs) derived from sphygmogram (SPG) signal is presented to support the emerging patient-centric healthcare models. To replicate clinical approach of diagnosis through a staged decision process, the Bayesian inference nets (BIN) are adapted. New approaches to construct a hierarchical multistage BIN using defined function formulas and a method employing fuzzy logic (FL) technology to quantify inference nodes with dynamic values of statistical parameters are proposed. The suggested methodology is validated by constructing hierarchical Bayesian fuzzy inference nets (HBFIN) to diagnose various heart pathologies from the deduced HDPs. The preliminary diagnostic results show that the proposed methodology has salient validity and effectiveness in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25247174

  12. Vascular and cognitive functions associated with cardiovascular disease in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Poppas, Athena; Forman, Daniel E.; Hoth, Karin F.; Haley, Andreana P.; Gunstad, John; Jefferson, Angela L.; Tate, David F.; Paul, Robert H.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Ono, Mokato; Jerskey, Beth A.; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between systemic vascular function, neurocognitive performance, and structural brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among geriatric outpatients with treated, stable cardiovascular disease and no history of neurological illness (n = 88, ages 56–85 years). Vascular function was assessed by cardiac ejection fraction and output, sequential systolic and diastolic blood pressures, flow mediated brachial artery reactivity (BAR), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI were quantified and examined relative to cognitive and vascular function. Principal component analysis revealed two primary vascular components: one associated with cardiac function, the other with atherosclerotic burden/endothelial dysfunction. Both factors were significantly associated with cognitive function and WMH volume. Reduced systolic variability and increased IMT were most strongly related to reduced attention, executive function, and information-processing speed. These findings suggest the possibility that systemic vascular indices may provide proxy measures of cerebrovascular dysfunction and reinforce the importance of achieving greater understanding of interaction between systemic vascular disease and brain dysfunction among elderly people with cardiovascular disease. PMID:18608677

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  14. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages. PMID:24615238

  15. Neuromedin U causes biphasic cardiovascular effects and impairs baroreflex function in rostral ventrolateral medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmed A; Shahid, Israt Z; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) causes biphasic cardiovascular and sympathetic responses and attenuates adaptive reflexes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and spinal cord in normotensive animal. However, the role of NMU in the pathogenesis of hypertension is unknown. The effect of NMU on baseline cardiorespiratory variables in the RVLM and spinal cord were investigated in urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized and artificially ventilated male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of NMU on somatosympathetic and baroreceptor reflexes in the RVLM of SHR and WKY. NMU injected into the RVLM and spinal cord elicited biphasic response, a brief pressor and sympathoexcitatory response followed by a prolonged depressor and sympathoinhibitory response in both hypertensive and normotensive rat models. The pressor, sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by NMU were exaggerated in SHR. Phrenic nerve amplitude was also increased following intrathecal or microinjection of NMU into the RVLM of both strains. NMU injection into the RVLM attenuated the somatosympathetic reflex in both SHR and WKY. Baroreflex sensitivity was impaired in SHR at baseline and further impaired following NMU injection into the RVLM. NMU did not affect baroreflex activity in WKY. The present study provides functional evidence that NMU can have an important effect on the cardiovascular and reflex responses that are integrated in the RVLM and spinal cord. A role for NMU in the development and maintenance of essential hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:23538213

  16. Non-invasive assessment of Alterations in Cardiovascular regulation and function and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias resulting from microgravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdell, Craig D.; Sundby, Grete H.; Sherman, Derin; Maa, Ming; Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Williams, Gordon H.; Cohen, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps as a result, fully effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute Cardiovascular Alterations Team is currently conducting a head-down tilt bed rest study in Boston. These studies involve the application of two powerful new methodologies developed at the NASA Center for Quantitative Cardiovascular Physiology, Modeling and Data Analysis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-cardiovascular system identification and T Wave Alternans analysis-for the study of the effects of simulated microgravity on the cardiovascular system. This study is being used as a basis for developing effective countermeasures against microgravity induced orthostatic hypotension and ventricular arrhythmias. .

  17. From form to function: the role of Nox4 in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Haigh, Stephen; Barman, Scott; Fulton, David J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of proteins is comprised of seven members, including Noxes1–5 and the Duoxes 1 and 2. Nox4 is readily distinguished from the other Nox isoforms by its high level of expression in cardiovascular tissues and unique enzymatic properties. Nox4 is constitutively active and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed by Nox4 is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level although there is recent evidence for post-translational control. Nox4 emits a different pattern of ROS and its subcellular localizations, tissue distribution and influence over signaling pathways is different from the other Nox enzymes. Previous investigations have revealed that Nox4 is involved in oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and hypertension, cardiac failure and ischemic stroke. However, many important questions remain regarding the functional significance of Nox4 in health and disease, including the role of Nox4 subcellular localization and its downstream targets. The goal of this review is to summarize the recent literature on the genetic and enzymatic regulation, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, and the role of Nox4 in cardiovascular disease states. PMID:23125837

  18. Coronary Artery Calcium and Physical Function in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Inzitari, Marco; Naydeck, Barbara L.; Newman, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Background In older adults without clinical cardiovascular disease, coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with other subclinical vascular diseases, which, in turn, predict physical dysfunction. However, the association between CAC and physical function is unstudied. Methods In 387 older community-dwellers from the Cardiovascular Health Study without clinical cardiovascular diseases (mean age ± standard deviation = 78.7 ± 3.7, 35% men, 22% African Americans), CAC was measured using electron beam tomography, and physical performance was assessed by usual pace gait speed, chair stand, and tandem stand. Differences in physical performance across CAC quartiles were investigated in the whole cohort and by gender. Associations with gait speed (m/s) were assessed in multivariable models using both the continuous form of CAC score (log(CAC)) and quartiles of CAC, adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Results No differences in physical performance were observed across CAC quartiles in the whole group. In gender-stratified analyses, a significant association was shown among women, who had progressively lower gait speed across CAC quartiles: Those with CAC > 220 walked more than 0.1 m/s slower than those with CAC < 35 (age-adjusted ptrend =.017). After multivariable adjustment, the association remained statistically significant for women in both linear (log(CAC) and gait speed, p =.025) and logistic models: Each of the top three CAC quartiles (35–220, 221–659, and ≥660) had a more than twofold odds of walking slower than 1 m/s, compared to the lowest CAC quartile (< 35; p =.021). Conclusions In this sample of older community-dwellers without overt cardiovascular disease, CAC was inversely related to gait speed in women, but not in men. PMID:18948563

  19. The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultraffine titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

  20. Patient specific identification of the cardiac driver function in a cardiovascular system model.

    PubMed

    Hann, C E; Revie, J; Stevenson, D; Heldmann, S; Desaive, T; Froissart, C B; Lambermont, B; Ghuysen, A; Kolh, P; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2011-02-01

    The cardiac muscle activation or driver function, is a major determinant of cardiovascular dynamics, and is often approximated by the ratio of the left ventricle pressure to the left ventricle volume. In an intensive care unit, the left ventricle pressure is usually never measured, and the left ventricle volume is only measured occasionally by echocardiography, so is not available real-time. This paper develops a method for identifying the driver function based on correlates with geometrical features in the aortic pressure waveform. The method is included in an overall cardiovascular modelling approach, and is clinically validated on a porcine model of pulmonary embolism. For validation a comparison is done between the optimized parameters for a baseline model, which uses the direct measurements of the left ventricle pressure and volume, and the optimized parameters from the approximated driver function. The parameters do not significantly change between the two approaches thus showing that the patient specific approach to identifying the driver function is valid, and has potential clinically. PMID:20621383

  1. Social functioning and age across affective and non-affective psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Both non-affective and affective psychoses are associated with deficits in social functioning across the course of the illness. However, it is not clear how social functioning varies among diagnostic groups as a function of age. The current study examined the relationship between social functioning and age in schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD had the highest functioning while individuals with SZ had the poorest. The functioning of individuals with SZA fell in between the other groups. We also found that older ages were associated with poorer functioning. Although there was not a significant diagnostic group by age interaction, visual inspection of our data suggests a subtly steeper trajectory of decline in PBD. These results indicate that a decline in social functioning with may be an important area of unmet need in treatment across psychotic disorders. PMID:25503785

  2. Modeling and Simulation Approaches for Cardiovascular Function and Their Role in Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, TA; Bergenholm, L; Abdulla, T; Yates, JWT; Evans, N; Chappell, MJ; Mettetal, JT

    2015-01-01

    Systems pharmacology modeling and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis of drug-induced effects on cardiovascular (CV) function plays a crucial role in understanding the safety risk of new drugs. The aim of this review is to outline the current modeling and simulation (M&S) approaches to describe and translate drug-induced CV effects, with an emphasis on how this impacts drug safety assessment. Current limitations are highlighted and recommendations are made for future effort in this vital area of drug research. PMID:26225237

  3. Alteration of cardiovascular function in trained rats fed with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Lortet, S; Verger, P

    1995-11-01

    In vivo cardiovascular function of sedentary and exercise-trained rats were studied after a 3 week feeding period of diets containing either 10% fish oil, sunflower oil or lard. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: fish oil diet: sedentary (FS), exercise-trained (FT); sunflower oil diet; sedentary (SS), exercise-trained (ST); lard diet: sedentary (LS), exercise-trained (LT). The exercised rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 16 m/min, for 60 min/d, 7 days/week during 3 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weights and heart weights among the 6 groups at the end of the study. Heart function was evaluated in closed-chest rats after catheterization of the left ventricle with an ultraminiature catheter pressure transducer. Cardiovascular function of trained rats fed on fish oil diet was significantly different from that of other rats studied (FS, SS, ST, LS, LT). There was a 20% reduction in left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), LVdP/dtmax, mean aortic pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and a 30% reduction in LVdP/dtmin. We conclude that fish oil diet might induce a change in hemodynamic parameters only when associated with stress, such as the moderate exercise protocol in our experiments. PMID:8776205

  4. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M

    2014-02-01

    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study. PMID:23884211

  5. Impact of functional foods on prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sikand, Geeta; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Boulos, Nancy Mariam

    2015-06-01

    A healthy dietary pattern is a cornerstone for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Compelling scientific evidence has shown many health effects of individual foods (including herbs and spices), beverages, and their constituent nutrients and bioactive components on risk of chronic disease and associated risk factors. The focus of functional foods research that is reviewed herein has been on assessing the health effects and underlying mechanisms of action of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, dairy products including fermented products, legumes, nuts, green tea, spices, olive oil, seafood, red wine, herbs, and spices. The unique health benefits of these functional foods have been the basis for recommending their inclusion in a healthy dietary pattern. A better understanding of strategies for optimally including functional foods in a healthy dietary pattern will confer greater benefits on the prevention and treatment of CVD and T2DM. PMID:25899657

  6. Mitochondria DNA mutations cause sex-dependent development of hypertension and alterations in cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Golob, Mark J; Tian, Lian; Wang, Zhijie; Zimmerman, Todd A; Caneba, Christine A; Hacker, Timothy A; Song, Guoqing; Chesler, Naomi C

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with conduit artery stiffening that is a risk factor for and can precede hypertension and ventricular dysfunction. Increases in mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) frequency have been correlated with aging. Mice with a mutation in the encoding domain (D257A) of a proof-reading deficient version of mtDNA polymerase-γ (POLG) have musculoskeletal features of premature aging and a shortened lifespan. However, few studies using these mice have investigated the effects of mtDNA mutations on cardiovascular function. We hypothesized that the proof-reading deficient mtDNA POLG leads to arterial stiffening, hypertension, and ventricular hypertrophy. Ten to twelve month-old D257A mice (n=13) and age- and sex-matched wild-type controls (n=13) were catheterized for hemodynamic and ventricular function measurements. Left common carotid arteries (LCCA) were harvested for mechanical tests followed by histology. Male D257A mice had pulmonary and systemic hypertension, arterial stiffening, larger LCCA diameter (701±45 vs. 597±60μm), shorter LCCA axial length (8.96±0.56 vs. 10.10±0.80mm), and reduced hematocrit (29.1±6.1 vs. 41.3±8.1; all p<0.05). Male and female D257A mice had biventricular hypertrophy (p<0.05). Female D257A mice did not have significant increases in pressure or arterial stiffening, suggesting that the mechanisms of hypertension or arterial stiffening from mtDNA mutations differ based on sex. Our results lend insight into the mechanisms of age-related cardiovascular disease and may point to novel treatment strategies to address cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. PMID:25582357

  7. Mitochondria DNA mutations cause sex-dependent development of hypertension and alterations in cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Golob, Mark J.; Tian, Lian; Wang, Zhijie; Zimmerman, Todd A.; Caneba, Christine A.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Song, Guoqing; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with conduit artery stiffening that is a risk factor for and can precede hypertension and ventricular dysfunction. Increases in mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) frequency have been correlated with aging. Mice with a mutation in the encoding domain (D257A) of a proof-reading deficient version of mtDNA polymerase-γ (POLG) have musculoskeletal features of premature aging and a shortened lifespan. However, few studies using these mice have investigated the effects of mtDNA mutations on cardiovascular function. We hypothesized that the proof-reading deficient mtDNA POLG leads to arterial stiffening, hypertension, and ventricular hypertrophy. Ten to twelve month-old D257A mice (n=13) and age- and sex-matched wild-type controls (n=13) were catheterized for hemodynamic and ventricular function measurements. Left common carotid arteries (LCCA) were harvested for mechanical tests followed by histology. Male D257A mice had pulmonary and systemic hypertension, arterial stiffening, larger LCCA diameter (701 ± 45 vs. 597 ± 60 μm), shorter LCCA axial length (8.96 ± 0.56 vs. 10.10 ± 0.80 mm), and reduced hematocrit (29.1 ± 6.1 vs. 41.3 ± 8.1; all p<0.05). Male and female D257A mice had biventricular hypertrophy (p<0.05). Female D257A mice did not have significant increases in pressure or arterial stiffening, suggesting that the mechanisms of hypertension or arterial stiffening from mtDNA mutations differ based on sex. Our results lend insight into the mechanisms of age-related cardiovascular disease and may point to novel treatment strategies to address cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. PMID:25582357

  8. Caffeine and central noradrenaline: effects on mood, cognitive performance, eye movements and cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Brice, Carolyn; Nash, Jon; Rich, Neil; Nutt, David J

    2003-09-01

    There have been numerous studies on the effects of caffeine on behaviour and cardiovascular function. It is now important to clarify the mechanisms that underlie such effects, and the main objective of the present study was to investigate whether changes in central noradrenaline underlie some of the behavioural and cardiovascular effects of caffeine. This was examined using a clonidine challenge paradigm. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were assigned to one of four conditions: (i) clonidine/caffeine; (ii) clonidine/placebo; (iii) placebo/caffeine: (iv) placebo/placebo. Baseline measurements of mood, cognitive performance, saccadic eye movements and cardiovascular function were recorded. Subsequently, volunteers were given either clonidine (200 microg) or placebo and consumed coffee containing caffeine (1.5 mg/kg) or placebo. The test battery was then repeated 30 min, 150 min and 270 min later. A second cup of coffee (with the same amount of caffeine as the first) was consumed 120 min after the first cup. The results showed that clonidine reduced alertness, impaired many aspects of performance and slowed saccadic eye movements; caffeine removed many of these impairments. Both clonidine and caffeine influenced blood pressure (clonidine reduced it, caffeine raised it) but the effects appeared to be independent, suggesting that separate mechanisms were involved. In addition, there were some behavioural effects of caffeine that were independent of the clonidine effect (e.g. effects on speed of encoding of new information) and these may reflect other neurotransmitter systems (e.g cholinergic effects). Overall, the results suggest that caffeine counteracts reductions in the turnover of central noradrenaline. This mechanism may underlie the beneficial effects of caffeine seen in low alertness states. PMID:14513920

  9. The impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function to stress and the moderating effects of vigorous physical activity: a randomized controlled treatment study in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Camilla S.; Outhred, Tim; Brunoni, Andre R.; Malhi, Gin S.; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20 mg) in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate (HR) and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers) showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d = 0.48). Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (HR decreased: Cohen's d = 0.80; HR variability increased: Cohen's d = 0.33). HR during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease (CVD), longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment. PMID:24069000

  10. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  11. Functional topography of respiratory, cardiovascular and pontine-wave responses to glutamate microstimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmentum of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Topchiy, Irina; Waxman, Jonathan; Radulovacki, Miodrag; Carley, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Functionally distinct areas were mapped within the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) of 42 ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rats using local stimulation by glutamate microinjection (10 mM, 5–12 nl). Functional responses were classified as: 1) apnea; 2) tachypnea; 3) hypertension (HTN); 4) sinus tachycardia; 5) genioglossus electromyogram activation or 6) pontine-waves (p-waves) activation. We found that short latency apneas were predominantly elicited by stimulation in the lateral portion of the PPT, in close proximity to cholinergic neurons. Tachypneic responses were elicited from ventral regions of the PPT and HTN predominated in the ventral portion of the antero-medial PPT. We observed sinus tachycardia after stimulation of the most ventral part of the medial PPT at the boundary with nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, whereas p-waves were registered predominantly following stimulation in the dorso-caudal portion of the PPT. Genioglossus EMG activation was evoked from the medial PPT. Our results support the existence of the functionally distinct areas within the PPT affecting respiration, cardio-vascular function, EEG and genioglossus EMG. PMID:20601208

  12. Effects of High Dietary HEME Iron and Radiation on Cardiovascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Brown, A. K.; Platts, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation related health risks to astronauts is of particular concern to NASA. Data support that exposure to radiation is associated with a number of disorders including a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases. Independent of radiation, altered nutrient status (e.g. high dietary iron) also increases ones risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether exposure to radiation in combination with high dietary iron further increases ones cardiovascular risk. The intent of our proposal is to generate compulsory data examining the combined effect of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury to address HRP risks: 1) Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition; 2) Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems; and 3) Risk of Degenerative Tissue or other Health Effects from Space Radiation. Towards our goal we propose two distinct pilot studies using the following specific aims: Vascular Aim 1: To determine the short-term consequences of the independent and combined effects of exposure to gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on measures of endothelial function and cell viability and integrity. We hypothesize that animals that have high body iron stores and are exposed to gamma radiation will show a greater reduction in endothelial dependent nitric oxid production and larger pathological changes in endothelial integrity than animals that have only 1 of those treatments (either high iron stores or exposure to gamma radiation). Vascular Aim 2: Identify and compare the effects of gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of proteins associated with endothelial cell function. We hypothesize that modifications of epigenetic control and posttranslational expression of proteins associated with endothelial cell function will be differentially altered in rats with high body iron stores and exposed to gamma radiation compared to rats with only 1 type of treatment. Cardiac Aim 1: To determine the

  13. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention. PMID:18361907

  14. Obestatin as a key regulator of metabolism and cardiovascular function with emerging therapeutic potential for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Elaine; Burch, Kerry J; Green, Brian D; Grieve, David J

    2016-07-01

    Obestatin is a 23-amino acid C-terminally amidated gastrointestinal peptide derived from preproghrelin and which forms an α helix. Although obestatin has a short biological half-life and is rapidly degraded, it is proposed to exert wide-ranging pathophysiological actions. Whilst the precise nature of many of its effects is unclear, accumulating evidence supports positive actions on both metabolism and cardiovascular function. For example, obestatin has been reported to inhibit food and water intake, body weight gain and gastrointestinal motility and also to mediate promotion of cell survival and prevention of apoptosis. Obestatin-induced increases in beta cell mass, enhanced adipogenesis and improved lipid metabolism have been noted along with up-regulation of genes associated with beta cell regeneration, insulin production and adipogenesis. Furthermore, human circulating obestatin levels generally demonstrate an inverse association with obesity and diabetes, whilst the peptide has been shown to confer protective metabolic effects in experimental diabetes, suggesting that it may hold therapeutic potential in this setting. Obestatin also appears to be involved in blood pressure regulation and to exert beneficial effects on endothelial function, with experimental studies indicating that it may also promote cardioprotective actions against, for example, ischaemia-reperfusion injury. This review will present a critical appraisal of the expanding obestatin research area and discuss the emerging therapeutic potential of this peptide for both metabolic and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27111465

  15. Effects of breakfast and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Kendrick, A; Maben, A; Salmon, J

    1994-02-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of breakfast (1.89 MJ) and caffeine (4 mg/kg) on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. In the first experiment, breakfast had no effect on performance of sustained attention tasks, but it increased pulse rate and influenced mood. The mood effects after breakfast differed between a cooked breakfast and a cereal/toast breakfast. In contrast to the effects of breakfast, this relatively high dose of caffeine improved performance of the sustained attention tasks, increased blood pressure and increased mental alertness. In the second experiment, effects of a breakfast and caffeine on mood and cardiovascular functions confirmed the results of the first study. The breakfast improved performance on free recall and recognition memory tasks, had no effect on a semantic memory task and impaired the accuracy of performing a logical reasoning task. In contrast to this, caffeine improved performance on the semantic memory, logical reasoning, free recall and recognition memory tasks. Overall, these results show that breakfast can improve performance in some but not all cognitive tasks and that these changes are very different from those observed after lunch, and those produced by caffeine. PMID:8172489

  16. ENU-induced Mutation in the DNA-binding Domain of KLF3 Reveals Important Roles for KLF3 in Cardiovascular Development and Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Lois; Flenniken, Ann M.; Qu, Dawei; Funnell, Alister P. W.; Pearson, Richard; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Voronina, Irina; Berberovic, Zorana; Wood, Geoffrey; Newbigging, Susan; Weiss, Edward S.; Wong, Michael; Quach, Ivan; Yeh, S. Y. Sandy; Deshwar, Ashish R.; Scott, Ian C.; McKerlie, Colin; Henkelman, Mark; Backx, Peter; Simpson, Jeremy; Osborne, Lucy; Rossant, Janet; Crossley, Merlin; Bruneau, Benoit; Adamson, S. Lee

    2013-01-01

    KLF3 is a Krüppel family zinc finger transcription factor with widespread tissue expression and no previously known role in heart development. In a screen for dominant mutations affecting cardiovascular function in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenized mice, we identified a missense mutation in the Klf3 gene that caused aortic valvular stenosis and partially penetrant perinatal lethality in heterozygotes. All homozygotes died as embryos. In the first of three zinc fingers, a point mutation changed a highly conserved histidine at amino acid 275 to arginine (Klf3H275R). This change impaired binding of the mutant protein to KLF3's canonical DNA binding sequence. Heterozygous Klf3H275R mutants that died as neonates had marked biventricular cardiac hypertrophy with diminished cardiac chambers. Adult survivors exhibited hypotension, cardiac hypertrophy with enlarged cardiac chambers, and aortic valvular stenosis. A dominant negative effect on protein function was inferred by the similarity in phenotype between heterozygous Klf3H275R mutants and homozygous Klf3 null mice. However, the existence of divergent traits suggested the involvement of additional interactions. We conclude that KLF3 plays diverse and important roles in cardiovascular development and function in mice, and that amino acid 275 is critical for normal KLF3 protein function. Future exploration of the KLF3 pathway provides a new avenue for investigating causative factors contributing to cardiovascular disorders in humans. PMID:23874215

  17. Resting State Functional Connectivity within the Cingulate Cortex Jointly Predicts Agreeableness and Stressor-Evoked Cardiovascular Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John P.; Sheu, Lei K.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress confers risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of cortical and limbic brain areas, particularly within the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the associations between (i) a particular personality trait, Agreeableness, which is associated with emotional reactions to conflict, (ii) resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex, and (iii) stressor-evoked blood pressure (BP) reactivity. Participants (N=39, 19 men, aged 20–37 yrs) completed a resting functional connectivity MRI protocol, followed by two standardized stressor tasks that engaged conflict processing and evoked BP reactivity. Agreeableness covaried positively with BP reactivity across individuals. Moreover, connectivity analyses demonstrated that a more positive functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate (BA31) and the perigenual anterior cingulate (BA32) covaried positively with Agreeableness and with BP reactivity. Finally, statistical mediation analyses demonstrated that BA31–BA32 connectivity mediated the covariation between Agreeableness and BP reactivity. Functional connectivity within the cingulate appears to link Agreeableness and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stressor-evoked BP reactivity. PMID:21130172

  18. Assessment of cardiovascular function from multi-Gaussian fitting of a finger photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Henriques, J; Quintal, I; Antunes, M; Muehlsteff, J; Eickholt, C; Brinkmeyer, C; Kelm, M; Meyer, C

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of cardiovascular function on a beat-to-beat basis is fundamental for protecting patients in different settings including emergency medicine and interventional cardiology, but still faces technical challenges and several limitations. In the present study, we propose a new method for the extraction of cardiovascular performance surrogates from analysis of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal alone.We propose using a multi-Gaussian (MG) model consisting of five Gaussian functions to decompose the PPG pulses into its main physiological components. From the analysis of these components, we aim to extract estimators of the left ventricular ejection time, blood pressure and vascular tone changes. Using a multi-derivative analysis of the components related with the systolic ejection, we investigate which are the characteristic points that best define the left ventricular ejection time (LVET). Six LVET estimates were compared with the echocardiographic LVET in a database comprising 68 healthy and cardiovascular diseased volunteers. The best LVET estimate achieved a low absolute error (15.41   ±   13.66 ms), and a high correlation (ρ = 0.78) with the echocardiographic reference.To assess the potential use of the temporal and morphological characteristics of the proposed MG model components as surrogates for blood pressure and vascular tone, six parameters have been investigated: the stiffness index (SI), the T1_d and T1_2 (defined as the time span between the MG model forward and reflected waves), the reflection index (RI), the R1_d and the R1_2 (defined as their amplitude ratio). Their association to reference values of blood pressure and total peripheral resistance was investigated in 43 volunteers exhibiting hemodynamic instability. A good correlation was found between the majority of the extracted and reference parameters, with an exception to R1_2 (amplitude ratio between the main forward wave and the first reflection wave), which

  19. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  20. Cardiovascular and affective consequences of ruminating on a performance stressor depend on mode of thought.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Rabideau, Erin M; Figueroa, Wilson S; Woody, Alex

    2014-08-01

    Psychological detachment from work is important for facilitating recovery. This can be threatened by rumination, or thinking about the day's stressors. Rumination may lead to distress, fatigue and extended activation of stress-related systems, but findings are not unequivocal. Level of construal (abstract or concrete) and type of mentation (imagery or verbal thought) used during stressor-focused rumination may shape physiological and affective responses and impact recovery. This study tested whether blood pressure (BP) and anxiety responses to stressor-focused rumination differ by mentation type and construal level. Healthy undergraduates (n = 136) performed a speech stressor and then completed a rumination task in one of four randomly assigned conditions: concrete imagery, abstract imagery, concrete verbal thought or abstract verbal thought. Anxiety and continuous BP were assessed. Concrete rumination led to greater BP, whereas rumination with abstract construals led to lower BP. Furthermore, participants in the abstract conditions had greater increases in anxiety following stressor-focused rumination than in the concrete conditions. Results suggest that the immediate physiological and psychological consequences of stressor-focused rumination depend upon mode of thought. PMID:25100270

  1. Countermeasures for Maintenance of Cardiovascular and Muscle Function in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session FA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Effects of Repeated Long Duration +2Gz Load on Man's Cardiovascular Function; Certain Approaches to the Development of On-Board Automated Training System; Cardiac, Arterial, and Venous Adaptation to Og during 6 Month MIR-Spaceflights with and without "Thigh Cuffs" (93-95); Space Cycle(TM) Induced Physiologic Responses; Muscular Deconditioning During Long-term Spaceflight Exercise Recommendations to Optimize Crew Performance; Structure And Function of Knee Extensors After Long-Duration Spaceflight in Man, Effects of Countermeasure Exercise Training; Force and power characteristics of an exercise ergometer designed for use in space; and The simulating of overgravity conditions for astronauts' motor apparatus at the conditions of the training for orbital flights.

  2. Diet and Gut Microbial Function in Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Bennett, Brian J

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, the gut microbiome has emerged as a novel and largely unexplored source of variability for metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk, including diabetes. Animal and human studies support several possible pathways through which the gut microbiome may impact health, including the production of health-related metabolites from dietary sources. Diet is considered important to shaping the gut microbiota; in addition, gut microbiota influence the metabolism of many dietary components. In the present paper, we address the distinction between compositional and functional analysis of the gut microbiota. We focus on literature that highlights the value of moving beyond surveys of microbial composition to measuring gut microbial functioning to delineate mechanisms related to the interplay between diet and gut microbiota in cardiometabolic health. PMID:27541295

  3. A review of cardiovascular and renal function monitoring: a consideration of older adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kebodeaux, Clark D; Wilson, Alexandria Garavaglia; Smith, Daron L; Vouri, Scott Martin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in older and elderly adults is significant worldwide. This population poses new challenges and opportunities in the management of HIV. In addition to the risks affecting HIV patients of all ages, including risk of opportunistic infection and medication resistance, age-related changes in physiology, higher comorbidity burdens, increased use of medications, and potential adverse drug reactions to HIV medications all factor into the care of older adults with HIV. The risk and progression of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities may be higher in the older adult HIV population and in patients taking specific HIV medications. Understanding these risks is essential when managing a new type of patient: the older adult with HIV. PMID:24068878

  4. The emerging characterization of lysine residue deacetylation on the modulation of mitochondrial function and cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongping; Scott, Iain; Webster, Bradley R.; Sack, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    There is emerging recognition of a novel fuel and redox sensing regulatory program that controls cellular adaptation via non-histone protein lysine-residue acetyl post-translation modifications. This program functions in tissues with high energy demand and oxidative capacity and is highly enriched in the heart. Deacetylation is regulated by NAD+-dependent activation of the sirtuin family of proteins while acetyltransferase modifications are controlled by less clearly delineated acetyltransferases. Subcellular localization specific protein targets of lysine-acetyl modification have been identified in the nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria. Despite distinct subcellular localizations, these modifications appear, in large part, to modify mitochondrial properties including respiration, energy production, apoptosis and anti-oxidant defenses. These mitochondrial regulatory programs are important in cardiovascular biology, although how protein acetyl modifications effects cardiovascular pathophysiology has not been extensively explored. This review will introduce the role of non-histone protein lysine-residue acetyl modifications, discuss their regulation and biochemistry and present the direct and indirect data implicating their involvement in the heart and vasculature. PMID:19850949

  5. Effects of dialysis solution on the cardiovascular function in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Ismail; Unal, Aydin; Gungor, Ozkan; Orscelik, Ozcan; Eroglu, Eray; Dogan, Ender; Sen, Ahmet; Yasan, Mustafa; Hayri Sipahioglu, Murat; Tokgoz, Bulent; Dogan, Ali; Oymak, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients have an increased cardiovascular burden. In this study, we aimed to compare certain PD solutions (Physioneal(®) and Dianeal(®)) in terms of the ambulatory blood pressure, echocardiographic parameters (ECHO), carotid atherosclerosis, endothelial function and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) level. Methods A total of 45 PD patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled study: 23 patients in the Dianeal(®) group and 22 patients in the Physioneal(®) group. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements, echocardiography, carotid artery intima-media thickness measurements and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and ADMA values were obtained at baseline and 12 months. Results The baseline parameters were similar between the groups with respect to the echocardiographic parameters, 24-hour ambulatory blood monitoring measurements and ADMA and FMD levels. All 24-hour blood pressure monitoring measurements, except for the average daytime systolic blood pressure, were significantly decreased in both groups at the first year. In the Physioneal(®) group, a significant decrease was observed with regard to the ADMA levels. Considering the FMD values, significant augmentation was seen at the end of the first year in both groups. Improvements in the FMD measurements were prominent in the Physioneal(®) group; however, this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusion The use of solutions with a neutral pH in PD patients results in decreased ADMA levels, which may be an important contributor to reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular events and deaths in this population. PMID:25742886

  6. Effects of azaperone on cardiovascular and respiratory functions in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, P; Serrano, L

    1976-01-01

    1 The butyrophenone tranquilizer, azaperone, was administered intramuscularly, at dose levels of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, to ponies and its effects on cardiovascular and respiratory functions assessed. 2 Arterial blood pH, CO2 tension (PaCO2) and O2 tension (PaO2) remained relatively constant throughout the course of action of azaperone. 3 Azaperone did not modify plasma protein concentration but venous blood packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration were reduced by 5 to 10% for at least 4 hours. These changes were probably caused by uptake of erythrocytes into the splenic reservoir. 4 Small increases in heart rate occurred for up to 60 min after administration of the drug, and this was followed by a slight bradycardia in some ponies. 5 Azaperone reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) for at least 4 h, by which time its ataractic action was generally no longer apparent. The hypotension was caused, during the early phase of action at least, by a reduction in peripheral resistance, since cardiac output was increased slightly 20 min after its administration. Possible mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular changes are discussed. 6 In spite of reductions in arterial blood O2 content and MAP produced by azaperone, it is likely that tissue oxygenation was adequate, since arterial blood lactate concentrations were not increased. PMID:1260170

  7. PPARs, Cardiovascular Metabolism, and Function: Near- or Far-from-Equilibrium Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Hébert, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR α, β/δ and γ) play a key role in metabolic regulatory processes and gene regulation of cellular metabolism, particularly in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, PPARs have various extra metabolic roles, in circadian rhythms, inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review, we focus mainly on the effects of PPARs on some thermodynamic processes, which can behave either near equilibrium, or far-from-equilibrium. New functions of PPARs are reported in the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a human genetic heart disease. It is now possible to link the genetic desmosomal abnormalitiy to the presence of fat in the right ventricle, partly due to an overexpression of PPARγ. Moreover, PPARs are directly or indirectly involved in cellular oscillatory processes such as the Wnt-b-catenin pathway, circadian rhythms of arterial blood pressure and cardiac frequency and glycolysis metabolic pathway. Dysfunction of clock genes and PPARγ may lead to hyperphagia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death, In pathological conditions, regulatory processes of the cardiovascular system may bifurcate towards new states, such as those encountered in hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart failure. Numerous of these oscillatory mechanisms, organized in time and space, behave far from equilibrium and are “dissipative structures”. PMID:20706650

  8. Cardiovascular control, autonomic function, and elite endurance performance in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    West, C R; Gee, C M; Voss, C; Hubli, M; Currie, K D; Schmid, J; Krassioukov, A V

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between level of injury, completeness of injury, resting as well as exercise hemodynamics, and endurance performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-three elite male paracycling athletes (C3-T8) were assessed for neurological level/completeness of injury, autonomic completeness of injury, resting cardiovascular function, and time to complete a 17.3-km World Championship time-trial test. A subset were also fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and their cycles were fitted with a global positioning systems device (n = 15). Thoracic SCI exhibited higher seated systolic blood pressure along with superior time-trial performance compared with cervical SCI (all P < 0.01). When further stratified by autonomic completeness of injury, the four athletes with cervical autonomic incomplete SCI exhibited a faster time-trial time and a higher average speed compared with cervical autonomic complete SCI (all P < 0.042). Maximum and average HR also tended to be higher in cervical autonomic incomplete vs autonomic complete. There were no differences in time-trial time, HR, or speed between thoracic autonomic complete vs incomplete SCI. In conclusion, autonomic completeness of injury and the consequent ability of the cardiovascular system to respond to exercise appear to be a critical determinant of endurance performance in elite athletes with cervical SCI. PMID:25175825

  9. Development of cardiovascular function in the marine gastropod Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Bitterli, Tabitha S; Rundle, Simon D; Spicer, John I

    2012-07-01

    The molluscan cardiovascular system typically incorporates a transient extracardiac structure, the larval heart, early in development, but the functional importance of this structure is unclear. We documented the ontogeny and regulatory ability of the larval heart in relation to two other circulatory structures, the true heart and the velum, in the intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata. There was a mismatch between the appearance of the larval heart and the velum. Velar lobes appeared early in development (day 4), but the larval heart did not begin beating until day 13. The beating of the larval heart reached a maximum on day 17 and then decreased until the structure itself disappeared (day 24). The true heart began to beat on day 17. Its rate of beating increased as that of the larval heart decreased, possibly suggesting a gradual shift from a larval heart-driven to a true heart-driven circulation. The true heart was not sensitive to acutely declining P(O(2)) shortly after it began to beat, but increased in activity in response to acutely declining P(O(2)) by day 21. Larval heart responses were similar to those of the true heart, with early insensitivity to declining P(O(2)) (day 13) followed by a response by day 15. Increased velum-driven rotational activity under acutely declining P(O(2)) was greatest in early developmental stages. Together, these findings point to cardiovascular function in L. obtusata larvae being the result of a complex interaction between velum, larval and true heart activities, with the functions of the three structures coinciding but their relative importance changing throughout larval development. PMID:22675194

  10. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  11. Prion protein localizes at the ciliary base during neural and cardiovascular development, and its depletion affects α-tubulin post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Passet, Bruno; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Castille, Johan; Urien, Céline; Chat, Sophie; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Béringue, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Although conversion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) into a misfolded isoform is the underlying cause of prion diseases, understanding PrPC physiological functions has remained challenging. PrPC depletion or overexpression alters the proliferation and differentiation properties of various types of stem and progenitor cells in vitro by unknown mechanisms. Such involvement remains uncertain in vivo in the absence of any drastic phenotype of mice lacking PrPC. Here, we report PrPC enrichment at the base of the primary cilium in stem and progenitor cells from the central nervous system and cardiovascular system of developing mouse embryos. PrPC depletion in a neuroepithelial cell line dramatically altered key cilium-dependent processes, such as Sonic hedgehog signalling and α-tubulin post-translational modifications. These processes were also affected over a limited time window in PrPC–ablated embryos. Thus, our study reveals PrPC as a potential actor in the developmental regulation of microtubule dynamics and ciliary functions. PMID:26679898

  12. THE MITOCHONDRIAL PARADIGM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND CELLULAR FUNCTION: A COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPT TO MENDELIAN GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Kryzwanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    While there is general agreement that cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral contributors, the actual mechanistic basis of how these factors initiate or promote CVD development in some individuals while others with identical risk profiles do not, is not clearly understood. This review considers the potential role for mitochondrial genetics and function in determining CVD susceptibility from the standpoint that the original features that molded cellular function were based upon mitochondrial-nuclear relationships established millions of years ago and were likely refined during prehistoric environmental selection events that today, are largely absent. Consequently, contemporary risk factors that influence our susceptibility to a variety of age-related diseases, including CVD were probably not part of the dynamics that defined the processes of mitochondrial – nuclear interaction, and thus, cell function. In this regard, the selective conditions that contributed to cellular functionality and evolution should be given more consideration when interpreting and designing experimental data and strategies. Finally, future studies that probe beyond epidemiologic associations are required. These studies will serve as the initial steps for addressing the provocative concept that contemporary human disease susceptibility is the result of selection events for mitochondrial function that increased chances for prehistoric human survival and reproductive success. PMID:21647091

  13. Neuronostatin Encoded by the Somatostatin Gene Regulates Neuronal, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Functions*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Willis K.; Zhang, Jian V.; Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Cui, Kai; Yosten, Gina L. C.; Klein, Cindy; Lyu, Rong-Ming; Wang, Yong Xiong; Chen, Xiang Qun; Yang, Jun; Price, Christopher J.; Hoyda, Ted D.; Ferguson, Alastair V.; Yuan, Xiao-bin; Chang, Jaw Kang; Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Somatostatin is important in the regulation of diverse neuroendocrine functions. Based on bioinformatic analyses of evolutionarily conserved sequences, we predicted another peptide hormone in pro-somatostatin and named it neuronostatin. Immuno-affinity purification allowed the sequencing of an amidated neuronostatin peptide of 13 residues from porcine tissues. In vivo treatment with neuronostatin induced c-Fos expression in gastrointestinal tissues, anterior pituitary, cerebellum, and hippocampus. In vitro treatment with neuronostatin promoted the migration of cerebellar granule cells and elicited direct depolarizing actions on paraventricular neurons in hypothalamic slices. In a gastric tumor cell line, neuronostatin induced c-Fos expression, stimulated SRE reporter activity, and promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular treatment with neuronostatin increased blood pressure but suppressed food intake and water drinking. Our findings demonstrate diverse neuronal, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular actions of a somatostatin gene-encoded hormone and provide the basis to investigate the physiological roles of this endogenously produced brain/gut peptide. PMID:18753129

  14. Quantification of cardiovascular disease biomarkers via functionalized magnetic beads and on-demand detachable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoyoung; Lee, Jong-Wook; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2013-09-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a potent cause of mortality in both advanced and developing countries. While soluble CD40L (sCD40L) has been implicated as a correlative factor among CVD patients, methods to quantify sCD40L are not yet well-established. In this paper, we present an ability to separate and quantify sCD40L via a simple immunomagnetic assay. Composed of functionalized magnetic beads conferred with directionality and on-demand detachable quantum dots for subsequent optical analysis, our system utilizes the competitive nature of imidazole and nickel ions for histidine. In essence, we demonstrate the capacity to effectively separate and detect sCD40L within a clinically relevant range that contains the cut-off value for acute coronary disease. While sCD40L was used to conduct this study, we envision the use of our system for the separation and quantification of other biomarkers. PMID:23893124

  15. Quantification of cardiovascular disease biomarkers via functionalized magnetic beads and on-demand detachable quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hoyoung; Lee, Jong-Wook; Hwang, Mintai P.; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a potent cause of mortality in both advanced and developing countries. While soluble CD40L (sCD40L) has been implicated as a correlative factor among CVD patients, methods to quantify sCD40L are not yet well-established. In this paper, we present an ability to separate and quantify sCD40L via a simple immunomagnetic assay. Composed of functionalized magnetic beads conferred with directionality and on-demand detachable quantum dots for subsequent optical analysis, our system utilizes the competitive nature of imidazole and nickel ions for histidine. In essence, we demonstrate the capacity to effectively separate and detect sCD40L within a clinically relevant range that contains the cut-off value for acute coronary disease. While sCD40L was used to conduct this study, we envision the use of our system for the separation and quantification of other biomarkers.

  16. The Kallikrein-Kinin System as a Regulator of Cardiovascular and Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2015-01-01

    Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine hormonal systems help regulate cardiovascular and renal function. Any change in the balance among these systems may result in hypertension and target organ damage, whether the cause is genetic, environmental or a combination of the two. Endocrine and neuroendocrine vasopressor hormones such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), aldosterone, and catecholamines are important for regulation of blood pressure and pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ damage. While the role of vasodepressor autacoids such as kinins is not as well defined, there is increasing evidence that they are not only critical to blood pressure and renal function but may also oppose remodeling of the cardiovascular system. Here we will primarily be concerned with kinins, which are oligopeptides containing the aminoacid sequence of bradykinin. They are generated from precursors known as kininogens by enzymes such as tissue (glandular) and plasma kallikrein. Some of the effects of kinins are mediated via autacoids such as eicosanoids, nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and/or tissue plasminogen activator (†PA). Kinins help protect against cardiac ischemia and play an important part in preconditioning as well as the cardiovascular and renal protective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARB). But the role of kinins in the pathogenesis of hypertension remains controversial. A study of Utah families revealed that a dominant kallikrein gene expressed as high urinary kallikrein excretion was associated with a decreased risk of essential hypertension. Moreover, researchers have identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that distinguishes the kallikrein gene family found in one strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) from a homologous gene in normotensive Brown Norway rats, and in recombinant inbred substrains derived from these SHR

  17. Cardiovascular Drugs and Metformin Drug Dosage According to Renal Function in Non-Institutionalized Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Becquemont, Laurent; Bauduceau, Bernard; Benattar-Zibi, Linda; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Berrut, Gilles; Bertin, Philippe; Bucher, Sophie; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Danchin, Nicolas; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Doucet, Jean; Falissard, Bruno; Forette, Francoise; Hanon, Olivier; Pasquier, Florence; Pinget, Michel; Ourabah, Rissane; Piedvache, Celine

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation of drug dosage to kidney function is a common problem in general practice. The aim was to describe adaptation of cardiovascular drugs and metformin according to renal function and its association with mortality with regard to metformin in a cohort of elderly patients. This was an ancillary study to the S.AGES cohort made up of patients over 65 years of age managed by their general practitioner under real-life conditions and followed up prospectively for 3 years. The medications studied were digoxin, spironolactone and metformin. Adaptation of their daily dose according to renal function (eGFR according to CKD/EPI) was compared to that recommended in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) or international scientific societies (ISS). A total of 900 patients were included, including 588 on metformin. At baseline, dose adjustment according to renal function was 100% and 87.6% (95% CI: 82.6-92.6) for patients on digoxin and spironolactone respectively. For metformin, only 71.3% (95% CI: 67.6-74.9) or 78.1% (95% CI: 74.7-81.4) of patients had their dosage adapted at inclusion according to their renal function depending on whether the SPCs or ISS recommendations were considered. During the 3-year follow-up period, 42/588 patients died (none from lactic acidosis). At inclusion, a metformin dosage not adapted for renal function according to ISS was not associated with an increase in all-cause mortality (OR 1.7; 95% CI 0.6-5.0, p = 0.32). In conclusion, approximately one-quarter of elderly patients treated with metformin do not have their dosage adapted for renal function according to ISS although there is no increase in mortality after follow-up for 3 years. PMID:26573791

  18. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  19. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  20. The use of multimodality cardiovascular imaging to assess right ventricular size and function.

    PubMed

    Surkova, Elena; Muraru, Denisa; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P

    2016-07-01

    Right ventricular (RV) size and function have been found to be important predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with various conditions. However, non-invasive assessment of the RV is a challenging task due to its complex anatomy and location in the chest. Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered a "gold standard" for RV assessment, the development of novel echocardiographic techniques, including three-dimensional (3DE) and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) opened new exciting opportunities in RV imaging. 3DE has proven accurate in measuring RV volumes and ejection fraction when compared with CMR while 2DSTE plays a critical role in measuring RV myocardial deformation, which is a powerful predictor of patients' functional capacity and survival. Cardiac computed tomography provides an accurate and reproducible assessment of the RV volumes and can be considered a reliable alternative for patients who are not suitable for either echocardiography or CMR. The purpose of this review is to summarize currently available data on the role of the different noninvasive cardiac imaging modalities in assessment of RV size, function and mechanics, with an emphasis on the benefits of novel imaging techniques and on how the latter can be applied in the various clinical settings. PMID:27057977

  1. Exposure for ultrafine carbon particles at levels below detectable pulmonary inflammation affects cardiovascular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the related molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously we studied cardiovascular responses in healthy WKY rats following inhalation exposure to ultrafine carbon particles (UfCPs...

  2. Left and right ventricular diastolic functions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rexhepaj, N; Bajraktari, G; Berisha, I; Beqiri, A; Shatri, F; Hima, F; Elezi, S; Ndrepepa, G

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) and of the right ventricle in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations and to estimate whether there is a correlation between the duration of RA and the degree of LV diastolic dysfunction. The study included 81 patients (61 females and 20 males) with RA without clinically evident heart disease (group 1) and 40 healthy subjects (29 females and 11 males) who served as a control group (group 2). Both groups were matched for age and sex. Echocardiographic and Doppler studies were conducted in all patients with RA and control subjects. There were significant differences between patients with RA vs. control group with regard to early diastolic flow velocity (E), atrial flow velocity (A) and the E/A ratio (0.68 +/- 0.19 m/s vs. 0.84 +/- 0.14 m/s, p < 0.001; 0.73 +/- 0.15 m/s vs. 0.66 +/- 0.13 cm/s, p = 0.01; and 0.97 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.32 +/- 0.37, p < 0.001, respectively). There was significant difference between groups regarding the right ventricular early diastolic (Er)/atrial (Ar) flow velocities (Er/Ar ratio) (1.07 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.26 +/- 0.3, p = 0.002). There was a weak correlation between transmitral E/A ratio and the duration of RA (r = - 0.22, p = 0.001). Myocardial performance index (MPI) appeared to differ little in patients with RA as compared with control group (0.51 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.2, p = NS). In patients with RA without clinically evident cardiovascular disease, the left ventricular diastolic function and the right ventricular diastolic function are reduced. Left ventricular wall thickness, dimensions, systolic function and MPI were found to be normal. LV diastolic function had a weak correlation with the duration of RA. PMID:16805753

  3. Cardiovascular function, compliance, and connective tissue remodeling in the turtle, Trachemys scripta, following thermal acclimation.

    PubMed

    Keen, Adam N; Shiels, Holly A; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature directly alters cardiovascular physiology in freshwater turtles, causing bradycardia, arterial hypotension, and a reduction in systemic blood pressure. At the same time, blood viscosity and systemic resistance increase, as does sensitivity to cardiac preload (e.g., via the Frank-Starling response). However, the long-term effects of these seasonal responses on the cardiovascular system are unclear. We acclimated red-eared slider turtles to a control temperature (25°C) or to chronic cold (5°C). To differentiate the direct effects of temperature from a cold-induced remodeling response, all measurements were conducted at the control temperature (25°C). In anesthetized turtles, cold acclimation reduced systemic resistance by 1.8-fold and increased systemic blood flow by 1.4-fold, resulting in a 2.3-fold higher right to left (R-L; net systemic) cardiac shunt flow and a 1.8-fold greater shunt fraction. Following a volume load by bolus injection of saline (calculated to increase stroke volume by 5-fold, ∼2.2% of total blood volume), systemic resistance was reduced while pulmonary blood flow and systemic pressure increased. An increased systemic blood flow meant the R-L cardiac shunt was further pronounced. In the isolated ventricle, passive stiffness was increased following cold acclimation with 4.2-fold greater collagen deposition in the myocardium. Histological sections of the major outflow arteries revealed a 1.4-fold higher elastin content in cold-acclimated animals. These results suggest that cold acclimation alters cardiac shunting patterns with an increased R-L shunt flow, achieved through reducing systemic resistance and increasing systemic blood flow. Furthermore, our data suggests that cold-induced cardiac remodeling may reduce the stress of high cardiac preload by increasing compliance of the vasculature and decreasing compliance of the ventricle. Together, these responses could compensate for reduced systolic function at low temperatures in

  4. Cardiovascular function, compliance, and connective tissue remodeling in the turtle, Trachemys scripta, following thermal acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Adam N.; Crossley, Dane A.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature directly alters cardiovascular physiology in freshwater turtles, causing bradycardia, arterial hypotension, and a reduction in systemic blood pressure. At the same time, blood viscosity and systemic resistance increase, as does sensitivity to cardiac preload (e.g., via the Frank-Starling response). However, the long-term effects of these seasonal responses on the cardiovascular system are unclear. We acclimated red-eared slider turtles to a control temperature (25°C) or to chronic cold (5°C). To differentiate the direct effects of temperature from a cold-induced remodeling response, all measurements were conducted at the control temperature (25°C). In anesthetized turtles, cold acclimation reduced systemic resistance by 1.8-fold and increased systemic blood flow by 1.4-fold, resulting in a 2.3-fold higher right to left (R-L; net systemic) cardiac shunt flow and a 1.8-fold greater shunt fraction. Following a volume load by bolus injection of saline (calculated to increase stroke volume by 5-fold, ∼2.2% of total blood volume), systemic resistance was reduced while pulmonary blood flow and systemic pressure increased. An increased systemic blood flow meant the R-L cardiac shunt was further pronounced. In the isolated ventricle, passive stiffness was increased following cold acclimation with 4.2-fold greater collagen deposition in the myocardium. Histological sections of the major outflow arteries revealed a 1.4-fold higher elastin content in cold-acclimated animals. These results suggest that cold acclimation alters cardiac shunting patterns with an increased R-L shunt flow, achieved through reducing systemic resistance and increasing systemic blood flow. Furthermore, our data suggests that cold-induced cardiac remodeling may reduce the stress of high cardiac preload by increasing compliance of the vasculature and decreasing compliance of the ventricle. Together, these responses could compensate for reduced systolic function at low temperatures in

  5. Pre-Transplant Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affect Kidney Allograft Survival: A Multi-Center Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Pyo; Bae, Eunjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Yong-Jin; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Young Hoon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-transplant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors affect the development of CV events even after successful kidney transplantation (KT). However, the impact of pre-transplant CV risk factors on allograft failure (GF) has not been reported. Methods and Findings We analyzed the graft outcomes of 2,902 KT recipients who were enrolled in a multi-center cohort from 1997 to 2012. We calculated the pre-transplant CV risk scores based on the Framingham risk model using age, gender, total cholesterol level, smoking status, and history of hypertension. Vascular disease (a composite of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease) was noted in 6.5% of the patients. During the median follow-up of 6.4 years, 286 (9.9%) patients had developed GF. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, pre-transplant vascular disease was associated with an increased risk of GF (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.66–3.80). The HR for GF (comparing the highest with the lowest tertile regarding the pre-transplant CV risk scores) was 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.23). In the competing risk model, both pre-transplant vascular disease and CV risk score were independent risk factors for GF. Moreover, the addition of the CV risk score, the pre-transplant vascular disease, or both had a better predictability for GF compared to the traditional GF risk factors. Conclusions In conclusion, both vascular disease and pre-transplant CV risk score were independently associated with GF in this multi-center study. Pre-transplant CV risk assessments could be useful in predicting GF in KT recipients. PMID:27501048

  6. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  7. Association between Baseline Kidney Function and Change in CRP: An Analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin, Dena E.; Katz, Ronit; Fried, Linda F.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Newman, Anne B.; Siscovick, David S.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In cross-sectional analyses, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are inversely related to levels of kidney function. The relationship between kidney function and subsequent changes in CRP is unknown. Methods We studied 4,364 individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Baseline eGFRcys was estimated using cystatin C. CRP was measured at baseline and after 3 and 7 years of follow-up; slopes of change in CRP were calculated. Results The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 72 (5.2) years; mean (SD) eGFRcys was 78.9 (18.4) ml/min/1.73 m2. The median (interquartile range IQR) baseline CRP was 2.39 (1.22, 4.33) mg/l; the median (IQR) yearly change in CRP was −0.0051 (−0.020 to 0.27) mg/l/year. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and the initial level of CRP, each standard deviation lower baseline eGFR was associated with a small and non-significant yearly increase in CRP (0.032 mg/l/year; 95% CI: −0.005 to 0.070, p = 0.094). Conclusions We did not find a relationship between eGFR and subsequent changes in CRP. The association between kidney function and CRP in cross-sectional analyses may reflect unmeasured confounding by atherosclerosis; alternatively, the burden of comorbidity and interval mortality in this population may have masked a stronger longitudinal association between kidney function and change in CRP. Further study in younger populations may clarify whether impaired kidney function leads to change in inflammation over time. PMID:20413990

  8. Validation of Spectral Analysis as a Noninvasive Tool to Assess Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Charles F.; Evans, Joyce M.

    1996-01-01

    A major focus of our program has been to develop a sensitive noninvasive procedure to quantify early weightlessness-induced changes in cardiovascular function or potential dysfunction. Forty studies of healthy young volunteers (10 men and 10 women, each studied twice) were conducted to determine changes in the sympatho-vagal balance of autonomic control of cardiovascular regulation during graded headward and footward blood volume shifts. Changes in sympatho-vagal balance were classified by changes in the mean levels and spectral content of cardiovascular variables and verified by changes in circulating levels of catecholamines and pancreatic polypeptide. Possible shifts in intra/extravascular fluid were assessed from changes in hematocrit and plasma mass density while changes in the stimulus to regulate plasma volume were determined from Plasma Renin Activity (PRA). Autonomic blockade was used to unmask the relative contribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent influences in response to 10 min each of 0, 20 and 40 mmHg Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) and 15 and 30 mmHg Positive Pressure (LBPP). The combination of muscarinic blockade with graded LBNP and LBPP was used to evoke graded increases and decreases in sympathetic activity without parasympathetic contributions. The combination of beta blockade with graded LBNP and LBPP was used to produce graded increases and decreases in parasympathetic activity without beta sympathetic contributions. Finally, a combination of both beta and muscarinic blockades with LBNP and LBPP was used to determine the contribution from other, primarily alpha adrenergic, sources. Mean values, spectral analyses and time frequency analysis of R-R interval (HR), Arterial Pressure (AP), peripheral blood flow (RF), Stroke Volume (SV) and peripheral resistance (TPR) were performed for all phases of the study. Skin blood Flow (SF) was also measured in other studies and similarly analyzed. Spectra were examined for changes in

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring dynamic cardiovascular function using n-dimensional representatives of critical functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westinskow, Dwayne (Inventor); Agutter, James (Inventor); Syroid, Noah (Inventor); Strayer, David (Inventor); Albert, Robert (Inventor); Wachter, S. Blake (Inventor); Drews, Frank (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, system, apparatus and device for the monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation of the state of a dynamic pulmonary system is disclosed. This method and system provides the processing means for receiving sensed and/or simulated data, converting such data into a displayable object format and displaying such objects in a manner such that the interrelationships between the respective variables can be correlated and identified by a user. This invention provides for the rapid cognitive grasp of the overall state of a pulmonary critical function with respect to a dynamic system.

  10. Cardiac Structure and Function in Humans: A New Cardiovascular Physiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Su; Burleson, Paul D.; Passo, Stanley; Messina, Edward J.; Levine, Norman; Thompson, Carl I.; Belloni, Francis L.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Ojaimi, Caroline; Kaley, Gabor; Hintze, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    As the traditional cardiovascular control laboratory has disappeared from the first-year medical school curriculum, we have recognized the need to develop another "hands-on" experience as a vehicle for wide-ranging discussions of cardiovascular control mechanisms. Using an echocardiograph, an automatic blood pressure cuff, and a reclining bicycle,…

  11. Artificial Gravity with Ergometric Exercise Training Improves Cardiovascular Function in Ambulatory Men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xi-Qing; Zhu, Chao; Shang, Shu; Yao, Yong-Jie

    2008-06-01

    The necessity of preventing physiological deconditioning in astronauts exposed to long-term space flights is well known. Artificial gravity training via short-arm centrifugation as a countermeasure to microgravity has been considered for many years. However, an optimal duration, level and rate of exposure to artificial gravity have not yet been determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of three weeks of intermittent artificial gravity with ergometric exercise training on normal ambulatory men. During 3 weeks experiment, eight healthy male subjects received alternate +1 to +2 Gz (at the foot) short-arm centrifuge training with 30 W ergometric exercise for 30 min per day. Cardiac function, heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure were measured before and after training. Stroke volume and total peripheral resistance increased significantly after 3 weeks training, compared with the pre-training baseline. Left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and ejection fraction increased significantly after 3 weeks training, while heart rate, the ratio of pre-ejection period to LVET, and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power decreased significantly after 3 weeks training. These results suggest that three weeks short-arm centrifuge training with ergometric exercise could improve human cardiac systolic and pumping functions, and increase cardiac vagal modulation.

  12. Generation and Assessment of Functional Biomaterial Scaffolds for Applications in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Svenja; Brauchle, Eva; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2015-11-18

    Current clinically applicable tissue and organ replacement therapies are limited in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine. The available options do not regenerate damaged tissues and organs, and, in the majority of the cases, show insufficient restoration of tissue function. To date, anticoagulant drug-free heart valve replacements or growing valves for pediatric patients, hemocompatible and thrombus-free vascular substitutes that are smaller than 6 mm, and stem cell-recruiting delivery systems that induce myocardial regeneration are still only visions of researchers and medical professionals worldwide and far from being the standard of clinical treatment. The design of functional off-the-shelf biomaterials as well as automatable and up-scalable biomaterial processing methods are the focus of current research endeavors and of great interest for fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, various approaches that aim to overcome the current limitations are reviewed, focusing on biomaterials design and generation methods for myocardium, heart valves, and blood vessels. Furthermore, novel contact- and marker-free biomaterial and extracellular matrix assessment methods are highlighted. PMID:25778713

  13. Generation and Assessment of Functional Biomaterial Scaffolds for Applications in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hinderer, Svenja; Brauchle, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Current clinically applicable tissue and organ replacement therapies are limited in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine. The available options do not regenerate damaged tissues and organs, and, in the majority of the cases, show insufficient restoration of tissue function. To date, anticoagulant drug‐free heart valve replacements or growing valves for pediatric patients, hemocompatible and thrombus‐free vascular substitutes that are smaller than 6 mm, and stem cell‐recruiting delivery systems that induce myocardial regeneration are still only visions of researchers and medical professionals worldwide and far from being the standard of clinical treatment. The design of functional off‐the‐shelf biomaterials as well as automatable and up‐scalable biomaterial processing methods are the focus of current research endeavors and of great interest for fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, various approaches that aim to overcome the current limitations are reviewed, focusing on biomaterials design and generation methods for myocardium, heart valves, and blood vessels. Furthermore, novel contact‐ and marker‐free biomaterial and extracellular matrix assessment methods are highlighted. PMID:25778713

  14. Cardiac and somatic parameters in zebrafish: tools for the evaluation of cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rafael; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a worldwide public health problem. To date, extensive research has been conducted to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger cardiovascular diseases and to evaluate therapeutic options. Animal models are widely used to achieve these goals, and zebrafish have emerged as a low-cost model that produces rapid results. Currently, a large body of research is devoted to the cardiovascular development and diverse cardiovascular disorders of zebrafish embryos and larvae. However, less research has been conducted on adult zebrafish specimens. In this study, we evaluated a method to obtain and to evaluate morphometric parameters (of both the entire animal and the heart) of adult zebrafish. We used these data to calculate additional parameters, such as body mass index, condition factor and cardiac somatic index. This method and its results can be used as reference for future studies that aim to evaluate the pathophysiological aspects of the zebrafish cardiovascular system. PMID:26553553

  15. Sex and the Cardiovascular System: The Intriguing Tale of How Women and Men Regulate Cardiovascular Function Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxley, Virginia H.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to recognize and appreciate from a reproductive standpoint that males and females possess different attributes has been long standing. Only more recently have we begun to look more deeply into both the similarities and differences between men and women, as well as between boys and girls, with respect to the structure and function of…

  16. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  17. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng; Chen, Dongyan

    2016-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  18. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  19. Orange juice–derived flavanone and phenolic metabolites do not acutely affect cardiovascular risk biomarkers: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in men at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease12345

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Manuel Y; Curtis, Peter J; Hazim, Sara; Ostertag, Luisa M; Kay, Colin D; Potter, John F; Cassidy, Aedín

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic data suggest inverse associations between citrus flavanone intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, insufficient randomized controlled trial data limit our understanding of the mechanisms by which flavanones and their metabolites potentially reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: We examined the effects of orange juice or a dose-matched hesperidin supplement on plasma concentrations of established and novel flavanone metabolites and their effects on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in men at moderate CVD risk. Design: In an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 16 fasted participants (aged 51–69 y) received orange juice or a hesperidin supplement (both providing 320 mg hesperidin) or control (all matched for sugar and vitamin C content). At baseline and 5 h postintake, endothelial function (primary outcome), blood pressure, arterial stiffness, cardiac autonomic function, platelet activation, and NADPH oxidase gene expression and plasma flavanone metabolites were assessed. Before each intervention, a diet low in flavonoids, nitrate/nitrite, alcohol, and caffeine was followed, and a standardized low-flavonoid evening meal was consumed. Results: Orange juice intake significantly elevated mean ± SEM plasma concentrations of 8 flavanone (1.75 ± 0.35 μmol/L, P < 0.0001) and 15 phenolic (13.27 ± 2.22 μmol/L, P < 0.0001) metabolites compared with control at 5 h postconsumption. Despite increased plasma flavanone and phenolic metabolite concentrations, cardiovascular risk biomarkers were unaltered. After hesperidin supplement intake, flavanone metabolites were not different from the control, suggesting altered absorption/metabolism compared with the orange juice matrix. Conclusions: After single-dose flavanone intake within orange juice, circulating flavanone and phenolic metabolites collectively reached a concentration of 15.20 ± 2.15 μmol/L, but no effects were observed on cardiovascular risk

  20. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) polymorphisms affect mRNA splicing, HDL levels, and sex-dependent cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Papp, Audrey C; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Wang, Danxin; Newman, Leslie C; Gong, Yan; Johnson, Julie A; Pepine, Carl J; Kumari, Meena; Hingorani, Aroon D; Talmud, Philippa J; Shah, Sonia; Humphries, Steve E; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in and around the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene have been associated with HDL levels, risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), and response to therapy. The mechanism of action of these polymorphisms has yet to be defined. We used mRNA allelic expression and splice isoform measurements in human liver tissues to identify the genetic variants affecting CETP levels. Allelic CETP mRNA expression ratios in 56 human livers were strongly associated with several variants 2.5-7 kb upstream of the transcription start site (e.g., rs247616 p = 6.4 × 10(-5), allele frequency 33%). In addition, a common alternatively spliced CETP isoform lacking exon 9 (Δ9), has been shown to prevent CETP secretion in a dominant-negative manner. The Δ 9 expression ranged from 10 to 48% of total CETP mRNA in 94 livers. Increased formation of this isoform was exclusively associated with an exon 9 polymorphism rs5883-C>T (p = 6.8 × 10(-10)) and intron 8 polymorphism rs9930761-T>C (5.6 × 10(-8)) (in high linkage disequilibrium with allele frequencies 6-7%). rs9930761 changes a key splicing branch point nucleotide in intron 8, while rs5883 alters an exonic splicing enhancer sequence in exon 9.The effect of these polymorphisms was evaluated in two clinical studies. In the Whitehall II study of 4745 subjects, both rs247616 and rs5883T/rs9930761C were independently associated with increased HDL-C levels in males with similar effect size (rs247616 p = 9.6 × 10(-28) and rs5883 p = 8.6 × 10(-10), adjusted for rs247616). In an independent multiethnic US cohort of hypertensive subjects with CAD (INVEST-GENE), rs5883T/rs9930761C alone were significantly associated with increased incidence of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality in males (rs5883: OR 2.36 (CI 1.29-4.30), p = 0.005, n = 866). These variants did not reach significance in females in either study. Similar to earlier results linking low CETP activity with poor outcomes in males, our results suggest genetic, sex

  1. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  2. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  3. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular function at extreme altitude: lessons from Operation Everest II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. R.; Reeves, J. T.; Groves, B. M.; Wagner, P. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Hultgren, H. N.; Cymerman, A.; Houston, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Operation Everest II was designed to examine the physiological responses to gradual decompression simulating an ascent of Mt Everest (8,848 m) to an inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg. The principal studies conducted were cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular-skeletal and metabolic responses to exercise. Eight healthy males aged 21-31 years began the "ascent" and six successfully reached the "summit", where their resting arterial blood gases were PO2 = 30 mmHg and PCO2 = 11 mmHg, pH = 7.56. Their maximal oxygen uptake decreased from 3.98 +/- 0.2 L/min at sea level to 1.17 +/- 0.08 L/min at PIO2 43 mmHg. The principal factors responsible for oxygen transport from the atmosphere to tissues were (1) Alveolar ventilation--a four fold increase. (2) Diffusion from the alveolus to end capillary blood--unchanged. (3) Cardiac function (assessed by hemodynamics, echocardiography and electrocardiography)--normal--although maximum cardiac output and heart rate were reduced. (4) Oxygen extraction--maximal with PvO2 14.8 +/- 1 mmHg. With increasing altitude maximal blood and muscle lactate progressively declined although at any submaximal intensity blood and muscle lactate was higher at higher altitudes.

  4. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Clark, R; Gallagher, J

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. One hundred and forty-four volunteers (72 male, 72 female, mean age 21 years) were assigned to one of the groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal versus no breakfast) and caffeine (caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee) conditions. The volunteers completed a baseline session between 0800 and 0845 h. The breakfast/caffeine administration took place between 0845 and 0915 h. They then completed another test session (starting at 0945) and had a coffee break at 1045, followed by a final session starting at 1145. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal had a more positive mood at the start of the test sessions, performed better on a spatial memory task, and felt calmer at the end of the test session than those in the no breakfast condition. Ingestion of caffeine had no effect on initial mood or working memory, but it did improve encoding of new information and counteracted the fatigue that developed over the test session. Caffeine increased blood pressure and pulse rate, whereas breakfast cereal consumption only had an effect on pulse. Overall, these results confirm previous findings on the effects of breakfast and caffeine, and demonstrate distinct profiles for two common examples of early-morning food and drink, breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee. PMID:10463623

  5. The influence of rehydration mode after exercise dehydration on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; Yamamoto, Linda M; Beasley, Kathleen N; Emmanuel, Holly; Pescatello, Linda S; Kraemer, William J; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2013-08-01

    Our purpose was to compare the common modes of rehydration (REHY) on cardiovascular and fluid regulation recovery after exercise dehydration (EXDE). Twelve nonheat-acclimatized trained subjects (age: 23 ± 4 years, weight: 81.3 ± 3.7 kg, height: 180 ± 6 cm, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 56.9 ± 4.4 ml·min·kg , and body fat: 7.8 ± 3.0%) completed 20-hour fluid restriction and 2-hour EXDE to -4% body mass, and then were rehydrated to -2% body mass in a randomized, crossover design. The REHY methods included no fluid (NF), ad libitum, oral (OR), intravenous (IV), and a combination of IV and OR (IV + OR) of 1/2-normal saline (0.45% NaCl). The REHY occurred for 30 minutes, and the subjects were observed during rest for 30 minutes. Seated, standing, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and blood pressure (BP) were measured every 15 minutes throughout REHY. Heart rate (HR), plasma arginine vasopressin concentration [AVP], and thirst perception were measured throughout REHY. The EXDE resulted in a body mass loss of 4.32 ± 0.22%. The REHY returned the subjects to -2.13 ± 0.47% body mass for controlled trials. Seated systolic BP was greater for IV + OR compared with that for OR (p = 0.015). Seated systolic BP and MAP during REHY showed that IV + OR was greater than OR, independent of time (p ≤ 0.011). Upon standing, IV + OR demonstrated a greater BP than both NF (p = 0.012) and OR (p = 0.031) did. The HR was reduced by IV and IV + OR to a greater extent than NF at REHY30 and REHY60 (p < 0.05). The IV + OR [AVP] demonstrated a strong trend for decreasing over time (p = 0.054) and was significantly less than NF at REHY60 (p = 0.003). Practical application seeking to restore cardiovascular function after EXDE, the combined use of IV + OR rather than a single REHY method seems to be most expedient. PMID:23615479

  6. Impaired cardiovascular structure and function in adult survivors of severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Ingrid A; Barnett, Alan T; Thompson, Debbie S; Kips, Jan; Boyne, Michael S; Chung, Edward E; Chung, Andrene P; Osmond, Clive; Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Segers, Patrick; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Forrester, Terrence E

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition below 5 years remains a global health issue. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) presents in childhood as oedematous (kwashiorkor) or nonoedematous (marasmic) forms, with unknown long-term cardiovascular consequences. We hypothesized that cardiovascular structure and function would be poorer in SAM survivors than unexposed controls. We studied 116 adult SAM survivors, 54 after marasmus, 62 kwashiorkor, and 45 age/sex/body mass index-matched community controls who had standardized anthropometry, blood pressure, echocardiography, and arterial tonometry performed. Left ventricular indices and outflow tract diameter, carotid parameters, and pulse wave velocity were measured, with systemic vascular resistance calculated. All were expressed as SD scores. Mean (SD) age was 28.8±7.8 years (55% men). Adjusting for age, sex, height, and weight, SAM survivors had mean (SE) reductions for left ventricular outflow tract diameter of 0.67 (0.16; P<0.001), stroke volume 0.44 (0.17; P=0.009), cardiac output 0.5 (0.16; P=0.001), and pulse wave velocity 0.32 (0.15; P=0.03) compared with controls but higher diastolic blood pressures (by 4.3; 1.2-7.3 mm Hg; P=0.007). Systemic vascular resistance was higher in marasmus and kwashiorkor survivors (30.2 [1.2] and 30.8 [1.1], respectively) than controls 25.3 (0.8), overall difference 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.4 mm Hg min/L; P<0.0001). No evidence of large vessel or cardiac remodeling was found, except closer relationships between these indices in former marasmic survivors. Other parameters did not differ between SAM survivor groups. We conclude that adult SAM survivors had smaller outflow tracts and cardiac output when compared with controls, yet markedly elevated peripheral resistance. Malnutrition survivors are thus likely to develop excess hypertension in later life, especially when exposed to obesity. PMID:24980666

  7. BIOAVAILABLE AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION CONSTITUENTS DIRECTLY ALTER CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION EX VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate air pollution exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects within susceptible individuals. Particle characteristics and biological mechanisms responsible for these observations are not known. We examined whether s...

  8. [The functional state of the cardiovascular and central nervous system in patients with occupational deafness].

    PubMed

    Tin'kov, A N; Raĭtselis, I V

    2009-01-01

    The workers of the Orenburg gas-processing plant have been found to be at high risk for concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular, central nervous, and other systems in the presence of occupational sensorineural deafness. Among the comorbidities in deaf patients, cardiovascular disease heads the list (63%), of them autonomic vascular dystonia is most common (22%); diseases of the central nervous system and lung rank second (13%) and third (11%), respectively. PMID:19802944

  9. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  10. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ∼30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels. PMID:23884733

  11. MIF and CXCL12 in Cardiovascular Diseases: Functional Differences and Similarities

    PubMed Central

    van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Döring, Yvonne; Weber, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) as part of the cardiovascular diseases is a pathology caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall characterized by a massive invasion of lipids and inflammatory cells into the inner vessel layer (intima) leading to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions; their constant growth may cause complications such as flow-limiting stenosis and plaque rupture, the latter triggering vessel occlusion through thrombus formation. Pathophysiology of CAD is complex and over the last years many players have entered the picture. One of the latter being chemokines (small 8–12 kDa cytokines) and their receptors, known to orchestrate cell chemotaxis and arrest. Here, we will focus on the chemokine CXCL12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and the chemokine-like function chemokine, macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF). Both are ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved proteins and play an important role in cell homeostasis, recruitment, and arrest through binding to their corresponding chemokine receptors CXCR4 (CXCL12 and MIF), ACKR3 (CXCL12), and CXCR2 (MIF). In addition, MIF also binds to the receptor CD44 and the co-receptor CD74. CXCL12 has mostly been studied for its crucial role in the homing of (hematopoietic) progenitor cells in the bone marrow and their mobilization into the periphery. In contrast to CXCL12, MIF is secreted in response to diverse inflammatory stimuli, and has been associated with a clear pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic role in multiple studies of patients and animal models. Ongoing research on CXCL12 points at a protective function of this chemokine in atherosclerotic lesion development. This review will focus on the role of CXCL12 and MIF and their differences and similarities in CAD of high risk patients. PMID:26257740

  12. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45–64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001–2004 (n=42 807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events

  13. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  14. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  15. Different effect of hormone replacement therapy, DHEAS and tibolone on endothelial function in postmenopausal women with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Antonello; Gambacciani, Marco; Vitale, Cristiana; Monteleone, Patrizia; Ciaponi, Massimo; Fini, Massimo; Genazzani, Andrea R; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2005-04-11

    Menopause is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and with a decrease in endothelial function. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) improves endothelial function in post-menopausal women (PMW) without established atherosclerosis. New alternative treatments, among which tibolone (T) and DHEAS have been suggested to reduce postmenopausal cardiovascular risk. Although, in vitro animal studies have suggested that T and DHEAS improve endothelial function, their effect in humans has never been tested. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of HRT (continuous combined 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg/d medoxyprogesterone) DHEAS and T on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), plasma nitrite, nitrate and endothelin-1 levels in 16 PMW with increased cardiovascular risk in a double-blinded, double-crossover study. Women were randomized and treated for 4 weeks with HRT, T or DHEAS. Brachial artery diameter, FMD, endothelin-1 and plasma nitrite and nitrate levels were measured at baseline and after each treatment phase. Brachial artery diameters remained unchanged after each treatment phase. HRT significantly improved FMD compared to both baseline and to T and DHEAS therapies while no effect of T or DHEAS on FMD was noted. In conclusion, HRT, but neither T nor DHEAS, improves endothelial function and reduces plasma levels of endothelin-1 in PMW at risk of CAD. PMID:15780531

  16. The predictive value of arterial stiffness on major adverse cardiovascular events in individuals with mildly impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jie; Wang, Xiaona; Ye, Ping; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite growing evidence that arterial stiffness has important predictive value for cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, the predictive significance of arterial stiffness in individuals with mildly impaired renal function has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of arterial stiffness on cardiovascular disease in this specific population. Materials and methods We analyzed measurements of arterial stiffness (carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity [cf-PWV]) and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in 1,499 subjects from a 4.8-year longitudinal study. Results A multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis showed that in individuals with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), the baseline cf-PWV was not associated with occurrence of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.398, 95% confidence interval 0.748–2.613; P=0.293). In individuals with mildly impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2), a higher baseline cf-PWV level was associated with a higher risk of MACEs (hazard ratio 2.334, 95% confidence interval 1.082–5.036; P=0.031). Conclusion Arterial stiffness is a moderate and independent predictive factor for MACEs in individuals with mildly impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2). PMID:27621605

  17. The effect of passive heating and head cooling on perception, cardiovascular function and cognitive performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shona E; Saxby, Brian K; McGlone, Francis P; Jones, David A

    2008-09-01

    The present study examined the effects of raising both skin temperature and core temperature, separately and in combination, on perceptions of heat-related fatigue (alertness, contentment, calmness and thermal comfort), cardiovascular function and on objective measures of cognitive performance (reaction time and accuracy). Ten (six males) subjects had cognitive performance assessed in three conditions; at low skin and low core temperature (LL), at high skin and low core temperature (HL) and at high skin and high core temperatures (HH). In one trial, subjects had their head and neck cooled (HC); the other trial was a control (CON). Raising skin temperature increased heart rate and decreased perception of thermal comfort (P < 0.05), whereas raising both skin and core temperature decreased perception of heat-related fatigue (P < 0.05) and increased cardiovascular strain (P < 0.05) resulting in decrements in cognitive performance shown by faster reaction times (P < 0.05) and a loss of accuracy (P < 0.05). At high skin and core temperatures, cooling the head and neck improved feelings of heat-related fatigue (P < 0.05) and cardiovascular strain (P < 0.05), but had no effect on cognitive performance. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that feelings of heat-related fatigue and cardiovascular strain can be attributed to a combination of elevated skin and core body temperature, whereas decrements in cognitive performance can be attributed to an elevated core temperature. PMID:18214520

  18. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina M; Salazar, Celia; Jensen, Erik; Ruiz, Paula A; Tiznado, William; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 (∙-) production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  19. Clinical and Biochemical Markers of Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Women With the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Gladys P; Sherazi, Saadia; Kraemer, Dale F; Bravo-Jaimes, Katia; Butterfield, Ryan; Amico, Tonja; Steinmetz, Sherry D; Guzman, Maricela; Martin, Dale; Dodani, Sunita; Smith, Brian H

    2015-12-01

    The pathobiological impact of individual components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) on cardiac structural and functional parameters in women with isolated MS is not known. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare biochemical (prothrombotic, lipogenic, and inflammatory) and imaging (carotid intima-media thickening and basic cardiac structural measurements) markers in women with and without MS and (2) to examine if any of these markers associated or predicted cardiac structural differences between the 2 groups. This cross-sectional pilot study included 88 women with MS and 35 women without it. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Patients with diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. Compared with healthy subjects, women with MS had higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, apolipoprotein-B, and lower levels of apolipoprotein-A1 (p <0.001 for all). They also had higher mean ventricular septum, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular (LV) mass, carotid intima-media thickness (p <0.001 for all), and left atrial diameter (p = 0.015). In multivariable regression models, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure (BP) were significant predictors of: ventricular septum (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001, respectively), posterior wall thickness (p = 0.008 and p = 0.040, respectively), and LV mass (p <0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). Significant predictors for carotid intima-media thickness were systolic BP, glucose, and leptin (p <0.0001, p = 0.034, and p = 0.002, respectively). In conclusion, there are significant clinical, biochemical, and cardiovascular structural differences in women with isolated MS compared with those without. Waist circumference and systolic BP had the strongest association with cardiac structural differences in this group of women. PMID:26482181

  20. Distribution and function of peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, R R

    1985-05-01

    alpha-Adrenoceptors may be subdivided based on their anatomical distribution within the synapse. Presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors are generally of the alpha 2-subtype and modulate neurotransmitter liberation via a negative feedback mechanism. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors are usually of the alpha 1-subtype and mediate the response of the effector organ. Although this "anatomical" subclassification is generally applicable, many exceptions exist. A more useful classification of alpha-adrenoceptor subtypes is based on a pharmacological characterization in which selective agonists and antagonists are used. Peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors are critical in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors in arteries and veins represent a mixed population of alpha 1/alpha 2-adrenoceptors, with both subtypes mediating vasoconstriction. In the peripheral arterial circulation, postsynaptic vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors are found in the adrenergic neuroeffector junction, whereas postsynaptic vascular alpha 2-adrenoceptors are located extrajunctionally. In the venous circulation, it appears that alpha 2-adrenoceptors may be predominantly junctional, whereas alpha 1-adrenoceptors may be predominantly extrajunctional. It has been proposed that junctional alpha-adrenoceptors will respond predominantly to norepinephrine liberated from sympathetic neurons, whereas extrajunctional alpha-adrenoceptors likely respond to circulating catecholamines. The functional role of extrajunctional alpha-adrenoceptors may be more important in disease states such as hypertension and congestive heart failure where circulating levels of catecholamines may be high and contribute to the maintenance of elevated vascular resistance. alpha 2-Adrenoceptors are also associated with the intima and may play a role in the release of an endogenous relaxing factor from the endothelium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2989947

  1. Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2014-06-01

    We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max : 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ⁢ a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). However, heat accumulation or dissipation (forearm skin blood flow and sweat rate) were not improved by salt ingestion. In contrast, both salt trials maintained cardiac output (∼ 1.3 ± 1.4 L/min; P < 0.05) and stroke volume (∼ 10 ± 11 mL/beat; P < 0.05) above CON after 120 min of exercise. Furthermore, the salt trials equally improved time-trial performance by 7.4% above CON (∼ 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Our data suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of salt plus water maintains higher plasma volume during dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance. PMID:23253191

  2. Enhanced cardiovascular function and energy level by a novel chromium (III)-supplement.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Penumathsa, Sureshvarma; Juhasz, Bela; Zhan, Lijun; Bagchi, Manashi; Yasmin, Taharat; Shara, Michael A; Thatte, Hemant S; Bagchi, Debasis; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2006-01-01

    The impetus for the novel Energy Formula (EF) which combines the niacin-bound chromium (III) (0.45%) (NBC), standardized extract of Withania somnifera extracts (10.71%), caffeine (22.76%), D-ribose (10.71%) and selected amino acids such as phenylalanine, taurine and glutamine (55.37%) was based on the knowledge of the cardioprotective potentials of the Withania somnifera extract, caffeine and D-ribose as well as their abilities to increase energy levels and the abilities of amino acids to increase the muscle mass and energy levels. The effect of oral supplementation of EF on the safety, myocardial energy levels and cardioprotective ability were investigated in an ischemic-reperfused myocardium model in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats over 90 days trial period. At the completion of 90 days, the EF-treated male and female rats gained 9.4% and 3.1% less body weights, respectively, as compared to their corresponding control groups. No significant difference was found in the levels of lipid peroxidation and activities of hepatic Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and Alkaline phosphatase in EF treatment when compared with control animals. The male and female rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion at 30 and 90 days of EF treatment. Cardiovascular functions including heart rate, coronary flow, aortic flow, dp/dt(max), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and infarct size were monitored. The levels of myocardial adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), phospho-adenosine monophosphate kinase (p-AMPK) levels, were analyzed at the end of 30 and 90 days of treatment. Significant improvement was observed in all parameters in the EF treatment groups as compared to their corresponding controls. Thus the niacin-bound chromium (III) based energy formula is safe and effective supplement to boost energy levels and cardioprotection. PMID:17012764

  3. Maintenance of the Cardiovascular Function in a Deeply Cooled Homeothermic Organism by Physiological Methods without External Rewarming.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P; Arokina, N K

    2016-02-01

    Gradual cooling of homeothermic organisms is followed by slowing and arrest of breathing and heart contractions. During deep cooling, even relatively slight artificial ventilation decreases the lower temperature limit of life (by 4.5-5°C) and provides minimum oxygen supply to the heart and whole body. This allows us to restore cardiovascular function and prevent animal death after lethal cooling without eternal warming. PMID:26902347

  4. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  5. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Exposure in Children: Possible Associations with Cardiovascular and Psychological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; Yun, Sehun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have been used widely in consumer products and are currently found at detectable levels in the blood of humans and animals across the globe. In stark contrast to this widespread exposure to PBDEs, there is relatively little research on potential adverse health effects of exposure of children to these chemicals. Objectives We performed this cross-sectional study to determine if blood PBDE levels (for 4 congeners) are associated with cardiovascular stress responses and psychological states in children. Methods Levels of 4 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, and -100) in whole blood were measured in children (N = 43). These levels were analyzed in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors, including cardiovascular responses to acute stress and relevant psychological variables, namely, hostility and depression. Results Higher levels of blood PBDEs were associated with significantly greater sympathetic activation during acute psychological stress and greater anger, as evidenced by significant associations with 3 different measures of this psychological variable. Conclusions This study suggests an association between PBDE exposure and children’s cardiovascular responses to stress as well as parental and self-reported anger in the child. These variables are particularly important as they may be of potential relevance to the future development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although intriguing, there is a need for further investigation and replication with a larger sample of children. PMID:24834818

  7. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Oral administration of veratric acid, a constituent of vegetables and fruits, prevents cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats: a functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Murugesan; Raja, Boobalan; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Prahalathan, Pichavaram; Kumar, Subramanian; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2015-11-14

    In our previous studies, veratric acid (VA) shows beneficial effect on hypertension and its associated dyslipidaemia. In continuation, this study was designed to investigate the effect of VA, one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits, on cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats, primarily assessed by functional studies using Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath system. Hypertension was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) in drinking water for 4 weeks. VA was orally administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. l-NAME-treated rats showed impaired cardiac ventricular and vascular function, evaluated by Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath studies, respectively; a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides in aorta; and a significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E in aorta. Fibrotic remodelling of the aorta and heart were assessed by Masson's Trichrome staining and Van Gieson's staining, respectively. In addition, l-NAME rats showed increased heart fibronectin expression assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. VA supplementation throughout the experimental period significantly normalised cardiovascular function, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and fibrotic remodelling of tissues. These results of the present study conclude that VA acts as a protective agent against hypertension-associated cardiovascular remodelling. PMID:26346559

  9. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  10. Role and Function of MicroRNAs in Extracellular Vesicles in Cardiovascular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Philipp; Werner, Nikos; Jansen, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles is crucial for preserving vascular integrity and in the development of cardiovascular disease. Extracellular vesicles consist of apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes that can be found in almost every fluid compartment of the body like blood, saliva, and urine. In the recent years, a lot of reports came up suggesting that major cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies like atherogenesis, heart failure, or diabetes are highly influenced by transfer of microRNAs via extracellular vesicles leading to altered protein expression and phenotypes of recipient cells. The following review will summarize the fast developing field of intercellular signaling in cardiovascular biology by microRNA-containing extracellular vesicles. PMID:26558258

  11. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored. Methods This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease. Results To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell) harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen), lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation), or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration. Conclusions Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to build translational

  12. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  13. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  14. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  15. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction). 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i) intention to change behaviour, (ii) understanding of risk information, (iii) emotional affect and (iv) worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different graphical cardiovascular

  16. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  17. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P

  18. Association of digital vascular function with cardiovascular risk factors: a population study

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Van Vlierberghe, Eline; Knez, Judita; Szczesny, Gregory; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jozeau, Dominique; Balestra, Costantino; D'hooge, Jan; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vasodilation of the peripheral arteries during reactive hyperaemia depends in part on release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells. Previous studies mainly employed a fingertip tonometric device to derive pulse wave amplitude (PWA) and PWA hyperaemic changes. An alternative approach is based on photoplethysmography (PPG). We sought to evaluate the correlates of digital PPG PWA hyperaemic responses as a measure of peripheral vascular function. Design The Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO) is a population-based cohort study. Setting Respondents were examined at one centre in northern Belgium. Participants For this analysis, our sample consisted of 311 former participants (53.5% women; mean age 52.6 years; 43.1% hypertensive), who were examined from January 2010 until March 2012 (response rate 85.1%). Primary outcome measures Using a fingertip PPG device, we measured digital PWA at baseline and at 30 s intervals for 4 min during reactive hyperaemia induced by a 5 min forearm cuff occlusion. We performed stepwise regression to identify correlates of the hyperaemic response ratio for each 30 s interval after cuff deflation. Results The maximal hyperaemic response was detected in the 30–60 s interval. The explained variance for the PPG PWA ratio ranged from 9.7% at 0–30 s interval to 22.5% at 60–90 s time interval. The hyperaemic response at each 30 s interval was significantly higher in women compared with men (p≤0.001). The PPG PWA changes at 0–90 s intervals decreased with current smoking (p≤0.0007) and at 0–240 s intervals decreased with higher body mass index (p≤0.035). These associations with sex, current smoking and body mass index were mutually independent. Conclusions Our study is the first to implement the new PPG technique to measure digital PWA hyperaemic changes in a general population. Hyperaemic response, as measured by PPG, is inversely associated with traditional

  19. Mechanisms of greater cardiomyocyte functions on conductive nanoengineered composites for cardiovascular application

    PubMed Central

    Stout, David A; Yoo, Jennie; Santiago-Miranda, Adriana Noemi; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent advances in nanotechnology (materials with at least one dimension between 1 nm and 100 nm) have led to the use of nanomaterials in numerous medical device applications. Recently, nanomaterials have been used to create innovative biomaterials for cardiovascular applications. Specifically, carbon nanofibers (CNF) embedded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA) have been shown to promote cardiomyocyte growth compared with conventional polymer substrates, but the mechanisms involved in such events remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the basic mechanism of cell growth on these novel nanocomposites. Methods CNF were added to biodegradable PLGA (50:50 PGA:PLA weight ratio) to increase the conductivity, mechanical and cytocompatibility properties of pure PLGA. For this reason, different PLGA to CNF ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 wt%) with different PLGA densities (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 g/mL) were used, and their compatibility with cardiomyocytes was assessed. Results Throughout all the cytocompatibility experiments, cardiomyocytes were viable and expressed important biomarkers, including cardiac troponin T, connexin-43, and alpha-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA). Adhesion and proliferation experiments indicated that a PLGA density of 0.025 g/mL with a PLGA to CNF ratio of 75:25 and 50:50 (wt%) promoted the best overall cell growth, ie, a 55% increase in cardiomyocyte density after 120 hours compared with pure PLGA and a 75% increase compared with the control at the same time point for 50:50 (wt%). The PLGA:CNF materials were conductive, and their conductivity increased as greater amounts of CNF were added to pure PLGA, from 0 S · m−1 for pure PLGA (100:0 wt%) to 5.5 × 10−3 S · m−1 for pure CNF (0:100 wt%), as compared with natural heart tissue (ranging from 0.16 S · m−1 longitudinally to 0.005 S · m−1 transversely). Tensile tests showed that the addition of CNF increased the tensile strength to mimic that

  20. Short-Term Exposure to Ozone Does Not Impair Vascular Function or Affect Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Barath, Stefan; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, yet the role of individual pollutants remains unclear. In particular, there is uncertainty regarding the acute effect of ozone exposure on cardiovascular disease. In these studies, we aimed to determine the effect of ozone exposure on vascular function, fibrinolysis, and the autonomic regulation of the heart. Thirty-six healthy men were exposed to ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75min on two occasions in randomized double-blind crossover studies. Bilateral forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography before and during intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators 2–4 and 6–8h after each exposure. Heart rhythm and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during and 24h after exposure. Compared with filtered air, ozone exposure did not alter heart rate, blood pressure, or resting FBF at either 2 or 6h. There was a dose-dependent increase in FBF with all vasodilators that was similar after both exposures at 2–4h. Ozone exposure did not impair vasomotor or fibrinolytic function at 6–8h but rather increased vasodilatation to acetylcholine (p = .015) and sodium nitroprusside (p = .005). Ozone did not affect measures of HRV during or after the exposure. Our findings do not support a direct rapid effect of ozone on vascular function or cardiac autonomic control although we cannot exclude an effect of chronic exposure or an interaction between ozone and alternative air pollutants that may be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular health effects attributed to ozone. PMID:23872581

  1. Measures of Cardiovascular Health and Physical Function after an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in a Patient Fifteen Days Post-Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Angela A; Mattlage, Anna E; Ashenden, Abigail L; Rippee, Michael A; Billinger, Sandra A

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Study Background: Changes in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness post-stroke severely impact an individual's quality of life. The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise program would improve cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance measures in a participant following discharge from acute stroke rehabilitation. The participant is a 58 year-old female who experienced an ischemic stroke 15 days prior to beginning the exercise intervention. Case Description: The participant was provided a supervised 8-week exercise intervention on a Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS). The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week; the first 4 weeks the participant exercised at a moderate intensity of 50-59% heart rate reserve (HRR) calculated from the baseline exercise test; the last 4 weeks the intensity was increased to 60-69% HRR. Exercise duration began at 20 minutes with the goal of reaching 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a specified workload. Outcomes: Following 8-weeks of intervention, the participant showed improvement in cardiovascular measures including: resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), VO2 peak, and the maximum distance walked (6-MWT). Conclusion: The use of a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise intervention may be effective for participants in the sub-acute phase of stroke recovery in order to improve cardiovascular health and physical function. PMID:24772455

  2. Major Autonomic Neuroregulatory Pathways Underlying Short- and Long-Term Control of Cardiovascular Function.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M

    2016-03-01

    Short-term and long-term blood pressure (BP) regulation and its maintenance at levels adequate to perfuse tissue organs involve an integrated action of multiple neural, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine and local tissue control systems. In the recent year, there has been a growing interest in the understanding of neural pathways key to BP control. For instance, through major advances in studies using both anesthetized and conscious animals, our knowledge of the essential neural mechanisms that subserve the baroreceptor, cardiopulmonary and chemoreceptor reflexes, and those evoked by the activation of stress pathways has dramatically increased. While the importance of these neural pathways in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis is well established, the recognition of the central processing nuclei that integrate various afferent inputs to produce synchronous adjustments of autonomic outflows is still progressively expanding. Based on the literature provided thus far, the present review provides an overview in relation to the important neural determinants of BP control and later offers a concise description of major neuronal pathways that control autonomic outflows to the cardiovascular system in the short and long term. PMID:26838031

  3. Social ties and cardiovascular function: an examination of relationship positivity and negativity during stress.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Wendy; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Light, Kathy C; Sanbonmatsu, David M

    2009-11-01

    The quality and quantity of one's relationships have been reliably linked to morbidity and mortality. More recently, studies have focused on links between relationships and cardiovascular reactivity as a physiological mechanism via the stress-buffering hypothesis. However, not all social relationships are consistently positive which points to the importance of a more comprehensive examination of relationship that includes negative qualities. In this study, we manipulated relationship positivity and negativity with an experimenter and examined its influence on cardiovascular reactivity. Results revealed that relationship positivity was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity for men and women. Relationship negativity, on the other hand, was related to less of an increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity in men. Internal analyses showed that perceptions of positivity and negativity interacted such that high positivity/high negativity perceptions (ambivalence) were related to the highest SBP reactivity. Results of this study suggest that the quality of one's relationships is an important moderator of cardiovascular reactivity during stress. PMID:19682506

  4. The Function of Rho-Associated Kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Svenja; Ridley, Anne J.; Lutz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are serine/threonine kinases that are downstream targets of the small GTPases RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC. ROCKs are involved in diverse cellular activities including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion and motility, proliferation and apoptosis, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and smooth muscle cell contraction. The role of ROCK1 and ROCK2 has long been considered to be similar; however, it is now clear that they do not always have the same functions. Moreover, depending on their subcellular localization, activation, and other environmental factors, ROCK signaling can have different effects on cellular function. With respect to the heart, findings in isoform-specific knockout mice argue for a role of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy, respectively. Increased ROCK activity could play a pivotal role in processes leading to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, angina pectoris, vasospastic angina, heart failure, and stroke, and thus ROCK activity is a potential new biomarker for heart disease. Pharmacological ROCK inhibition reduces the enhanced ROCK activity in patients, accompanied with a measurable improvement in medical condition. In this review, we focus on recent findings regarding ROCK signaling in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, with a special focus on differences between ROCK1 and ROCK2 function. PMID:26635606

  5. ALDOSTERONE DYSREGULATION WITH AGING PREDICTS RENAL-VASCULAR FUNCTION AND CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenifer M.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N.; Williams, Gordon H.; Adler, Gail K.; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal- and cardio-vascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1,124 visits) in a Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression-to-stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics, and the renal-vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β= -4.60, p<0.0001) and higher SASSI (β= -58.63, p=0.001) predicted lower RPF and a blunted RPF response to sodium loading and AngII infusion. We observed a continuous, independent, multivariate-adjusted interaction between age and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (p<0.05). Higher SASSI and lower RPF independently predicted higher Framingham Risk Score (p<0.0001) and together displayed an additive effect. Aldosterone regulation and age may interact to mediate renal-vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal-vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease. PMID:24664291

  6. Acute changes in cardiovascular function during the onset period of daytime sleep: comparison to lying awake and standing.

    PubMed

    Zaregarizi, Mohammad; Edwards, Ben; George, Keith; Harrison, Yvonne; Jones, Helen; Atkinson, Greg

    2007-10-01

    The siesta habit is associated with a 37% reduction in coronary mortality, possibly because of reduced cardiovascular stress associated with daytime sleep. Whether the most important behavior is the daytime nap itself, a supine posture, or the expectancy of a nap is unknown. We present the first detailed description on healthy individuals of the acute changes in cardiovascular function during defined phases of the daytime sleep-onset period. These responses were compared with lying awake and standing. Following a night of restricted (4 h) sleep, nine healthy participants (aged 34 +/- 5 yr) were allowed to sleep at 1400 for up to 1 h. Polysomnography was used to calculate three phases of daytime sleep onset: phase 1, a baseline period of relaxed wakefulness before lights out; phase 2, the period between lights out and onset of stage 1 sleep; and phase 3, the period between onsets of stages 1 and 2 sleep. Differences (means +/- SD) in blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) between phases were analyzed. During the 9.7 +/- 13.8 min of phase 2, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 4.7 +/- 4.5 and 3.6 +/- 2.8 mmHg lower than baseline, whereas CVC was 9.5 +/- 4.3% higher than baseline (P < 0.05). Subsequent changes in cardiovascular function during the sleep itself were trivial (P > 0.05). The above changes were not observed when subjects stood or laid supine in relaxed wakefulness for 1 h (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the period between lights out and sleep onset is associated with the largest acute reduction in blood pressure during one afternoon siesta. PMID:17641220

  7. Functional plasticity of the developing cardiovascular system: examples from different vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C; Poelmann, R E; Rombough, Peter; Schwerte, Thorsten; Thompson, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Technical advances that have made it possible to perform physiological measurements on very small organisms, including those in embryonic and larval stages, have resulted in the formation of the discipline of developmental physiology. The transparency and size of developing organisms in some areas permit insights into physiological processes that cannot be obtained with opaque, adult organisms. On the other hand, it is widely accepted that without eggs, there are no chickens, so physiological adaptations during early life are just as important to species survival as those manifested by adults. Physiological adaptations of early developmental stages, however, are not always the same as patterns known in adults; they often follow their own rules. The adaptability of early developmental stages demonstrates that development is not stereotyped and a phenotype is not just the result of genetic information and the expression of a certain series of genes. Environmental factors influence phenotype production, and this in turn results in flexibility and plasticity in physiological processes. This article comprises exemplary studies presented at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry (Maasai Mara, Kenya, 2008). It includes a brief introduction into technical advances, discusses the developing cardiovascular system of various vertebrates, and demonstrates the flexibility and plasticity of early developmental stages. Fluid forces, oxygen availability, ionic homeostasis, and the chemical environment (including, e.g., hormone concentrations or cholesterol levels) all contribute to the shaping and performance of the cardiovascular system. PMID:20687830

  8. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  9. Green tea inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins and deteriorated the renal function in rats with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Sweet, Douglas H; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are highly protein-bound nephro-cardiovascular toxins, which are not efficiently removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretions of IS and PCS were mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and OAT3. Green tea (GT) is a popular beverage containing plenty of catechins. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of teas have shown that the major molecules present in the bloodstream are the glucuronides/sulfates of tea catechins, which are putative substrates of OATs. Here we demonstrated that GT ingestion significantly elevated the systemic exposures of endogenous IS and PCS in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). More importantly, GT also significantly increased the levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in CRF rats. Mechanism studies indicated that the serum metabolites of GT (GTM) inhibited the uptake transporting functions of OAT1 and OAT3. In conclusion, GT inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins such as IS and PCS, and deteriorated the renal function in CRF rats. PMID:26552961

  10. Green tea inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins and deteriorated the renal function in rats with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Sweet, Douglas H.; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are highly protein-bound nephro-cardiovascular toxins, which are not efficiently removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretions of IS and PCS were mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and OAT3. Green tea (GT) is a popular beverage containing plenty of catechins. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of teas have shown that the major molecules present in the bloodstream are the glucuronides/sulfates of tea catechins, which are putative substrates of OATs. Here we demonstrated that GT ingestion significantly elevated the systemic exposures of endogenous IS and PCS in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). More importantly, GT also significantly increased the levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in CRF rats. Mechanism studies indicated that the serum metabolites of GT (GTM) inhibited the uptake transporting functions of OAT1 and OAT3. In conclusion, GT inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins such as IS and PCS, and deteriorated the renal function in CRF rats. PMID:26552961

  11. 17-β Oestradiol prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome by affecting SIRT1/AMPK/H3 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bendale, Dhaval Sharad; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Chhabra, Richa; Shete, Sachin Prabhakarrao; Shah, Heta; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oestrogen therapy is known to induce cardioprotection in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome (PMS). Hence, we investigated the effect of 17-β oestradiol (E2) on functional responses to angiotensin II and cardiovascular dysfunction in a rat model of PMS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PMS was induced in ovariectomized rats by feeding a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Isometric tension responses of aortic rings to angiotensin II were recorded using an isometric force transducer. TUNEL assay and immunoblotting was performed to assess apoptosis and protein expression respectively in PMS. KEY RESULTS Endothelial dysfunction in PMS was characterized by enhanced angiotensin II-induced contractile responses and impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation. This was associated with an increased protein expression of AT1 receptors in the aorta and heart in PMS. PMS induced cardiac apoptosis by activating Bax and PARP protein expression. These changes were associated with a down-regulation in the expression of silent information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1)/P-AMP-activated PK (AMPK) and increased H3 acetylation in aorta and heart. E2 partially suppressed angiotensin II-induced contractions, restored the protein expression of SIRT1/P-AMPK and suppressed H3 acetylation. The role of SIRT1/AMPK was further highlighted by administration of sirtinol and compound C (ex vivo), which enhanced angiotensin II contractile responses and ablated the protective effect of E2 on PMS. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results provide novel mechanisms for PMS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction involving SIRT1/AMPK/ histone H3 acetylation, which was prevented by E2. The study suggests that therapies targeting SIRT1/AMPK/epigenetic modifications may be beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:23826814

  12. Effects of nimesulide, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on cardiovascular function in 2 rat models of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joanne Y T; Pang, Catherine C Y

    2014-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been found to be activated in diabetes. We investigated whether nimesulide (selective COX-2 inhibitor) alters cardiovascular responses to adrenaline in 2 rat models of diabetes. Wistar rats (5-week old) were continuously fed a normal or high-fructose diet (60% of caloric intake). At week 2, half of the rats in each diet regimen were given streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, intravenously). At week 6, cardiovascular effects of adrenaline (6 and 16 × 10 mol·kg·min, intravenously) were measured in 4 groups of thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats (control, fructose, STZ, and fructose-streptozotocin [F-STZ]) before and after the injection of nimesulide (3 mg/kg, intravenously). Both the STZ and F-STZ groups exhibited hyperglycemia and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced left ventricular contractility, mean arterial pressure, arterial and venous resistance, and mean circulatory filling pressure (index of venous tone) responses to adrenaline, relative to the control and fructose groups. Nimesulide did not affect responses in the control and fructose groups but increased the venous and, to a less extent, arterial constriction to adrenaline in both the groups of diabetic rats. The cardiac contractile responses, however, were not altered after nimesulide treatment. The results show that nimesulide partially restored arterial and venous constriction to adrenaline in rats with STZ- and F-STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:24621649

  13. Tomatoes and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Joye K; Catignani, George L; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Diet is believed to play a complex role in the development of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the Western world. Tomatoes, the second most produced and consumed vegetable nationwide, are a rich source of lycopene, beta-carotene, folate, potassium, vitamin C, flavonoids, and vitamin E. The processing of tomatoes may significantly affect the bioavailability of these nutrients. Homogenization, heat treatment, and the incorporation of oil in processed tomato products leads to increased lycopene bioavailability, while some of the same processes cause significant loss of other nutrients. Nutrient content is also affected by variety and maturity. Many of these nutrients may function individually, or in concert, to protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation, the most widely accepted theory for the genesis of atherosclerosis. This hypothesis has been supported by in vitro, limited in vivo, and many epidemiological studies that associate reduced cardiovascular risk with consumption of antioxidant-rich foods. Other cardioprotective functions provided by the nutrients in tomatoes may include the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Because tomatoes include several nutrients associated with theoretical or proven effects and are widely consumed year round, they may be considered a valuable component of a cardioprotective diet. PMID:12587984

  14. Adiponectin, ghrelin, and leptin differentially influence human platelet and human vascular endothelial cell functions: implication in obesity-associated cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Elbatarny, Hisham S; Netherton, Stuart J; Ovens, Jeffrey D; Ferguson, Alastair V; Maurice, Donald H

    2007-03-01

    A very strong epidemiological link exists between obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetes-associated cardiovascular pathologies. For this reason the peripheral effects of the centrally-acting satiety adipokines, adiponectin and leptin, and of non-adipose-derived hormones with similar effects, like ghrelin, have received considerable attention. In this report, we have extended our previous studies of the pro-thrombotic effects of leptin and determined the effects of adiponectin or ghrelin on human platelet activation. Thus, while leptin stimulated human platelet aggregation and adhesion, addition of adiponectin or of ghrelin did not affect either aggregation or adhesion of these cells; even at supra-physiological concentrations. In addition, we compared the impact of these three important hormones on microvascular endothelial cell permeability, an important parameter of endothelial function that when impaired contributes to several vascular pathologies. While physiologically relevant concentrations of either leptin or adiponectin increased the integrity of the diffusion barrier formed by a monolayer of human microvascular endothelial cells, only supra-physiological concentrations of ghrelin had this effect. None of these agents reduced microvascular endothelial barrier function. Taken together, our data are consistent with the ideas that leptin activates human platelets and limits transendothelial cell diffusion but that adiponectin only influences endothelial cell permeability. In contrast, ghrelin had neither of these effects. We propose that these data identify important differences in the effects of leptin, adiponectin or ghrelin on microvascular endothelial cells and platelets and may provide a basis on which to pharmacologically manipulate the selective effects of these peptides on these cell types in human cardiovascular or thrombotic diseases associated with obesity. PMID:17207790

  15. Anger, Anxiety, and Depression as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The Problems and Implications of Overlapping Affective Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sul, Jerry; Bunde, James

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reviews (e.g., L. C. Gallo & K. Matthews, 2003; A. Rozanski, J. A. Blumenthal, & J. Kaplan, 1999; R. Rugulies, 2002) have identified 3 affective dispositions--depression, anxiety, and anger-hostility--as putative risk factors for coronary heart disease. There are, however, mixed and negative results. Following a critical summary of…

  16. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults' differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict…

  17. Left Atrial Volumes and Reservoir Function Are Associated With Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Iwata, Shinichi; Tugcu, Aylin; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship of left atrial (LA) phasic volumes and LA reservoir function with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a stroke-free community-based cohort. Background An increase in LA size is associated with cardiovascular events including stroke. However, it is not known whether LA phasic volumes and reservoir function are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Methods LA minimum (LAVmin) and maximum (LAVmax) volumes, and LA reservoir function, measured as total emptying volume (LAEV) and total emptying fraction (LAEF), were assessed by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in 455 stroke-free participants from the community-based Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease was assessed as silent brain infarcts (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results SBI prevalence was 15.4%; mean WMHV was 0.66±0.92%. Participants with SBI showed greater LAVmin (17.1±9.3 vs. 12.5±5.6 ml/m2, p<0.01) and LAVmax (26.6±8.8 vs. 23.3±7.0 ml/m2, p<0.01) compared to those without SBI. LAEV (9.5±3.4 vs. 10.8±3.9 ml/m2, p<0.01) and LAEF (38.7±14.7% vs. 47.0±11.9%, p<0.01) were also reduced in participants with SBI. In univariate analyses, greater LA volumes and smaller reservoir function were significantly associated with greater WMHV. In multivariate analyses, LAVmin remained significantly associated with SBI [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per SD increase: 1.37, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.04–1.80, p<0.05] and with WMHV (β=0.12, p<0.01), whereas LAVmax was not independently associated with either. Smaller LAEF was independently associated with SBI (adjusted OR=0.67, 95% CI 0.50–0.90, p<0.01) and WMHV (β=−0.09, p<0.05). Conclusions Greater LA volumes and reduced LA reservoir function are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease detected by brain MRI in subjects without history of stroke. LAVmin and LAEF

  18. Nanostructured Aptamer-Functionalized Black Phosphorus Sensing Platform for Label-Free Detection of Myoglobin, a Cardiovascular Disease Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Brent, Jack R; Shorie, Munish; Kaur, Harmanjit; Chadha, Gaganpreet; Thomas, Andrew G; Lewis, Edward A; Rooney, Aidan P; Nguyen, Lan; Zhong, Xiang Li; Burke, M Grace; Haigh, Sarah J; Walton, Alex; McNaughter, Paul D; Tedstone, Aleksander A; Savjani, Nicky; Muryn, Christopher A; O'Brien, Paul; Ganguli, Ashok K; Lewis, David J; Sabherwal, Priyanka

    2016-09-01

    We report the electrochemical detection of the redox active cardiac biomarker myoglobin (Mb) using aptamer-functionalized black phosphorus nanostructured electrodes by measuring direct electron transfer. The as-synthesized few-layer black phosphorus nanosheets have been functionalized with poly-l-lysine (PLL) to facilitate binding with generated anti-Mb DNA aptamers on nanostructured electrodes. This aptasensor platform has a record-low detection limit (∼0.524 pg mL(-1)) and sensitivity (36 μA pg(-1) mL cm(-2)) toward Mb with a dynamic response range from 1 pg mL(-1) to 16 μg mL(-1) for Mb in serum samples. This strategy opens up avenues to bedside technologies for multiplexed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in complex human samples. PMID:27508925

  19. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  20. Noninvasive radiographic assessment of cardiovascular function in acute and chronic respiratory failure

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H.J.; Matthay, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    Noninvasive radiographic techniques have provided a means of studying the natural history and pathogenesis of cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium-201 imaging, and M mode and cross-sectional echocardiography have been employed. Each of these techniques has specific uses, attributes and limitations. For example, measurement of descending pulmonary arterial diameters on the plain chest radiograph allows determination of the presence or absence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right and left ventricular performance can be evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide angiocardiography. The biventricular response to exercise and to therapeutic interventions also can be assessed with this approach. Evaluation of the pulmonary valve echogram and echocardiographic right ventricular dimensions have been shown to reflect right ventricular hemodynamics and size. Each of these noninvasive techniques has been applied to the study of patients with respiratory failure and has provided important physiologic data.

  1. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Heather L.; McErlean, Seóna; Jellema, Gera L.; van Laar, Ryan; Vernalis, Marina N.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175. PMID:26484175

  2. Peripheral chemoreceptor control of cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Heather; McMurtry, M Sean; Haykowsky, Mark J; Paterson, Ian; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Dyck, Jason R B; Stickland, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptor activity/sensitivity is enhanced in chronic heart failure (HF), and sensitivity is linked to greater mortality. This study aimed to determine the role of the peripheral chemoreceptor in cardiovascular control at rest and during exercise in HF patients and controls. Clinically stable HF patients (n = 11; ejection fraction: 39 ± 5%) and risk-matched controls (n = 10; ejection fraction: 65 ± 2%) performed randomized trials with or without dopamine infusion (2 μg·min(-1)·kg(-1)) at rest and during 40% maximal voluntary contraction handgrip (HG) exercise, and a resting trial of 2 min of inspired 100% oxygen. Both dopamine and hyperoxia were used to inhibit the peripheral chemoreceptor. At rest in HF patients, dopamine decreased ventilation (P = 0.02), decreased total peripheral resistance index (P = 0.003), and increased cardiac and stroke indexes (P ≤ 0.01), yet there was no effect of dopamine on these variables in controls (P ≥ 0.7). Hyperoxia lowered ventilation in HF (P = 0.01), but not in controls (P = 0.9), indicating suppression of the peripheral chemoreceptors in HF. However, no decrease of total peripheral resistance index was observed in HF. As expected, HG increased heart rate, ventilation, and brachial conductance of the nonexercising arm in controls and HF patients. During dopamine infusion, there were no changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or ventilation responses to HG in either group (P ≥ 0.26); however, brachial conductance increased with dopamine in the control group (P = 0.004), but decreased in HF (P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that the peripheral chemoreceptor contributes to cardiovascular control at rest in HF patients and during exercise in risk-matched controls. PMID:25614600

  3. Neonatal endotoxin exposure changes neuroendocrine, cardiovascular function and mortality during polymicrobial sepsis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Saia, Rafael Simone; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela Ravanelli; da Silva, Maria Emília Nadaletto Bonifácio; Aguila, Fábio Alves; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Rocha, Maria José Alves; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari

    2011-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neonatal LPS challenge may improve hormonal, cardiovascular response and mortality, this being a beneficial adaptation when adult rats are submitted to polymicrobial sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Fourteen days after birth, pups received an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or saline. After 8-12 weeks, they were submitted to CLP, decapitated 4, 6 or 24h after surgery and blood was collected for vasopressin (AVP), corticosterone and nitrate measurement, while AVP contents were measured in neurohypophysis, supra-optic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. Moreover, rats had their mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) evaluated, and mortality and bacteremia were determined at 24h. Septic animals with neonatal LPS exposure had higher plasma AVP and corticosterone levels, and higher c-Fos expression in SON and PVN at 24h after surgery when compared to saline treated rats. The LPS pretreated group showed increased AVP content in SON and PVN at 6h, while we did not observe any change in neurohypophyseal AVP content. The nitrate levels were significantly reduced in plasma at 6 and 24h after surgery, and in both hypothalamic nuclei only at 6h. Septic animals with neonatal LPS exposure showed increase in MAP during the initial phase of sepsis, but HR was not different from the neonatal saline group. Furthermore, neonatally LPS exposed rats showed a significant decrease in mortality rate as well as in bacteremia. These data suggest that neonatal LPS challenge is able to promote beneficial effects on neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to polymicrobial sepsis in adulthood. PMID:21549159

  4. Longitudinal and transverse right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension: cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study from the ASPIRE registry

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Smitha; Capener, Dave; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M.; Kiely, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong predictor of outcome in cardiovascular diseases. Two components of RV function, longitudinal and transverse motion, have been investigated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, their individual clinical significance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with transverse and longitudinal RV motion in patients with PH. In 149 treatment-naive patients with PH and 16 patients with suspected PH found to have mean pulmonary arterial pressure of <20 mmHg, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 24 hours of right heart catheterization. In patients with PH, fractional longitudinal motion (fractional tricuspid annulus to apex distance [f-TAAD]) was significantly greater than fractional transverse motion (fractional septum to free wall distance [f-SFD]; P = 0.002). In patients without PH, no significant difference between f-SFD and f-TAAD was identified (P = 0.442). Longitudinal RV motion was singularly associated with RV ejection fraction independent of age, invasive hemodynamics, and cardiac magnetic resonance measurements (P = 0.024). In contrast, transverse RV motion was independently associated with left ventricular eccentricity (P = 0.036) in addition to RV ejection fraction (P = 0.014). In conclusion, RV motion is significantly greater in the longitudinal direction in patients with PH, whereas patients without PH have equal contributions of transverse and longitudinal motion. Longitudinal RV motion is primarily associated with global RV pump function in PH. Transverse RV motion not only reflects global pump function but is independently influenced by ventricular interaction in patients with PH. PMID:26401257

  5. Cardiovascular function and treatment in β-thalassemia major: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Dudley J; Udelson, James E; Arai, Andrew E; Bozkurt, Biykem; Cohen, Alan R; Galanello, Renzo; Hoffman, Timothy M; Kiernan, Michael S; Lerakis, Stamatios; Piga, Antonio; Porter, John B; Walker, John Malcolm; Wood, John

    2013-07-16

    This aim of this statement is to report an expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac dysfunction in β-thalassemia major (TM). This consensus statement does not cover other hemoglobinopathies, including thalassemia intermedia and sickle cell anemia, in which a different spectrum of cardiovascular complications is typical. There are considerable uncertainties in this field, with a few randomized controlled trials relating to treatment of chronic myocardial siderosis but none relating to treatment of acute heart failure. The principles of diagnosis and treatment of cardiac iron loading in TM are directly relevant to other iron-overload conditions, including in particular Diamond-Blackfan anemia, sideroblastic anemia, and hereditary hemochromatosis. Heart failure is the most common cause of death in TM and primarily results from cardiac iron accumulation. The diagnosis of ventricular dysfunction in TM patients differs from that in nonanemic patients because of the cardiovascular adaptation to chronic anemia in non-cardiac-loaded TM patients, which includes resting tachycardia, low blood pressure, enlarged end-diastolic volume, high ejection fraction, and high cardiac output. Chronic anemia also leads to background symptomatology such as dyspnea, which can mask the clinical diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Central to early identification of cardiac iron overload in TM is the estimation of cardiac iron by cardiac T2* magnetic resonance. Cardiac T2* <10 ms is the most important predictor of development of heart failure. Serum ferritin and liver iron concentration are not adequate surrogates for cardiac iron measurement. Assessment of cardiac function by noninvasive techniques can also be valuable clinically, but serial measurements to establish trends are usually required because interpretation of single absolute values is complicated by the abnormal cardiovascular hemodynamics in TM and measurement imprecision. Acute decompensated heart failure is a

  6. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism and Cognitive Function in Persons with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Ashley J.; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; McGeary, John E.; Poppas, Athena; Cohen, Ronald A.; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is common among persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and several potential etiological mechanisms have been described, including contributions of genetic markers such as variations in the brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) gene. The current study examined the associations of BDNF genotype with cognitive function among individuals with CVD. Methods 110 participants with CVD completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that assessed global cognitive function, attention/executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. All participants also underwent blood draw to provide a DNA sample that was used to determine BDNF genotype. Carriers of either one or two copies of the MET allele of BDNF were categorized into one group (N = 33), while non-carriers were categorized into a second group (N = 77). Results After adjustment for demographic and medical characteristics, hierarchical regression analyses revealed persons with one or more Met alleles displayed better performance than Val/Val individuals for attention/executive function (β = .22, p = .047), memory (β = .25, p = .03) and a trend for language (β = .19, p = .08) and visuospatial abilities (β = .21, p = .06). Conclusions BDNF VAL66MET had little impact on cognitive functioning in a sample of older adults with CVD and significant findings were actually opposite of that predicted by past work. Future work is much needed to clarify the mechanisms for these findings, particularly studies examining both circulating BDNF levels and genetic variation in the BDNF gene and cognitive function over time. PMID:24289461

  7. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  8. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  9. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  10. Impact of personal and ambient-level exposures to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter on cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ron; Brook, Rob; Bard, Rob; Conner, Teri; Shin, Hwashin; Burnett, Rick

    2011-01-01

    This work explored the association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and PM2.5 components with changes in cardiovascular function in an adult non-smoking cohort. The cohort consisted of 65 volunteers participating in the US EPA’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), brachial artery diameter (BAD), brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated arterial dilatation (NMD) were collected by in-home examinations. A maximum of 336 daily environmental and health effect observations were obtained. Daily potassium air concentrations were associated with significant decreases in DBP (−0.0447 mmHg/ng/m3 ± 0.0132, p = 0.0016, lag day 0) among participants compliant with the personal monitoring protocol. Personal NO2 exposures resulted in significant changes in BAD (e.g., 0.0041 mm/ppb ± 0.0019, p = 0.0353, lag day 1) and FMD (0.0612 ±0.0235, p = 0.0103, lag day 0) among other findings. PMID:21711166

  11. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  12. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  13. The Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of Endothelial Function and Arterial Elasticity in Cardiovascular Disease as Novel and Emerging Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephen P; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2011-04-01

    Some consider the measurements of arterial elasticity and flow-mediated dilation to be an indirect "biomarker" of endothelial dysfunction. As such, we describe the various uses of these techniques in the evaluation of the natural history of vascular disease. These measures are potential markers of disease, as abnormalities reflect changes in the integrity of vascular structure but occur prior to the manifestation of symptomatic cardiovascular events. In this review, the natural history of arterial elasticity is discussed, and the effects of aging and inflammation are reviewed. The role that arterial elasticity and flow-mediated dilation have in predicting future cardiovascular disease, and the effects of pharmacologic agents on these measures, is also reviewed. PMID:24000308

  14. The effects of Zumba training on cardiovascular and neuromuscular function in female college students.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Hohn, Yannick; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of Zumba training (group fitness based on salsa and aerobics) on endurance, trunk strength, balance, flexibility, jumping performance and quality of life (QoL) in female college students. Thirty female participants were randomly assigned (strata: age, BMI and physical activity) to an intervention (INT, n = 15: age: 21.0 ± 2.3 years; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.0 kg/m(2); physical activity (PA): 7.6 ± 4.6 h/week) or control group (CON, n = 14: age: 21.0 ± 2.8 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2); PA: 7.3 ± 3.6 h/week). Instructed Zumba training was provided twice a week for 8 weeks (training attendance: 100%). QoL was assessed using the WHO-QoL-BREF questionnaire. Endurance was measured with the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Trunk flexibility was assessed with the stand-and-reach-test and lower-extremity strength with the jump-and-reach-test. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) was employed to assess dynamic balance. Trunk strength endurance was examined using the Swiss global trunk strength test in prone and lateral (left, right) positions. All testings were performed before and after the training period. We observed large statistically significant between-group effects of total QoL score (INT: +9.8%, CON: +0.4%, p < 0.001; partial eta squared [Formula: see text]), 6MWT distance (INT: +21%, CON: -2%, p < 0.001, [Formula: see text]), trunk strength endurance (prone, INT: +48%, CON: +11%, p = 0.04, [Formula: see text]; lateral-left, INT: +71%, CON: +11%, p = 0.01, [Formula: see text], lateral-right, INT: +54%, CON: +11%, p = 0.01, [Formula: see text]) and dynamic balance (all eight reaching distances of the SEBT, INT: +11-26%, CON: +1.1-3.8%, 0.001 < p < 0.04, 0.14 < [Formula: see text]) with significantly larger improvements for INT. Flexibility and jump performance were not relevantly affected (p > 0.05). Instructed Zumba training can be applied to improve well-being, aerobic fitness and neuromuscular function in female college students

  15. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  16. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  17. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  18. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  19. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  20. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  1. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, B.M.; Coates, Miranda N.; Jackson, S. RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S.; Davis, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25967372

  2. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  3. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  4. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  5. Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2015-05-01

    Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9 ± 2.7 years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7 ± 3.1 years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. PMID:25727023

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea. PMID:26621910

  7. Dehydration markedly impairs cardiovascular function in hyperthermic endurance athletes during exercise.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Below, P R; Coyle, E F

    1997-04-01

    We identified the cardiovascular stress encountered by superimposing dehydration on hyperthermia during exercise in the heat and the mechanisms contributing to the dehydration-mediated stroke volume (SV) reduction. Fifteen endurance-trained cyclists [maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) = 4.5 l/min] exercised in the heat for 100-120 min and either became dehydrated by 4% body weight or remained euhydrated by drinking fluids. Measurements were made after they continued exercise at 71% VO2max for 30 min while 1) euhydrated with an esophageal temperature (T(es)) of 38.1-38.3 degrees C (control); 2) euhydrated and hyperthermic (39.3 degrees C); 3) dehydrated and hyperthermic with skin temperature (T(sk)) of 34 degrees C; 4) dehydrated with T(es) of 38.1 degrees C and T(sk) of 21 degrees C; and 5) condition 4 followed by restored blood volume. Compared with control, hyperthermia (1 degrees C T(es) increase) and dehydration (4% body weight loss) each separately lowered SV 7-8% (11 +/- 3 ml/beat; P < 0.05) and increased heart rate sufficiently to prevent significant declines in cardiac output. However, when dehydration was superimposed on hyperthermia, the reductions in SV were significantly (P < 0.05) greater (26 +/- 3 ml/beat), and cardiac output declined 13% (2.8 +/- 0.3 l/min). Furthermore, mean arterial pressure declined 5 +/- 2%, and systemic vascular resistance increased 10 +/- 3% (both P < 0.05). When hyperthermia was prevented, all of the decline in SV with dehydration was due to reduced blood volume (approximately 200 ml). These results demonstrate that the superimposition of dehydration on hyperthermia during exercise in the heat causes an inability to maintain cardiac output and blood pressure that makes the dehydrated athlete less able to cope with hyperthermia. PMID:9104860

  8. Stainless steel surface functionalization for immobilization of antibody fragments for cardiovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Foerster, A; Hołowacz, I; Sunil Kumar, G B; Anandakumar, S; Wall, J G; Wawrzyńska, M; Paprocka, M; Kantor, A; Kraskiewicz, H; Olsztyńska-Janus, S; Hinder, S J; Bialy, D; Podbielska, H; Kopaczyńska, M

    2016-04-01

    Stainless steel 316 L material is commonly used for the production of coronary and peripheral vessel stents. Effective biofunctionalization is a key to improving the performance and safety of the stents after implantation. This paper reports the method for the immobilization of recombinant antibody fragments (scFv) on stainless steel 316 L to facilitate human endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) growth and thus improve cell viability of the implanted stents for cardiovascular applications. The modification of stent surface was conducted in three steps. First the stent surface was coated with titania based coating to increase the density of hydroxyl groups for successful silanization. Then silanization with 3 aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was performed to provide the surface with amine groups which presence was verified using FTIR, XPS, and fluorescence microscopy. The maximum density of amine groups (4.8*10(-5) mol/cm(2)) on the surface was reached after reaction taking place in ethanol for 1 h at 60 °C and 0.04M APTS. On such prepared surface the glycosylated scFv were subsequently successfully immobilized. The influence of oxidation of scFv glycan moieties and the temperature on scFv coating were investigated. The fluorescence and confocal microscopy study indicated that the densest and most uniformly coated surface with scFv was obtained at 37 °C after oxidation of glycan chain. The results demonstrate that the scFv cannot be efficiently immobilized without prior aminosilanization of the surface. The effect of the chemical modification on the cell viability of EPC line 55.1 (HucPEC-55.1) was performed indicating that the modifications to the 316 L stainless steel are non-toxic to EPCs. PMID:26566715

  9. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  10. Classical cardiovascular disease risk factors associate with vascular function and morphology in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). An early manifestation of CVD is endothelial dysfunction which can lead to functional and morphological vascular abnormalities. Classical CVD risk factors and inflammation are both implicated in causing endothelial dysfunction in RA. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of baseline inflammation, cumulative inflammation, and classical CVD risk factors on the vasculature following a six-year follow-up period. Methods A total of 201 RA patients (155 females, median age (25th to 75th percentile): 61 years (53 to 67)) were examined at baseline (2006) for presence of classical CVD risk factors and determination of inflammation using C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). At follow-up (2012) patients underwent assessments of microvascular and macrovascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function, along with assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. The CRP and ESR were recorded from the baseline study visit to the follow-up visit for each patient to calculate cumulative inflammatory burden. Results Classical CVD risk factors, but not RA disease-related inflammation, predicted microvascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function, macrovascular endothelium-independent function and carotid atherosclerosis. These findings were similar in a sub-group of patients free from CVD, and not receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors or biologics. Cumulative inflammation was not associated with microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function, but a weak association was apparent between area under the curve for CRP and carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusions Classical CVD risk factors may be better long-term predictors of vascular function and morphology than systemic disease-related inflammation in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to

  11. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  12. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  13. Mevalonate availability affects human and rat resistance vessel function.

    PubMed Central

    Roullet, J B; Xue, H; Roullet, C M; Fletcher, W S; Cipolla, M J; Harker, C T; McCarron, D A

    1995-01-01

    Previous data in rat conductance vessels indicated that cellular mevalonate contributes to vascular tone and systemic blood pressure control. Using exogenous mevalonate (M) or lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (L), we characterized the role of mevalonate availability in resistance artery function, both in experimental animals and humans. Rat mesenteric artery resistance vessels (MARV, n = 9) were incubated for 48 h with either L, M, L + M, or vehicle (V) and tested for reactivity to NE, serotonin, acetylcholine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Lovastatin increased sensitivity to NE (P < 0.03) and serotonin (P < 0.003), and significantly impaired the response to all three vasodilators. These effects were reversed by co-incubation with mevalonate. Mevalonate alone had no effect. In separate experiments, intravascular free Ca2+ concentration (ivfCa2+) was determined in fura-2AM loaded MARV. Basal ivfCa2+ was increased after a 48-h exposure to L (52.7 +/- 4.6 nM, L, vs. 29.7 +/- 2.4 nM, V, n = 12, P < 0.003), as were ivfCa2+ levels following stimulation with low (100 nM) NE concentrations. Similar ivfCa2+ concentrations were achieved during maximum contraction with NE (10 mM) in both groups. Human resistance arteries of human adipose tissue were also studied. Lovastatin increased the sensitivity to NE (ED50 = 372 +/- 56 nM, V, and 99 +/- 33 nM, L, P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the relaxation to acetylcholine and SNP of human vessels. We conclude that mevalonate availability directly contribute to resistance vessel function and vascular signal transduction systems in both experimental animals and humans. The study calls for the identification of non-sterol, mevalonate-derived vasoactive metabolites, and suggests that disorders of the mevalonate pathway can alter vascular tone and cause hypertension. PMID:7615793

  14. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  15. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  16. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  17. Indices of cardiovascular function derived from peripheral pulse wave analysis using radial applanation tonometry: a measurement repeatability study.

    PubMed

    Crilly, Mike; Coch, Christoph; Bruce, Margaret; Clark, Hazel; Williams, David

    2007-08-01

    Pulse wave analysis (PWA) using applanation tonometry is a non-invasive technique for assessing cardiovascular function. It produces three important indices: ejection duration index (ED%), augmentation index adjusted for heart rate (AIX@75), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR%). The aim of this study was to assess within- and between-observer repeatability of these measurements. After resting supine for 15 minutes, 20 ambulant patients (16 male) in sinus rhythm underwent four PWA measurements on a single occasion. Two nurses (A & B) independently and alternately undertook PWA measurements using the same equipment (Omron HEM-757; SphygmoCor with Millar hand-held tonometer) blind to the other nurse's PWA measurements. Within- and between-observer differences were analysed using the Bland-Altman ;limits of agreement' approach (mean difference +/- 2 standard deviations, 2SD). Mean age was 56 (blood pressure, BP 136/79; pulse rate 64). BP/PWA measurements remained stable during assessment. Based on the average of two PWA measurements the mean +/- 2SD between-observer difference in ED% was 0.3 +/- 2.0; AIX@75 1.0 +/- 3.9; and SEVR% 1.7 +/- 14.2. Based on a single PWA measurement the between-observer difference was ED% 0.3 +/- 3.3; AIX@75 1.7 +/- 6.9; and SEVR% 0.6 +/- 22.6. Within-observer differences for nurse-A were ED% 0.0 +/- 5.4; AIX@75 1.5 +/- 7.0; and SEVR% 1.7 +/- 39.0 (nurse-B: 0.1 +/- 3.8; 0.1 +/- 8.0; and 0.6 +/- 23.3, respectively). PWA demonstrates high levels of repeatability even when used by relatively inexperienced staff and has the potential to be included in the routine cardiovascular assessment of ambulant patients. PMID:17848475

  18. Association of resting heart rate with cardiovascular function: a cross-sectional study in 522 Finnish subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High resting heart rate (HR) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in general populations, possibly due to elevated blood pressure (BP) or sympathetic over-activity. We studied the association of resting HR with cardiovascular function, and examined whether the hemodynamics remained similar during passive head-up tilt. Methods Hemodynamics were recorded using whole-body impedance cardiography and continuous radial pulse wave analysis in 522 subjects (age 20–72 years, 261 males) without medication influencing HR or BP, or diagnosed diabetes, coronary artery, renal, peripheral arterial, or cerebrovascular disease. Correlations were calculated, and results analysed according to resting HR tertiles. Results Higher resting HR was associated with elevated systolic and diastolic BP, lower stroke volume but higher cardiac output and work, and lower systemic vascular resistance, both supine and upright (p < 0.05 for all). Subjects with higher HR also showed lower supine and upright aortic pulse pressure and augmentation index, and increased resting pulse wave velocity (p < 0.001). Upright stroke volume decreased less in subjects with highest resting HR (p < 0.05), and cardiac output decreased less in subjects with lowest resting HR (p < 0.009), but clear hemodynamic differences between the tertiles persisted both supine and upright. Conclusions Supine and upright hemodynamic profile associated with higher resting HR is characterized by higher cardiac output and lower systemic vascular resistance. Higher resting HR was associated with reduced central wave reflection, in spite of elevated BP and arterial stiffness. The increased cardiac workload, higher BP and arterial stiffness, may explain why higher HR is associated with less favourable prognosis in populations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01742702 PMID:24237764

  19. Validity of an adaptation of the Framingham cardiovascular risk function: the VERIFICA study

    PubMed Central

    Marrugat, Jaume; Subirana, Isaac; Comín, Eva; Cabezas, Carmen; Vila, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Nam, Byung‐Ho; Ramos, Rafel; Sala, Joan; Solanas, Pascual; Cordón, Ferran; Gené‐Badia, Joan; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2007-01-01

    Background To assess the reliability and accuracy of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk function adapted by the Registre Gironí del Cor (REGICOR) investigators in Spain. Methods A 5‐year follow‐up study was completed in 5732 participants aged 35–74 years. The adaptation consisted of using in the function the average population risk factor prevalence and the cumulative incidence observed in Spain instead of those from Framingham in a Cox proportional hazards model. Reliability and accuracy in estimating the observed cumulative incidence were tested with the area under the curve comparison and goodness‐of‐fit test, respectively. Results The Kaplan–Meier CHD cumulative incidence during the follow‐up was 4.0% in men and 1.7% in women. The original Framingham function and the REGICOR adapted estimates were 10.4% and 4.8%, and 3.6% and 2.0%, respectively. The REGICOR‐adapted function's estimate did not differ from the observed cumulated incidence (goodness of fit in men, p = 0.078, in women, p = 0.256), whereas all the original Framingham function estimates differed significantly (p<0.001). Reliabilities of the original Framingham function and of the best Cox model fit with the study data were similar in men (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.68 and 0.69, respectively, p = 0.273), whereas the best Cox model fitted better in women (0.73 and 0.81, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusion The Framingham function adapted to local population characteristics accurately and reliably predicted the 5‐year CHD risk for patients aged 35–74 years, in contrast with the original function, which consistently overestimated the actual risk. PMID:17183014

  20. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  1. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Klimosch, Sascha N; Försti, Asta; Eckert, Jana; Knezevic, Jelena; Bevier, Melanie; von Schönfels, Witigo; Heits, Nils; Walter, Jessica; Hinz, Sebastian; Lascorz, Jesus; Hampe, Jochen; Hartl, Dominik; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Schafmayer, Clemens; Weber, Alexander N R

    2013-12-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer cells, but little is known about the functional relevance of these immune regulatory molecules in malignant settings. Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large cohort of Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer (n = 613). MYD88 rs4988453, a SNP that maps to a promoter region shared with the acetyl coenzyme-A acyl-transferase-1 (ACAA1), was associated with decreased survival of patients with colorectal cancer and altered transcriptional activity of the proximal genes. In the TLR5 gene, rs5744174/F616L was associated with increased survival, whereas rs2072493/N592S was associated with decreased survival. Both rs2072493/N592S and rs5744174/F616L modulated TLR5 signaling in response to flagellin or to different commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Notably, we observed a reduction in flagellin-induced p38 phosphorylation, CD62L shedding, and elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA in human primary immune cells from TLR5 616LL homozygote carriers, as compared with 616FF carriers. This finding suggested that the well-documented effect of cytokines like IL-6 on colorectal cancer progression might be mediated by TLR5 genotype-dependent flagellin sensing. Our results establish an important link between TLR signaling and human colorectal cancer with relevance for biomarker and therapy development. PMID:24154872

  2. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  3. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  4. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  5. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  6. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day−1, 5 days week−1 for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI. PMID:24535438

  7. [Cardiovascular function dynamics in healthy Kazakhstan participants of an ecomedical investigation working in extreme conditions (emergency management personnel)].

    PubMed

    Eshmanova, A K; Akanov, A A; Kiyabaev, A M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to study group dynamics of seasonal changes in the autonomous nervous and cardiovascular functions in essentially healthy males occupationally dealing with stressful situations (field personnel and firefighters of the Alma Ata Emergency Management Department (Kazakhstan). The investigation was based at the Kazakh National Medical University (Alma Ata) and conducted in conjunction and parallel with the MARS-500 project. Methodology embodied the pre-nosology approach pointed at identification of states in-between the norm and pathology. Results of the year-long investigation demonstrated seasonal variations in the functioning of normal organism that could be associated with occupational factors and "arduous duty", as it follows from the EMD operations summary (autonomous balance shifting toward prevalence of the sympathetic control due to the spring and summer "arduous duties" and the parasympathetic control in the peaceful situation during wintertime). These observations testify to the importance of dynamic health monitoring of normal people occupationally exposed to chronic psycho-emotional strain for pre-nosology diagnosis and timely preventive intervention. PMID:24660241

  8. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Papagianni, M; Tziomalos, K

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are effective glucose-lowering agents that do not increase body weight and are associated with a low risk for hypoglycemia. Also, they appear to exert beneficial effects on other established cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia and hypertension. Moreover, DPP-4 inhibitors exert antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions, improve endothelial function and reduce urinary albumin excretion. In contrast to these favorable cardiovascular effects, three recent large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors showed that DPP-4 inhibitors do not affect the risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke and might increase the risk of heart failure. The findings of the former randomized studies highlight the limitations of surrogate markers and show that beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors do not necessarily translate into reductions in hard clinical endpoints. Ongoing trials will shed more light on the safety profile of DPP-4 inhibitors and will clarify whether they will improve the cardiovascular outcomes of patients with T2DM. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 195-199. PMID:27418775

  9. Functional evidence of paraventricular nucleus involvement in cardiovascular and autonomic modulation in response to acute microgravity (head-down tilt) in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Eric Diego Turossi; Peras, Vivian Rossi; de Andrade, Ozahyr; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to microgravity induces autonomic and vestibular disorders such as alterations in cardiovascular function. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is known to be an important center for integrating autonomic and cardiovascular responses as blood volume reflexes. The acute effects promoted by microgravity and PVN involvement in cardiovascular and autonomic parameters have not yet been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized to facilitate cannulae implantation in the PVN. After 3 days of surgical recovery, femoral artery and vein catheters were implanted for direct recording of blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in conscious animals to evaluate cardiovascular and autonomic changes in an acute protocol of head-down tilt (HDT) in nonanesthetized rats. During HDT, there was an increase in mean arterial pressure (11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and a decrease in HR (-28 ± 5 bpm, P < 0.05). Spectral analysis of systolic arterial pressure showed an increase in the low-frequency (LF) component. In addition, HDT induced a reduction in the LF component and an increase in the high-frequency (HF) component of the pulse interval (PI). PVN inhibition with muscimol reversed bradycardia and blocked the reduction of the LF and HF increases in PI during HDT. These results suggest that the PVN participates in the cardiovascular compensation during HDT, especially modulating cardiac responses. PMID:25821104

  10. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  11. Combining stem cells and tissue engineering in cardiovascular repair -- a step forward to derivation of novel implants with enhanced function and self-renewal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Faisal H; Polvani, Gianluca; Argenziano, Michael; Pesce, Maurizio

    2012-04-01

    The use of stem and progenitor cells in cardiovascular therapy has been proposed as a feasible option to promote repair of tissue damage by ischemia, or to devise definitive artificial tissue replacements (valves, vessels, myocardium) to be surgically implanted in patients. Whereas in other medical branches such as dermatology and ophthalmology the use of ex vivo grown tissues is already accessible to a large degree, the use of bio-artificial implants in cardiovascular surgery is still marginal. This represents a major limitation in cardiovascular medicine at present. In fact, the limited durability and the lack of full compatibility of current implantable devices or tissues prevent a long-term resolution of symptoms and often require re-intervention thereby further increasing the economic burden of the cardiovascular disease. Stem cell technology can be of help to derive tissues with improved physiologic function and permanent durability. Specifically, the intrinsic ability of stem cells to produce tissue-specific "niches", where immature cells are perpetuated while differentiated progenitors are continuously produced, makes them an ideal resource for bioengineering approaches. Furthermore, recent advancements in biocompatible material science, designing of complex artificial scaffolds and generation of animal or human-derived natural substrates have made it feasible to have ex vivo reproduction of complex cell environment interactions - a process necessary to improve stem cells biological activity. This review focuses on current understanding of cardiovascular stem cell biology as well as tissue engineering and explores their interdisciplinary approach. By reviewing the relevant recent patents which have enabled this field to advance, it concentrates on various design substrates and scaffolds that grow stem cells in order to materialize the production of cardiovascular implants with enhanced functional and self-renewal characteristics. PMID:22280334

  12. Antigravity suit inflation - Kidney function and cardiovascular and hormonal responses in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Kravik, Stein E.; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Leftheriotis, Georges; Vincent, Madeleine

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the lower body positive pressure (LBPP) on kidney function in normal men was investigated in experiments in which the subjects underwent 30 min of sitting and then were subjected to 4.5 h of 70-deg head-up tilt. During the last 3 h of the tilt period, an antigravity suit (60 T legs, 30 T abdomen) was applied. The results showed that LBPP induces a significant increase in effective renal plasma flow and significant changes in the kidney excretory patterns, which were similar to those observed during a water immersion or the early phase of bed rest.

  13. Chronic Sleep Restriction during Pregnancy - Repercussion on Cardiovascular and Renal Functioning of Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ingrid L. B.; Rodrigues, Aline F. A. C.; Bergamaschi, Cássia T.; Campos, Ruy R.; Hirata, Aparecida E.; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D. P.; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R.; Gomes, Guiomar N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi – tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127±2.6 (19); OCSR: 144±2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: −2.6±0.15 (9); OCRS: −1.6±0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4±15 (18); OSR: 60.2±3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4±0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4±0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring. PMID:25405471

  14. Mechanism of aortic root dilation and cardiovascular function in tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Seki, Mitsuru; Kuwata, Seiko; Kurishima, Clara; Nakagawa, Ryo; Inuzuka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Masaya; Saiki, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Masutani, Satoshi; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    The aortic root dilation in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a long-term clinical problem, because a severely dilated aorta can lead to aortic regurgitation, dissection, or rupture, which can be fatal, necessitating surgical intervention. The details of the mechanism of aortic root dilation, however, are unclear. We have shown that aortic stiffness is increased in patients with repaired TOF, and may mirror the histological abnormality of elastic fiber disruption and matrix expansion. This aortic stiffness is related closely to the aortic dilation, indicating that aortic stiffness may be a predictor of outcome of aortic dilation. Furthermore, the aortic volume overload is a very important determinant of aortic diameter in TOF patients before corrective surgery. In addition, a chromosomal abnormality and the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway, a major contributor to aortic dilation in Marfan syndrome, also affect this mechanism. In this way, aortic dilation in TOF patients is suggested to be a multifactorial disorder. The aim of this review was therefore to clarify the mechanism of aortic dilation in TOF, focusing on recent research findings. Studies linking histopathology, mechanical properties, molecular/cellular physiology, and clinical manifestations of aortic dilation facilitate appropriate treatment intervention and improvement of long-term prognosis of TOF. PMID:26809655

  15. Origin of Heart Rate Variability and Turbulence: An Appraisal of Autonomic Modulation of Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  16. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  17. Cardiovascular function in large to small hibernators: bears to ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation has intrigued scientists due to extreme variations in normal seasonal physiological homeostasis. Numerous species manifest a hibernation phenotype although the characteristics of the hypometabolic state can be quite different. Ground squirrels (e.g., Sciuridae) are often considered the prototypical hibernator as individuals in this genus transition from an active, euthermic state (37 °C) to a nonresponsive hibernating state where torpid body temperature commonly falls to 3-5 °C. However, the hibernating state is not continuous as periodic warming and arousals occur. In contrast, the larger hibernators of genus Ursus are less hypothermic (body temperatures decline from approximately 37°-33 °C), are more reactive, and cyclical arousals do not occur. Both species dramatically reduce cardiac output during hibernation from the active state (bears ~75 % reduction in bears and ~97 % reduction in ground squirrels), and both species demonstrate hypokinetic atrial chamber activity. However, there are several important differences in cardiac function between the two groups during hibernation. Left ventricular diastolic filling volumes and stroke volumes do not differ in bears between seasons, but increased diastolic and stroke volumes during hibernation are important contributors to cardiac output in ground squirrels. Decreased cardiac muscle mass and increased ventricular stiffness have been found in bears, whereas ground squirrels have increased cardiac muscle mass and decreased ventricular stiffness during hibernation. Molecular pathways of cardiac muscle plasticity reveal differences between the species in the modification of sarcomeric proteins such as titin and α myosin heavy chain during hibernation. The differences in hibernation character are likely to account for the alternative cardiac phenotypes and functional strategies manifested by the two species. Molecular investigation coupled with better knowledge of seasonal physiological

  18. Prehypertensive African-American Women Have Preserved Nitric Oxide and Renal Function but High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Diaz, Keith M.; Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Williamson, Sheara T.; Crabbe, Deborah L.; Brown, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims African-Americans, in particular women, exhibit disproportionate levels of hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress compared to other ethnic groups. The relationship between prehypertension, renal function, inflammation, and oxidative stress was examined. Methods Twenty-eight African-American women (53.5 ± 1.1 years) followed an AHA diet and then underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring. Urinary albumin (uAlb), serum and urinary creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 24-hour urinary Na+ excretion, plasma superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), urinary (uNOx) and plasma (pNOx) nitric oxide levels, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Results When the group was divided by average 24-hour ABP into optimal and nonoptimal groups, a significant difference existed between the groups for uNOx (p = 0.001; nonoptimal: 933.5 ± 140.4, optimal: 425.0 ± 52.6 μmol/gCr), and for hsCRP (p = 0.018, nonoptimal: 3.9 ± 0.7, optimal: 1.9 ± 0.6 mg/l). Significant inverse relationships existed between hsCRP and uNOx and between uAlb and pNOx in the non-optimal group, between GFR and pNOx in the entire group, and positive association existed between TAC and uNOx in the optimal group. Conclusions These results suggest that in African-American women as BP levels rise toward hypertension, the NO/NOS balance may be associated with renal function, and may have implications for CV risk based on their hsCRP levels. PMID:20628261

  19. [Bone metabolism and cardiovascular function update. The estimation of bone material quality in the concept of bone and vascular linkage].

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuru; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi

    2014-07-01

    It has become clear that a reduction in sex hormones from middle age onwards, increasing age, and an increase in oxidative stress related to lifestyle-related diseases can also reduce bone material properties in terms of collagen post-translational modification, crosslink formation. These changes lead to both qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in collagen, which is the major bone matrix protein. The intermolecular cross-link formation of collagen, which regulates bone-material attributes, is a mechanism independent of bone remodeling. In other words, cross-link formation is controlled by the environment surrounding the bone matrix, comprising cellular functions, oxidative stress, and glycation level. Because oxidative stress is also risk factor of arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular event, there is link between low bone quality and arteriosclerosis. High levels of pentosidine in urine or blood, or mild hyperhomocysteinemia which suggest bone collagen abnormalities, might be used as surrogate markers for evaluating bone quality, assessing the risk of bone fracture. Patients with osteoporosis can be divided into 3 types on the basis of bone density and with bone quality. We are entering an age in which the treatment of osteoporosis will be personalized, with drugs administered depending on these types. PMID:24976053

  20. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females. PMID:23036371

  1. Endothelial lipid phosphate phosphatase-3 deficiency that disrupts the endothelial barrier function is a modifier of cardiovascular development

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Lurie, Erin E.; Wary, Kishore K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Lipid phosphate phosphatase-3 (LPP3) is expressed at high levels in endothelial cells (ECs). Although LPP3 is known to hydrolyse the phosphate group from lysolipids such as spingosine-1-phosphate and its structural homologues, the function of Lpp3 in ECs is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated how tyrosine-protein kinase receptor (TEK or Tie2) promoter–dependent deletion of Lpp3 alters EC activities. Methods and results Lpp3fl/fl mice were crossed with the tg.Tie2Cre transgenic line. Vasculogenesis occurred normally in embryos with Tie2Cre-mediated deletion of Lpp3 (called Lpp3ECKO), but embryonic lethality occurred in two waves, the first wave between E8.5 and E10.5, while the second between E11.5 and E13.5. Lethality in Lpp3ECKO embryos after E11.5 was accompanied by vascular leakage and haemorrhage, which likely resulted in insufficient cardiovascular development. Analyses of haematoxylin- and eosin-stained heart sections from E11.5 Lpp3ECKO embryos showed insufficient heart growth associated with decreased trabeculation, reduced growth of the compact wall, and absence of cardiac cushions. Staining followed by microscopic analyses of Lpp3ECKO embryos revealed the presence of apoptotic ECs. Furthermore, Lpp3-deficient ECs showed decreased gene expression and protein levels of Cyclin-D1, VE-cadherin, Fibronectin, Klf2, and Klf4. To determine the underlying mechanisms of vascular leakage and barrier disruption, we performed knockdown and rescue experiments in cultured ECs. LPP3 knockdown decreased transendothelial electrical resistance and increased permeability. Re-expression of β-catenin cDNA in LPP3-knockdown ECs partially restored the effect of the LPP3 loss, whereas re-expression of p120ctn cDNA did not. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the essential roles of LPP3 in the maturation of EC barrier integrity and normal cardiovascular development. PMID:27125875

  2. Diabetes mellitus and echocardiographic left ventricular function in free-living elderly men and women: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Gardin, J M; Lynch, J C; Smith, V E; Tracy, R P; Savage, P J; Szklo, M; Ward, B J

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the relation among diabetes, blood pressure, and prevalent cardiovascular disease, and echocardiographically measured left ventricular mass and filling (transmitral valve flow) velocities in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort of 5201 men and women > or = 65 years of age. Ventricular septal and left posterior wall thicknesses were greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects, showing a significant linear trend (p = 0.025 for ventricular septal thickness in both sexes combined, p = 0.002 for posterior wall thickness) with increased duration of diabetes. Increased wall thickness of the ventricular septum or the left posterior wall was not associated with prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD) in the cohort. Increased left ventricular mass was associated with diabetic persons not reporting CHD and with all subjects with CHD regardless of glucose tolerance status. After adjusting for body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and prevalent coronary or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes (as measured by glucose level, insulin use, oral hypoglycemic use, and a positive history of diabetes before baseline examination) remained an independent predictor of increased left ventricular mass among men and women (174.2 gm in diabetic men vs 169.8 gm in normal men, 138.2 gm in diabetic women vs 134.0 gm in normal women, p = 0.043 for both sexes combined). Both early and late diastolic transmitral peak flow velocities were higher with increased duration of diabetes, but the calculated ratio of the early peak flow velocity to the late velocity (E/A ratio) did not differ significantly between subjects with historical diabetes and those with normal fasting glucose (both genders combined, p = 0.190). Glucose level, insulin use, oral hypoglycemic use, and a positive history of diabetes before baseline examination were significant independent predictors of the late transmitral peak flow velocity and its integrated flow-velocity curve but not for the integral

  3. Active-Arm Passive-Leg Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Currie, Katharine D; Gee, Cameron; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2015-11-01

    In a 43-yr-old male subject with a chronic T3 AIS A spinal cord injury, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to active upper-extremity exercise alone and combined active-arm passive-leg exercise (AAPLE) were investigated, along with the cardiorespiratory, cardiac, vascular, and body composition responses to a 6-wk AAPLE interval training intervention. AAPLE elicited superior acute maximal cardiorespiratory responses compared with upper-extremity exercise alone. In response to a 6-wk interval training regimen, AAPLE caused a 25% increase in peak oxygen uptake, a 10% increase in resting stroke volume, and a 4-fold increase in brachial artery blood flow. Conversely, there were no changes in femoral arterial function, body composition, or bone mineral density in response to training. As a potential clinical intervention, AAPLE may be advantageous over other forms of currently available exercise, owing to the minimal setup time and cost involved and the nonreliance on specialized equipment that is required for other exercise modalities. PMID:26259052

  4. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  5. Leukocyte Subtype Counts and Its Association with Vascular Structure and Function in Adults with Intermediate Cardiovascular Risk. MARK Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Leticia; García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rigo, Fernando; Ramos, Rafel; Martí, Ruth; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the relationship between leukocyte subtype counts and vascular structure and function based on carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, central augmentation index and cardio-ankle vascular index by gender in intermediate cardiovascular risk patients. Methods This study analyzed 500 subjects who were included in the MARK study, aged 35 to 74 years (mean: 60.3±8.4), 45.6% women. Measurement: Brachial ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (ba-PWV) estimate by equation, Cardio-AnkleVascular Index (CAVI) using the VaSera device and Carotid ultrasound was used to measure carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT). The Mobil-O-Graph was used to measure the Central Augmentation Index (CAIx). Results Total leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively correlated with IMT (p < 0.01) in men. Monocyte count was positively correlated with CAIx in women (p < 0.01). In a multiple linear regression analysis, the IMT mean maintained a positive association with the neutrophil count (β = 1.500, p = 0.007) in men. CAIx maintained a positive association with the monocyte count (β = 2.445, p = 0.022) in women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the relationship between subtype circulating leukocyte counts and vascular structure and function, although small, may be different by gender. In men, the neutrophil count was positively correlated with IMT and in women, the monocyte count with CAIx, in a large sample of intermediate-risk patients. These association were maintained after adjusting for age and other confounders. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428934 PMID:25885665

  6. Effect of a Stable Angiotensin‐(1–7) Analogue on Progenitor Cell Recruitment and Cardiovascular Function Post Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pessôa, Bruno Sevá; Becher, Peter Moritz; Van Veghel, Richard; De Vries, René; Tempel, Dennie; Sneep, Stefan; Van Beusekom, Heleen; Van Der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Westermann, Dirk; Danser, A. H. Jan; Roks, Anton J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiotensin‐(1–7) improves cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). This may involve recruitment of hematopoietic progenitor cells that support angiogenesis. However, angiotensin‐(1–7) is rapidly metabolized in plasma and tissue. The authors investigated in mice the effect of a metabolically stable angiotensin‐(1–7) analogue, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7), on progenitor cell recruitment and on the heart post MI, when given in the angiogenesis phase of remodeling. Methods and Results Angiogenic progenitor cell recruitment was measured by using flow cytometry 24 and 72 hours after a daily bolus injection of cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) in healthy C57BL/6 mice. Further, mice underwent MI or sham surgery and subsequently received saline or 2 different doses of cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) for 3 or 9 weeks. Cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) increased circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells at 24 hours but not 72 hours. Post MI, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) diminished cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reduced myogenic tone, without altering cardiovascular function or cardiac histology at 9 weeks. Importantly, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7)–treated mice had reduced cardiac capillary density at 3 weeks after MI but not after 9 weeks. Finally, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) decreased tube formation by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7), when given early after MI, recruits progenitor cells but does not lead to improved angiogenesis, most likely because it simultaneously exerts antiangiogenic effect in adult endothelial cells. Apparently, optimal treatment with cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) depends on the time point of onset of application after MI. PMID:25655571

  7. Plasticity of cardiovascular function in snapping turtle embryos (Chelydra serpentina): chronic hypoxia alters autonomic regulation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Tate, Kevin B; Gruchalla, Kathryn; Kohl, Zachary F; Slay, Christopher E; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-06-01

    Reptile embryos tolerate large decreases in the concentration of ambient oxygen. However, we do not fully understand the mechanisms that underlie embryonic cardiovascular short- or long-term responses to hypoxia in most species. We therefore measured cardiac growth and function in snapping turtle embryos incubated under normoxic (N21; 21% O₂) or chronic hypoxic conditions (H10; 10% O₂). We determined heart rate (fH) and mean arterial pressure (Pm) in acute normoxic (21% O₂) and acute hypoxic (10% O₂) conditions, as well as embryonic responses to cholinergic, adrenergic, and ganglionic pharmacological blockade. Compared with N21 embryos, chronic H10 embryos had smaller bodies and relatively larger hearts and were hypotensive, tachycardic, and following autonomic neural blockade showed reduced intrinsic fH at 90% of incubation. Unlike other reptile embryos, cholinergic and ganglionic receptor blockade both increased fH. β-Adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol decreased fH, and α-adrenergic blockade with phentolamine decreased Pm. We also measured cardiac mRNA expression. Cholinergic tone was reduced in H10 embryos, but cholinergic receptor (Chrm2) mRNA levels were unchanged. However, expression of adrenergic receptor mRNA (Adrb1, Adra1a, Adra2c) and growth factor mRNA (Igf1, Igf2, Igf2r, Pdgfb) was lowered in H10 embryos. Hypoxia altered the balance between cholinergic receptors, α-adrenoreceptor and β-adrenoreceptor function, which was reflected in altered intrinsic fH and adrenergic receptor mRNA levels. This is the first study to link gene expression with morphological and cardioregulatory plasticity in a developing reptile embryo. PMID:23552497

  8. Effects of Oral Lycopene Supplementation on Vascular Function in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Healthy Volunteers: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R.; Hubsch, Annette; Mäki-Petäjä, Kaisa M.; Serg, Martin; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Cheriyan, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Aims The mechanisms by which a ‘Mediterranean diet’ reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden remain poorly understood. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant found in such diets with evidence suggesting beneficial effects. We wished to investigate the effects of lycopene on the vasculature in CVD patients and separately, in healthy volunteers (HV). Methods and Results We randomised 36 statin treated CVD patients and 36 healthy volunteers in a 2∶1 treatment allocation ratio to either 7 mg lycopene or placebo daily for 2 months in a double-blind trial. Forearm responses to intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; EDV), sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilatation; EIDV), and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (basal nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity) were measured using venous plethysmography. A range of vascular and biochemical secondary endpoints were also explored. EDV in CVD patients post-lycopene improved by 53% (95% CI: +9% to +93%, P = 0.03 vs. placebo) without changes to EIDV, or basal NO responses. HVs did not show changes in EDV after lycopene treatment. Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, lipids and hsCRP levels were unchanged for lycopene vs. placebo treatment groups in the CVD arm as well as the HV arm. At baseline, CVD patients had impaired EDV compared with HV (30% lower; 95% CI: −45% to −10%, P = 0.008), despite lower LDL cholesterol (1.2 mmol/L lower, 95% CI: −1.6 to −0.9 mmol/L, P<0.001). Post-therapy EDV responses for lycopene-treated CVD patients were similar to HVs at baseline (2% lower, 95% CI: −30% to +30%, P = 0.85), also suggesting lycopene improved endothelial function. Conclusions Lycopene supplementation improves endothelial function in CVD patients on optimal secondary prevention, but not in HVs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01100385 PMID:24911964

  9. [Cardiovascular complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Orio, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is one of the major coronary risk factor representing an increasingly important worldwide health problem. The increased prevalence of obesity among younger population is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome and contributes to increase the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relationship between obesity (especially visceral obesity) and CVD appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and polycystic ovary syndrome represents an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women. PMID:17312846

  10. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Associated microRNAs Are Dysregulated in Placental Tissues Affected with Gestational Hypertension, Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Kotlabova, Katerina; Hympanova, Lucie; Krofta, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Aims To demonstrate that pregnancy-related complications are associated with alterations in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular microRNA expression. Gene expression of 32 microRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-33a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-100-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-208a-3p, miR-210-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, miR-499a-5p, and miR-574-3p) was assessed in placental tissues, compared between groups (35 gestational hypertension, 80 preeclampsia, 35 intrauterine growth restriction and 20 normal pregnancies) and correlated with the severity of the disease with respect to clinical signs, delivery date, and Doppler ultrasound parameters. Initially, selection and validation of endogenous controls for microRNA expression studies in placental tissues affected by pregnancy-related complications have been carried out. Results The expression profile of microRNAs was different between pregnancy-related complications and controls. The up-regulation of miR-499a-5p was a common phenomenon shared between gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Preeclamptic pregnancies delivering after 34 weeks of gestation and IUGR with abnormal values of flow rate in the umbilical artery demonstrated up-regulation of miR-1-3b. Preeclampsia and IUGR requiring termination of gestation before 34 weeks of gestation were associated with down-regulation of miR-26a-5p, miR-103a-3p and miR-145-5p. On the other hand, some of microRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, and miR-574-3p) were only down-regulated or showed a trend to down-regulation just in intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies requiring the delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. Conclusion

  11. Protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function, and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the PI3K/Akt pathway in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong-Yang; Jiang, Yi-Nong; Li, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Thymoquinone is the main active monomer extracted from black cumin and has anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic functions. However, the protective effects of thymoquinone on cardiovascular function in diabetes remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underling the beneficial effects of thymoquinone on the cardiovascular function in streptozotocin‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Supplement thymoquinone may recover the insulin levels and body weight, inhibit blood glucose levels and reduce the heart rate in DM‑induced rats. The results indicated that the heart, liver and lung to body weight ratios, in addition to the blood pressure levels, were similar for each experimental group. Treatment with thymoquinone significantly reduced oxidative stress damage, inhibited the increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression and suppressed the elevation of cyclooxygenase‑2 levels in DM‑induced rats. In addition, thymoquinone significantly suppressed the promotion of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6 levels in the DM‑induced rats. Furthermore, administration of thymoquinone significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity and the promotion of phosphorylated‑protein kinase B (Akt) protein expression levels in DM‑induced rats. These results suggest that the protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/Akt pathway in DM‑induced rats. PMID:26820252

  12. Positive Affect in the Midst of Distress: Implications for Role Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Acree, Michael; Folkman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants were students (Study 1), caregivers of ill children (Study 2), and individuals recently diagnosed with HIV (Study 3). In cross sectional analyses, using role functioning as an indicator of self-regulation performance, we found that positive affect was significantly correlated with better self regulation performance, independent of the effects of negative affect. The effects were not as strong longitudinally, however, and there was little evidence of a reciprocal association between increases in positive affect and improvements in role functioning over time. The results provide some modest support for hypotheses stemming from the Broaden and Build model of positive emotion and revised Stress and Coping theory, both of which argue for unique adaptive functions of positive affect under stressful conditions. PMID:23175617

  13. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. In this Review, we discuss the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically and our vision for where this exciting biology may lead in the future. PMID:25654551

  14. Cardiovascular rhythms and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in AT(1A) receptor gain-of-function mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Baudrie, Véronique; Laude, Dominique; Petrel, Christophe; Clauser, Eric; Elghozi, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    A mutant mouse expressing a gain-of-function of the AT(1A) angiotensin II receptor was engineered to study the consequences of a constitutive activation of this receptor on blood pressure (BP). Cardiovascular rhythms and spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were evaluated using telemetric BP recordings of five transgenic (AT(1A)MUT) and five wild (AT(1A)WT) mice. The circadian rhythms were described with the Chronos-Fit program. The gain of the transfer function between systolic BP (SBP) and pulse intervals used to estimate the spontaneous BRS (ms/mmHg) was calculated in the low frequency (0.15-0.60 Hz) band. Transgenic AT(1A)MUT exhibited higher BP and heart rate (HR) levels compared to controls (SBP AT(1A)MUT 134.6 +/- 5.9 mmHg vs. AT(1A)WT 110.5 +/- 5.9; p < 0.05; HR AT(1A)MUT 531.0 +/- 14.9 vs. AT(1A)WT 454.8 +/- 5.4 beats/min; p = 0.001). Spontaneous BRS was diminished in transgenic mice (AT(1A)MUT 1.23 +/- 0.17 ms/mmHg vs. AT(1A)WT 1.91 +/- 0.18 ms/mmHg; p < 0.05). Motor activity did not differ between groups. These variables exhibited circadian changes, and the differences between the strains were maintained throughout the cycle. The highest values for BP, HR, and locomotor activity were observed at night. Spontaneous BRS varied in the opposite direction, with the lowest gain estimated when BP and HR were elevated (i.e., at night, when the animals were active). It is likely the BP elevation of the mutant mice results from the amplification of the effects of AngII at different sites. Future studies are necessary to explore whether AT(1A) receptor activation at the central nervous system level effectively contributed to the observed differences. PMID:20205562

  15. Flash fire and slow burn: women's cardiovascular reactivity and recovery following hostile and benevolent sexism.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Kristen; Burgess, Kaleena D; Bosson, Jennifer K

    2015-04-01

    Women's cardiovascular responses to sexist treatment are documented, but researchers have yet to consider these responses separately as a function of sexism type (hostile vs. benevolent). This study demonstrates distinct effects of hostile and benevolent sexism for women's cardiovascular responses that indicate increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Female participants performed a demanding insight task after exposure to a male researcher who offered them a hostilely sexist, benevolently sexist, or nonsexist comment. Women displayed heightened cardiovascular reactivity (increases from baseline) during the task following hostile sexism, and they displayed impaired cardiovascular recovery (return to baseline after the task) following benevolent sexism. The effects seen in the hostile condition were mediated by self-reported anger. These findings indicate that women's affective responses to hostile and benevolent sexism differ but that exposure to both forms of sexism may have negative cardiovascular consequences. PMID:25844626

  16. Impact of Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator on Selected Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Left Ventricle Structure and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rysz, Jacek; Franczyk, Beata; Baj, Zbigniew; Majewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are very high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) on selected biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, left ventricle structure, and function in CKD. Material and Methods. Peripheral blood was collected from 25 CKD patients before and after CERA treatment and 20 healthy subjects. In serum samples, we assessed inflammatory markers (IL-1β, TNF-RI, TNF-RII, sFas, sFasL, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1), endothelial dysfunction markers (sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1), and volume-related marker (NT-proBNP). All subjects underwent echocardiography and were evaluated for selected biochemical parameters (Hb, creatinine, and CRP). Results. Evaluated biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters of left ventricle structure were significantly increased but left ventricle EF was significantly decreased in CKD patients compared to controls. After CERA treatment, we observed a significant increase of Hb and left ventricle EF and a significant decrease of NT-proBNP and MMP-9. There was a significant negative correlation between Hb and TNF-RI, sICAM-1, and IL-1β. Conclusions. Our results indicate that selected biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk are significantly increased in CKD patients compared to controls. CERA treatment has anti-inflammatory action, diminishes endothelial dysfunction, and improves left ventricle function in these patients. PMID:27034745

  17. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benda, Nathalie M. M.; Seeger, Joost P. H.; Stevens, Guus G. C. F.; Hijmans-Kersten, Bregina T. P.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Bellersen, Louise; Lamfers, Evert J. P.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT. Methods Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6%) were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload—alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload) or CT (30 minutes at 60–75% of maximal workload). Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test), cardiac function and structure (echocardiography), vascular function and structure (ultrasound) and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ)). Results Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05), whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.). We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05), whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S.). Conclusion Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671 PMID:26517867

  18. Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor. PMID:23590163

  19. The prodromal phase of obesity-related chronic kidney disease: early alterations in cardiovascular and renal function in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Anke; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-11-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a relevant health condition with multi-organ involvement. Obesity shows significant tracking into adult life and is associated with an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes both during childhood and later adulthood. The classical sequelae of obesity such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome and inflammation do develop at a paediatric age. Cardiovascular consequences, such as increased carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as functional alterations of the heart and arteries, are commonly traceable at an early age. Renal involvement can occur at a young age and is associated with a high probability of progressive chronic kidney disease. There is solid evidence suggesting that consequent treatment including both lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy can reduce cardiovascular, metabolic and renal risks in obese children and adolescents. PMID:23975744

  20. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over her child's life span: Relation to adrenocortical, cardiovascular, and emotional functioning in children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; Reihman, Jacki; Stewart, Paul; Lonky, ED; Darvill, Tom; Granger, Douglas A.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression has a number of adverse effects on children. In the present study, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed (using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) when their child was 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4.25 years, 6 years, 7 years, 8 years, and 10 years of age. At 9.5 years of age, children's (94 females, 82 males) depressive symptoms as well as cardiovascular and cortisol levels during baseline and two psychologically stressful tasks were measured. Using multilevel modeling, maternal depressive symptom trajectories were considered in relation to their child's adrenocortical and cardiovascular responses to acute stress. Our goal was to determine maternal depressive symptom trajectories for children with elevated cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute stress and elevated depressive symptoms. In general, those mothers with chronically elevated depressive symptoms over their child's life span had children with lower initial cortisol, higher cardiac output and stroke volume in response to acute stress, lower vascular resistance during acute stress tasks, and significantly more depressive symptoms at 9.5 years of age. These results are discussed in the context of established associations among hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation, depression, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19144231

  1. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  2. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Harkness, John H.; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30–40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A R; Harkness, John H; Neve, Kim A; Williams, Robert W; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K; Eshleman, Amy J; Phillips, Tamara J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30-40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  4. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  5. Progesterone Therapy, Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A 3-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Healthy Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Elliott, Thomas G.; Norman, Eric; Stajic, Vesna; Hitchcock, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Progesterone is effective treatment for hot flushes/night sweats. The cardiovascular effects of progesterone therapy are unknown but evidence suggests that premenopausal normal estradiol with also normal progesterone levels may provide later cardiovascular protection. We compared the effects of progesterone to placebo on endothelial function, weight, blood pressure, metabolism, lipids, inflammation and coagulation. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized, double-blind, 3-month placebo-controlled trial of progesterone (300 mg daily) among 133 healthy postmenopausal women in Vancouver, Canada from 2003–2009. Endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography was a planned primary outcome. Enrolled women were 1–11 y since last menstruation, not using hormones (for >6 months), non-smoking, without diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or their medications. Randomized (1∶1) women (55±4 years, body mass index 25±3) initially had normal blood pressure, fasting lipid, glucose and electrocardiogram results. Endothelial function (% forearm blood flow above saline) was not changed with progesterone (487±189%, n = 18) compared with placebo (408±278%, n = 16) (95% CI diff [−74 to 232], P = 0.30). Progesterone (n = 65) and placebo (n = 47) groups had similar changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. High-density lipoprotein was lower (−0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.001) on progesterone compared with placebo. Fasting glucose, hs-C-reactive protein, albumin and D-dimer changes were all comparable to placebo. Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile scores were initially low and remained low with progesterone therapy and not statistically different from placebo. Conclusions Results indicate that progesterone has short-term cardiovascular safety. Endothelial function, weight

  6. Diabetes Mellitus, Arterial Wall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structural background for cardiovascular events. The present paper provides a critical overview of the clinical evidence linking diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities to cardiovascular risk, debates the pathophysiologic mechanisms through which insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may affect the arterial wall, and discusses the associations between vascular biomarkers, metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular events. PMID:26861377

  7. Soy provides modest benefits on endothelial function without affecting inflammatory biomarkers in adults at cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    Reverri, Elizabeth J.; LaSalle, Colette D.; Franke, Adrian A.; Steinberg, Francene M.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Epidemiological evidence supports an association between whole soy food consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this randomized, controlled, crossover study was to evaluate the effects of soy nut consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function and to assess whether isoflavone metabolism to secondary products, equol and/or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), modifies these responses. Methods and Results n=17 adults at cardiometabolic risk were randomly assigned to the order of two snack interventions, soy nuts and macronutrient-matched control snack, for four weeks each, separated by a two week washout period. Outcome measures included biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycemic control (ELISA and clinical analyzers), endothelial function and arterial stiffness (peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT)), and isoflavone metabolites (LC-MS/MS). Results revealed that consuming soy nuts improved arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index using PAT (P=0.03), despite lack of improvement in inflammatory biomarkers. Addition of equol and/ODMA production status as covariates did not significantly change these results. Conclusions Soy nuts when added to a usual diet for one month provide some benefit on arterial stiffness in adults at cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25351805

  8. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  9. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  10. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  11. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  12. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  13. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  14. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  15. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  16. Telomere length and cardiovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2012-06-01

    Telomeres are located at the end of chromosomes. They are composed of repetitive TTAGGG tandem repeats and associated proteins of crucial importance for telomere function. Telomeric DNA is shortened by each cell division until a critical length is achieved and the cell enters senescence and eventually apoptosis. Telomeres are therefore considered a 'biological clock' of the cell. Telomerase adds nucleotides to telomeric DNA thereby contributing to telomere maintenance, genomic stability, functions, and proliferative capacity of the cell. In certain rare forms of progeria, point mutations within the telomere lead to accelerated telomere attrition and premature aging. Endogenous factors causing telomere shortening are aging, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is inhibited by estrogen and endogenous antioxidants. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as age, gender, obesity, smoking, sedentary life-style, excess alcohol intake, and even mental stress. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases and CV aging are usually but not invariably associated with shorter telomeres than in healthy subjects. LTL appears to be a biomarker of CV aging, reflecting the cumulative burden of endogenous and exogenous factors negatively affecting LTL. Whether accelerated telomere shortening is cause or consequence of CV aging and disease is not clear. PMID:22713142

  17. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  18. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  19. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  20. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  1. Functional genomics of the CDKN2A/B locus in cardiovascular and metabolic disease: what have we learned from GWASs?

    PubMed

    Hannou, Sarah Anissa; Wouters, Kristiaan; Paumelle, Réjane; Staels, Bart

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine, on a large scale, the association of common genetic variants with complex diseases like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), thus allowing the identification of new potential disease loci. Using this approach, numerous studies have associated SNPs on chromosome 9p21.3 situated near the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) locus with the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and T2D. However, identifying the function of the nearby gene products (CDKN2A/B and ANRIL) in the pathophysiology of these conditions requires functional genomic studies. We review the current knowledge, from studies using human and mouse models, describing the function of CDKN2A/B gene products, which may mechanistically link the 9p21.3 risk locus with CVD and diabetes. PMID:25744911

  2. Nutrition as a part of healthy aging and reducing cardiovascular risk: improving functionality in later life using quality protein, with optimized timing and distribution.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Beryl M; Axford, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with many physiological changes, which may in time lead to numerous pathophysiological outcomes, including adverse vascular events. For example, senescence of the immune system and cellular senescence both contribute to rising inflammation with age, potentially induced by the overall burden of comorbid illness, adipose tissue mass, diet, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. In turn, this chronic inflammation decreases physical and cognitive performance, and promotes sarcopenia and the syndrome of frailty. These events and others decrease the functionality of life as we age and include an increased risk of thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we aim to overview the aging process primarily as related to functional impairment, and provide evidence for the role of protein, and specifically differential quality protein, in particular whey protein, and timing and distribution of intake, to help reduce some of the morbid effects of aging, including reducing obesity, improving glycemic control, and improving vascular function. PMID:25151523

  3. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  4. Cardiovascular system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the body. The ... which they are eliminated. Most of the blood is made up of a watery, protein-laden fluid ...

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic function analysis using approximate entropy from 24-h heart rate variability and its frequency components in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Yu, Shuo; Chen, Hui; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Fangjie

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular autonomic system status of diabetes patients using approximate entropy (ApEn) extracted from 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) and its frequency components. Materials and Methods A total of 29 healthy controls and 63 type 2 diabetes patients were included. Participants’ 24-h HRV signals were recorded, and decomposed and reconstructed into four frequency components: high, low, very low and ultra low. The total 24-h HRV and its four components were divided into 24 1-h segments. ApEn values were extracted and statistically analyzed. Four traditional HRV indices, namely standard deviation of the RR intervals, root mean square of successive differences, coefficient of variance of RR intervals and ratio of low to high power of HRV, were also calculated. Results The low-frequency component contained the most abundant non-linear information, so was potentially most suitable for studying the cardiovascular system status with non-linear methods. ApEn values extracted from low- and high-frequency components of healthy controls were higher than those of diabetes patients. Except for root mean square of successive differences, standard deviation of the RR intervals, low to high power of HRV and coefficient of variance of RR intervals of healthy controls were all higher than those of diabetes patients. Conclusions The results showed that ApEn contained information on disorders of autonomic system function of diabetes patients as traditional HRV indices in time and frequency domains. ApEn and three traditional indices showed accordance to some degree. Non-linear information in subcomponents of HRV was shown, which is potentially more effective for distinguishing healthy individuals and diabetes patients than that extracted from the total HRV. Compared with diabetes patients, the cardiovascular system of healthy controls showed information of higher complexity, and better regulation

  6. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  7. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  8. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  9. Amygdala Perfusion Is Predicted by Its Functional Connectivity with the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Coombs III, Garth; Loggia, Marco L.; Greve, Douglas N.; Holt, Daphne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect). It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1) amygdala over-activity and 2) reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. Methods Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF) and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal) of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. Results BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. Conclusions These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach. PMID:24816735

  10. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  11. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  12. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  13. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Grisé, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9-17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM. PMID:26885531

  14. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Grisé, Kenneth N.; Olver, T. Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W.; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C.; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Noble, Earl G.; Melling, C. W. James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9–17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM. PMID:26885531

  15. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M.; Dominiczak, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is an important regulatory molecule in cardiovascular function. Reduced availability of nitric oxide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:9497971

  16. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917

  17. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2004-01-01

    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  18. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  19. The protective function of personal growth initiative among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Forgeard, Marie J C; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors. Our results suggest that PGI may constitute an important mindset for facilitating adaptive functioning in the aftermath of adversity and in the midst of psychological distress, and as such they might have practical applications for the development of intervention programs. PMID:26147518

  20. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, H.; Koshimura, S.; Imai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Namegaya, Y.; Nishimura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by visually interpreting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using Geographic Information System (GIS), and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses. From the developed fragility functions, we quantitatively understood the vulnerability of a coastal region in American Samoa characterized by steep terrains and ria coasts.

  1. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  2. A newly recognized autosomal recessive syndrome affecting neurologic function and vision.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa A; Tzschach, Andreas; Oystreck, Darren T; Hassan, Hamdy H; AlDrees, Abdulmajeed; Elmalik, Salah A; El Khashab, Heba Y; Wienker, Thomas F; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Bosley, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Genetic factors represent an important etiologic group in the causation of intellectual disability. We describe a Saudi Arabian family with closley related parents in which four of six children were affected by a congenital cognitive disturbance. The four individuals (aged 18, 16, 13, and 2 years when last examined) had motor and cognitive delay with seizures in early childhood, and three of the four (sparing only the youngest child) had progressive, severe cognitive decline with spasticity. Two affected children had ocular malformations, and the three older children had progressive visual loss. The youngest had normal globes with good functional vision when last examined but exhibited the oculodigital sign, which may signify a subclinical visual deficit. A potentially deleterious nucleotide change (c.1A>G; p.Met1Val) in the C12orf57 gene was homozygous in all affected individuals, heterozygous in the parents, and absent in an unaffected sibling and >350 normal individuals. This gene has no known function. This family manifests a autosomal recessive syndrome with some phenotypic variability that includes abnormal development of brain and eyes, delayed cognitive and motor milestones, seizures, and a severe cognitive and visual decline that is associated with a homozygous variant in a newly identified gene. PMID:23633300

  3. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  4. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  5. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  6. Relation Between Change in Renal Function and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Atorvastatin-Treated Patients (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] Study).

    PubMed

    Shepherd, James; Breazna, Andrei; Deedwania, Prakash C; LaRosa, John C; Wenger, Nanette K; Messig, Michael; Wilson, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Statins may have nephroprotective as well as cardioprotective effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study (NCT00327691), patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were randomized to atorvastatin 10 or 80 mg/day and followed for 4.9 years. The relation between intrastudy change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline and the risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVEs, defined as CHD death, nonfatal non-procedure-related myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or fatal or nonfatal stroke) was assessed among 9,500 patients stratified by renal function: improving (change in eGFR more than +2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), stable (-2 to +2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and worsening (less than -2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Compared with patients with worsening renal function (1,479 patients, 15.6%), the rate of MCVEs was 28% lower in patients with stable renal function (2,241 patients, 23.6%) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 to 0.87; p = 0.0005) and 64% lower in patients with improving renal function (5,780 patients, 60.8%; HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.43; p <0.0001). For each 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) increase in eGFR, the absolute reduction in the rate of MCVEs was 2.7% (HR 0.973; 95% CI 0.967 to 0.980; p <0.0001). An absolute MCVE rate reduction per 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) increase in eGFR of 2.0% was reported with atorvastatin 10 mg and 3.3% with atorvastatin 80 mg. In conclusion, intrastudy stabilization or increase in eGFR in atorvastatin-treated patients with CHD from the TNT study was associated with a reduced rate of MCVEs. Statin-treated CHD patients with progressive renal impairment are at high risk for future cardiovascular events. PMID:26940556

  7. Elementary neurocognitive function, facial affect recognition and social-skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Melissa B; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2009-05-01

    Social-skill deficits are pervasive in schizophrenia and negatively impact many key aspects of functioning. Prior studies have found that measures of elementary neurocognition and social cognition are related to social-skills. In the present study we selected a range of neurocognitive measures and examined their relationship with identification of happy and sad faces and performance-based social-skills. Fifty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Results revealed that: 1) visual vigilance, problem-solving and affect recognition were related to social-skill; 2) links between problem-solving and social-skill, but not visual vigilance and social-skill, remained significant when estimates of verbal intelligence were controlled; 3) affect recognition deficits explained unique variance in social-skill after neurocognitive variables were controlled; and 4) affect recognition deficits partially mediated the relationship of visual vigilance and social-skill. These results support the conclusion that facial affect recognition deficits are a crucial domain of impairment in schizophrenia that both contribute unique variance to social-skill deficits and may also mediate the relationship between some aspects of neurocognition and social-skill. These findings may help guide the development and refinement of cognitive and social-cognitive remediation methods for social-skill impairment. PMID:19328653

  8. Functional Connectivity of Pain-Mediated Affect Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Kirsch, Peter; Schulze, Lars; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD. We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para-) limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex) in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral) affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception). Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-)limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen), as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate). We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia. PMID:22428013

  9. Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Strategies to Rescue Factor IX Variants That Affect Splicing and Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Tajnik, Mojca; Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Bussani, Erica; Barbon, Elena; Balestra, Dario; Pinotti, Mirko; Pagani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Mutations that result in amino acid changes can affect both pre-mRNA splicing and protein function. Understanding the combined effect is essential for correct diagnosis and for establishing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy at the molecular level. We have identified a series of disease-causing splicing mutations in coagulation factor IX (FIX) exon 5 that are completely recovered by a modified U1snRNP particle, through an SRSF2-dependent enhancement mechanism. We discovered that synonymous mutations and missense substitutions associated to a partial FIX secretion defect represent targets for this therapy as the resulting spliced-corrected proteins maintains normal FIX coagulant specific activity. Thus, splicing and protein alterations contribute to define at the molecular level the disease-causing effect of a number of exonic mutations in coagulation FIX exon 5. In addition, our results have a significant impact in the development of splicing-switching therapies in particular for mutations that affect both splicing and protein function where increasing the amount of a correctly spliced protein can circumvent the basic functional defects. PMID:27227676

  10. Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Strategies to Rescue Factor IX Variants That Affect Splicing and Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Bussani, Erica; Barbon, Elena; Pinotti, Mirko; Pagani, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mutations that result in amino acid changes can affect both pre-mRNA splicing and protein function. Understanding the combined effect is essential for correct diagnosis and for establishing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy at the molecular level. We have identified a series of disease-causing splicing mutations in coagulation factor IX (FIX) exon 5 that are completely recovered by a modified U1snRNP particle, through an SRSF2-dependent enhancement mechanism. We discovered that synonymous mutations and missense substitutions associated to a partial FIX secretion defect represent targets for this therapy as the resulting spliced-corrected proteins maintains normal FIX coagulant specific activity. Thus, splicing and protein alterations contribute to define at the molecular level the disease-causing effect of a number of exonic mutations in coagulation FIX exon 5. In addition, our results have a significant impact in the development of splicing-switching therapies in particular for mutations that affect both splicing and protein function where increasing the amount of a correctly spliced protein can circumvent the basic functional defects. PMID:27227676

  11. Microbial Functional Potential and Community Composition in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the NW Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Frank-Fahle, Béatrice A.; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W.; Lantuit, Hugues; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils are among the most obvious ecosystems in which current microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are changing as a result of global warming. Warmer conditions in polygonal tundra will lead to a deepening of the seasonal active layer, provoking changes in microbial processes and possibly resulting in exacerbated carbon degradation under increasing anoxic conditions. To identify current microbial assemblages in carbon rich, water saturated permafrost environments, four polygonal tundra sites were investigated on Herschel Island and the Yukon Coast, Western Canadian Arctic. Ion Torrent sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA amplicons revealed the presence of all major microbial soil groups and indicated a local, vertical heterogeneity of the polygonal tundra soil community with increasing depth. Microbial diversity was found to be highest in the surface layers, decreasing towards the permafrost table. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes involved in carbon and nitrogen-cycling revealed a high functional potential in the surface layers, decreasing with increasing active layer depth. We observed that soil properties driving microbial diversity and functional potential varied in each study site. These results highlight the small-scale heterogeneity of geomorphologically comparable sites, greatly restricting generalizations about the fate of permafrost-affected environments in a warming Arctic. PMID:24416279

  12. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  13. Extender components and surfactants affect boar sperm function and membrane behavior during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, M J; Buhr, M M

    1998-01-01

    To determine how the individual components of extenders affected boar sperm function and membrane structure and to test a new surfactant's cryoprotective ability, boar sperm were cryopreserved in straws in BF5 extender plus or minus egg yolk plus or minus glycerol plus or minus a surfactant (Orvus ES Paste [OEP] or various concentrations of Pluronic F-127). After thawing, sperm function and fluidity of the isolated head plasma membrane (HPM) were determined. Total motility and adenosine triphosphate content (a measure of viability) were superior postthaw in sperm extended in egg yolk plus glycerol (P < 0.05); neither surfactant improved function. Egg yolk plus any other ingredients improved normal acrosome morphology, whereas a combined measure of motility and normal acrosome morphology was better in the presence of 0.33% OEP or 0.1% Pluronic F-127 (P < 0.05 vs. controls). Head plasma membrane was isolated from freshly collected spermatozoa and spermatozoa cryopreserved in the various extenders. Membrane fluidity was monitored with the probes cis-parinaric acid (cPNA), transparinaric acid (tPNA), and 1,6-diphenyl-1 ,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The cPNA and the DPH monitor the fluidity of gel and liquid-crystalline areas of the membrane, whereas the tPNA preferentially monitors the gel-phase domains of the membrane. Additionally, DPH monitors the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. In the HPM from fresh sperm, the fluidity of each domain changed over time in a manner unique to that domain, and the behavior of the DPH domain varied among boars. The fluidity dynamics of each domain responded uniquely to cryopreservation. The cPNA domain was unaffected, the tPNA domain was altered by four of the eight extenders, and all extenders affected the fluidity of the DPH domain. Membrane structure was significantly correlated with cell function for sperm cryopreserved in extenders that preserved viability and motility. Sperm cryopreserved in egg yolk plus glycerol plus either OEP or 0

  14. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993

  15. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  16. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mcinnes, Andrew D.; DeGroote, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease. PMID:25371840

  17. Ecosystem structure, function, and composition in rangelands are negatively affected by livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective. PMID:27509764

  18. Differential effects of complement activation products c3a and c5a on cardiovascular function in hypertensive pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Lillegard, Kathryn E; Loeks-Johnson, Alex C; Opacich, Jonathan W; Peterson, Jenna M; Bauer, Ashley J; Elmquist, Barbara J; Regal, Ronald R; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Regal, Jean F

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset pre-eclampsia is characterized by decreased placental perfusion, new-onset hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and endothelial dysfunction associated with excessive activation of the innate immune complement system. Although our previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of complement activation attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension using the rat reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, the important product(s) of complement activation has yet to be identified. We hypothesized that antagonism of receptors for complement activation products C3a and C5a would improve vascular function and attenuate RUPP hypertension. On gestational day (GD) 14, rats underwent sham surgery or vascular clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta (RUPP). Rats were treated once daily with the C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRA), PMX51 (acetyl-F-[Orn-P-(D-Cha)-WR]), the C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA), SB290157 (N(2)-[(2,2-diphenylethoxy)acetyl]-l-arginine), or vehicle from GD 14-18. Both the C3aRA and C5aRA attenuated placental ischemia-induced hypertension without affecting the decreased fetal weight or decreased concentration of free circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also present in this model. The C5aRA, but not the C3aRA, attenuated placental ischemia-induced increase in heart rate and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation. The C3aRA abrogated the acute pressor response to C3a peptide injection, but it also unexpectedly attenuated the placental ischemia-induced increase in C3a, suggesting nonreceptor-mediated effects. Overall, these results indicate that both C3a and C5a are important products of complement activation that mediate the hypertension regardless of the reduction in free plasma VEGF. The mechanism by which C3a contributes to placental ischemia-induced hypertension appears to be distinct from that of C5a, and management of pregnancy-induced hypertension is likely to require a broad anti

  19. A genome-wide screen for genes affecting eisosomes reveals Nce102 function in sphingolipid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Florian; Moreira, Karen; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Hubner, Nina C.; Mann, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The protein and lipid composition of eukaryotic plasma membranes is highly dynamic and regulated according to need. The sphingolipid-responsive Pkh kinases are candidates for mediating parts of this regulation, as they affect a diverse set of plasma membrane functions, such as cortical actin patch organization, efficient endocytosis, and eisosome assembly. Eisosomes are large protein complexes underlying the plasma membrane and help to sort a group of membrane proteins into distinct domains. In this study, we identify Nce102 in a genome-wide screen for genes involved in eisosome organization and Pkh kinase signaling. Nce102 accumulates in membrane domains at eisosomes where Pkh kinases also localize. The relative abundance of Nce102 in these domains compared with the rest of the plasma membrane is dynamically regulated by sphingolipids. Furthermore, Nce102 inhibits Pkh kinase signaling and is required for plasma membrane organization. Therefore, Nce102 might act as a sensor of sphingolipids that regulates plasma membrane function. PMID:19564405

  20. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  1. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery.

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Prematurity and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Patricia Y. L.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Leslie, Garth I.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Gallery, Eileen D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine relative influences of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth on risks of cardiovascular, renal, or metabolic dysfunction in adolescent children. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. 71 periadolescent children were classified into four groups: premature small for gestational age (SGA), premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA), term SGA, and term AGA. Outcome Measures. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), augmentation index (Al), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) following protein load; plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Results. SGA had higher SBP (average 4.6 mmHg) and lower GFR following protein load (average 28.5 mL/min/1.73 m2) than AGA. There was no effect of prematurity on SBP (P = .4) or GFR (P = .9). Both prematurity and SGA were associated with higher AI (average 9.7%) and higher serum insulin levels 2 hr after glucose load (average 15.5 mIU/L) than all other groups. Conclusion. IUGR is a more significant risk factor than preterm birth for later systolic hypertension and renal dysfunction. Among children born preterm, those who are also SGA are at increased risk of arterial stiffness and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:21197428

  3. Functional Connectivity under Anticipation of Shock: Correlates of Trait Anxious Affect versus Induced Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained anxiety about potential future negative events is an important feature of anxiety disorders. In this study, we used a novel anticipation of shock paradigm to investigate individual differences in functional connectivity during prolonged threat of shock. We examined the correlates of between-participant differences in trait anxious affect and induced anxiety, where the latter reflects changes in self-reported anxiety resulting from the shock manipulation. Dissociable effects of trait anxious affect and induced anxiety were observed. Participants with high scores on a latent dimension of anxious affect showed less increase in ventromedial pFC-amygdala connectivity between periods of safety and shock anticipation. Meanwhile, lower levels of induced anxiety were linked to greater augmentation of dorsolateral pFC-anterior insula connectivity during shock anticipation. These findings suggest that ventromedial pFC-amygdala and dorsolateral pFC-insula networks might both contribute to regulation of sustained fear responses, with their recruitment varying independently across participants. The former might reflect an evolutionarily old mechanism for reducing fear or anxiety, whereas the latter might reflect a complementary mechanism by which cognitive control can be implemented to diminish fear responses generated due to anticipation of aversive stimuli or events. These two circuits might provide complementary, alternate targets for exploration in future pharmacological and cognitive intervention studies. PMID:25961638

  4. Noise affects the shape of female preference functions for acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    The shape of female mate preference functions influences the speed and direction of sexual signal evolution. However, the expression of female preferences is modulated by interactions between environmental conditions and the female's sensory processing system. Noise is an especially relevant environmental condition because it interferes directly with the neural processing of signals. Although noise is therefore likely a significant force in the evolution of communication systems, little is known about its effects on preference function shape. In the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus, female preferences for male calling song characteristics are likely to be affected by noise because its auditory system is sensitive to fine temporal details of songs. We measured female preference functions for variation in male song characteristics in several levels of masking noise and found strong effects of noise on preference function shape. The overall responsiveness to signals in noise generally decreased. Preference strength increased for some signal characteristics and decreased for others, largely corresponding to expectations based on neurophysiological studies of acoustic signal processing. These results suggest that different signal characteristics will be favored under different noise conditions, and thus that signal evolution may proceed differently depending on the extent and temporal patterning of environmental noise. PMID:25546134

  5. Light availability affects stream biofilm bacterial community composition and function, but not diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karoline; Besemer, Katharina; Burns, Nancy R.; Battin, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Changes in riparian vegetation or water turbidity and browning in streams alter the local light regime with potential implications for stream biofilms and ecosystem functioning. We experimented with biofilms in microcosms grown under a gradient of light intensities (range: 5–152 μmole photons s−1 m−2) and combined 454‐pyrosequencing and enzymatic activity assays to evaluate the effects of light on biofilm structure and function. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition along the light gradient, whereas there was no apparent change in alpha diversity. Multifunctionality, based on extracellular enzymes, was highest under high light conditions and decoupled from bacterial diversity. Phenol oxidase activity, involved in the degradation of polyphenolic compounds, was twice as high on average under the lowest compared with the highest light condition. This suggests a shift in reliance of microbial heterotrophs on biofilm phototroph‐derived organic matter under high light availability to more complex organic matter under low light. Furthermore, extracellular enzyme activities correlated with nutrient cycling and community respiration, supporting the link between biofilm structure–function and biogeochemical fluxes in streams. Our findings demonstrate that changes in light availability are likely to have significant impacts on biofilm structure and function, potentially affecting stream ecosystem processes. PMID:26013911

  6. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  7. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed. PMID:12031940

  8. Predicting self-care with patients and family members' affective states and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Musci, E C; Dodd, M J

    1990-01-01

    People with cancer manage the side effects of treatment with the assistance of their family members. This study was designed to describe self-care behaviors (SCBs) initiated by patients and their family members and to determine the relationship between patients and family members' affective states and family functioning and SCBs. Using a longitudinal design, 42 patients and 40 family members were followed during 3 cycles of chemotherapy (12-16 weeks). The patients completed measures of affective state (POMS) each cycle; patients and family members completed a family functioning measure (F-COPES) at second cycle only; and the patients reported in an SCB log on an ongoing basis. The overall pattern of SCBs corroborated previous findings. The average number of SCBs initiated was 1.4 per side effect. Depression and vigor significantly predicted SCBs at Cycle 1 only. The severity of side effects consistently predicted SCB over the 3 cycles (r 2 = -0.39 to -0.46). Patients who experienced more severe side effects were at risk of diminished self-care. PMID:2342973

  9. Family Functioning and Child Behavioral Problems in Households Affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Nice, Johanna; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    HIV places acute stressors on affected children and families; especially in resource limited contexts like sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their importance, the epidemic's potential consequences for family dynamics and children's psychological health are understudied. Using a population-based sample of 2,487 caregivers and 3,423 children aged 8-14 years from the Central Province of Kenya, analyses were conducted to examine whether parental illness and loss were associated with family functioning and children's externalizing behaviors. After controlling for demographics, a significant relationship between parental illness and externalizing behaviors was found among children of both genders. Orphan status was associated with behavioral problems among only girls. Regardless of gender, children experiencing both parental loss and illness fared the worst. Family functioning measured from the perspective of both caregivers and children also had an independent and important relationship with behavioral problems. Findings suggest that psychological and behavioral health needs may be elevated in households coping with serious illness and reiterate the importance of a family-centered approach for HIV-affected children. PMID:25205474

  10. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is functionally affected by mutations on actin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Tang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Jia-Yao

    2013-03-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin, and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments. To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L. AtADF1, we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G- and F-actin binding. The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A, R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding. Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants overexpressing these mutants, we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth. Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional, unless the affinity for actin monomers is also affected. The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding, depolymerization of actin polymers, and therefore in the control of actin organization. PMID:23190411

  11. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  12. DNA Hypomethylation Affects Cancer-Related Biological Functions and Genes Relevant in Neuroblastoma Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mayol, Gemma; Martín-Subero, José I.; Ríos, José; Queiros, Ana; Kulis, Marta; Suñol, Mariona; Esteller, Manel; Gómez, Soledad; Garcia, Idoia; de Torres, Carmen; Rodríguez, Eva; Galván, Patricia; Mora, Jaume; Lavarino, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) pathogenesis has been reported to be closely associated with numerous genetic alterations. However, underlying DNA methylation patterns have not been extensively studied in this developmental malignancy. Here, we generated microarray-based DNA methylation profiles of primary neuroblastic tumors. Stringent supervised differential methylation analyses allowed us to identify epigenetic changes characteristic for NB tumors as well as for clinical and biological subtypes of NB. We observed that gene-specific loss of DNA methylation is more prevalent than promoter hypermethylation. Remarkably, such hypomethylation affected cancer-related biological functions and genes relevant to NB pathogenesis such as CCND1, SPRR3, BTC, EGF and FGF6. In particular, differential methylation in CCND1 affected mostly an evolutionary conserved functionally relevant 3′ untranslated region, suggesting that hypomethylation outside promoter regions may play a role in NB pathogenesis. Hypermethylation targeted genes involved in cell development and proliferation such as RASSF1A, POU2F2 or HOXD3, among others. The results derived from this study provide new candidate epigenetic biomarkers associated with NB as well as insights into the molecular pathogenesis of this tumor, which involves a marked gene-specific hypomethylation. PMID:23144874

  13. Periodontal treatment effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in subjects with chronic periodontitis: protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease (PD) is an infectious clinical entity characterized by the destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth as the result of a chronic inflammatory response in a susceptible host. It has been proposed that PD as subclinical infection may contribute to the etiology and to the pathogenesis of several systemic diseases including Atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiological studies link periodontal disease/edentulism as independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, new randomized controlled clinical trials have shown an improvement on cardiovascular surrogate markers (endothelial function, sICAM, hsPCR level, fibrinogen) after periodontal treatment. Nonetheless, such trials are still limited in terms of external validity, periodontal treatment strategies, CONSORT-based design and results consistency/extrapolation. The current study is designed to evaluate if periodontal treatment with scaling and root planning plus local delivered chlorhexidine improves endothelial function and other biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. Methods/Design This randomized, single-blind clinical trial will be performed at two health centers and will include two periodontal treatment strategies. After medical/periodontal screening, a baseline endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and other systemic surrogate markers will be obtained from all recruited subjects. Patients then will be randomized to receive either supragingival/subgingival plaque cleaning and calculus removal plus chlorhexidine (treatment group) or supragingival plaque removal only (control group). A second and third FMD will be obtained after 24 hours and 12 weeks in both treatment arms. Each group will consist of 49 patients (n = 98) and all patients will be followed-up for secondary outcomes and will be monitored through a coordinating

  14. Effect of Muscadine Grape Seed Supplementation on Vascular Function in Subjects with or at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mellen, Philip B.; Daniel, Kurt R.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Hansen, Kim J.; Herrington, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. Objectives To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. Design In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. Results There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Conclusions Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established

  15. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  16. Sydnone SYD-1 affects the metabolic functions of isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anna Paula; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Echevarria, Aurea; Canuto, André Vinícius dos Santos; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2014-07-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that sydnone SYD-1 (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) impairs the mitochondrial functions linked to energy provision and suggested that this effect could be associated with its antitumor activity. Herein, we evaluated the effects of SYD-1 (25 and 50 μM) on rat hepatocytes to determine its cytotoxicity on non-tumor cells. SYD-1 (25 and 50 μM) did not affect the viability of hepatocytes in suspension after 1-40 min of incubation. However, the viability of the cultured hepatocytes was decreased by ∼66% as a consequence of treatment with SYD-1 (50 μM) for 18 h. Under the same conditions, SYD-1 promoted an increase in the release of LDH by ∼19%. The morphological changes in the cultured cells treated with SYD-1 (50 μM) were suggestive of cell distress, which was demonstrated by the presence of rounded hepatocytes, cell fragments and monolayer impairment. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed an increase in the annexin label after treatment with SYD-1 (50 μM), suggesting that apoptosis had been induced in these cells. SYD-1 did not affect the states of respiration in the suspended hepatocytes, but the pyruvate levels were decreased by ∼36%, whereas the lactate levels were increased by ∼22% (for the 50 μM treatment). The basal and uncoupled states of respiration of the cultured hepatocytes were inhibited by ∼79% and ∼51%, respectively, by SYD-1 (50 μM). In these cells, SYD-1 (50 μM) increased the pyruvate and lactate levels by ∼84% and ∼16%, respectively. These results show that SYD-1 affects important metabolic functions related to energy provision in hepatocytes and that this effect was more pronounced on cells in culture than those in suspension. PMID:24836382

  17. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  18. Analysis of Common and Specific Mechanisms of Liver Function Affected by Nitrotoluene Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Youping; Meyer, Sharon A.; Guan, Xin; Escalon, Barbara Lynn; Ai, Junmei; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Welti, Ruth; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitrotoluenes are widely used chemical manufacturing and munitions applications. This group of chemicals has been shown to cause a range of effects from anemia and hypercholesterolemia to testicular atrophy. We have examined the molecular and functional effects of five different, but structurally related, nitrotoluenes on using an integrative systems biology approach to gain insight into common and disparate mechanisms underlying effects caused by these chemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague-Dawley female rats were exposed via gavage to one of five concentrations of one of five nitrotoluenes [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoulene (4ADNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT)] with necropsy and tissue collection at 24 or 48 h. Gene expression profile results correlated well with clinical data and liver histopathology that lead to the concept that hematotoxicity was followed by hepatotoxicity. Overall, 2,4DNT, 2,6DNT and TNT had stronger effects than 2ADNT and 4ADNT. Common functional terms, gene expression patterns, pathways and networks were regulated across all nitrotoluenes. These pathways included NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR function, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. One biological process common to all compounds, lipid metabolism, was found to be impacted both at the transcriptional and lipid production level. Conclusions/Significance A systems biology strategy was used to identify biochemical pathways affected by five nitroaromatic compounds and to integrate data that tie biochemical alterations to pathological changes. An integrative graphical network model was constructed by combining genomic, gene pathway, lipidomic, and physiological endpoint results to better understand mechanisms of liver toxicity and physiological endpoints

  19. Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m−2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that

  20. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  1. Prokineticin Receptor‐1 Is a New Regulator of Endothelial Insulin Uptake and Capillary Formation to Control Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular and Kidney Functions

    PubMed Central

    Dormishian, Mojdeh; Turkeri, Gulen; Urayama, Kyoji; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Boulberdaa, Mounia; Messaddeq, Nadia; Renault, Gilles; Henrion, Daniel; Nebigil, Canan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Reciprocal relationships between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance result in a vicious cycle of cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms underlying these impairments are unclear. The peptide hormones prokineticins exert their angiogenic function via prokineticin receptor‐1 (PKR1). We explored the extent to which endothelial PKR1 contributes to expansion of capillary network and the transcapillary passage of insulin into the heart, kidney, and adipose tissues, regulating organ functions and metabolism in a specific mice model. Methods and Results By combining cellular studies and studies in endothelium‐specific loss‐of‐function mouse model (ec‐PKR1−/−), we showed that a genetically induced PKR1 loss in the endothelial cells causes the impaired capillary formation and transendothelial insulin delivery, leading to insulin resistance and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Impaired insulin delivery in endothelial cells accompanied with defective expression and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the ec‐PKR1−/− aorta, consequently diminishing endothelium‐dependent relaxation. Despite having a lean body phenotype, ec‐PKR1−/− mice exhibited polyphagia, polydipsia, polyurinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, which are reminiscent of human lipodystrophy. High plasma free fatty acid levels and low leptin levels further contribute to the development of insulin resistance at the later age. Peripheral insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in mutant skeletal muscle, heart, and kidneys were accompanied by impaired insulin‐mediated Akt signaling in these organs. The ec‐PKR1−/− mice displayed myocardial fibrosis, low levels of capillary formation, and high rates of apoptosis, leading to diastolic dysfunction. Compact fibrotic glomeruli and high levels of phosphate excretion were found in mutant kidneys. PKR1 restoration in ec‐PKR1−/− mice reversed the decrease in capillary

  2. Molecular prioritization strategies to identify functional genetic variants in the cardiovascular disease-associated expression QTL Vanin-1

    PubMed Central

    Kaskow, Belinda J; Diepeveen, Luke A; Michael Proffitt, J; Rea, Alexander J; Ulgiati, Daniela; Blangero, John; Moses, Eric K; Abraham, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    There is now good evidence that non-coding sequence variants are involved in the heritability of many common complex traits. The current ‘gold standard' approach for assessing functionality is the in vitro reporter gene assay to assess allelic differences in transcriptional activity, usually followed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to assess allelic differences in transcription factor binding. Although widely used, these assays have inherent limitations, including the lack of endogenous chromatin context. Here we present a more contemporary approach to assessing functionality of non-coding sequence variation within the Vanin-1 (VNN1) promoter. By combining ‘gold standard' assays with in vivo assessments of chromatin accessibility, we greatly increase our confidence in the statistically assigned functional relevance. The standard assays revealed the −137 single nucleotide variant to be functional but the −587 variant to have no functional relevance. However, our in vivo tests show an allelic difference in chromatin accessibility surrounding the −587 variant supporting strong functional potential at both sites. Our approach advances the identification of functional variants by providing strong in vivo biological evidence for function. PMID:24045843

  3. Herbivore species richness and feeding complementarity affect community structure and function on a coral reef

    PubMed Central

    Burkepile, Deron E.; Hay, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Consumer effects on prey are well known for cascading through food webs and producing dramatic top-down effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Bottom-up effects of prey (primary producer) biodiversity are also well known. However, the role of consumer diversity in affecting community structure or ecosystem function is not well understood. Here, we show that herbivore species richness can be critical for maintaining the structure and function of coral reefs. In two experiments over 2 years, we constructed large cages enclosing single herbivore species, equal densities of mixed species of herbivores, or excluding herbivores and assessed effects on both seaweeds and corals. When compared with single-herbivore treatments, mixed-herbivore treatments lowered macroalgal abundance by 54–76%, enhanced cover of crustose coralline algae (preferred recruitment sites for corals) by 52–64%, increased coral cover by 22%, and prevented coral mortality. Complementary feeding by herbivorous fishes drove the herbivore richness effects, because macroalgae were unable to effectively deter fishes with different feeding strategies. Maintaining herbivore species richness appears critical for preserving coral reefs, because complementary feeding by diverse herbivores produces positive, but indirect, effects on corals, the foundation species for the ecosystem. PMID:18845686

  4. Artefacts and biases affecting the evaluation of scoring functions on decoy sets for protein structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Handl, Julia; Knowles, Joshua; Lovell, Simon C.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Decoy datasets, consisting of a solved protein structure and numerous alternative native-like structures, are in common use for the evaluation of scoring functions in protein structure prediction. Several pitfalls with the use of these datasets have been identified in the literature, as well as useful guidelines for generating more effective decoy datasets. We contribute to this ongoing discussion an empirical assessment of several decoy datasets commonly used in experimental studies. Results: We find that artefacts and sampling issues in the large majority of these data make it trivial to discriminate the native structure. This underlines that evaluation based on the rank/z-score of the native is a weak test of scoring function performance. Moreover, sampling biases present in the way decoy sets are generated or used can strongly affect other types of evaluation measures such as the correlation between score and root mean squared deviation (RMSD) to the native. We demonstrate how, depending on type of bias and evaluation context, sampling biases may lead to both over- or under-estimation of the quality of scoring terms, functions or methods. Availability: Links to the software and data used in this study are available at http://dbkgroup.org/handl/decoy_sets. Contact: simon.lovell@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19297350

  5. Aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of the primary dentition affected by amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Zancopé, Bruna Raquel; Pacheco, Larissa Ferreira; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Pascon, Fernanda Miori

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the primary dentition. AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affects the enamel structure. The patient was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of AI. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms. The main objectives of the selected treatment were to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. The child was monitored in the pediatric dentistry clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. Treatment not only restored function and esthetic, but also showed a positive psychological impact and thereby improved perceived quality of life. The preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with AI were successful. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, and resin-filled celluloid forms to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psychosocial development. PMID:25705526

  6. Aesthetic and Functional Rehabilitation of the Primary Dentition Affected by Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Zancopé, Bruna Raquel; Pacheco, Larissa Ferreira; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Pascon, Fernanda Miori

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the primary dentition. AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affects the enamel structure. The patient was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of AI. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms. The main objectives of the selected treatment were to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. The child was monitored in the pediatric dentistry clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. Treatment not only restored function and esthetic, but also showed a positive psychological impact and thereby improved perceived quality of life. The preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with AI were successful. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, and resin-filled celluloid forms to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psychosocial development. PMID:25705526

  7. SIRT1 reduces endothelial activation without affecting vascular function in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sokrates; Schäfer, Nicola; Breitenstein, Alexander; Besler, Christian; Winnik, Stephan; Lohmann, Christine; Heinrich, Kathrin; Brokopp, Chad E.; Handschin, Christoph; Landmesser, Ulf; Tanner, Felix C.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Matter, Christian M.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to progression of atherosclerosis, at least in part by causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation. The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated in extension of lifespan. In the vasculature,SIRT1 gain-of-function using SIRT1 overexpression or activation has been shown to improve endothelial function in mice and rats via stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS). However, the effects of SIRT1 loss-of-function on the endothelium in atherosclerosis remain to be characterized. Thus, we have investigated the endothelial effects of decreased endogenous SIRT1 in hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice. We observed no difference in endothelial relaxation and eNOS (Ser1177) phosphorylation between 20-week old male atherosclerotic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- and ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. However, SIRT1 prevented endothelial superoxide production, inhibited NF-κB signaling, and diminished expression of adhesion molecules. Treatment of young hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- mice with lipopolysaccharide to boost NF-κB signaling led to a more pronounced endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as compared to ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. In conclusion, endogenous SIRT1 diminishes endothelial activation in ApoE-/- mice, but does not affect endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. PMID:20606253

  8. Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Grosdidier, Charlotte; Guinier, Marie; Perret, Claire; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Germain, Marine; Raslova, Hana; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre E.; Saut, Noemie; Pillois, Xavier; Nurden, Alan T.; Cambien, François; Pierres, Anne; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet’s ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis. PMID:24958846

  9. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance. PMID:27114578

  10. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  11. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or

  12. Stable complex formation between HIV Rev and the nucleosome assembly protein, NAP1, affects Rev function

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alan; Murley, Laura Lea; Gao Mian; Wong, Raymond; Clayton, Kiera; Brufatto, Nicole; Canadien, Veronica; Mamelak, Daniel; Chen, Tricia; Richards, Dawn; Zeghouf, Mahel; Greenblatt, Jack; Burks, Christian; Frappier, Lori

    2009-05-25

    The Rev protein of HIV-1 is essential for HIV-1 proliferation due to its role in exporting viral RNA from the nucleus. We used a modified version of tandem affinity purification (TAP) tagging to identify proteins interacting with HIV-1 Rev in human cells and discovered a prominent interaction between Rev and nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1). This interaction was also observed by specific retention of Nap1 from human cell lysates on a Rev affinity column. Nap1 was found to bind Rev through the Rev arginine-rich domain and altered the oligomerization state of Rev in vitro. Overexpression of Nap1 stimulated the ability of Rev to export RNA, reduced the nucleolar localization of Rev, and affected Rev nuclear import rates. The results suggest that Nap-1 may influence Rev function by increasing the availability of Rev.

  13. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  14. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  15. Low-dose irradiation affects the functional behavior of oral microbiota in the context of mucositis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoecke, Barbara W A; De Ryck, Tine R G; De boel, Kevin; Wiles, Siouxsie; Boterberg, Tom; Van de Wiele, Tom; Swift, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The role of host-microbe interactions in the pathobiology of oral mucositis is still unclear; therefore, this study aimed to unravel the effect of irradiation on behavioral characteristics of oral microbial species in the context of mucositis. Using various experimental in vitro setups, the effects of irradiation on growth and biofilm formation of two Candida spp., Streptococcus salivarius and Klebsiella oxytoca in different culture conditions were evaluated. Irradiation did not affect growth of planktonic cells, but reduced the number of K. oxytoca cells in newly formed biofilms cultured in static conditions. Biofilm formation of K. oxytoca and Candida glabrata was affected by irradiation and depended on the culturing conditions. In the presence of mucins, these effects were lost, indicating the protective nature of mucins. Furthermore, the Galleria melonella model was used to study effects on microbial virulence. Irradiated K. oxytoca microbes were more virulent in G. melonella larvae compared to the nonirradiated ones. Our data indicate that low-dose irradiation can have an impact on functional characteristics of microbial species. Screening for pathogens like K. oxytoca in the context of mucosits could be useful to allow early detection and immediate intervention. PMID:26202372

  16. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Li-Chen; Lin, Chin-Kai; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Chen, Ching-Chi; Huang, Chin-Tsan; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Background Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID). We hypothesized that speech therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those without and those with SID. Method: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children) and the SID group (15 children). The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and post-test number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 ± 3.2 and 3.3 ± 3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 ± 2.9 and 6.9 ± 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F = 70.393; P < 0.001) and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002). Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders. PMID:23355780

  17. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  18. Methyl donor deficiency affects small-intestinal differentiation and barrier function in rats.

    PubMed

    Bressenot, Aude; Pooya, Shabnam; Bossenmeyer-Pourie, Carine; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Germain, Adeline; Chevaux, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Florence; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2013-02-28

    Dietary methyl donors and their genetic determinants are associated with Crohn's disease risk. We investigated whether a methyl-deficient diet (MDD) may affect development and functions of the small intestine in rat pups from dams subjected to the MDD during gestation and lactation. At 1 month before pregnancy, adult females were fed with either a standard food or a diet without vitamin B12, folate and choline. A global wall hypotrophy was observed in the distal small bowel (MDD animals 0·30 mm v. controls 0·58 mm; P< 0·001) with increased crypt apoptosis (3·37 v. 0·4%; P< 0·001), loss of enterocyte differentiation in the villus and a reduction in intestinal alkaline phosphatase production. Cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining (MDD animals 3·37% v. controls 0·4%, P< 0·001) and the Apostain labelling index showed increased crypt apoptosis (3·5 v. 1·4%; P= 0·018). Decreased proliferation was observed in crypts of the proximal small bowel with a reduced number of minichromosome maintenance 6 (MDD animals 52·83% v. controls 83·17%; P= 0·048) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells (46·25 v. 59 %; P= 0·05). This lack of enterocyte differentiation in the distal small bowel was associated with an impaired expression of β-catenin and a decreased β-catenin-E-cadherin interaction. The MDD affected the intestinal barrier in the proximal small bowel by decreasing Paneth cell number after immunostaining for lysosyme (MDD animals 8·66% v. controls 21·66%) and by reducing goblet cell number and mucus production after immunostaining for mucin-2 (crypts 8·66 v. 15·33%; villus 7 v. 17%). The MDD has dual effects on the small intestine by producing dramatic effects on enterocyte differentiation and barrier function in rats. PMID:22794784

  19. Retrospective analysis of lung function abnormalities of Bhopal gas tragedy affected population

    PubMed Central

    De, Sajal

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large numbers of subjects were exposed to the aerosol of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster and lung was one of the most commonly affected organs. The aim of the present study was to analyze retrospectively the lung function abnormalities among the surviving MIC exposed population (gas victims) and to compare it with the non-MIC exposed (non gas exposed) population. Methods: The spirometry data of both gas victims and non gas exposed population who attended the Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre for evaluation of their respiratory complaints from August 2001 to December 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and compared. Results: A total 4782 gas victims and 1190 non gas exposed individuals performed spirometry during the study period. Among the gas victims, obstructive pattern was the commonest (50.8%) spirometric abnormality followed by restrictive pattern (13.3%). The increased relative risk of developing restrictive abnormality among gas victims was observed in 20-29 yr age group only (adjusted relative risk: 2.94, P<0.001). Male gas victims were more affected by severe airflow obstruction than females and the overall increased relative risk (1.33 to 1.45, P<0.001) of developing obstructive pattern among gas victims was observed. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed that the relative risk for pulmonary function abnormalities in gas victims was significantly more among those who were young at the time of disaster. Increased smoking habit among gas victims might have played an additive effect on predominance of obstructive pattern in spirometry. PMID:22446861

  20. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2016-05-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27022677

  1. Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors, and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here, views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spread into BG, DA transmission promotes the “release” of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors. PMID:17905440

  2. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  3. The aprosodias: further functional-anatomical evidence for the organisation of affective language in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, P B; Ross, E D

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen right-handed patients with right hemispheric strokes were examined for disorders of affective language in order to further define the clinical-anatomical correlates of the aprosodias. A bedside evaluation strategy and CT scan mappings were utilised to make these comparisons. There were six patients with motor aprosodia, one with global aprosodia, two with conduction aprosodia, one with sensory aprosodia, one with transcortical sensory aprosodia, one with pure affective deafness and two with normal examinations of affect. Functional-anatomical correlations were consistent with those predicted previously. Recovery of affective language function in selected cases was characterised by improvements in affective-prosodic repetition and/or evolution into other aprosodic subtypes. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the organisation of affective language in the right hemisphere mirrors that of propositional language in the left hemisphere. Images PMID:2438386

  4. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Nandakumar, Satish K; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneously screen 2,756 variants in strong linkage disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We used targeted genome editing to demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164. Functional follow-up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type-specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. PMID:27259154

  5. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  6. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes. PMID:25233101

  7. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n =22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P <0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P <0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well‐tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level. PMID:25626864

  8. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations. PMID:24436433

  9. GlycA, a Pro-Inflammatory Glycoprotein Biomarker, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: Relationship with C-Reactive Protein and Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Gruppen, Eke G.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Connelly, Margery A.; Otvos, James D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective GlycA is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured biomarker of systemic inflammation. We determined whether GlycA is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men and women, examined whether this association with CVD is modified by renal function, and compared this association with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Research design and methods A prospective cohort study was performed among 4,759 subjects (PREVEND study) without a history of CVD and cancer. Incident CVD was defined as the combined endpoint of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cox regression analyses were used to examine associations of baseline GlycA and hsCRP with CVD. Results 298 first CVD events occurred during a median follow-up of 8.5 years. After adjustment for clinical and lipid measures the hazard ratio (HR) for CVD risk in the highest GlycA quartile was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.05–2.37, P for trend = 0.004). This association was similar after further adjustment for renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion). After additional adjustment for hsCRP, GlycA was still associated with incident CVD (HR: 1.16 per SD change (95% CI, 1.01–1.33), P = 0.04). Similar results were obtained for hsCRP (HR per SD change after adjustment for GlycA: 1.17 (95% CI 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01–3.60), P = 0.04). CVD risk was highest in subjects with simultaneously higher GlycA and hsCRP (fully adjusted HR: 1.79 (95% CI, 1.31–2.46), P<0.001). Conclusion GlycA is associated with CVD risk in men and women, independent of renal function. The association of GlycA with incident CVD is as strong as that of hsCRP. PMID:26398105

  10. Galectin-3 Participates in Cardiovascular Remodeling Associated With Obesity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; López-Ándres, Natalia; Jurado-López, Raquel; Rousseau, Elodie; Bartolomé, Mará Visitación; Fernández-Celis, Amaya; Rossignol, Patrick; Islas, Fabian; Antequera, Alfonso; Prieto, Santiago; Luaces, María; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, and arterial stiffness are some of the alterations through which obesity affects the cardiovascular system. Fibrosis and inflammation are important mechanisms underlying cardiovascular remodeling, although the precise promoters involved in these processes are still unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) induces inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. We have investigated the potential role of Gal-3 in cardiac damage in morbidly obese patients, and we have evaluated the protective effect of the Gal-3 inhibition in the occurrence of cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation in an experimental model of obesity. Morbid obesity is associated with alterations in cardiac remodeling, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity and hypertension are the main determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy. Insulin resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and circulating levels of C-reactive protein and Gal-3 are associated with a worsening of diastolic function in morbidly obese patients. Obesity upregulates Gal-3 production in the cardiovascular system in a normotensive animal model of diet-induced obesity by feeding for 6 weeks a high-fat diet (33.5% fat). Gal-3 inhibition with modified citrus pectin (100 mg/kg per day) reduced cardiovascular levels of Gal-3, total collagen, collagen I, transforming and connective growth factors, osteopontin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the heart and aorta of obese animals without changes in body weight or blood pressure. In morbidly obese patients, Gal-3 levels are associated with diastolic dysfunction. In obese animals, Gal-3 blockade decreases cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a novel therapeutic target in cardiac fibrosis and inflammation associated with obesity. PMID:26351031

  11. Selexipag: a selective prostacyclin receptor agonist that does not affect rat gastric function.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Keith; Ernst, Roland; Hess, Patrick; Studer, Rolf; Clozel, Martine

    2010-10-01

    Selexipag [2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N-(methylsulfonyl)acetamide] is an orally available prostacyclin (PGI(2)) receptor (IP receptor) agonist that is chemically distinct from PGI(2) and is in clinical development for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Selexipag is highly selective for the human IP receptor in vitro, whereas analogs of PGI(2) can activate prostanoid receptors other than the