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Sample records for affect cell differentiation

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blueher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  2. Catechins Variously Affect Activities of Conjugation Enzymes in Proliferating and Differentiated Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lněničková, Kateřina; Procházková, Eliška; Skálová, Lenka; Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Souček, Pavel; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of processes in intestinal cells is essential, as most xenobiotics come into contact with the small intestine first. Caco-2 cells are human colorectal adenocarcinoma that once differentiated, exhibit enterocyte-like characteristics. Our study compares activities and expressions of important conjugation enzymes and their modulation by green tea extract (GTE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using both proliferating (P) and differentiated (D) caco-2 cells. The mRNA levels of the main conjugation enzymes were significantly elevated after the differentiation of Caco-2 cells. However, no increase in conjugation enzymes' activities in differentiated cells was detected in comparison to proliferating ones. GTE/EGCG treatment did not affect the mRNA levels of any of the conjugation enzymes tested in either type of cells. Concerning conjugation enzymes activities, GTE/EGCG treatment elevated glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity by approx. 30% and inhibited catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity by approx. 20% in differentiated cells. On the other hand, GTE as well as EGCG treatment did not significantly affect the activities of conjugation enzymes in proliferating cells. Administration of GTE/EGCG mediated only mild changes of GST and COMT activities in enterocyte-like cells, indicating a low risk of GTE/EGCG interactions with concomitantly administered drugs. However, a considerable chemo-protective effect of GTE via the pronounced induction of detoxifying enzymes cannot be expected as well. PMID:27617982

  3. Chitosan and Chitin Hexamers affect expansion and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells differently.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Ramona; Thormodsson, Finnbogi; Ng, C-H; Einarsson, Jon M; Gislason, Johannes; Petersen, Petur H; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E

    2012-11-01

    Chitooligosaccharides are of interest as potential drugs due to their bioactivity and water solubility. We compared the effect of acetylated and deacetylated chitooligomers (Hexamers) on short-term expansion (7 days) and osteogenic differentiation of bone-marrow derived, human mesenchymal stem cells in terms of gene expression, cytokine secretion and quality of osteogenic differentiation. We show that chitooligomers affect hMSC gene expression and cytokine secretion, but not mineralization. The effect of chitooligomers was shown to be dependent on the acetylation degree, with significantly stronger effects when cells are stimulated with chitin-derived Hexamers (N-Acetyl Chitohexaose) than with Chitosan Hexamers (Chitohexaose). PMID:22790025

  4. Donor age and cell passage affects differentiation potential of murine bone marrow-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D; Jin, Yu-Qing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie; Hong, Tan-Hui; Zhou, Guangdong; Baggett, L Scott; Mikos, Antonios G; Cao, Yilin

    2008-01-01

    Background Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a widely researched adult stem cell population capable of differentiation into various lineages. Because many promising applications of tissue engineering require cell expansion following harvest and involve the treatment of diseases and conditions found in an aging population, the effect of donor age and ex vivo handling must be understood in order to develop clinical techniques and therapeutics based on these cells. Furthermore, there currently exists little understanding as to how these two factors may be influenced by one another. Results Differences in the adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of murine MSCs harvested from donor animals of different age and number of passages of these cells were observed. Cells from younger donors adhered to tissue culture polystyrene better and proliferated in greater number than those from older animals. Chondrogenic and osteogenic potential decreased with age for each group, and adipogenic differentiation decreased only in cells from the oldest donors. Significant decreases in differentiation potentials due to passage were observed as well for osteogenesis of BMSCs from the youngest donors and chondrogenesis of the cells from the oldest donors. Conclusion Both increasing age and the number of passages have lineage dependent effects on BMSC differentiation potential. Furthermore, there is an obvious interplay between donor age and cell passage that in the future must be accounted for when developing cell-based therapies for clinical use. PMID:18957087

  5. Nanoscale topography and chemistry affect embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Vanessa L S; Fernandes, Ana Tiago; Bell, Nia C; Stellacci, Francesco; Stevens, Molly M

    2013-12-01

    Adherent cells respond to a wide range of substrate cues, including chemistry, topography, hydrophobicity, and surface energy. The cell-substrate interface is therefore an important design parameter in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications, where substrate cues are used to influence cell behavior. Thin films comprising 4.5 nm (average diameter) gold nanoparticles coated with a mixture of two alkanethiols can confer hemispherical topography and specific chemistry to bulk substrates. The behavior of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) on the thin films can then be compared with their behavior on self-assembled monolayers of the same alkanethiols on vapor-deposited gold, which lack the topographical features. Cells cultured both with and without differentiation inhibitors are characterized by immunofluorescence for Oct4 and qPCR for Fgf5, Foxa2, Nanog, Pou5f1, and Sox2. Nanoscale chemistry and topography are found to influence stem cell differentiation, particularly the early differentiation markers, Fgf5 and Foxa2. Nanoscale topography also affects Oct4 localization, whereas the chemical composition of the substrate does not have an effect. It is demonstrated for the first time that ESCs can sense topographical features established by 4.5 nm particles, and these findings suggest that nanoscale chemistry and topography can act synergistically to influence stem cell differentiation. This study furthers the understanding of the effects of these substrate properties, improving our ability to design materials to control stem cell fate. PMID:23852884

  6. Skewed B cell differentiation affects lymphoid organogenesis but not T cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Colombo, E; Tentorio, P; Musio, S; Rajewsky, K; Pedotti, R; Casola, S; Farina, C

    2014-04-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signalling determines B cell differentiation and may potentially alter T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study we used two transgenic strains of BCR-deficient mice expressing Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP)2A in B cells, where either follicular and marginal zone differentiation (D(H)LMP2A mice) or B-1 cell development (V(H)LMP2A mice) were supported, and evaluated the effects of skewed B lymphocyte differentiation on lymphoid organogenesis and T cell responses in vivo. Compared to wild-type animals, both transgenic strains displayed alterations in the composition of lymphoid organs and in the dynamics of distinct immune cell subsets following immunization with the self-antigen PLP₁₈₅₋₂₀₆. However, ex-vivo T cell proliferation to PLP₁₈₅₋₂₀₆ peptide measured in immunized D(H)LMP2A and V(H)LMP2A mice was similar to that detected in immunized control mice. Further, clinical expression of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in both LMP2A strains was identical to that of wild-type mice. In conclusion, mice with skewed B cell differentiation driven by LMP2A expression in BCR-negative B cells do not show changes in the development of a T cell mediated disease model of autoimmunity, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms support the generation of T cell responses. PMID:24325711

  7. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. PMID:27246785

  8. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M.; McDonnell, Lisa P.; Nourse, Jamison L.; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2015-02-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation.

  9. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (<35 years) as compared to older donors (>45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  10. Reactive oxygen species differentially affect T cell receptor-signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cemerski, Saso; Cantagrel, Alain; Van Meerwijk, Joost P M; Romagnoli, Paola

    2002-05-31

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of T lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness observed in several human pathologies including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, leprosy, and AIDS. To investigate the molecular basis of oxidative stress-induced T cell hyporesponsiveness, we have developed an in vitro system in which T lymphocytes are rendered hyporesponsive by co-culture with oxygen radical-producing activated neutrophils. We have observed a direct correlation between the level of T cell hyporesponsiveness induced and the concentration of reactive oxygen species produced. Moreover, induction of T cell hyporesponsiveness is blocked by addition of N-acetyl cysteine, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, and catalase, confirming the critical role of oxidative stress in this system. The pattern of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins was profoundly altered in hyporesponsive as compared with normal T cells. In hyporesponsive T cells, T cell receptor (TCR) ligation no longer induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activation and caused reduced Ca(2+) flux. In contrast, despite increased levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TCR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 was unaltered in hyporesponsive T lymphocytes. A late TCR-signaling event such as caspase 3 activation was as well unaffected in hyporesponsive T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that TCR-signaling pathways are differentially affected by physiological levels of oxidative stress and would suggest that although "hyporesponsive" T cells have lost certain effector functions, they may have maintained or gained others. PMID:11916964

  11. Hypoxia affects in vitro proliferation and differentiation of mouse corneal epithelial progenitor cell.

    PubMed

    Dong, Nuo; Qin, Wenjuan; Xue, Yuhua; Li, Cheng; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-08-01

    This study was to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of mouse corneal epithelial progenitor cell in hypoxic airlift culture. Mouse corneal epithelial progenitor cell line progenitor cells were cultured under airlift with normoxic and hypoxic conditions for various durations up to 2 wk. Under normoxic conditions when exposed to air, the hyperproliferation and abnormal epidermal-like differentiation of mouse corneal epithelium was induced, whereas when exposed to air under hypoxic conditions, although we observed augmented proliferation, the abnormal differentiation was inhibited. The mechanism by which hypoxia prevents abnormal differentiation may involve downregulation of Wnt signaling pathways, which were inhibited in cells cultured with hypoxic airlift technique. In conclusion, hypoxia can prevent abnormal differentiation while enhancing the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells by blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:23739874

  12. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  13. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  14. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARγ Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARγ2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARγ, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARγ activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARγ activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARγ expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARγ activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARγ expression and activity. PMID:18274630

  15. WS6 induces both alpha and beta cell proliferation without affecting differentiation or viability

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Brian P.; George, Nicholas M.; Mir, Shakeel U.R.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2016-01-01

    Agents that stimulate human pancreatic beta cell proliferation are needed to improve diabetes mellitus treatment. Recently, a small molecule, WS6, was observed to stimulate human beta cell proliferation. However, little is known about its other effects on human islets. To better understand the role of WS6 as a possible beta cell regenerative therapy, we carried out in-depth phenotypic analysis of WS6-treated human islets, exploring its effects on non-beta cell proliferation, beta cell differentiation, and islet cell viability. WS6 not only stimulated beta cell proliferation in cultured human islets (in agreement with previous reports), but also human alpha cell proliferation, indicating that WS6 is not a beta cell-specific mitogen. WS6 did not change the proportion of insulin-positive beta cells or the expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors, suggesting that WS6 does not alter beta cell differentiation, and WS6 had no effect on human islet cell apoptosis or viability. In conclusion, WS6 stimulates proliferation of both human beta and alpha cells while maintaining cellular viability and the beta cell differentiated phenotype. These findings expand the literature on WS6 and support the suggestion that WS6 may help increase human islet mass needed for successful treatment of diabetes. PMID:25739404

  16. LMNA Knock-Down Affects Differentiation and Progression of Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Giovanna; Natoli, Manuela; Nardella, Marta; Arisi, Ivan; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Desideri, Marianna; Brandi, Rossella; D’Aguanno, Simona; Nicotra, Maria Rita; D’Onofrio, Mara; Urbani, Andrea; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Bufalo, Donatella Del

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood. Although genes, such as MYCN, have been shown to be involved in the aggressiveness of the disease, the identification of new biological markers is still desirable. The induction of differentiation is one of the strategies used in the treatment of neuroblastoma. A-type lamins are components of the nuclear lamina and are involved in differentiation. We studied the role of Lamin A/C in the differentiation and progression of neuroblastoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Knock-down of Lamin A/C (LMNA-KD) in neuroblastoma cells blocked retinoic acid-induced differentiation, preventing neurites outgrowth and the expression of neural markers. The genome-wide gene-expression profile and the proteomic analysis of LMNA-KD cells confirmed the inhibition of differentiation and demonstrated an increase of aggressiveness-related genes and molecules resulting in augmented migration/invasion, and increasing the drug resistance of the cells. The more aggressive phenotype acquired by LMNA-KD cells was also maintained in vivo after injection into nude mice. A preliminary immunohistochemistry analysis of Lamin A/C expression in nine primary stages human NB indicated that this protein is poorly expressed in most of these cases. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated for the first time in neuroblastoma cells that Lamin A/C plays a central role in the differentiation, and that the loss of this protein gave rise to a more aggressive tumor phenotype. PMID:23049808

  17. The Uptake of Extracellular Vesicles is Affected by the Differentiation Status of Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Czernek, L; Chworos, A; Duechler, M

    2015-12-01

    Intercellular communication includes the exchange of various membrane vesicles including exosomes. Exosomes are intraluminal nanovesicles generated from multivesicular bodies, a late endosomal compartment. Cancer cells release exosomes that influence their proximate and distant environment to facilitate angiogenesis, metastatic dissemination and immune escape. Cancer-derived vesicles may also trigger an anti-tumour response by transferring tumour antigens to immune cells. We wanted to investigate whether differentiation and maturation of myeloid cells changes their capacity to take up cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EV). We compared the efficiency of vesicle uptake by monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. To visualize and quantify the cellular uptake, EV were labelled with two different dyes, carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester (CFSE), or DSSN+, a water soluble distyrylstilbene oligoelectrolyte which preferentially intercalates into the cell membrane. With the help of cytokines, THP-1 monocytes were differentiated into immature or mature dendritic cells, or macrophages. EV uptake was monitored by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The results show that macrophages and mature dendritic cells acquired stronger fluorescence transferred by EV than monocytes or immature dendritic cells indicating that the differentiation status influences the efficiency of EV uptake. PMID:26332303

  18. Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+ influx

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Aline O.; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Barbeau, Benoit; Lafond, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of crude methanol and n-hexane extracts of Hypericum connatum (H. connatum) and Hypericum caprifoliatum on trophoblast-like cells. Methods BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast-like cells were submitted to different extract concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL) and evaluated in relation to cell viability and in vitro trophoblast differentiation and function. Cell viability was evaluated using WST-1 reagent. Differentiation was measured by luciferase production, hCG production/release, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation. The function of the trophoblast-like cells was measured by 45Ca2+ influx evaluation. Results The results showed a decrease in cell viability/proliferation. Both plants and different extracts induced a significant decrease in hCG production/release and luciferase production. H. connatum did not cause mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway disturbance; however, Hypericum caprifoliatum n-hexane extract at 15 µg/mL inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. The significant increase in Ca2+ influx by JEG-3 cells was seen after short and long incubation times with H. connatum methanolic extract at 15 µg/mL. Conclusions The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+ influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants. PMID:25182721

  19. Glucosylceramide synthesis inhibition affects cell cycle progression, membrane trafficking, and stage differentiation in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Stefanić, Sasa; Spycher, Cornelia; Morf, Laura; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Wild, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B; Sonda, Sabrina

    2010-09-01

    Synthesis of glucosylceramide via glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is a crucial event in higher eukaryotes, both for the production of complex glycosphingolipids and for regulating cellular levels of ceramide, a potent antiproliferative second messenger. In this study, we explored the dependence of the early branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia on GCS activity. Biochemical analyses revealed that the parasite has a GCS located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that is active in proliferating and encysting trophozoites. Pharmacological inhibition of GCS induced aberrant cell division, characterized by arrest of cytokinesis, incomplete cleavage furrow formation, and consequent block of replication. Importantly, we showed that increased ceramide levels were responsible for the cytokinesis arrest. In addition, GCS inhibition resulted in prominent ultrastructural abnormalities, including accumulation of cytosolic vesicles, enlarged lysosomes, and clathrin disorganization. Moreover, anterograde trafficking of the encystations-specific protein CWP1 was severely compromised and resulted in inhibition of stage differentiation. Our results reveal novel aspects of lipid metabolism in G. lamblia and specifically highlight the vital role of GCS in regulating cell cycle progression, membrane trafficking events, and stage differentiation in this parasite. In addition, we identified ceramide as a potent bioactive molecule, underscoring the universal conservation of ceramide signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:20335568

  20. Retinoic acid differentially affects in vitro proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of two fish bone-derived cell lines: different gene expression of nuclear receptors and ECM proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ignacio; Tiago, Daniel M; Laizé, Vincent; Leonor Cancela, M; Gisbert, Enric

    2014-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active metabolite of vitamin A, regulates vertebrate morphogenesis through signaling pathways not yet fully understood. Such process involves the specific activation of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors (RARs and RXRs), which are nuclear receptors of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Teleost fish are suitable models to study vertebrate development, such as skeletogenesis. Cell systems capable of in vitro mineralization have been developed for several fish species and may provide new insights into the specific cellular and molecular events related to vitamin A activity in bone, complementary to in vivo studies. This work aims at investigating the in vitro effects of RA (0.5 and 12.5 μM) on proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization of two gilthead seabream bone-derived cell lines (VSa13 and VSa16), and at identifying molecular targets of its action through gene expression analysis. RA induced phenotypic changes and cellular proliferation was inhibited in both cell lines in a cell type-dependent manner (36-59% in VSa13 and 17-46% in VSa16 cells). While RA stimulated mineral deposition in VSa13 cell cultures (50-62% stimulation), it inhibited the mineralization of extracellular matrix in VSa16 cells (11-57% inhibition). Expression of hormone receptor genes (rars and rxrs), and extracellular matrix-related genes such as matrix and bone Gla proteins (mgp and bglap), osteopontin (spp1) and type I collagen (col1a1) were differentially regulated upon exposure to RA in proliferating, differentiating and mineralizing cultures of VSa13 and VSa16 cells. Altogether, our results show: (i) RA affects proliferative and mineralogenic activities in two fish skeletal cell types and (ii) that during phenotype transitions, specific RA nuclear receptors and bone-related genes are differentially expressed in a cell type-dependent manner. PMID:24291400

  1. Surface Chemical Gradient Affects the Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells via ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xujie; Shi, Shengjun; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; He, Wei; Huang, Qianli; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2015-08-26

    To understand the role of surface chemistry on cell behavior and the associated molecular mechanisms, we developed and utilized a surface chemical gradient of amine functional groups by carefully adjusting the gas composition of 1,7-octadiene (OD) and allylamine (AA) of the plasma phase above a moving substrate. The chemical gradient surface used in the present work shows an increasing N/C ratio and wettability from the OD side toward the AA side with no change in surface topography. Under standard culture conditions (with serum), human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) adhesion and spreading area increased toward the AA side of the gradient. However, there were no differences in cell behavior in the absence of serum. These results, supported by the trends in proteins adsorption on the gradient surface, demonstrated that surface chemistry affects the response of hASCs through cell-adhesive serum proteins, rather than interacting directly with the cells. The expression of p-ERK and the osteogenic differentiation increased toward the AA side of the gradient, while adipogenic differentiation decreased in the same direction; however, when the activation of ERK1/2 was blocked by PD98059, the levels of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation on different regions of the chemical gradient were the same. This indicates that ERK1/2 may be an important downstream signaling pathway of surface chemistry directed stem cell fate. PMID:26237746

  2. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin(-/-) mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7(+) muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  3. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  4. VDR Activity is Differentially Affected by Hic-5 in Prostate Cancer and Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Joshua D; Heitzer, Marjet D; Liu, Teresa T; Beumer, Jan H; Parise, Robert A; Normolle, Daniel P; Leach, Damien A; Buchanan, Grant; DeFranco, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) eventually develop castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3/calcitriol) is a potential adjuvant therapy that confers anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation effects in vitro, but has had mixed results in clinical trials. The impact of the tumor microenvironment on 1,25D3 therapy in CRPC patients has not been assessed. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which is associated with the development of tumorigenic “reactive stroma” in prostate cancer, induced VDR expression in the human WPMY-1 prostate stromal cell line. Similarly, TGF-β enhanced 1,25D3-induced up-regulation of CYP24A1, which metabolizes 1,25D3 and thereby limits VDR activity. Ablation of Hic-5, a TGF-β-inducible nuclear receptor co-regulator, inhibited basal VDR expression, 1,25D3-induced CYP24A1 expression and metabolism of 1,25D3 and TGF-β-enhanced CYP24A1 expression. A Hic-5-responsive sequence was identified upstream (392-451 bp) of the CYP24A1 transcription start site that is occupied by VDR only in the presence of Hic-5. Ectopic expression of Hic-5 sensitized LNCaP prostate tumor cells to growth-inhibitory effects of 1,25D3 independent of CYP24A1. The sensitivity of Hic-5-expressing LNCaP cells to 1,25D3-induced growth inhibition was accentuated in co-culture with Hic-5-ablated WPMY-1 cells. Therefore, these findings indicate that the search for mechanisms to sensitize prostate cancer cells to the anti-proliferative effects of VDR ligands needs to account for the impact of VDR activity in the tumor microenvironment. Implications Hic-5 acts as a co-regulator with distinct effects on VDR transactivation, in prostate cancer and stromal cells, and may exert diverse effects on adjuvant therapy designed to exploit VDR activity in prostate cancer. PMID:24825850

  5. Runx1 Regulates Myeloid Precursor Differentiation Into Osteoclasts Without Affecting Differentiation Into Antigen Presenting or Phagocytic Cells in Both Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Paglia, David N; Yang, Xiaochuan; Kalinowski, Judith; Jastrzebski, Sandra; Drissi, Hicham; Lorenzo, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1), a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is expressed in preosteoclasts. Previously we evaluated the bone phenotype of CD11b-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice and demonstrated enhanced osteoclasts and decreased bone mass in males. However, an assessment of the effects of Runx1 deletion in female osteoclast precursors was impossible with this model. Moreover, the role of Runx1 in myeloid cell differentiation into other lineages is unknown. Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. Both female and male LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice had decreased trabecular bone mass (72% decrease in bone volume fraction) and increased osteoclast number (2-3 times) (P < .05) without alteration of osteoblast histomorphometric indices. We also demonstrated that loss of Runx1 in pluripotential myeloid precursors with LysM-Cre did not alter the number of myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow or their ability to differentiate into phagocytizing or antigen-presenting cells. This study demonstrates that abrogation of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells significantly and specifically enhanced the ability of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to stimulate osteoclast formation and fusion in female and male mice without affecting other myeloid cell fates. In turn, increased osteoclast activity in LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice likely contributed to a decrease in bone mass. These dramatic effects were not due to increased osteoclast precursors in the deleted mutants and argue that inhibition of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells is important for osteoclast formation and function. PMID:27267711

  6. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:26944108

  7. Point mutations in EBV gH that abrogate or differentially affect B cell and epithelial cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liguo; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M. . E-mail: lhuttf@lsuhsc.edu

    2007-06-20

    Cell fusion mediated by Epstein-Barr virus requires three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, but activation is cell type specific. B cell fusion requires interaction between MHC class II and a fourth virus glycoprotein, gp42, which complexes non-covalently with gHgL. Epithelial cell fusion requires interaction between gHgL and a novel epithelial cell coreceptor and is blocked by excess gp42. We show here that gp42 interacts directly with gH and that point mutations in the region of gH recognized by an antibody that differentially inhibits epithelial and B cell fusion significantly impact both the core fusion machinery and cell-specific events. Substitution of alanine for glycine at residue 594 completely abrogates fusion with either B cells or epithelial cells. Substitution of alanine for glutamic acid at residue 595 reduces fusion with epithelial cells, greatly enhances fusion with B cells and allows low levels of B cell fusion even in the absence of gL.

  8. Fish oil source differentially affects rat immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S O; Alexander, D W; Fritsche, K L

    1997-07-01

    We have previously reported that both the source of dietary fish oil and the chemical form of vitamin E supplied in the diet affect the vitamin E status of immune cells in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the effect of fish oil source on immune cell vitamin E status using free alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) at the AIN recommended level as the sole source of vitamin E. Sixty weanling female rats were fed semipurified, high fat (20 g/100 g) diets containing either tocopherol-stripped lard (LRD), menhaden fish oil (MFO), sardine fish oil (SRD) or cod liver oil (CLO) as the primary lipid source. Endogenous alpha-T concentration was measured and equalized to 150 mg/kg oil by addition of free RRR-alpha-T to each lipid source, allowing for a final concentration of alpha-T in the mixed diet of 30 mg/kg. An additional group of rats was fed LRD without supplemental vitamin E (LRD-) as a negative control. After feeding experimental diets for 5 or 10 wk, tissues were collected for alpha-T analysis by HPLC. After 5 wk, plasma and liver alpha-T (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were significantly lower in SRD- and CLO-fed rats compared with LRD-fed rats. At 10 wk, only plasma alpha-T in CLO-fed rats remained significantly depressed. Plasma and liver alpha-T concentrations (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were not significantly lower in MFO-fed rats than LRD-fed rats at either time point. Compared with LRD, feeding MFO to rats for 5 or 10 wk resulted in significantly greater alpha-T content of immune cells. In similar fashion, SRD-fed rats, compared with LRD-fed rats, also had significantly greater alpha-T content in splenocytes at both time points and greater thymocyte alpha-T at 10 wk. In all instances, the alpha-T status of rats fed CLO was indistinguishable from that of rats fed the vitamin E-free diet (LRD-). These data further demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between vitamin E status and dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PMID:9202096

  9. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Function and Dendritic Cell Differentiation Are Affected by Bisphenol-A Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ariemma, Fabiana; Cimmino, Ilaria; Bruzzese, Dario; Scerbo, Roberta; Picascia, Stefania; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, including endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), interfere on human health, leading to hormonal, immune and metabolic perturbations. Bisphenol-A (BPA), a main component of polycarbonate plastics, has been receiving increased attention due to its worldwide distribution with a large exposure. In humans, BPA, for its estrogenic activity, may have a role in autoimmunity, inflammatory and allergic diseases. To this aim, we assessed the effect of low BPA doses on functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and on in vitro differentiation of dendritic cells from monocytes (mDCs). Fresh peripheral blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy adult volunteers. PBMCs were left unstimulated or were activated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies and incubated in presence or absence of BPA at 0.1 and 1nM concentrations. The immune-modulatory effect of BPA was assessed by evaluating the cell proliferation and the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) secreted by PBMCs. mDCs were differentiated with IL-4 and GC-CSF with or without BPA and the expression of differentiation/maturation markers (CD11c, CD1a, CD86, HLA-DR) was evaluated by flow cytometry; furthermore, a panel of 27 different cytokines, growth factors and chemokines were assayed in the mDC culture supernatants. PBMCs proliferation significantly increased upon BPA exposure compared to BPA untreated cells. In addition, a significant decrease in IL-10 secretion was observed in PBMCs incubated with BPA, either in unstimulated or mitogen-stimulated cells, and at both 0.1 and 1nM BPA concentrations. Similarly, IL-13 was reduced, mainly in cells activated by antiCD3/CD28. By contrast, no significant changes in IFN-γ and IL-4 production were found in any condition assayed. Finally, BPA at 1nM increased the density of dendritic cells expressing CD1a and concomitantly

  10. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Function and Dendritic Cell Differentiation Are Affected by Bisphenol-A Exposure.

    PubMed

    Camarca, Alessandra; Gianfrani, Carmen; Ariemma, Fabiana; Cimmino, Ilaria; Bruzzese, Dario; Scerbo, Roberta; Picascia, Stefania; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Valentino, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, including endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), interfere on human health, leading to hormonal, immune and metabolic perturbations. Bisphenol-A (BPA), a main component of polycarbonate plastics, has been receiving increased attention due to its worldwide distribution with a large exposure. In humans, BPA, for its estrogenic activity, may have a role in autoimmunity, inflammatory and allergic diseases. To this aim, we assessed the effect of low BPA doses on functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and on in vitro differentiation of dendritic cells from monocytes (mDCs). Fresh peripheral blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy adult volunteers. PBMCs were left unstimulated or were activated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies and incubated in presence or absence of BPA at 0.1 and 1nM concentrations. The immune-modulatory effect of BPA was assessed by evaluating the cell proliferation and the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) secreted by PBMCs. mDCs were differentiated with IL-4 and GC-CSF with or without BPA and the expression of differentiation/maturation markers (CD11c, CD1a, CD86, HLA-DR) was evaluated by flow cytometry; furthermore, a panel of 27 different cytokines, growth factors and chemokines were assayed in the mDC culture supernatants. PBMCs proliferation significantly increased upon BPA exposure compared to BPA untreated cells. In addition, a significant decrease in IL-10 secretion was observed in PBMCs incubated with BPA, either in unstimulated or mitogen-stimulated cells, and at both 0.1 and 1nM BPA concentrations. Similarly, IL-13 was reduced, mainly in cells activated by antiCD3/CD28. By contrast, no significant changes in IFN-γ and IL-4 production were found in any condition assayed. Finally, BPA at 1nM increased the density of dendritic cells expressing CD1a and concomitantly

  11. Lipid emulsions differentially affect LPS-induced acute monocytes inflammation: in vitro effects on membrane remodeling and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Delabranche, Xavier; Klymchenko, Andrey; Drai, Jocelyne; Blond, Emilie; Zobairi, Fatiha; Mely, Yves; Hasselmann, Michel; Toti, Florence; Meziani, Ferhat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute monocyte inflammation in vitro. An 18 h long LPS induced human monocyte leukemia cell stimulation was performed and the cell-growth medium was supplemented with three different industrial lipid emulsions: Intralipid(®), containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT--soybean oil); Medialipid(®), containing LCT (soybean oil) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT--coconut oil); and SMOFlipid(®), containing LCT, MCT, omega-9 and -3 (soybean, coconut, olive and fish oils). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry respectively. Monocyte composition and membrane remodeling were studied using gas chromatography and NR12S staining. Microparticles released in supernatant were measured by prothrombinase assay. After LPS challenge, both cellular necrosis and apoptosis were increased (threefold and twofold respectively) and microparticle release was enhanced (sevenfold) after supplementation with Medialipid(®) compared to Intralipid(®), SMOFlipid(®) and monocytes in the standard medium. The monocytes differentially incorporated fatty acids after lipid emulsion challenge. Finally, lipid-treated cells displayed microparticles characterized by disrupted membrane lipid order, reflecting lipid remodeling of the parental cell plasma membrane. Our data suggest that lipid emulsions differentially alter cell viability, monocyte composition and thereby microparticle release. While MCT have deleterious effects, we have shown that parenteral nutrition emulsion containing LCT or LCT and MCT associated to n-3 and n-9 fatty acids have no effect on endotoxin-induced cell death and inflammation. PMID:25038627

  12. Lithium differentially affects clock gene expression in serum-shocked NIH-3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Osland, Teresa M; Fernø, Johan; Håvik, Bjarte; Heuch, Ivar; Ruoff, Peter; Lærum, Ole Didrik; Steen, Vidar M

    2011-07-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with disturbances in circadian rhythms. Lithium is frequently used in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder, and has been shown to prolong such rhythms in animals and humans. To examine whether lithium affects the expression of genes regulating the circadian clock, cultured NIH-3T3 cells were synchronized by serum-shocking, and the relative expression of the clock genes Period1 (Per1), Period2 (Per2), Period3 (Per3), Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), Cryptochrome2 (Cry2), Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1), Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock), Rev-Erb-α (Nr1d1), RAR-related orphan receptor α (Ror-α), Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β), Casein kinase 1-ε (CK1-ε; Csnk1ε), E4 binding protein 4 (E4BP4; Nfil-3) and albumin D-binding protein (Dbp) was examined for three consecutive days in the presence of lithium (20 mM) or vehicle (20 mM NaCl). We found that lithium significantly increased the expression of Per2 and Cry1, whereas Per3, Cry2, Bmal1, E4BP4 and Rev-Erb-α expression was reduced. We also found that lithium prolonged the period of Per2. Taken together, these effects on clock gene expression may be relevant for the effects of lithium on biological rhythms and could also give new leads to further explore its mood-stabilizing actions in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20837565

  13. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine exposure reduces hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis and these alterations partially contribute to hippocampal maladaptive plasticity. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity were identified in the present study. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a regulator of LTP and neurogenesis), and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal tissue lysates in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day) or extended access (6 h/day) paradigm for 17 days post baseline sessions. Extended access methamphetamine enhanced expression of BDNF with significant effects observed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Methamphetamine-induced enhancements in BDNF expression were not associated with TrkB receptor activation as indicated by phospho (p)-TrkB-706 levels. Conversely, methamphetamine produced hypophosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) at Tyr-1472 in the ventral hippocampus, indicating reduced receptor activation. In addition, methamphetamine enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels in the ventral hippocampus, suggesting a mechanism for reducing cell death. Analysis of Akt, a pro-survival kinase that suppresses apoptotic pathways and pAkt at Ser-473 demonstrated that extended access methamphetamine reduces Akt expression in the ventral hippocampus. These data reveal that alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax levels by methamphetamine were not associated with enhanced Akt expression. Given that hippocampal function and neurogenesis vary in a subregion-specific fashion, where dorsal hippocampus regulates spatial processing and has higher levels of neurogenesis, whereas ventral hippocampus regulates anxiety-related behaviors, these data suggest that methamphetamine self-administration initiates distinct allostatic changes in

  14. Reduction of Prep1 levels affects differentiation of normal and malignant B cells and accelerates Myc driven lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Giorgio; Mejetta, Stefania; Modica, Livia; Penkov, Dmitry; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Blasi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor has recently been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Among other features, haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is able to strongly accelerate the B-lymphomagenesis in EμMyc mice. Now we report that this occurs concomitantly with a change in the type of B-cell lymphomas generated by the Myc oncogene. Indeed, the tumors generated in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/-) mice are much more immature, being mostly made up of Pro-B or Pre-B cells, while those in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/+) mice are more differentiated being invariably IgM(+). Moreover, we show that Prep1 is in fact required for the differentiation of Pro-B and Pre-B cells into IgM(+) lymphocytes and/or their proliferation, thus showing also how a normal function of Prep1 affects EμMyc lymphomagenesis. Finally, we show that the haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is accompanied with a major decrease of Myc-induced apoptosis and that the haploinsufficieny is sufficient for all these effects because the second allele of Prep1 is not lost even at late stages. Therefore, the tumor-suppressive activity of Prep1 is intertwined with both the interference with Myc-induced apoptosis as well as with natural developmental functions of the protein. PMID:23133585

  15. Prenatal Hypoxia in Different Periods of Embryogenesis Differentially Affects Cell Migration, Neuronal Plasticity, and Rat Behavior in Postnatal Ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Dmitrii S; Dubrovskaya, Nadezhda M; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines, and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5'ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns, affects formation of

  16. In vivo genetic ablation of the periotic mesoderm affects cell proliferation survival and differentiation in the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huansheng; Chen, Li; Baldini, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Tbx1 is required for ear development in humans and mice. Gene manipulation in the mouse has discovered multiple consequences of loss of function on early development of the inner ear, some of which are attributable to a cell autonomous role in maintaining cell proliferation of epithelial progenitors of the cochlear and vestibular apparata. However, ablation of the mesodermal domain of the gene also results in severe but more restricted abnormalities. Here we show that Tbx1 has a dynamic expression during late development of the ear, in particular, is expressed in the sensory epithelium of the vestibular organs but not of the cochlea. Vice versa, it is expressed in the condensed mesenchyme that surrounds the cochlea but not in the one that surrounds the vestibule. Loss of Tbx1 in the mesoderm disrupts this peri-cochlear capsule by strongly reducing the proliferation of mesenchymal cells. The organogenesis of the cochlea, which normally occurs inside the capsule, was dramatically affected in terms of growth of the organ, as well as proliferation, differentiation and survival of its epithelial cells. This model provides a striking demonstration of the essential role played by the periotic mesenchyme in the organogenesis of the cochlea. PMID:17825816

  17. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage activates replication checkpoint signaling components that differentially affect tumor cell survival.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jill M; Karnitz, Larry M

    2009-07-01

    Cisplatin and other platinating agents are some of the most widely used chemotherapy agents. These drugs exert their antiproliferative effects by creating intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, which block DNA replication. The cross-links mobilize signaling and repair pathways, including the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1-ATR-Chk1 pathway, a pathway that helps tumor cells survive the DNA damage inflicted by many chemotherapy agents. Here we show that Rad9 and ATR play critical roles in helping tumor cells survive cisplatin treatment. However, depleting Chk1 with small interfering RNA or inhibiting Chk1 with 3-(carbamoylamino)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-(3-piperidyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (AZD7762) did not sensitize these cells to cisplatin, oxaliplatin, or carboplatin. Moreover, when Rad18, Rad51, BRCA1, BRCA2, or FancD2 was disabled, Chk1 depletion did not further sensitize the cells to cisplatin. In fact, Chk1 depletion reversed the sensitivity seen when Rad18 was disabled. Collectively, these studies suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of Chk1 may not be an effective strategy to sensitize tumors to platinating agents. PMID:19403702

  18. Hypoxic Preconditioning Differentially Affects GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neuronal Cells in the Injured Cerebellum of the Neonatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sean I.; Muñoz, Estela M.; Seltzer, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined cerebellar alterations in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with or without hypoxic preconditioning (Pc). Between postnatal days 7 and 15, the cerebellum is still undergoing intense cellular proliferation, differentiation and migration, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67) and the differentiation factor NeuroD1 were examined as markers of Purkinje and granule cells, respectively. We applied quantitative immunohistochemistry to sagittal cerebellar slices, and Western blot analysis of whole cerebella obtained from control (C) rats and rats submitted to Pc, hypoxia-ischemia (L) and a combination of both treatments (PcL). We found that either hypoxia-ischemia or Pc perturbed the granule cells in the posterior lobes, affecting their migration and final placement in the internal granular layer. These effects were partially attenuated when the Pc was delivered prior to the hypoxia-ischemia. Interestingly, whole nuclear NeuroD1 levels in Pc animals were comparable to those in the C rats. However, a subset of Purkinje cells that were severely affected by the hypoxic-ischemic insult—showing signs of neuronal distress at the levels of the nucleus, cytoplasm and dendritic arborization—were not protected by Pc. A monoclonal antibody specific for GAD67 revealed a three-band pattern in cytoplasmic extracts from whole P15 cerebella. A ∼110 kDa band, interpreted as a potential homodimer of a truncated form of GAD67, was reduced in Pc and L groups while its levels were close to the control animals in PcL rats. Additionally we demonstrated differential glial responses depending on the treatment, including astrogliosis in hypoxiated cerebella and a selective effect of hypoxia-ischemia on the vimentin-immunolabeled intermediate filaments of the Bergmann glia. Thus, while both glutamatergic and GABAergic cerebellar neurons are compromised by the hypoxic-ischemic insult, the former are

  19. Overexpression of Arabidopsis Ceramide Synthases Differentially Affects Growth, Sphingolipid Metabolism, Programmed Cell Death, and Mycotoxin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Luttgeharm, Kyle D; Chen, Ming; Mehra, Amit; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Markham, Jonathan E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide synthases catalyze an N-acyltransferase reaction using fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and long-chain base (LCB) substrates to form the sphingolipid ceramide backbone and are targets for inhibition by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three genes encoding ceramide synthases with distinct substrate specificities: LONGEVITY ASSURANCE GENE ONE HOMOLOG1 (LOH1; At3g25540)- and LOH3 (At1g19260)-encoded ceramide synthases use very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and trihydroxy LCB substrates, and LOH2 (At3g19260)-encoded ceramide synthase uses palmitoyl-CoA and dihydroxy LCB substrates. In this study, complementary DNAs for each gene were overexpressed to determine the role of individual isoforms in physiology and sphingolipid metabolism. Differences were observed in growth resulting from LOH1 and LOH3 overexpression compared with LOH2 overexpression. LOH1- and LOH3-overexpressing plants had enhanced biomass relative to wild-type plants, due in part to increased cell division, suggesting that enhanced synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acid/trihydroxy LCB ceramides promotes cell division and growth. Conversely, LOH2 overexpression resulted in dwarfing. LOH2 overexpression also resulted in the accumulation of sphingolipids with C16 fatty acid/dihydroxy LCB ceramides, constitutive induction of programmed cell death, and accumulation of salicylic acid, closely mimicking phenotypes observed previously in LCB C-4 hydroxylase mutants defective in trihydroxy LCB synthesis. In addition, LOH2- and LOH3-overexpressing plants acquired increased resistance to FB1, whereas LOH1-overexpressing plants showed no increase in FB1 resistance, compared with wild-type plants, indicating that LOH1 ceramide synthase is most strongly inhibited by FB1. Overall, the findings described here demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis ceramide synthases results in strongly divergent physiological and metabolic phenotypes, some of which have significance

  20. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-01-01

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity. PMID:27609467

  1. Growth factors and hormones which affect survival, growth, and differentiation of the MCF-7 stem cells and their descendants

    SciTech Connect

    Resnicoff, M.; Medrano, E.E. )

    1989-03-01

    The human breast tumor cell line was separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation into six different subpopulations, A to F, of which (E) appears to contain the stem cells on the basis of several criteria. The authors analyzed the response of the isolated subpopulations to insulin, thrombin, PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, estradiol, and 13-cis-retinal. They demonstrate that the first two growth factors stimulate ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation in the more differentiated subpopulations (D and F), while PGF{sub 2{alpha}} has mitogenic activity in subpopulations C and D. In the absence of any added growth factor, estradiol has the extreme and transient capacity of allowing the stem cell to detach from the tissue culture dish and to grow in suspension as multicellular aggregates (MCF-7/SE cells). 13-cis-Retinal acts as a negative modulator of differentiation and protects the cells from the inhibitory and differentiation activity in Na-butyrate.

  2. ERK2 protein regulates the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells without affecting their mobilization and differentiation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Carcamo-Orive, Ivan; Tejados, Naiara; Delgado, Jesus; Gaztelumendi, Ainhoa; Otaegui, David; Lang, Valerie; Trigueros, Cesar

    2008-05-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), derived mainly from adult bone marrow, are valuable models for the study of processes involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. As the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) signalling pathway is a major contributor to cellular growth, differentiation and survival, we have studied the functions of this kinase in hMSC activity. Ablation of ERK2 gene expression (but not ERK1) by RNA interference significantly reduced proliferation of hMSC. This reduction was due to a defect in Cyclin D1 expression and subsequent arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. hMSC growth is enhanced through culture medium supplementation with growth factors (GFs) such as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) or Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). However, these supplements could not rescue the defect observed after ERK2 knockdown, suggesting a common signalling pathway used by these GFs for proliferation. In contrast, ERK1/2 may be dissociated from chemotactic signalling induced by the same GFs. Additionally, hMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipocytes even in the absence of either ERK1 or ERK2 proteins. Our data show that hMSCs do not require cell division to enter the adipogenic differentiation process, indicating that clonal amplification of these cells is not a critical step. However, cell-cell contact seems to be an essential requirement to be able to differentiate into mature adipocytes.

  3. HMGB4 is expressed by neuronal cells and affects the expression of genes involved in neural differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rouhiainen, Ari; Zhao, Xiang; Vanttola, Päivi; Qian, Kui; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Gransalke, Kathleen; Grönholm, Mikaela; Unni, Emmanual; Meistrich, Marvin; Tian, Li; Auvinen, Petri; Rauvala, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    HMGB4 is a new member in the family of HMGB proteins that has been characterized in sperm cells, but little is known about its functions in somatic cells. Here we show that HMGB4 and the highly similar rat Transition Protein 4 (HMGB4L1) are expressed in neuronal cells. Both proteins had slow mobility in nucleus of living NIH-3T3 cells. They interacted with histones and their differential expression in transformed cells of the nervous system altered the post-translational modification statuses of histones in vitro. Overexpression of HMGB4 in HEK 293T cells made cells more susceptible to cell death induced by topoisomerase inhibitors in an oncology drug screening array and altered variant composition of histone H3. HMGB4 regulated over 800 genes in HEK 293T cells with a p-value ≤0.013 (n = 3) in a microarray analysis and displayed strongest association with adhesion and histone H2A -processes. In neuronal and transformed cells HMGB4 regulated the expression of an oligodendrocyte marker gene PPP1R14a and other neuronal differentiation marker genes. In conclusion, our data suggests that HMGB4 is a factor that regulates chromatin and expression of neuronal differentiation markers. PMID:27608812

  4. Acute stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells with cigarette smoke extract affects their migration, differentiation, and paracrine potential

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Elizabeth A.; Schenck, Thilo L.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Egaña, J. Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to play a key role in tissue regeneration, while smoking cigarettes is described to impair it. This work focuses on the effect cigarette smoke extract (CSE) has on the migration, differentiation, and paracrine potential of human adipose derived MSCs (AdMSCs). To mimic native conditions in vitro, AdMSCs were cultured in either monolayer or three-dimensional pellet cultures. While constant exposure to high concentrations of CSE had lethal effects on AdMSCs, lower concentrations of CSE impaired cell migration when compared to control conditions. The secretion of key interleukins was downregulated when CSE was exposed to the cells at low concentrations. Moreover, in this work AdMSCs were exposed to CSE while simultaneously being induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes to determine the effect of CSE on the cells potential to differentiate. While adipogenic differentiation showed no significant variation, AdMSCs exposed to osteogenic and chondrogenic supplements showed both early and late genetic level variation when acutely exposed to low concentrations of CSE. Our results indicate that even a small amount of cigarette smoke can have detrimental effects on the regenerative potential of MSCs. PMID:26976359

  5. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    PubMed Central

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient. PMID:27057170

  6. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient. PMID:27057170

  7. Knockdown of Human TCF4 Affects Multiple Signaling Pathways Involved in Cell Survival, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Marc P.; Waite, Adrian J.; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS): a severe form of mental retardation with phenotypic similarities to Angelman, Mowat-Wilson and Rett syndromes. Genome-wide association studies have also found that common variants in TCF4 are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Although TCF4 is transcription factor, little is known about TCF4-regulated processes in the brain. In this study we used genome-wide expression profiling to determine the effects of acute TCF4 knockdown on gene expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We identified 1204 gene expression changes (494 upregulated, 710 downregulated) in TCF4 knockdown cells. Pathway and enrichment analysis on the differentially expressed genes in TCF4-knockdown cells identified an over-representation of genes involved in TGF-β signaling, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis. Among the most significantly differentially expressed genes were the EMT regulators, SNAI2 and DEC1 and the proneural genes, NEUROG2 and ASCL1. Altered expression of several mental retardation genes such as UBE3A (Angelman Syndrome), ZEB2 (Mowat-Wilson Syndrome) and MEF2C was also found in TCF4-depleted cells. These data suggest that TCF4 regulates a number of convergent signaling pathways involved in cell differentiation and survival in addition to a subset of clinically important mental retardation genes. PMID:24058414

  8. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Llobet, Laura; Toivonen, Janne M.; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Gallardo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis. PMID:26398948

  9. Alcohol and Cannabinoids Differentially Affect HIV Infection and Function of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells (MDDC)

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, Marisela; Figueroa, Gloria; Yndart, Adriana; Casteleiro, Gianna; Muñoz, Karla; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Atluri, Venkata; Nair, Madhavan P.

    2015-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%), THC (5 and 10 μM), or JWH-015 (5 and 10 μM) for 4–7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV + EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV + JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV + THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection. PMID:26733986

  10. Glucosylceramide synthesis inhibition affects cell cycle progression, membrane trafficking, and stage differentiation in Giardia lamblia[S

    PubMed Central

    Štefanić, Saša; Spycher, Cornelia; Morf, Laura; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Wild, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B.; Sonda, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of glucosylceramide via glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is a crucial event in higher eukaryotes, both for the production of complex glycosphingolipids and for regulating cellular levels of ceramide, a potent antiproliferative second messenger. In this study, we explored the dependence of the early branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia on GCS activity. Biochemical analyses revealed that the parasite has a GCS located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that is active in proliferating and encysting trophozoites. Pharmacological inhibition of GCS induced aberrant cell division, characterized by arrest of cytokinesis, incomplete cleavage furrow formation, and consequent block of replication. Importantly, we showed that increased ceramide levels were responsible for the cytokinesis arrest. In addition, GCS inhibition resulted in prominent ultrastructural abnormalities, including accumulation of cytosolic vesicles, enlarged lysosomes, and clathrin disorganization. Moreover, anterograde trafficking of the encystations-specific protein CWP1 was severely compromised and resulted in inhibition of stage differentiation. Our results reveal novel aspects of lipid metabolism in G. lamblia and specifically highlight the vital role of GCS in regulating cell cycle progression, membrane trafficking events, and stage differentiation in this parasite. In addition, we identified ceramide as a potent bioactive molecule, underscoring the universal conservation of ceramide signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:20335568

  11. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide. PMID:27241584

  12. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  13. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  14. Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T

    2003-10-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  15. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  16. Atherosclerosis differentially affects calcium signalling in endothelial cells from aortic arch and thoracic aorta in Apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Clodagh; Quayle, John; Burdyga, Theodor; Wray, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein‐E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice develop hypercholesterolemia and are a useful model of atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia alters intracellular Ca2+ signalling in vascular endothelial cells but our understanding of these changes, especially in the early stages of the disease process, is limited. We therefore determined whether carbachol‐mediated endothelial Ca2+ signals differ in plaque‐prone aortic arch compared to plaque‐resistant thoracic aorta, of wild‐type and ApoE−/− mice, and how this is affected by age and the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The extent of plaque development was determined using en‐face staining with Sudan IV. Tissues were obtained from wild‐type and ApoE−/− mice at 10 weeks (pre‐plaques) and 24 weeks (established plaques). We found that even before development of plaques, significantly increased Ca2+ responses were observed in arch endothelial cells. Even with aging and plaque formation, ApoE−/− thoracic responses were little changed, however a significantly enhanced Ca2+ response was observed in arch, both adjacent to and away from lesions. In wild‐type mice of any age, 1–2% of cells had oscillatory Ca2+ responses. In young ApoE−/− and plaque‐free regions of older ApoE−/−, this is unchanged. However a significant increase in oscillations (~13–15%) occurred in thoracic and arch cells adjacent to lesions in older mice. Our data suggest that Ca2+ signals in endothelial cells show specific changes both before and with plaque formation, that these changes are greatest in plaque‐prone aortic arch cells, and that these changes will contribute to the reported deterioration of endothelium in atherosclerosis. PMID:25344475

  17. Cell Differentiation and Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Sara Cuesta; Ouchi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is induced in many types of cells by internal and external cell stress. When DNA is damaged, DNA Damage Response (DDR) programs are activated to repair the DNA lesions in order to preserve genomic integrity and suppress subsequent malignant transformation. Among these programs is cell cycle checkpoint that ensures cell cycle arrest and subsequent repair of the damaged DNA, apoptosis and senescence in various phases of the cell cycle. Moreover, recent studies have established the cell differentiation checkpoint, the other type of the checkpoint that is specifically activated in the course of differentiation. We will discuss the evidences that support the link between DNA damage proteins and C2C12 cell differentiation. PMID:26998525

  18. Polyamine metabolism and transforming growth factor-beta signaling are affected in Caco-2 cells by differentially cooked broccoli extracts.

    PubMed

    Furniss, Caroline S M; Bennett, Richard N; Bacon, James R; LeGall, Gwen; Mithen, Richard F

    2008-10-01

    The health benefits of consuming cruciferous vegetables are widely considered to be due to the biological activity of glucosinolate degradation products. However, it is conceivable that other phytochemicals within crucifers may also have biological activity that may contribute to health benefits. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression in Caco-2 cells exposed to extracts derived from broccoli that had been heat treated to different extents to result in contrasting profiles of glucosinolates and their degradation products. Extracts microwaved for 0, 1, and 4 min contained 9.5, 25.5, and 0 micromol/L sulforaphane and induced changes in expression of 381, 1017, and 101 genes, respectively (>2 fold; P < 0.01). Seventy-two genes showed similar changes in expression after treatment with all 3 extracts. These included genes involved in polyamine catabolism and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling. Consistent with these changes in gene expression, subsequent studies demonstrated that exposing cells to these extracts, including the 4-min extract that contained no glucosinolate degradation products, increased putrescine and N-acetyl-spermine concentration, and suppressed the TGFbeta1-mediated induction of phosphorylated Smad 2. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of phytochemicals from a cruciferous vegetable affecting both a signaling pathway and a catabolic process. PMID:18806090

  19. Serine Protease Inhibitor-6 Differentially Affects the Survival of Effector and Memory Alloreactive CD8-T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, J.; Ohori, S.; Ting, C.; Uehara, M.; Abdoli, R.; Smith, B. D.; Safa, K.; Solhjou, Z.; Lukyanchykov, P.; Patel, J.; McGrath, M.; Abdi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The clonal expansion of effector T cells and subsequent generation of memory T cells are critical in determining the outcome of transplantation. While cytotoxic T lymphocytes induce direct cytolysis of target cells through secretion of Granzyme-B (GrB), they also express cytoplasmic serine protease inhibitor-6 (Spi6) to protect themselves from GrB that has leaked from granules. Here, we studied the role of GrB/Spi6 axis in determining clonal expansion of alloreactive CD8-T cells and subsequent generation of memory CD8-T cells in transplantation. CD8-T cells from Spi6−/− mice underwent more GrB mediated apoptosis upon alloantigen stimulation in vitro and in vivo following adoptive transfer into an allogeneic host. Interestingly, while OT1.Spi6−/− CD8 T cells showed significantly lower clonal expansion following skin transplants from OVA mice, there was no difference in the size of the effector memory CD8-T cells long after transplantation. Furthermore, lack of Spi6 resulted in a decrease of short-lived-effector-CD8-cells but did not impact the pool of memory-precursor-effector-CD8-cells. Similar results were found in heart transplant models. Our findings suggest that the final alloreactive CD8-memory-pool-size is independent from the initial clonal-proliferation as memory precursors express low levels of GrB and therefore are independent of Spi6 for survival. These data advance our understanding of memory T cells generation in transplantation and provide basis for Spi6 based strategies to target effector T cells. PMID:25534448

  20. 6-OHDA-Induced Changes in Parkinson's Disease-Related Gene Expression are not Affected by the Overexpression of PGAM5 in In Vitro Differentiated Embryonic Mesencephalic Cells.

    PubMed

    Stępkowski, Tomasz Maciej; Wasyk, Iwona; Grzelak, Agnieszka; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    LUHMES cells, a recently established line of immortalized embryonic mesencephalic cells, are the novel in vitro model for studying Parkinson's disease (PD) and dopaminergic neuron biology. Phosphoglyceromutase 5 (PGAM5) is a mitochondrial protein involved in mitophagy, mitochondria dynamics, and other processes important for PD pathogenesis. We tested the impact of lentiviral overexpression of PGAM5 protein in LUHMES cells on their differentiation and expression of 84 PD-related genes. LUHMES cells were transduced with PGAM5 or mock and treated with 100 μM 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a model PD neurotoxin. Real-Time PCR analysis revealed that the treatment with 6-OHDA-induced changes in expression of 44 PD-related genes. PGAM5 transduction alone did not cause alternations in PD-related genes expression, nor it affected changes in gene expression mediated by 6-OHDA. The 6-OHDA-induced PD-related gene expression profile of LUHMES cells is presented for the first time and widely discussed. PMID:25986246

  1. Methylmercury differentially affects GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous IPSCs in Purkinje and granule cells of rat cerebellar slices

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yukun; Atchison, William D

    2003-01-01

    Using whole-cell recording techniques we compared effects of the environmental cerebellar neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg) on spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) of both Purkinje and granule cells in cerebellar slices of the rat. In Purkinje cells, bath application of 10, 20 or 100 μM MeHg initially increased then suppressed the frequency of sIPSCs to zero. In granule cells, the initial increase in frequency was not observed in ≈50 % of cells examined, but suppression of sIPSCs by MeHg occurred in every cell tested. For both cells, time to onset of effects of MeHg was inversely related to the concentration; moreover, the pattern of changes in mIPSCs induced by MeHg in the presence of tetrodotoxin was similar to that in sIPSCs. For each concentration of MeHg, it took 2–3 times longer to block sIPSCs in Purkinje cells than it did in granule cells. MeHg also initially increased then decreased amplitudes of sIPSCs to block in both cells; again the response was more variable in granule cells. In most Purkinje and some granule cells, MeHg induced a giant, slow inward current during the late stages of exposure. Appearance of this current appeared to be MeHg concentration dependent, and the direction of current flow was reversed by changing the holding potentials. Reduction of the [Cl−] in the internal solution caused inwardly directed, but not outwardly directed giant currents to disappear, suggesting that this current is a Cl−-mediated response. However, bicuculline and picrotoxin failed to block it. MeHg apparently acts at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites to alter GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission. GABAA receptors in granule cells appear to be more sensitive to block by MeHg than are those in Purkinje cells, although the general patterns of effects on the two cells are similar. PMID:12879869

  2. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol’s effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg), G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg), G15 (40 μg), G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO). After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg) decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus. PMID:26075609

  3. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Paola; Brini, Anna Teresa; Arrigoni, Elena; de Girolamo, Laura; Niada, Stefania; Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2012-11-16

    The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPARγ and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPARγ/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPARγ target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal a role for HDACs in orchestrating osteo-differentiation of hASCs at transcriptional level, and might provide new insights into the modulation of hASCs-based regenerative therapy. PMID:23085045

  4. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  5. Gut Mucosal FOXP3+ Regulatory CD4+ T Cells and Nonregulatory CD4+ T Cells Are Differentially Affected by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques▿

    PubMed Central

    Allers, Kristina; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Hofmann, Jörg; Unbehaun, Anett; Kunkel, Désirée; Moos, Verena; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sauermann, Ulrike; Epple, Hans-Jörg; Schneider, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents a major site for human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion. Despite severe depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells, FOXP3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg) are highly increased in the gut mucosa of chronically HIV-infected individuals and may contribute to HIV pathogenesis, either by their immunosuppressive function or as a significant target cell population for virus production. Little is known about the susceptibility of mucosal Treg to viral infection and the longitudinal effect of HIV/SIV infection on Treg dynamics. In this study, we determined the level of SIV infection in Treg and nonregulatory CD4+ T cells (non-Treg) isolated from the colon of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The dynamics of mucosal Treg and alterations in the mucosal CD4+ T-cell pool were examined longitudinally. Our findings indicate that mucosal Treg were less susceptible to productive SIV infection than non-Treg and thus were selectively spared from SIV-mediated cell death. In addition to improved survival, local expansion of Treg by SIV-induced proliferation of the mucosal CD4+ T-cell pool facilitated the accumulation of mucosal Treg during the course of infection. High frequency of mucosal Treg in chronic SIV infection was strongly related to a reduction of perforin-expressing cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that mucosal Treg are less affected by productive SIV infection than non-Treg and therefore spared from depletion. Although SIV production is limited in mucosal Treg, Treg accumulation may indirectly contribute to viral persistence by suppressing antiviral immune responses. PMID:20071575

  6. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola; Brini, Anna Teresa; Arrigoni, Elena; Girolamo, Laura de; Niada, Stefania; Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal

  7. Benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthrecene differentially affect bone marrow cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, Noe; Page, Todd J.; Czuprynski, Charles J.; Jefcoate, Colin R. . E-mail: jefcoate@facstaff.wisc.edu

    2006-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental contaminants that are carcinogenic and immunosuppressive. Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) are two prototypic PAHs known to impair the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. We have previously shown that, in C57BL/6J mice, total bone marrow (BM) cellularity decreased two-fold following intraperitoneal DMBA treatment but not BP treatment. Here, we have used flow cytometry to demonstrate that BP and DMBA differentially alter the lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Following DMBA treatment, the pro/pre B-lymphocytes (B220{sup lo}/IgM{sup -}) and the immature B-lymphocytes (B220{sup lo}/IgM{sup +}) significantly decreased, while the mature B-lymphocytes (B220{sup hi}/IgM{sup +}) remained unaffected. In contrast, BP treatment decreased the pro/pre B-lymphocytes, and did not affect the immature B-lymphocytes or mature B-lymphocytes. The Gr-1{sup +} cells of the myeloid lineage were depleted 50% following DMBA treatment and only minimally depleted following BP treatment. Interestingly, the monocytes (7/4{sup +}1A8{sup lo}) and neutrophils (7/4{sup +}1A8{sup hi}) within this Gr-1{sup +} population were differentially affected by these PAHs. Monocytes and neutrophils were depleted following DMBA treatment whereas neutrophils decreased and monocytes increased following BP treatment. Although TNF{alpha} and CYP1B1 are implicated as essential mediators of hypocellularity, the similar induction of TNF{alpha} mRNA and CYP1B1 mRNA in the BM by BP and DMBA suggests that they are not limiting factors in mediating the different effects of these PAHs. Given that similar amounts of BP and DMBA reach the BM when administered intraperitoneally, their differential effects on the lymphoid and myeloid lineages probably stem from differences in reactive metabolites such as PAH quinones and PAH-dihydrodiol-epoxides.

  8. Inducible Lentivirus-Mediated Expression of the Oct4 Gene Affects Multilineage Differentiation of Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiang; An, Jia-Qiang; Hao, Fei; Yang, Chun; Lu, Tao; Qu, Ting-Yu; Zhao, Li-Ru; Duan, Wei-Ming

    2015-10-01

    The octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) gene plays an important role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and reprogramming adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In the present study, we transduced human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using tetracycline-on (Tet-On) lentiviruses carrying human Oct4 to examine the effects of regulated expression of human Oct4 on the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs. hMSCs were efficiently transduced by Tet-On lentiviruses to express regulated levels of human Oct4 with doxycycline (Dox), as examined by immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometry, and quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Ectopic expression of Oct4 in transduced hMSCs increased the ability of colony formation. Continued expression of Oct4 further enhanced adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs, and transient expression of Oct4 sufficiently enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that ectopic expression of Oct4 in transduced hMSCs temporally increased the expression of Sox2 and c-Myc. Interestingly, ectopic expression of Oct4 reduced neuronal differentiation of hMSCs when incubated under neuronal differentiation conditions. Our results suggest that ectopic expression of human Oct4 leads to temporal changes in multilineage differentiation of hMSCs and may inhibit neuronal differentiation of hMSCs. PMID:26230571

  9. Travelling Waves of Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Benmir, M; Bessonov, N; Boujena, S; Volpert, V

    2015-12-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling of cell differentiation in an initially homogeneous cell population. The mechanism which provides coexistence of two cell lineages in the initially homogeneous cell population is suggested. If cell differentiation is initiated locally in space in the population of undifferentiated cells, it can propagate as a travelling wave converting undifferentiated cells into differentiated ones. We suggest a model of this process which takes into account intracellular regulation, extracellular regulation and different cell types. They include undifferentiated cells and two types of differentiated cells. When a cell differentiates, its choice between two types of differentiated cells is determined by the concentrations of intracellular proteins. Differentiated cells can either stimulate differentiation into their own cell lineage or into another cell lineage. In the case of the positive feedback, only one lineage of differentiated cells will finally appear. In the case of negative feedback, both of them can coexist. In this case a periodic spatial pattern emerges behind the wave. PMID:26141967

  10. Oxidized LDL Immune Complexes and Oxidized LDL Differentially Affect the Expression of Genes Involved with Inflammation and Survival In Human U937 Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Samar M; Twal, Waleed O; Barth, Jeremy L; Smith, Kent J.; Saad, Antonio F; Virella, Gabriel; Argraves, W. Scott; Lopes-Virella., Maria F

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the global effects of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC) on gene expression in human monocytic cells and to identify differentially expressed genes involved with inflammation and survival. Methods and Results U937 cells were treated with oxLDL-IC, oxLDL, Keyhole limpet hemocyanin immune complexes (KLH-IC), or vehicle for 4 h. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarrays. oxLDL-IC uniquely affected the expression of genes involved with pro-survival (RAD54B, RUFY3, SNRPB2, and ZBTB24). oxLDL-IC also regulated many genes in a manner similar to KLH-IC. Functional categorization of these genes revealed that 39% are involved with stress responses, including the unfolded protein response which impacts cell survival, 19% with regulation of transcription, 10% with endocytosis and intracellular transport of protein and lipid, and 16% with inflammatory responses including regulation of I-κB/NF-κB cascade and cytokine activity. One gene in particular, HSP70 6, greatly up-regulated by ox-LDL-IC, was found to be required for the process by which oxLDL-IC augments IL1-β secretion. The study also revealed genes uniquely up-regulated by oxLDL including genes involved with growth inhibition (OKL38, NEK3, and FTH1), oxidoreductase activity (SPXN1 and HMOX1), and transport of amino acids and fatty acids (SLC7A11 and ADFP). Conclusions These findings highlight early transcriptional responses elicited by oxLDL-IC that may underlie its cytoprotective and pro-inflammatory effects. Cross-linking of Fcγ receptors appears to be the trigger for most of the transcriptional responses to oxLDL-IC. The findings further strengthen the hypothesis that oxLDL and oxLDL-IC elicit disparate inflammatory responses and play distinct roles in the process of atherosclerosis. PMID:18597759

  11. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  12. Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-09-01

    We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells. PMID:25997796

  13. Propionibacterium acnes induces an adjuvant effect in B-1 cells and affects their phagocyte differentiation via a TLR2-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gambero, Monica; Teixeira, Daniela; Butin, Liane; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Mariano, Mario; Popi, Ana Flavia; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2016-09-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are present in large numbers in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as are macrophages, and are responsible for natural IgM production. These lymphocytes migrate to inflammatory foci and are also involved in innate immunity. It was also demonstrated that B-1 cells are able to differentiated into phagocytes (B-1CDP), which is characterized by expression of F4/80 and increased phagocytic activity. B-1 cell responses to antigens and adjuvants are poorly characterized. It has been shown that Propionibacterium acnes suspensions induce immunomodulatory effects in both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium has the ability to increase B-1 cell populations both in vitro and in vivo. P. acnes induces B-1CDP differentiation, increases the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and augments the expression of CD80, CD86 and CD40 in B-1 and B-1CDP cells. Because P. acnes has been shown to modulate TLR expression, in this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in B-1 cell population, including B-1CDP differentiation and phagocytic activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we have demonstrated that TLR2 signaling could be involved in the increase in the B-1 cell population induced by P. acnes. Furthermore, the early differentiation of B-1CDP is also dependent of TLR2. It was also observed that TLR signals also interfere in the phagocytic ability of B-1 cells and their phagocytes. According to these data, it is clear that P. acnes promotes an important adjuvant effect in B-1 cells by inducing them to differentiate into B-1CDP cells and modulates their phagocytic functions both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, most of these effects are mediated primarily via TLR2. These data reinforce the findings that such bacterial suspensions have powerful adjuvant properties. The responses of B-1 cells to exogenous stimulation indicate that these cells are important to the innate immune response. PMID:27233619

  14. Mechanical processess affecting differentiation of protolunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms prior to lunar formation are sought to account for the loss of volatiles, the depletion of iron, and the enrichment of plagioclase. Some of the same mechanisms are necessary to account for achondritic, stony-iron, and iron meteorites. Collisions seem marginally capable of providing the heat to accomplish the differentiation into iron, magnesian silicates, and plagioclase. Once this differentiation is accomplished, the subsequent mechanical history should have been sufficient to sort material according to composition in the protolunar circumterrestrial cloud. Effects operating include the correlation of body size with mechanical strength; the lesser ability of the cloud to trap the larger, denser infalling bodies; the more rapid drawing into the Earth of the larger moonlets; and the higher energy orbits for dominantly plagioclase smaller pieces broken off by collision.

  15. Overexpression of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like Eg707 in rice affects cell division and differentiation and reduces fertility.

    PubMed

    Thuc, Le Vinh; Geelen, Danny; Ky, Huynh; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Napis, Suhaimi B; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2013-02-01

    The functional analysis of the TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like analog Eg707 of oil palm was carried out in rice by over-expressing Eg707 under the control of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Ectopic expression of Eg707 in rice induced dark green and matured compact brownish calli compared to pale wild type and negative control calli. Regenerated transgenic rice plants exhibited a reduction in organ size and plant height, rolled, erect leaves, less tillers, increased chlorophyll content, and reduced fertility with smaller green seeds. At the molecular level Eg707 overexpression caused an increase in the transcription of SAPK9, a SnRK2 protein kinase family member that is activated by ABA and hyperosmotic stress. Together, the results show that ectopic Eg707 expression influences cell division and differentiation, presumably via altered hormone homeostasis. PMID:23086301

  16. Nonneural Androgen Receptors Affect Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Ramzan, Firyal; Monks, D Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone, acting via estrogenic and androgenic pathways, is the major endocrine mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system and behavior, but we have an incomplete knowledge of which cells and tissues mediate these effects. To distinguish between neural and nonneural actions of androgens in sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, we generated a loxP-based transgenic mouse, which overexpresses androgen receptors (ARs) when activated by Cre. We used this transgene to overexpress AR globally in all tissues using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Cre driver (CMV-AR), and we used a Nestin-Cre driver to overexpress AR only in neural tissue (Nes-AR). We then examined whether neural or global AR overexpression can affect socio-sexual behaviors using a resident-intruder paradigm. We found that both neural and global AR overexpression resulted in decreased aggressive behaviors and increased thrusting during mounting of intruders, consistent with a neural site of action. Global, but not neural, AR overexpression in males led to an increase in same-sex anogenital investigation. Together, these results suggest novel roles for nonneural AR in sexual differentiation of mice, and indicate that excess AR can lead to a paradoxical reduction of male-typical behavior. PMID:26636184

  17. Myoblasts from affected and non-affected FSHD muscles exhibit morphological differentiation defects

    PubMed Central

    Barro, Marietta; Carnac, Gilles; Flavier, Sébastien; Mercier, Jacques; Vassetzky, Yegor; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a muscular hereditary disease with a prevalence of 1 in 20,000 caused by a partial deletion of a subtelomeric repeat array on chromosome 4q. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis as well as the molecular and biochemical changes linked to the progressive muscle degeneration observed in these patients. Several studies have investigated possible pathophysiological pathways in FSHD myoblasts and mature muscle cells but some of these reports were apparently in contradiction. The discrepancy between these studies may be explained by differences between the sources of myoblasts. Therefore, we decided to thoroughly analyze affected and unaffected muscles from patients with FSHD in terms of vulnerability to oxidative stress, differentiation capacity and morphological abnormalities. We have established a panel of primary myoblast cell cultures from patients affected with FSHD and matched healthy individuals. Our results show that primary myoblasts are more susceptible to an induced oxidative stress than control myoblasts. Moreover, we demonstrate that both types of FSHD primary myoblasts differentiate into multi-nucleated myotubes, which present morphological abnormalities. Whereas control myoblasts fuse to form branched myotubes with aligned nuclei, FSHD myoblasts fuse to form either thin and branched myotubes with aligned nuclei or large myotubes with random nuclei distribution. In conclusion, we postulate that these abnormalities could be responsible for muscle weakness in patients with FSHD and provide an important marker for FSHD myoblasts. PMID:18505476

  18. Chasing stress signals - Exposure to extracellular stimuli differentially affects the redox state of cell compartments in the wild type and signaling mutants of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Robert; Schumacher, Julia; Siegmund, Ulrike; Tudzynski, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules influencing intracellular developmental processes as well as plant pathogen interactions. They are produced at the infection site and affect the intracellular redox homeostasis. However, knowledge of ROS signaling pathways, their connection to other signaling cascades, and tools for the visualization of intra- and extracellular ROS levels and their impact on the redox state are scarce. By using the genetically encoded biosensor roGFP2 we studied for the first time the differences between the redox states of the cytosol, the intermembrane space of mitochondria and the ER in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea. We showed that the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione inside of the cellular compartments differ and that the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and the fluorescent dye calcofluor white (CFW) have a direct impact on the cellular redox states. Dependent on the type of stress agents applied, the redox states were affected in the different cellular compartments in a temporally shifted manner. By integrating the biosensor in deletion mutants of bcnoxA, bcnoxB, bctrx1 and bcltf1 we further elucidated the putative roles of the different proteins in distinct stress-response pathways. We showed that the redox states of ΔbcnoxA and ΔbcnoxB display a wild-type pattern upon exposure to H2O2, but appear to be strongly affected by CaCl2 and CFW. Moreover, we demonstrated the involvement of the light-responsive transcription factor BcLtf1 in the maintenance of the redox state in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Finally, we report that CaCl2 as well as cell wall stress-inducing agents stimulate ROS production and that ΔbcnoxB produces significantly less ROS than the wild type and ΔbcnoxA. PMID:26988904

  19. Lymphatic endothelial differentiation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer M; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Husain, Aliya N; Shen, Le; Jones, Jennifer; Schuger, Lucia A

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers-podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)-to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23609227

  20. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on early membrane events.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these early membrane events. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. PMID:25306527

  1. Salmonella adhesion, invasion and cellular immune responses are differentially affected by iron concentrations in a combined in vitro gut fermentation-cell model.

    PubMed

    Dostal, Alexandra; Gagnon, Mélanie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; O'Mahony, Liam; Lacroix, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In regions with a high infectious disease burden, concerns have been raised about the safety of iron supplementation because higher iron concentrations in the gut lumen may increase risk of enteropathogen infection. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Typhimurium with intestinal cells under different iron concentrations encountered in the gut lumen during iron deficiency and supplementation using an in vitro colonic fermentation system inoculated with immobilized child gut microbiota combined with Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture monolayers. Colonic fermentation effluents obtained during normal, low (chelation by 2,2'-dipyridyl) and high iron (26.5 mg iron/L) fermentation conditions containing Salmonella or pure Salmonella cultures with similar iron conditions were applied to cellular monolayers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion capacity, cellular integrity and immune response were assessed. Under high iron conditions in pure culture, Salmonella adhesion was 8-fold increased compared to normal iron conditions while invasion was not affected leading to decreased invasion efficiency (-86%). Moreover, cellular cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α secretion as well as NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells were attenuated under high iron conditions. Low iron conditions in pure culture increased Salmonella invasion correlating with an increase in IL-8 release. In fermentation effluents, Salmonella adhesion was 12-fold and invasion was 428-fold reduced compared to pure culture. Salmonella in high iron fermentation effluents had decreased invasion efficiency (-77.1%) and cellular TNF-α release compared to normal iron effluent. The presence of commensal microbiota and bacterial metabolites in fermentation effluents reduced adhesion and invasion of Salmonella compared to pure culture highlighting the importance of the gut microbiota as a barrier during pathogen invasion. High iron concentrations as

  2. COMPUTATION MODELING OF TCDD DISRUPTION OF B CELL TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we established a computational model describing the molecular circuit underlying B cell terminal differentiation and how TCDD may affect this process by impinging upon various molecular targets.

  3. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF) during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF) during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited number of female escapers

  4. An 11-nt sequence polymorphism at the 3′UTR of human SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 gene variants differentially affect gene expression levels and miRNA regulation in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; DiAngelo, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a vital role in maintaining normal lung function and in host defense. Two genes encode SP-A in humans (SFTPA1, SFTPA2), and several gene variants have been identified for these. We have previously shown that sequence elements of SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) differentially affect translation efficiency in vitro. Polymorphisms at the 3′UTRs of mRNA variants may account for differential binding of miRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. In this work, we generated 3′UTR reporter constructs of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 variants most frequently found in the population, as well as mutants of a previously described 11-nt indel element (refSNP rs368700152). Reporter constructs were transfected in NCI-H441 cells in the presence or absence of miRNA mimics, and reporter gene expression was analyzed. We found that human miRNA mir-767 negatively affected expression of constructs containing SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 variants, whereas mir-4507 affected only constructs with 3′UTRs of SFTPA1 variants 6A, 6A3, and 6A4 (not containing the 11-nt element). Three miRNAs (mir-183, mir-449b, and mir-612) inhibited expression of recombinants of SFTPA2 variants and the SFTPA1 variant 6A2, all containing the 11-nt element. Similar results were obtained for SP-A expression when these miRNAs were transfected in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing SFTPA1 or SFTPA2 variants or in NCI-H441 cells (genotype 1A5/1A5-6A4/6A4). Moreover, transfection with a specific antagomir (antagomir-183) reversed the effects of mir-183 on SP-A mRNA levels. Our results indicate that sequence variability at the 3′UTR of SP-A variants differentially affects miRNA regulation of gene expression. PMID:24793167

  5. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  6. Minimal model for stem-cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2013-09-01

    To explain the differentiation of stem cells in terms of dynamical systems theory, models of interacting cells with intracellular protein expression dynamics are analyzed and simulated. Simulations were carried out for all possible protein expression networks consisting of two genes under cell-cell interactions mediated by the diffusion of a protein. Networks that show cell differentiation are extracted and two forms of symmetric differentiation based on Turing's mechanism and asymmetric differentiation are identified. In the latter network, the intracellular protein levels show oscillatory dynamics at a single-cell level, while cell-to-cell synchronicity of the oscillation is lost with an increase in the number of cells. Differentiation to a fixed-point-type behavior follows with a further increase in the number of cells. The cell type with oscillatory dynamics corresponds to a stem cell that can both proliferate and differentiate, while the latter fixed-point type only proliferates. This differentiation is analyzed as a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle, while the number ratio of each cell type is shown to be robust against perturbations due to self-consistent determination of the effective bifurcation parameter as a result of the cell-cell interaction. Complex cell differentiation is designed by combing these simple two-gene networks. The generality of the present differentiation mechanism, as well as its biological relevance, is discussed.

  7. Cancer Cell Growth Is Differentially Affected by Constitutive Activation of NRF2 by KEAP1 Deletion and Pharmacological Activation of NRF2 by the Synthetic Triterpenoid, RTA 405

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Brandon L.; McCauley, Lyndsey; Trevino, Isaac; Wigley, W. Christian; Ferguson, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic triterpenoids are antioxidant inflammation modulators (AIMs) that exhibit broad anticancer activity. AIMs bind to KEAP1 and inhibit its ability to promote NRF2 degradation. As a result, NRF2 increases transcription of genes that restore redox balance and reduce inflammation. AIMs inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by increasing NRF2 activity in the tumor microenvironment and by modulating the activity of oncogenic signaling pathways, including NF-κB, in tumor cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that KEAP1 loss or mutation—which results in high levels of sustained NRF2 activity—may promote cancer growth and increase chemoresistance. Loss of KEAP1 also increases the levels of other oncogenic proteins, including IKKβ and BCL2. The apparent survival advantage provided to some tumor cells by loss of functional KEAP1 raises the question of whether pharmacological inhibition of KEAP1 could promote tumor growth. To address this issue, we characterized the basal levels of KEAP1 and NRF2 in a panel of human tumor cell lines and profiled the activity of an AIM, RTA 405. We found that in tumor cell lines with low or mutant KEAP1, and in Keap1-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts, multiple KEAP1 targets including NRF2, IKKβ, and BCL2 were elevated. Keap1-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts also had higher rates of proliferation and colony formation than their wild-type counterparts. In cells with functional KEAP1, RTA 405 increased NRF2 levels, but not IKKβ or BCL2 levels, and did not increase cell proliferation or survival. Moreover, RTA 405 inhibited growth at similar concentrations in cells with different basal NRF2 activity levels and in cells with wild-type or mutant KRAS. Finally, pre-treatment with RTA 405 did not protect tumor cells from doxorubicin- or cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Collectively, these data demonstrate that pharmacological activation of NRF2 by AIMs is distinct from genetic activation and does not provide a growth or survival

  8. SETD7 Regulates the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, Julio; Morera, Cristina; Sesé, Borja; Boue, Stephanie; Bonet-Costa, Carles; Martí, Merce; Roque, Alicia; Jordan, Albert; Barrero, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The successful use of specialized cells in regenerative medicine requires an optimization in the differentiation protocols that are currently used. Understanding the molecular events that take place during the differentiation of human pluripotent cells is essential for the improvement of these protocols and the generation of high quality differentiated cells. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation we identify the methyltransferase SETD7 as highly induced during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and differentially expressed between induced pluripotent cells and somatic cells. Knock-down of SETD7 causes differentiation defects in human embryonic stem cell including delay in both the silencing of pluripotency-related genes and the induction of differentiation genes. We show that SETD7 methylates linker histone H1 in vitro causing conformational changes in H1. These effects correlate with a decrease in the recruitment of H1 to the pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation in the SETD7 knock down that might affect the proper silencing of these genes during differentiation. PMID:26890252

  9. Low dietary protein intake during pregnancy differentially affects mitochondrial copy number in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the influence of protein intake during pregnancy on mitochondrial metabolism in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous (SVSu) and visceral (SVVi) adipose tissue of offspring fed a high fat diet. Obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 8% or 20% p...

  10. Lipid changes associated with erythroid differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fallani, A; Arcangeli, A; Ruggieri, S

    1987-01-01

    Friend erythroleukemia cells were induced to differentiate by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and hexamethylene-bis-acetamide (HBMA) in order to investigate whether their lipid characteristics, common to other systems of transformed cells, revert to a normal differentiation pattern. DBA/2 mouse erythrocytes were examined as a model of terminal differentiation in erythroid lineage. Variants of erythroleukemia cells not inducible to erythroid differentiation by DMSO and HMBA were also used in this study, in order to test whether lipid modifications occurring in differentiated erythroleukemia cells were related to the differentiation process or caused by specific effects of the inducers. Friend erythroleukemia cells showed the same lipid characteristics as those found in other transformed cell types. That is, a high level of ether-linked lipids and low percentages of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids along with an accumulation of monoenoic fatty acids in phospholipids. These lipid characteristics remained unchanged when erythroleukemia cells were induced to differentiation by either DMSO or HMBA. However, other lipid components of erythroleukemia cells, e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine and triglycerides, were affected by erythroid differentiation. There were also changes of some lipid components of erythroleukemia cells, such as cholesteryl esters, which were related to specific effects of the inducers. Both DMSO- and HMBA-resistant variants differed from the inducible erythroleukemia cells, mainly in their ether-linked phospholipid pattern. PMID:3475757

  11. Glycolytic pathway affects differentiation of human monocytes to regulatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Chiba, Sayako; Mori, Kiyoto; Kitazume, Mina T; Shimamura, Katsuyoshi; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-08-01

    Cellular metabolic state and individual metabolites have been reported to regulate the functional phenotype of immune cells. Cytokine production by regulatory and inflammatory macrophages is thought to mainly involve fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis, respectively, which fuel mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, the association between metabolic pathways and the acquisition of specific macrophage phenotypes remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between glycolysis and the differentiation of regulatory macrophages. Human monocytes derived from peripheral blood were cultured in vitro in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to yield regulatory macrophages (M-Mϕs). M-Mϕs had a regulatory macrophage phenotype and produced substantial IL-10 following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. To analyze the role of glycolysis, glycolysis inhibitors (2-deoxy-d-glucose or dichloroacetate) were added during M-Mϕ differentiation. These cells cultured with glycolysis inhibitors produced significantly lower amounts of IL-10, but produced significantly higher amounts of IL-6 compared to M-Mϕs differentiated without glycolysis inhibitors. Such phenotypic change of M-Mϕs differentiated with glycolysis inhibitors was associated with the alteration of the gene expression pattern related to macrophage differentiation, such as CSF1, MMP9 and VEGFA. M-Mϕs differentiated with glycolysis inhibitors seemed to retain plasticity to become IL-10 producing cells. Furthermore, increased level of pyruvate in culture medium was found to partially reverse the effects of glycolysis inhibitors on cytokine production of M-Mϕs. These results indicate the importance of glycolytic pathway in macrophage differentiation to a regulatory phenotype, and pyruvate may be one of the key metabolites in this process. PMID:27208804

  12. GATA2 regulates dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tohru; Onishi, Yasushi; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2016-07-28

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical immune response regulators; however, the mechanism of DC differentiation is not fully understood. Heterozygous germ line GATA2 mutations induce GATA2-deficiency syndrome, characterized by monocytopenia, a predisposition to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia, and a profoundly reduced DC population, which is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased cytokine production. To define the role of GATA2 in DC differentiation and function, we studied Gata2 conditional knockout and haploinsufficient mice. Gata2 conditional deficiency significantly reduced the DC count, whereas Gata2 haploinsufficiency did not affect this population. GATA2 was required for the in vitro generation of DCs from Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells, common myeloid-restricted progenitors, and common dendritic cell precursors, but not common lymphoid-restricted progenitors or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, suggesting that GATA2 functions in the myeloid pathway of DC differentiation. Moreover, expression profiling demonstrated reduced expression of myeloid-related genes, including mafb, and increased expression of T-lymphocyte-related genes, including Gata3 and Tcf7, in Gata2-deficient DC progenitors. In addition, GATA2 was found to bind an enhancer element 190-kb downstream region of Gata3, and a reporter assay exhibited significantly reduced luciferase activity after adding this enhancer region to the Gata3 promoter, which was recovered by GATA sequence deletion within Gata3 +190. These results suggest that GATA2 plays an important role in cell-fate specification toward the myeloid vs T-lymphocyte lineage by regulating lineage-specific transcription factors in DC progenitors, thereby contributing to DC differentiation. PMID:27259979

  13. Graphene Oxide promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation to haematopoietic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alegria, Eva; Iluit, Maria; Stefanska, Monika; Silva, Claudio; Heeg, Sebastian; Kimber, Susan J.; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Batta, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a promising source of differentiated tissue-specific stem and multipotent progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and drug testing. The realisation of this potential relies on the establishment of robust and reproducible protocols of differentiation. Several reports have highlighted the importance of biomaterials in assisting directed differentiation. Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material that has attracted increasing interest in the field of biomedicine. In this study, we demonstrate that GO coated substrates significantly enhance the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to both primitive and definitive haematopoietic cells. GO does not affect cell proliferation or survival of differentiated cells but rather enhances the transition of haemangioblasts to haemogenic endothelial cells, a key step during haematopoietic specification. Importantly, GO also improves, in addition to murine, human ES cell differentiation to blood cells. Taken together, our study reveals a positive role for GO in haematopoietic differentiation and suggests that further functionalization of GO could represent a valid strategy for the generation of large numbers of functional blood cells. Producing these cells would accelerate haematopoietic drug toxicity testing and treatment of patients with blood disorders or malignancies. PMID:27197878

  14. Graphene Oxide promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation to haematopoietic lineage.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alegria, Eva; Iluit, Maria; Stefanska, Monika; Silva, Claudio; Heeg, Sebastian; Kimber, Susan J; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Batta, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a promising source of differentiated tissue-specific stem and multipotent progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and drug testing. The realisation of this potential relies on the establishment of robust and reproducible protocols of differentiation. Several reports have highlighted the importance of biomaterials in assisting directed differentiation. Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material that has attracted increasing interest in the field of biomedicine. In this study, we demonstrate that GO coated substrates significantly enhance the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to both primitive and definitive haematopoietic cells. GO does not affect cell proliferation or survival of differentiated cells but rather enhances the transition of haemangioblasts to haemogenic endothelial cells, a key step during haematopoietic specification. Importantly, GO also improves, in addition to murine, human ES cell differentiation to blood cells. Taken together, our study reveals a positive role for GO in haematopoietic differentiation and suggests that further functionalization of GO could represent a valid strategy for the generation of large numbers of functional blood cells. Producing these cells would accelerate haematopoietic drug toxicity testing and treatment of patients with blood disorders or malignancies. PMID:27197878

  15. Fibronectin and stem cell differentiation – lessons from chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an intricate network of proteins that surrounds cells and has a central role in establishing an environment that is conducive to tissue-specific cell functions. In the case of stem cells, this environment is the stem cell niche, where ECM signals participate in cell fate decisions. In this Commentary, we describe how changes in ECM composition and mechanical properties can affect cell shape and stem cell differentiation. Using chondrogenic differentiation as a model, we examine the changes in the ECM that occur before and during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. In particular, we focus on the main ECM protein fibronectin, its temporal expression pattern during chondrogenic differentiation, its potential effects on functions of differentiating chondrocytes, and how its interactions with other ECM components might affect cartilage development. Finally, we discuss data that support the possibility that the fibronectin matrix has an instructive role in directing cells through the condensation, proliferation and/or differentiation stages of cartilage formation. PMID:22976308

  16. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Differentially Affects Lithium Sensitivity of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines from Lithium Responder and Non-responder Bipolar Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Elena; Hadar, Adva; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Werner, Haim; Shomron, Noam; Gennarelli, Massimo; Schulze, Thomas G; Costa, Marta; Del Zompo, Maria; Squassina, Alessio; Gurwitz, David

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness with an unknown etiology. Lithium is considered the cornerstone in the management of BD, though about 50-60 % of patients do not respond sufficiently to chronic treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been identified as a candidate gene for BD susceptibility, and its low expression has been suggested as a putative biomarker for lithium unresponsiveness. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on lithium sensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from lithium responder (R) and non-responder (NR) bipolar patients. Moreover, we evaluated levels of microRNA let-7c, a small RNA predicted to target IGF1. We found that exogenous IGF-1 added to serum-free media increased lithium sensitivity selectively in LCLs from NR BD patients. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing let-7c expression in LCLs from R vs. NR BD patients. Our data support a key role for IGF-1 in lithium resistance/response in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:25740013

  17. The Effect of Spaceflight on Cartilage Cell Cycle and Differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Stephen B.; Stiner, Dalina; Telford, William G.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo studies have shown that spaceflight results in loss of bone and muscle. In an effort to understand the mechanisms of these changes, cell cultures of cartilage, bone and muscle have been subjected to spaceflight to study the microgravity effects on differentiated cells. However it now seems possible that the cell differentiation process itself may be the event(s) most affected by spaceflight. For example, osteoblast-like cells have been shown to have reduced cellular activity in microgravity due to an underdifferentiated state (Carmeliet, et al, 1997). And reduced human lymphocyte growth in spaceflight was related to increased apoptosis (Lewis, et al, 1998). Which brings us to the question of whether reduced cellular activity in space is due to an effect on the differentiated cell, an effect on the cell cycle and cell proliferation, or an effect on cell death. This question has not been specifically addressed on previous flights and was the question behind die present study.

  18. Apo- and holo-lactoferrin are both internalized by lactoferrin receptor via clathrin-mediated endocytosis but differentially affect ERK-signaling and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rulan; Lopez, Veronica; Kelleher, Shannon L.; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a major iron-binding and multi-functional protein in exocrine fluids such as breast milk and mucosal secretions. The functions of Lf appear dependent upon the iron-saturation of the Lf protein and are postulated to be mediated through Lf internalization by a Lf receptor (LfR). However, mechanisms by which LfR mediates Lf internalization in enterocytes are unknown. We now demonstrate that a LfR previously cloned from the small intestine mediates Lf endocytosis in a human enterocyte model (Caco-2 cells). LfR was detected at the plasma membrane by cell surface biotinylation; both apo-Lf and holo-Lf uptake were significantly inhibited in cells transfected with LfR siRNA. Treatments of hypertonic sucrose and clathrin siRNA and co-immunoprecipitation of LfR with clathrin adaptor AP2 indicate that LfR regulates Lf endocytosis via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Although both iron-free Lf (apo-Lf) and iron-saturated Lf (holo-Lf) enter Caco-2 cells via a similar mechanism and no significant differences were observed in the binding and uptake of apo- and holo-Lf in Caco-2 cells, apo-Lf but not holo-Lf stimulates proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, apo-Lf stimulated extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) cascade to a significantly greater extent than holo-Lf and the apo-Lf induced proliferation was significantly inhibited by an ERK cascade inhibitor (U0126) and clathrin siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that LfR is a major pathway through which Lf is taken up by enterocytes, which occurs independently of iron saturation through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The differential effects of apo- and holo-Lf are not due to differences in cellular internalization mechanisms. PMID:21935933

  19. Structural properties of scaffolds: Crucial parameters towards stem cells differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Tian, Lingling; Shamirzaei-Jeshvaghani, Elham; Dehghani, Leila; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life-sciences for regeneration of damaged tissues. Stem cells have attracted much interest in tissue engineering as a cell source due to their ability to proliferate in an undifferentiated state for prolonged time and capability of differentiating to different cell types after induction. Scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering as a substrate that can mimic the native extracellular matrix and the properties of scaffolds have been shown to affect the cell behavior such as the cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Here, we focus on the recent reports that investigated the various aspects of scaffolds including the materials used for scaffold fabrication, surface modification of scaffolds, topography and mechanical properties of scaffolds towards stem cells differentiation effect. We will present a more detailed overview on the effect of mechanical properties of scaffolds on stem cells fate. PMID:26029344

  20. Stat3 Is Important for Follicular Regulatory T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Xie, Markus M.; Liu, Hong; Dent, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    The production of antibody is precisely controlled during the germinal center (GC) reaction. This process is dependent on the help from follicular T helper (Tfh) cells to germinal center (GC) B cells and is regulated by regulatory follicular T helper (Tfr) cells. How Tfr cells develop and how their suppressive activity functions are not well understood. Here, we found that Stat3 is indispensible for Tfr cell differentiation. After immunization with Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC), the loss of Tfr cells caused by deletion of Stat3 in Treg cells does not affect the size of Tfh or GC B cell population, but rather leads to strongly enhanced production of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2b. In Peyer’s patches (PPs) in the gut, we found that Stat3 expression in Treg cells is also required for Tfr cell formation to commensal organisms. However, loss of Tfr cells in the gut did not affect the numbers of Tfh cells and GC B cells, nor affect IgG1 or IgA switching by GC B cells. Overall, our study has uncovered unique roles of Stat3 in Tfr cell differentiation and the regulation of the antibody response. PMID:27148746

  1. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution. PMID:15183924

  2. Sumoylation differentially regulates Sp1 to control cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lili; Ji, Wei-Ke; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Wen-Feng; Tang, Xiang-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Li, Ling; Liu, Mugen; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Wu, Erxi; Woodward, Zachary; Liu, Yi-Zhi; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are actively involved in regulating differentiation of different cell types. However, the functional differences between SUMO isoforms and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Using the ocular lens as a model system, we demonstrate that different SUMOs display distinct functions in regulating differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells. During lens differentiation, SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 displayed different expression, localization, and targets, suggesting differential functions. Indeed, overexpression of SUMO2/3, but not SUMO1, inhibited basic (b) FGF-induced cell differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3, also inhibited bFGF action. Mechanistically, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a major transcription factor that controls expression of lens-specific genes such as β-crystallins, was positively regulated by SUMO1 but negatively regulated by SUMO2. SUMO2 was found to inhibit Sp1 functions through several mechanisms: sumoylating it at K683 to attenuate DNA binding, and at K16 to increase its turnover. SUMO2 also interfered with the interaction between Sp1 and the coactivator, p300, and recruited a repressor, Sp3 to β-crystallin gene promoters, to negatively regulate their expression. Thus, stable SUMO1, but diminishing SUMO2/3, during lens development is necessary for normal lens differentiation. In support of this conclusion, SUMO1 and Sp1 formed complexes during early and later stages of lens development. In contrast, an interaction between SUMO2/3 and Sp1 was detected only during the initial lens vesicle stage. Together, our results establish distinct roles of different SUMO isoforms and demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Sp1 acts as a major transcription factor target for SUMO control of cell differentiation. PMID:24706897

  3. Fetal Leydig Cells: Progenitor Cell Review Maintenance and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    BARSOUM, IVRAYM B.; YAO, HUMPHREY H.-C.

    2012-01-01

    In most eutherian mammals, sexually dimorphic masculinization is established by androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells in the embryonic testis. Fetal Leydig cells, which lack expression of the testis-determining gene SRY, arise after the appearance of SRY-expressing Sertoli cells. Therefore, the appearance and differentiation of fetal Leydig cells are probably regulated by factors derived from Sertoli cells. Results from mouse genetic models have revealed that maintenance and differentiation of fetal Leydig cell population depends upon a balance between differentiation-promoting and differentiation-suppressing mechanisms. Although paracrine signaling via Sertoli cell–derived Hedgehog ligands is necessary and sufficient for fetal Leydig cell formation, cell-cell interaction via Notch signaling and intracellular transcription factors such as POD1 are implicated as suppressors of fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This review provides a model that summarizes the recent findings in fetal Leydig cell development. PMID:19875489

  4. Cell division, differentiation and dynamic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    1994-08-01

    A novel mechanism for cell differentiation is proposed, based on the dynamic clustering in a globally coupled nonlinear system. A simple model with metabolic reaction, active transport of chemicals from media, and cell division is found to show three successive stages with the growth of the number of cells; coherent growth, dynamic clustering, and fixed cell differentiation. At the last stage, disparity in activities, germ line segregation, somatic cell differentiation, and homeochaotic stability against external perturbation are found. Our results, providing a simple interpretation of the experiments of the preceding paper, imply that cell differentiation can occur without a spatial pattern. From dynamical systems viewpoint, the new concept of “open chaos” is proposed, as a novel and general scenario for systems with growing numbers of elements, also seen in economics and sociology.

  5. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and

  6. Effects of substrate stiffness and cell-cell contact on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Angelo S; Shin, Jae-Won; Mooney, David J

    2016-08-01

    The mechanical properties of the microenvironment and direct contact-mediated cell-cell interactions are two variables known to be important in the determination of stem cell differentiation fate, but little is known about the interplay of these cues. Here, we use a micropatterning approach on polyacrylamide gels of tunable stiffnesses to study how homotypic cell-cell contacts and mechanical stiffness affect different stages of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nuclear localization of transcription factors associated with osteogenesis depended on substrate stiffness and was independent of the degree of cell-cell contact. However, expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early protein marker for osteogenesis, increased only in cells with both direct contact with neighboring cells and adhesion to stiffer substrates. Finally, mature osteogenesis, as assessed by calcium deposition, was low in micropatterned cells, even on stiff substrates and in multicellular clusters. These results indicate that substrate stiffness and the presence of neighboring cells regulate osteogenesis in MSCs. PMID:27203745

  7. Underbalanced perforation characteristics as affected by differential pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Regalbuto, J.A.; Riggs, R.S.

    1988-02-01

    Underbalanced, tubing-conveyed completions are increasing because of the apparent advantages of cleaner perforations, reduced completion times, and stimulation treatments. Radial-flow Berea sandstone core specimens are used to determine the perforation characteristics resulting from time-dependent pressure differentials between core pressure and wellbore pressure during the completion process. The primary perforation characteristic studied (radial flow ratio (RFR)) is defined as the ratio of the perforated flow rate to the flow rate of the unperforated core. The perforation flow tests included pressure differentials from 500 psi (3450 kPa) overbalanced to 1,000 psi (6900 kPa) underbalanced, with immediate or delayed surging. The RFR was affected most by the 500-psi and 1,000-psi (3450- and 6900-kPa) underbalance. The surged RFR's were from 50 to 58% greater than the no-surge RFR's. Perforation hole volumes were increased as much as 55% by the surge, indicating some elimination of the compacted, damaged-zone material. Underbalanced surge conditions (1,000 psi (6900 kPa)) increased hole volume to four times that resulting from 500 psi (3450 kPa) overbalanced, no-surge conditions. Underbalanced surging, either at the instant of perforation or subsequently, appears to improve the flow characteristics of shaped-charge perforations by simultaneously reducing the thickness of the low-permeability crushed zone and increasing the perforation surface area.

  8. DNA repair in murine embryonic stem cells and differentiated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, Elisia D. Stambrook, Peter J.

    2008-06-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are rapidly proliferating, self-renewing cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers to form the embryo proper. Since these cells are critical for embryo formation, they must have robust prophylactic mechanisms to ensure that their genomic integrity is preserved. Indeed, several studies have suggested that ES cells are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents and readily undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells from the population. Other evidence suggests that DNA damage can cause premature differentiation in these cells. Several laboratories have also begun to investigate the role of DNA repair in the maintenance of ES cell genomic integrity. It does appear that ES cells differ in their capacity to repair damaged DNA compared to differentiated cells. This minireview focuses on repair mechanisms ES cells may use to help preserve genomic integrity and compares available data regarding these mechanisms with those utilized by differentiated cells.

  9. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. ); Yuen, H.K. )

    1991-03-15

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study the phase transition of cell wall preparations of the elongating and mature regions of soybean hypocotyls and of celery epidermis and collenchyma strands. A step-like transition believed to be glass transition was observed in walls isolated from the elongating region of soybean hypocotyls at 52.9C. Addition of 1 mM CaCl{sub 2} to the cell wall preparation increased the transition temperature to 60.8C and greatly reduced the transition magnitude. In walls from the mature region, the transition was small and occurred at a higher temperature (60.1C). Addition of calcium to the mature region cell wall had little effect on the transition. Based on the known interactions between calcium and pectin, the authors propose that calcium affects the glass transition by binding to the polygalacturonate backbone of wall pectin, resulting in a more rigid wall with a smaller transition at a higher temperature. The mature region either has more calcium in the wall or has more methyl-esterified pectin, making it less responsive to added calcium.

  10. Differentiation of hepatocytes from pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mallanna, Sunil K.

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into hepatocyte-like cells provides a platform to study the molecular basis of human hepatocyte differentiation, to develop cell culture models of liver disease, and to potentially provide hepatocytes for treatment of end-stage liver disease. Additionally, hepatocyte-like cells generated from human pluripotent stem cells could serve as platforms for drug discovery, determination of pharmaceutical induced hepatotoxicity, and evaluation of idiosyncratic drug-drug interactions. Here, we describe a step-wise protocol previously developed in our laboratory that facilitates the highly efficient and reproducible differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Our protocol uses defined culture conditions and closely recapitulates key developmental events that are found to occur during hepatogenesis. PMID:24510789

  11. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  12. Retinal progenitor cells, differentiation, and barriers to cell cycle reentry.

    PubMed

    Davis, Denise M; Dyer, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the retina occurs via the coordination of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells. Until recently, it was widely assumed that once a retinal progenitor cell produced a postmitotic neuron, there was no possibility for cell-cycle re-entry. However, recent studies have shown that mature differentiated horizontal neurons with reduced Rb pathway function can re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate while maintaining their differentiated features. This chapter will explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms that help to keep differentiated retinal neurons and glia postmitotic. We propose that there are cell-type specific barriers to cell-cycle re-entry by differentiated neurons and these may include apoptosis, chromatin/epigenetics mechanisms, cellular morphology and/or metabolic demands that are distinct across cell populations. Our data suggest that differentiated neurons span a continuum of cellular properties related to their ability to re-enter the cell cycle and undergo cytokinesis while maintaining their differentiated features. A deeper understanding of these processes may allow us to begin to explain the cell type specificity of neuronal cell death and tumor susceptibility. For example, neurons that have more barriers to cell-cycle re-entry may be less likely to form tumors but more likely to undergo degeneration. Conversely, neurons that have fewer barriers to cell-cycle re-entry may be more likely to form tumors but less likely to undergo degeneration. PMID:20959166

  13. Hepatic Differentiation from Human Ips Cells Using M15 Cells.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kahoko; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a procedure of human iPS cells differentiation into the definitive endoderm, further into albumin-expressing and albumin-secreting hepatocyte, using M15, a mesonephros- derived cell line. Approximately 90 % of human iPS cells differentiated into SOX17-positive definitive endoderm then approximately 50 % of cells became albumin-positive cells, and secreted ALB protein. This M15 feeder system for endoderm and hepatic differentiation is a simple and efficient method, and useful for elucidating molecular mechanisms for hepatic fate decision, and could represent an attractive approach for a surrogate cell source for pharmaceutical studies. PMID:25417065

  14. Stem cell isolation: Differential stickiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abilez, Oscar J.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-06-01

    Technologies to isolate colonies of human pluripotent stem cells from other cell types in a high-throughput manner are lacking. A microfluidic-based approach that exploits differences in the adhesion strength between these cells and a substrate may soon fill the gap.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors block differentiation of skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P; Viñals, F; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1996-08-01

    Skeletal muscle differentiation involves myoblast alignment, elongation, and fusion into multinucleate myotubes, together with the induction of regulatory and structural muscle-specific genes. Here we show that two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, blocked an essential step in the differentiation of two skeletal muscle cell models. Both inhibitors abolished the capacity of L6E9 myoblasts to form myotubes, without affecting myoblast proliferation, elongation, or alignment. Myogenic events like the induction of myogenin and of glucose carrier GLUT4 were also blocked and myoblasts could not exit the cell cycle, as measured by the lack of mRNA induction of p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Overexpresssion of MyoD in 10T1/2 cells was not sufficient to bypass the myogenic differentiation blockade by LY294002. Upon serum withdrawal, 10T1/2-MyoD cells formed myotubes and showed increased levels of myogenin and p21. In contrast, LY294002-treated cells exhibited none of these myogenic characteristics and maintained high levels of Id, a negative regulator of myogenesis. These data indicate that whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is not indispensable for cell proliferation or in the initial events of myoblast differentiation, i.e. elongation and alignment, it appears to be essential for terminal differentiation of muscle cells. PMID:8702591

  16. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Cancers arise from stem cells in adult tissues and the cells that make up a cancer reflect the same stem cell --> progeny --> differentiation progression observed in normal tissues. All adult tissues are made up of lineages of cells consisting of tissue stem cells and their progeny (transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells); the number of new cells produced in normal tissue lineages roughly equals the number of old cells that die. Cancers result from maturation arrest of this process, resulting in continued proliferation of cells and a failure to differentiate and die. The biological behavior, morphological appearance, and clinical course of a cancer depend on the stage of maturation at which the genetic lesion is activated. This review makes a comparison of cancer cells to embryonic stem cells and to adult tis sue stem cells while addressing two basic questions: (1) Where do cancers come from?, and (2) How do cancers grow? The answers to these questions are critical to the development of approaches to the detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer. PMID:16557043

  17. Exploring the cell signalling in hepatocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Rebecca; Alvarenga, Érika C; Parreira, Ricardo C; Lima, Swiany S; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2016-11-01

    The liver is the second largest organ in the human body and is responsible for several functions that directly contribute to homeostasis. Hepatocytes are the main parenchymal liver cells that regulate multiple biochemical and metabolic functions and the synthesis of substances important to the body. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a group of stem cells derived from the mesoderm, which can be obtained from various tissues. Under certain conditions, MSCs can differentiate into several cell types, including hepatocytes. Post-transcriptional regulations of liver development signalling and hepatocyte differentiation have been demonstrated. At the post-transcriptional level, microRNAs have emerged as precursors for determining cell fate during differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They can determine the stem cell fate by repressing the translation of target mRNAs. In this review, we outline signalling pathways involved in stem cell differentiation to hepatocytes and its interplay with liver development. Hepatic differentiation models in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures used to analyse signalling mechanisms will be described. We also highlight the possible miRNAs involved in this process and the transdifferentiation signalling mechanisms present in hepatocytes. PMID:27555287

  18. A paired comparison between glioblastoma "stem cells" and differentiated cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Matthias; Ströbele, Stephanie; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Siegelin, Markus D; Tepper, Melanie; Stroh, Sebastien; Hasslacher, Sebastian; Enzenmüller, Stefanie; Strauss, Gudrun; Baumann, Bernd; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2016-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated to be responsible for the key features of a malignancy and its maintenances, as well as therapy resistance, while differentiated cells are believed to make up the rapidly growing tumour bulk. It is therefore important to understand the characteristics of those two distinct cell populations in order to devise treatment strategies which effectively target both cohorts, in particular with respect to cancers, such as glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour in adults, with a mean patient survival of 12-15 months. Importantly, therapeutic improvements have not been forthcoming in the last decade. In this study we compare key features of three pairs of glioblastoma cell populations, each pair consisting of stem cell-like and differentiated cells derived from an individual patient. Our data suggest that while growth rates and expression of key survival- and apoptosis-mediating proteins are more similar according to differentiation status than genetic similarity, we found no intrinsic differences in response to standard therapeutic interventions, namely exposure to radiation or the alkylating agent temozolomide. Interestingly, we could demonstrate that both stem cell-like and differentiated cells possess the ability to form stem cell-containing tumours in immunocompromised mice and that differentiated cells could potentially be dedifferentiated to potential stem cells. Taken together our data suggest that the differences between tumour stem cell and differentiated cell are particular fluent in glioblastoma. PMID:26519239

  19. Arsenic inhibits hedgehog signaling during P19 cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jui Tung; Bain, Lisa J.

    2014-12-15

    Arsenic is a toxicant found in ground water around the world, and human exposure mainly comes from drinking water or from crops grown in areas containing arsenic in soils or water. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during development decreased intellectual function, reduced birth weight, and altered locomotor activity, while in vitro studies have shown that arsenite decreased muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role during the differentiation of both neurons and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether arsenic can disrupt Shh signaling in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells, leading to changes muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. P19 embryonic stem cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, or 0.5 μM of sodium arsenite for up to 9 days during cell differentiation. We found that arsenite exposure significantly reduced transcript levels of genes in the Shh pathway in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This included the Shh ligand, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, the Gli2 transcription factor, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, and its downstream target gene Ascl1, which was decreased 5-fold. GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity were also reduced. However, arsenic did not alter GLI2 primary cilium accumulation or nuclear translocation. Moreover, additional extracellular SHH rescued the inhibitory effects of arsenic on cellular differentiation due to an increase in GLI binding activity. Taken together, we conclude that arsenic exposure affected Shh signaling, ultimately decreasing the expression of the Gli2 transcription factor. These results suggest a mechanism by which arsenic disrupts cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure decreases sonic hedgehog pathway-related gene expression. • Arsenic decreases GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity in P19 cells. • Arsenic exposure does not alter the levels of SHH

  20. Dexamethasone Suppresses Oxysterol-Induced Differentiation of Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yonghae; Kim, Bo-Young; Eo, Seong-Kug; Park, Young Chul; Kim, Koanhoi

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol like 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol) has been reported to induce differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype. We examined whether dexamethasone (Dx) affects 27OHChol-induced differentiation using THP-1 cells. Treatment of monocytic cells with Dx resulted in almost complete inhibition of transcription and surface expression of CD80, CD83, and CD88 induced by 27OHChol. Elevated surface levels of MHC class I and II molecules induced by 27OHChol were reduced to basal levels by treatment with Dx. A decreased endocytosis ability caused by 27OHChol was recovered by Dx. We also examined effects of Dx on expression of CD molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of surface protein and transcription of CD105, CD137, and CD166 by treatment with 27OHChol were significantly inhibited by cotreatment with Dx. These results indicate that Dx inhibits 27OHChol-induced differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype and expression of CD molecules whose levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, we examined phosphorylation of AKT induced by 27OHChol and effect of Dx, where cotreatment with Dx inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT. The current study reports that Dx regulates oxysterol-mediated dendritic cell differentiation of monocytic cells. PMID:27340507

  1. Rethinking differentiation: Stem cells, regeneration, and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Cell differentiation is an essential process for the development, growth, reproduction and longevity of all multicellular organisms, and its regulation has been the focus of intense investigation for the past 4 decades. The study of natural and induced stem cells has ushered an age of re-examination of what it means to be a stem or a differentiated cell. Past and recent discoveries in plants and animals, as well as novel experimental manipulations are beginning to erode many of these established concepts, and are forcing a re-evaluation of the experimental systems and paradigms presently being used to explore these and other biological process. PMID:24679530

  2. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280488

  3. Cholesterol starvation induces differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Carolina C; Dávalos, Alberto; Martín-Sánchez, Covadonga; de la Peña, Gema; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2007-04-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is particularly active in malignant, proliferative cells, whereas cholesterol starvation has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation. Inhibition of enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis at steps before the formation of 7-dehydrocholesterol has been shown to selectively affect cell cycle progression from G(2) phase in human promyelocytic HL-60 cells. In the present work, we explored whether cholesterol starvation by culture in cholesterol-free medium and treatment with different distal cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors induces differentiation of HL-60 cells. Treatment with SKF 104976, an inhibitor of lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, or with zaragozic acid, which inhibits squalene synthase, caused morphologic changes alongside respiratory burst activity and expression of cluster of differentiation antigen 11c (CD11c) but not cluster of differentiation antigen 14. These effects were comparable to those produced by all-trans retinoic acid, which induces HL-60 cells to differentiate following a granulocyte lineage. In contrast, they differed from those produced by vitamin D(3), which promotes monocyte differentiation. The specificity of the response was confirmed by addition of cholesterol to the culture medium. Treatment with PD 98059, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, abolished both the activation of NADPH oxidase and the expression of the CD11c marker. In sharp contrast, BM 15766, which inhibits sterol Delta(7)-reductase, failed to induce differentiation or arrest cell proliferation. These results show that changes in the sterol composition may trigger a differentiation response and highlight the potential of cholesterol pathway inhibition as a possible tool for use in cancer therapy. PMID:17409448

  4. Pasteurella multocida Toxin Manipulates T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Dagmar; Heeg, Klaus; Kubatzky, Katharina F.

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes various diseases in a broad range of wild and domestic animals. Toxigenic strains of the serotypes A and D produce an AB protein toxin named Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). PMT constitutively activates the heterotrimeric G protein subunits Gαq, Gα13, and Gαi through deamidation of a glutamine residue, which results in cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as increased proliferation and survival of the host cell. In human monocytes, PMT alters the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation toward a phenotype that suppresses T cell activation. Here we describe that the toxin also modulates CD4-positive T helper (Th) cells directly. PMT amplifies the expansion of Th cells through enhanced cell cycle progression and suppression of apoptosis and manipulates the differentiation of Th subclasses through activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) family members and induction of subtype-specific master transcription factors. A large population of toxin-treated T cells is double-positive for Foxp3 and RORγt, the transcription factors expressed by Treg and Th17 cells, respectively. This suggests that these cells could have the potential to turn into Th17 cells or suppressive Treg cells. However, in terms of function, the PMT-differentiated cells behave as inflammatory Th17 cells that produce IL-17 and trigger T cell proliferation. PMID:26635744

  5. Differentiation and Characterization of Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dipti; Shah, Hetavi Parag; Malu, Krishnakumar; Berliner, Nancy; Gaines, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies of myeloid differentiation have utilized several in vitro models of myelopoiesis, generated from either ex vivo differentiated bone marrow progenitors or induced immortalized myeloid cell lines. Ex vivo differentiation begins with an enriched population of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells generated by lineage depletion and/or positive selection for CD34+ antigen (human) or Sca-1+ (mouse) cells, which are then expanded and subsequently induced in vitro in a process that recapitulates normal myeloid development. Myeloid cell lines include two human leukemic cell lines, NB-4 and HL-60, which have been demonstrated to undergo retinoic acid–induced myeloid development, however, both cell lines exhibit defects in the upregulation of late-expressed neutrophil-specific genes. Multiple murine factor–dependent cell models of myelopoiesis are also available that express the full range of neutrophil maturation markers, including: 32Dcl3 cells, which undergo G-CSF-induced myeloid maturation, EML/EPRO cells, which develop into mature neutrophils in response to cytokines and retinoic acid, and ER-Hoxb8 cells, which undergo myeloid maturation upon removal of estradial in the maintenance medium. In this unit, the induction of myeloid maturation in each of these model systems is described, including their differentiation to either neutrophils or macrophages, if applicable. Commonly used techniques to test for myeloid characteristics of developing cells are also described, including flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR. Together, these assays provide a solid foundation for in vitro investigations of myeloid development with either human or mouse models. PMID:24510620

  6. Signal transduction and Th17 cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, John J.; Steward-Tharp, Scott M.; Laurence, Arian; Watford, Wendy T.; Wei, Lai; Adamson, Adewole S.; Fan, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of effector T helper cell differentiation into either Th1 or Th2 lineages has been notably shaken by the discovery of a third lineage of cells that selectively produce interleukin (IL)-17. Characterization of this new subset, referred to as Th17, has provided exciting new insights into immunoregulation, host defense and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Additionally, the discovery of this T cell subset has offered a fresh look at such concepts as lineage commitment and terminal differentiation. The transcriptional regulatory events and epigenetic modifications that control these processes are diverse and complex, and despite the rapid pace at which data continues to accumulate, many questions remain to be answered. Here we review our current understanding of the signaling pathways, molecular interactions and transcriptional events that lead to Th17 differentiation and effector function, as well as the epigenetic modifications that accompany them. PMID:19379825

  7. Synchronized Cell Cycle Arrest Promotes Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Minsuk; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyunghee; Park, So-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast progenitors undergo cell cycle arrest before differentiation into osteoclasts, induced by exposure to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The role of such cell cycle arrest in osteoclast differentiation has remained unclear, however. We here examined the effect of synchronized cell cycle arrest on osteoclast formation. Osteoclast progenitors deprived of M-CSF in culture adopted a uniform morphology and exhibited cell cycle arrest at the G0–G1 phase in association with both down-regulation of cyclins A and D1 as well as up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Such M-CSF deprivation also promoted the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into multinucleated osteoclasts expressing high levels of osteoclast marker proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, cathepsin K, and integrin β3 on subsequent exposure to M-CSF and RANKL. Our results suggest that synchronized arrest and reprogramming of osteoclast progenitors renders them poised to respond to inducers of osteoclast formation. Further characterization of such effects may facilitate induction of the differentiation of heterogeneous and multipotent cells into desired cell lineages. PMID:27517906

  8. Synchronized Cell Cycle Arrest Promotes Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Minsuk; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyunghee; Park, So-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast progenitors undergo cell cycle arrest before differentiation into osteoclasts, induced by exposure to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The role of such cell cycle arrest in osteoclast differentiation has remained unclear, however. We here examined the effect of synchronized cell cycle arrest on osteoclast formation. Osteoclast progenitors deprived of M-CSF in culture adopted a uniform morphology and exhibited cell cycle arrest at the G₀-G₁ phase in association with both down-regulation of cyclins A and D1 as well as up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). Such M-CSF deprivation also promoted the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into multinucleated osteoclasts expressing high levels of osteoclast marker proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, cathepsin K, and integrin β3 on subsequent exposure to M-CSF and RANKL. Our results suggest that synchronized arrest and reprogramming of osteoclast progenitors renders them poised to respond to inducers of osteoclast formation. Further characterization of such effects may facilitate induction of the differentiation of heterogeneous and multipotent cells into desired cell lineages. PMID:27517906

  9. Netrin-1 Can Affect Morphogenesis and Differentiation of the Mouse Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Luigi; Mancino, Mario; Bianco, Caterina; Raafat, Ahmed; Gonzales, Monica; Booth, Brian W.; Watanabe, Kazuhide; Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Mack, David L.; Howard, Beatrice; Callahan, Robert; Smith, Gilbert H.; Salomon, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Netrin-1 has been shown to regulate the function of the EGF-like protein Cripto-1 (Cr-1) and affect mammary gland development. Since Cr-1 is a target gene of Nanog and Oct4, we investigated the relationship between Netrin-1 and Cr-1, Nanog and Oct4 during different stages of development in the mouse mammary gland. Results from histological analysis show that exogenous Netrin-1 was able to induce formation of alveolar-like structures within the mammary gland terminal end buds of virgin transgenic Cripto-1 mice and enhance mammary gland alveologenesis in early pregnant FVB/N mice. Results from immunostaining and Western blot analysis show that Netrin-1, Nanog and Oct4 are expressed in the mouse embryonic mammary anlage epithelium while Cripto-1 is predominantly expressed outside this structure in the surrounding mesenchyme. We find that in lactating mammary glands of postnatal FVB/N mice, Netrin-1 expression is highest while Cripto-1 and Nanog levels are lowest indicating that Netrin-1 may perform a role in the mammary gland during lactation. HC-11 mouse mammary epithelial cells stimulated with lactogenic hormones and exogenous soluble Netrin-1 showed increased beta-casein expression as compared to control thus supporting the potential role for Netrin-1 during functional differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. Finally, mouse ES cells treated with exogenous soluble Netrin-1 showed reduced levels of Nanog and Cripto-1 and higher levels of beta-III tubulin during differentiation. These results suggest that Netrin-1 may facilitate functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and possibly affect the expression of Nanog and/or Cripto-1 in multipotent cells that may reside in the mammary gland. PMID:18425773

  10. Bioprinting and Differentiation of Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2016-01-01

    The 3D bioprinting of stem cells directly into scaffolds offers great potential for the development of regenerative therapies; in particular for the fabrication of organ and tissue substitutes. For this to be achieved; the lineage fate of bioprinted stem cell must be controllable. Bioprinting can be neutral; allowing culture conditions to trigger differentiation or alternatively; the technique can be designed to be stimulatory. Such factors as the particular bioprinting technique; bioink polymers; polymer cross-linking mechanism; bioink additives; and mechanical properties are considered. In addition; it is discussed that the stimulation of stem cell differentiation by bioprinting may lead to the remodeling and modification of the scaffold over time matching the concept of 4D bioprinting. The ability to tune bioprinting properties as an approach to fabricate stem cell bearing scaffolds and to also harness the benefits of the cells multipotency is of considerable relevance to the field of biomaterials and bioengineering. PMID:27617991

  11. Differentiation and characterization of myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dipti; Shah, Hetavi Parag; Malu, Krishnakumar; Berliner, Nancy; Gaines, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ex vivo differentiation of myeloid cells begins with an enriched population of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells generated by lineage depletion and/or positive selection for CD34(+) antigen (human) or Sca-1(+) (mouse) cells, which are then expanded and subsequently induced in vitro in a process that recapitulates normal myeloid development. Myeloid cell lines include two human leukemic cell lines, NB-4 and HL-60, which have been demonstrated to undergo retinoic acid-induced myeloid development; however, both cell lines exhibit defects in the up-regulation of late-expressed neutrophil-specific genes. Multiple murine factor-dependent cell models of myelopoiesis are also available that express the full range of neutrophil maturation markers, including: 32Dcl3 cells, which undergo G-CSF-induced myeloid maturation; EML/EPRO cells, which develop into mature neutrophils in response to cytokines and retinoic acid; and ER-Hoxb8 cells, which undergo myeloid maturation upon removal of estradiol in the maintenance medium. In this unit, the induction of myeloid maturation in each of these model systems is described, including their differentiation to either neutrophils or macrophages, if applicable. Commonly used techniques to test for myeloid characteristics of developing cells are also described, including flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR. PMID:24510620

  12. Signaling involved in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Shihori

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling events. Recent technical advances have revealed that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into stem cells. The signals involved in stem cell programming are of major interest in stem cell research. The signaling mechanisms involved in regulating stem cell reprogramming and differentiation are the subject of intense study in the field of life sciences. In this review, the molecular interactions and signaling pathways related to stem cell differentiation are discussed. PMID:26328015

  13. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID

  14. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-04-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID

  15. Control of Differentiation of a Mammary Cell Line by Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulbecco, Renato; Bologna, Mauro; Unger, Michael

    1980-03-01

    A rat mammary cell line (LA7) undergoes spontaneous differentiation into domes due to production of specific inducers by the cells. Some of these inducers may be lipids, and we show that lipids regulate this differentiation as both inducers and inhibitors. One inhibitor is the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl-13 phorbol 12-acetate. The inducers are saturated fatty acids of two groups: butyric acid and acids with chain lengths from C13 to C16, especially myristic acid (C14). Other inducers are myristoyl and palmitoyl lysolecithins, myristic acid methyl ester, and two cationic detergents with a tetradecenyl chain. We propose that the lipids with a C14-C16 alkyl chain affect differentiation by recognizing specific receptors through their alkyl chains and that the effects obtained depend on the head groups. These lipids may be physiological regulators in the mammary gland.

  16. A Call for Policy Action in Sub-Saharan Africa to Rethink Diagnostics for Pregnancy Affected by Sickle Cell Disease: Differential Views of Medical Doctors, Parents and Adult Patients Predict Value Conflicts in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only “…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy.” The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy. PMID:24754796

  17. Methyl donor deficiency affects small-intestinal differentiation and barrier function in rats.

    PubMed

    Bressenot, Aude; Pooya, Shabnam; Bossenmeyer-Pourie, Carine; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Germain, Adeline; Chevaux, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Florence; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2013-02-28

    Dietary methyl donors and their genetic determinants are associated with Crohn's disease risk. We investigated whether a methyl-deficient diet (MDD) may affect development and functions of the small intestine in rat pups from dams subjected to the MDD during gestation and lactation. At 1 month before pregnancy, adult females were fed with either a standard food or a diet without vitamin B12, folate and choline. A global wall hypotrophy was observed in the distal small bowel (MDD animals 0·30 mm v. controls 0·58 mm; P< 0·001) with increased crypt apoptosis (3·37 v. 0·4%; P< 0·001), loss of enterocyte differentiation in the villus and a reduction in intestinal alkaline phosphatase production. Cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining (MDD animals 3·37% v. controls 0·4%, P< 0·001) and the Apostain labelling index showed increased crypt apoptosis (3·5 v. 1·4%; P= 0·018). Decreased proliferation was observed in crypts of the proximal small bowel with a reduced number of minichromosome maintenance 6 (MDD animals 52·83% v. controls 83·17%; P= 0·048) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells (46·25 v. 59 %; P= 0·05). This lack of enterocyte differentiation in the distal small bowel was associated with an impaired expression of β-catenin and a decreased β-catenin-E-cadherin interaction. The MDD affected the intestinal barrier in the proximal small bowel by decreasing Paneth cell number after immunostaining for lysosyme (MDD animals 8·66% v. controls 21·66%) and by reducing goblet cell number and mucus production after immunostaining for mucin-2 (crypts 8·66 v. 15·33%; villus 7 v. 17%). The MDD has dual effects on the small intestine by producing dramatic effects on enterocyte differentiation and barrier function in rats. PMID:22794784

  18. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  19. Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinecke, Hans; Minami, Elina; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Laflamme, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately one billion cardiomyocytes, and so many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. As a result of these efforts, dozens of stem cell types have been reported to have cardiac potential. These include pluripotent embryonic stem cells as well various adult stem cells resident in compartments including bone marrow, peripheral tissues, and the heart itself. Some of these cardiogenic progenitors have been reported to contribute replacement muscle through endogenous reparative processes or via cell transplantation in preclinical cardiac injury models. However, considerable disagreement exists regarding the efficiency and even the reality of cardiac differentiation by many of these stem cell types, making these issues a continuing source of controversy in the field. In this review, we consider approaches to cell fate mapping and establishing the cardiac phenotype, as well as the current state of the evidence for the cardiogenic and regenerative potential of the major candidate stem cell types. PMID:18988903

  20. 5-azacytidine promotes terminal differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yun; Cui, Jiejie; He, Tongchuan; Bi, Yang

    2015-08-01

    5-azacytidine (5-azaC) is known to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation. However, its function in hepatocyte differentiation is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro capability of 5-azaC to promote maturation and differentiation of mouse embryonic hepatic progenitor cells, with the aim of developing an approach for improving hepatic differentiation. Mouse embryonic hepatic progenitor cells (HP14.5 cells) were treated with 5-azaC at concentrations from 0 to 20 μmol/l, in addition to hepatocyte induction culture medium. Hepatocyte induction medium induces HP14.5 cell differentiation. 5-azaC may enhance the albumin promotor-driven Gaussia luciferase (ALB-GLuc) activity in induced HP14.5 cells. In the present study 2 μmol/l was found to be the optimum concentration with which to achieve this. The expression of hepatocyte-associated factors was not significantly different between the group treated with 5-azaC alone and the control group. The mRNA levels of ALB; cytokeratin 18 (CK18); tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT); and cytochrome p450, family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1); in addition to the protein levels of ALB, CK18 and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) in the induced group with 5-azaC, were higher than those in the induced group without 5-azaC, although no significant differences were detected in expression of the hepatic stem cell markers, DLK and α-fetoprotein, between the two groups. Treatment with 5-azaC alone did not affect glycogen synthesis or indocyanine green (ICG) metabolic function in HP14.5 cells, although it significantly increased ICG uptake and periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell numbers amongst HP14.5 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that treatment with 5-azaC alone exerted no effects on the maturation and differentiation of HP14.5 cells. However, 5-azaC exhibited a synergistic effect on the terminal differentiation of induced hepatic progenitor cells in association with a hepatic induction medium. PMID

  1. Model microgravity enhances endothelium differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Nan, Yayun; Wang, Huan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Nanding; Xie, Juan; Ma, Jing; Wang, Zongren

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiation into multilineage cell types under certain induction conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that physical environments and mechanical force can influence MSC fate, indicating that these factors may be favorable inducers for clinical treatment. Our previous study found that MSCs are spread with a spindle shape when cultured in normal gravity (NG), and under modeled microgravity (MMG) for 72 h, they become unspread and round and their cytoskeleton fibers are reorganized. These morphological changes affected the function of MSCs through the activity of RhoA. We examined the responses of MSCs under MMG stimulation, followed with VEGF differentiation. We found that MSCs under MMG for 72 h were differentiated into endothelial-like cells by detecting the expression of endothelial-specific molecules (Flk-1 and vWF), which were also able to form a capillary network. Their endothelial differentiation potential was improved under MMG compared with that under NG. We believe that this method is a novel choice of MMG stimulation for neovascularization. This phenomenon may increase the potential of MSC differentiation, which might be a new strategy for the treatment of various vascular diseases and improve vascularization in tissue engineering.

  2. BCOR regulates myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Q; Gearhart, M D; Gery, S; Shojaee, S; Yang, H; Sun, H; Lin, D-C; Bai, J-W; Mead, M; Zhao, Z; Chen, Q; Chien, W-W; Alkan, S; Alpermann, T; Haferlach, T; Müschen, M; Bardwell, V J; Koeffler, H P

    2016-05-01

    BCOR is a component of a variant Polycomb group repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Recently, we and others reported recurrent somatic BCOR loss-of-function mutations in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, the role of BCOR in normal hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we explored the function of BCOR in myeloid cells using myeloid murine models with Bcor conditional loss-of-function or overexpression alleles. Bcor mutant bone marrow cells showed significantly higher proliferation and differentiation rates with upregulated expression of Hox genes. Mutation of Bcor reduced protein levels of RING1B, an H2A ubiquitin ligase subunit of PRC1 family complexes and reduced H2AK119ub upstream of upregulated HoxA genes. Global RNA expression profiling in murine cells and AML patient samples with BCOR loss-of-function mutation suggested that loss of BCOR expression is associated with enhanced cell proliferation and myeloid differentiation. Our results strongly suggest that BCOR plays an indispensable role in hematopoiesis by inhibiting myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation and offer a mechanistic explanation for how BCOR regulates gene expression such as Hox genes. PMID:26847029

  3. Importance of symplasmic communication in cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek; Kurczynska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Symplasmic communication via plasmodesmata (PD) is part of the system of information exchange between plant cells. Molecules that pass through the PD include ions, some hormones, minerals, amino acids, and sugars but also proteins, transcription factors, and different classes of RNA, and as such PD can participate in the coordination of plant growth and development. This review summarizes the current literature on this subject and the role of PD in signal exchange, the importance of symplasmic communication and symplasmic domains in plant cell differentiation, and highlights the future prospective in the exploration of PD functions in plants. Moreover, this review also describes the potential use of barley root epidermis and non-zygotic embryogenesis in study of symplasmic communication during cell differentiation. PMID:24476959

  4. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wang, Jian-Tao; Dohney Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo Street, DOH 314, Los Angeles, CA 90033

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  5. Differentiation of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

    PubMed

    Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, a high complexity in innate lymphoid lineages now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been revealed. ILCs can be grouped according to their effector functions and transcriptional requirements into three main groups, termed group 1, 2 and 3 ILCs. The differentiation of ILC lineages from hematopoietic precursors and the molecular switches guiding their developmental fate have started to be characterized both in mice and humans. In this review, we discuss the origin, differentiation stages and plasticity of human ILC subsets as well as the signals that drive ILC lineage commitment and acquisition of their unique effector programs. PMID:26707651

  6. Differential Predictability of Four Dimensions of Affect Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Leary, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in affect intensity are typically assessed with the Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Previous factor analyses suggest that the AIM is comprised of four weakly correlated factors: Positive Affectivity, Negative Reactivity, Negative Intensity and Positive Intensity or Serenity. However, little data exist to show whether its four factors relate to other measures differently enough to preclude use of the total scale score. The present study replicated the four-factor solution and found that subscales derived from the four factors correlated differently with criterion variables that assess personality domains, affective dispositions, and cognitive patterns that are associated with emotional reactions. The results show that use of the total AIM score can obscure relationships between specific features of affect intensity and other variables and suggest that researchers should examine the individual AIM subscales. PMID:21707262

  7. Methylprednisolone inhibits the proliferation and affects the differentiation of rat spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells cultured in low oxygen conditions by inhibiting HIF-1α and Hes1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhao; Wang, Peng; Li, Shiyuan; Yang, Jiewen; Liang, Xinjun; Tang, Yong; Li, Yuxi; Yang, Rui; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2014-09-01

    Although there is much controversy over the use of methylprednisolone (MP), it is one of the main drugs used in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). The induction of the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is considered a promising mode of treatment for SCI. However, the effects of MP on spinal cord-derived endogenous NPCs in a low oxygen enviroment remain to be delineated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of MP on NPCs cultured under low oxygen conditions in vitro and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. Fetal rat spinal cord-derived NPCs were harvested and divided into 4 groups: 2 groups of cells cultured under normal oxygen conditions and treated with or without MP, and 2 groups incubated in 3% O2 (low oxygen) treated in a similar manner. We found that MP induced suppressive effects on NPC proliferation even under low oxygen conditions (3% O2). The proportion of nestin-positive NPCs decreased from 51.8±2.46% to 36.17±3.55% following the addition of MP and decreased more significantly to 27.20±2.68% in the cells cultured in 3% O2. In addition, a smaller number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and a greater number of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive cells was observed following the addition of MP under both normal (normoxic) and low oxygen (hypoxic) conditions. In response to MP treatment, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the Notch signaling pathway downstream protein, Hes1, but not the upstream Notch-1 intracelluar domain (NICD), were inhibited. After blocking NICD with a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) MP still inhibited the expression of Hes1. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the MP-induced inhibition of proliferation and its effects on differentiation and suggest that HIF-1α and Hes1 play an important role in this effect. PMID:24992925

  8. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Campo, Flor M.; Riancho, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) have emerged in the last few years as one of the most promising therapeutic cell sources and, in particular, as an important tool for regenerative medicine of skeletal tissues. Although they present a more restricted potency than Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, the use of hMCS in regenerative medicine avoids many of the drawbacks characteristic of ES cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenge in using these cells lies into developing precise protocols for directing cellular differentiation to generate a specific cell lineage. In order to achieve this goal, it is of the upmost importance to be able to control de process of fate decision and lineage commitment. This process requires the coordinate regulation of different molecular layers at transcriptional, posttranscriptional and translational levels. At the transcriptional level, switching on and off different sets of genes is achieved not only through transcriptional regulators, but also through their interplay with epigenetic modifiers. It is now well known that epigenetic changes take place in an orderly way through development and are critical in the determination of lineage-specific differentiation. More importantly, alteration of these epigenetic changes would, in many cases, lead to disease generation and even tumour formation. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate how epigenetic factors, through their interplay with transcriptional regulators, control lineage commitment in hMSCs. PMID:27019612

  9. Identification of novel proteins differentially expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and differentiated cells.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Kei; Watanabe-Susaki, Kanako; Kowno, Megumi; Takada, Hitomi; Intoh, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Yuko; Hirano, Hisashi; Sugino, Hiromu; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian pluripotent stem cells possess properties of self-renewal and pluripotency. These abilities are maintained by the strict regulation of pluripotent stem cell-specific transcription factor network and unique properties of chromatin in the stem cells. Although these major signaling pathways robustly control the characteristics of stem cells, other regulatory factors, such as metabolic pathways, are also known to modulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we fractionated protein samples from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured with or without the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Protein expression was quantified by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). In total, 44 proteins were identified as being differentially expressed in the pluripotent stem cells and the differentiated cells. Surprisingly, half of the identified proteins were the proteins localized in mitochondria, which supply cellular energy and regulate cell cycle, development, and cell death. Some of these identified proteins are involved in the metabolic function and the regulation of pluripotency. Further analysis of the identified proteins could provide new information for the manipulation of pluripotency in ES cells. PMID:26399336

  10. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Yun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  11. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  12. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  13. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  14. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  16. Morphine sulfate concomitantly decreases neuronal differentiation and opioid receptor expression in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dholakiya, Sanjay L; Aliberti, Angela; Barile, Frank A

    2016-04-15

    Opioids have been shown to affect prenatal and postnatal neural development in mammals. The present study investigates the impact of morphine sulfate (MS) treatment on neuronal differentiation as well as μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expression in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Stem cells were manipulated in culture to differentiate in 3 sequential stages: Stage 1, cell transformation to embryoid bodies (EB); Stage 2, EB cell differentiation to neural progenitor (NP) cells; and, Stage 3, NP cell differentiation to neurons/astrocytes co-cultured cells. Using RT-PCR and flow cytometry analyses, cell types were confirmed by monitoring expression of Oct4, nestin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (mtap-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as cell-specific markers for stem cells, NP cells, neurons, and astrocytes, respectively. Similarly, gene expression for MOR, κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) was confirmed in each cell type. In order to investigate the effects of MS on differentiation, cells were treated with MS (1, 10, 100 μM) at either early (Stage 1) or late (Stage 3) stage of cellular differentiation. At Stage 1 exposure, MOR gene expression and neuroectoderm specific marker expression of nestin were down-regulated in both EB and NP cells. In addition, the opioid down-regulated GFAP in differentiated neurons/astrocytes co-cultured cells. Late stage treatment with MS resulted in a down-regulation of mtap-2 and GFAP in differentiated neurons/astrocytes co-cultured cells. Moreover, late stage treatment with MS and naltrexone inhibited the effect of MS on neuronal differentiation, suggesting that MS treatment interferes with differentiation via MOR activation. Together, the results show that MS exposure at early and late stage of cellular differentiation significantly decreases genotype and phenotype in differentiated neuronal cells. The results of this study have implications regarding the potential effect of opiates on fetal brain

  17. Mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Steward, Andrew J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Biophysical cues play a key role in directing the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), but the mechanotransductive mechanisms at play are still not fully understood. This review article first describes the roles of both substrate mechanics (e.g. stiffness and topography) and extrinsic mechanical cues (e.g. fluid flow, compression, hydrostatic pressure, tension) on the differentiation of MSCs. A specific focus is placed on the role of such factors in regulating the osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Next, the article focuses on the cellular components, specifically integrins, ion channels, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton, hypothesized to be involved in MSC mechanotransduction. This review aims to illustrate the strides that have been made in elucidating how MSCs sense and respond to their mechanical environment, and also to identify areas where further research is needed. PMID:25382217

  18. β-Cell Differentiation of Human Pancreatic Duct–Derived Cells After In Vitro Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Corritore, Elisa; Dugnani, Erica; Pasquale, Valentina; Misawa, Ryosuke; Witkowski, Piotr; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Sokal, Etienne M.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract β-Cell replacement therapy is a promising field of research that is currently evaluating new sources of cells for clinical use. Pancreatic epithelial cells are potent candidates for β-cell engineering, but their large-scale expansion has not been evidenced yet. Here we describe the efficient expansion and β-cell differentiation of purified human pancreatic duct cells (DCs). When cultured in endothelial growth-promoting media, purified CA19-9+ cells proliferated extensively and achieved up to 22 population doublings over nine passages. While proliferating, human pancreatic duct-derived cells (HDDCs) downregulated most DC markers, but they retained low CK19 and SOX9 gene expression. HDDCs acquired mesenchymal features but differed from fibroblasts or pancreatic stromal cells. Coexpression of duct and mesenchymal markers suggested that HDDCs were derived from DCs via a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was supported by the blockade of HDDC appearance in CA19-9+ cell cultures after incubation with the EMT inhibitor A83-01. After a differentiation protocol mimicking pancreatic development, HDDC populations contained about 2% of immature insulin-producing cells and showed glucose-unresponsive insulin secretion. Downregulation of the mesenchymal phenotype improved β-cell gene expression profile of differentiated HDDCs without affecting insulin protein expression and secretion. We show that pancreatic ducts represent a new source for engineering large amounts of β-like-cells with potential for treating diabetes. PMID:25437872

  19. Differentiation of HL60 cells: involvement of protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Spearman, T.N.; Fontana, J.A.; Butcher, F.R.; Durham, J.P.

    1986-05-01

    The addition of retinoic acid (RA) to the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL60 in culture results in the cessation of growth and the acquisition of a more mature phenotype. Previous work in these laboratories has demonstrated a concomitant increase in the activity of calcium-dependent, phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase (PK-C). HL60 cells were incubated with /sup 32/P-P/sub i/ in the absence and presence of RA, homogenized, and aliquots subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. A comparison of autoradiograms made from these gels revealed several phosphoproteins whose radiolabeling was affected by RA. The radiolabeling of one particular phosphoprotein (49kd, pI 4.8) was found to be increased prior to phenotypic evidence of differentiation. It was demonstrated via incubating HL60 cytosol with /sup 32/P -ATP and Ca/sup 2 +/ in the absence and presence of phosphatidylserine and resolving the labeled proteins as above that this protein is phosphorylated by PK-C. The labeling of this protein was also increased by RA in other leukemic cell lines which showed phenotypic evidence of differentiation while no effect was seen in HL60 sublines resistant to RA or in mature neutrophils (the end product of myeloid differentiation). These results suggest that this protein may be an important intermediate in myeloid differentiation.

  20. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase modulation of trophoblast cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The trophoblast lineage arises as the first differentiation event during embryogenesis. Trophoblast giant cells are one of several end-stage products of trophoblast cell differentiation in rodents. These cells are located at the maternal-fetal interface and are capable of invasive and endocrine functions, which are necessary for successful pregnancy. Rcho-1 trophoblast stem cells can be effectively used as a model for investigating trophoblast cell differentiation. In this report, we evaluated the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in the regulation of trophoblast cell differentiation. Transcript profiles from trophoblast stem cells, differentiated trophoblast cells, and differentiated trophoblast cells following disruption of PI3K signaling were generated and characterized. Results Prominent changes in gene expression accompanied the differentiation of trophoblast stem cells. PI3K modulated the expression of a subset of trophoblast cell differentiation-dependent genes. Among the PI3K-responsive genes were those encoding proteins contributing to the invasive and endocrine phenotypes of trophoblast giant cells. Conclusions Genes have been identified with differential expression patterns associated with trophoblast stem cells and trophoblast cell differentiation; a subset of these genes are regulated by PI3K signaling, including those impacting the differentiated trophoblast giant cell phenotype. PMID:20840781

  2. IMPAN cells: a pancreatic model for differentiation into endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, T; Frandsen, U; Heller, R S; Serup, P

    2001-11-15

    It is currently believed that pancreatic progenitor or stem cells exist in the ductal cell population and that these cells have the ability to be grown and differentiated into endocrine cells for the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we have examined this potential in IMPAN (Immortalized Pancreatic) cells. These cells are derived from the adult H-2K(b)-tsA58 transgenic mouse. We observed an increased mRNA expression of insulin, proendocrine gene neurogenin 3, and beta-cell transcription factor Pdx1 when the cells were grown on bovine collagen I gels. The induction profile of these three genes was similar under the tested conditions. No glucagon or other endocrine-specific transcription factors were detectable. Application of GIP, GLP-1 derivative NN2211, and activin-A/betacellulin to IMPAN cells in normal culture did not lead to endocrine differentiation. In conclusion, it appears that the ability of IMPAN cells to mature to endocrine cells is limited. PMID:11697865

  3. Physical parameters affecting living cells in space.

    PubMed

    Langbein, D

    1986-01-01

    The question is posed: Why does a living cell react to the absence of gravity? What sensors may it have? Does it note pressure, sedimentation, convection, or other parameters? If somewhere in a liquid volume sodium ions are replaced by potassium ions, the density of the liquid changes locally: the heavier regions sink, the lighter regions rise. This may contribute to species transport, to the metabolism. Under microgravity this mechanism is strongly reduced. On the other hand, other reasons for convection like thermal and solutal interface convection are left. Do they affect species transport? Another important effect of gravity is the hydrostatic pressure. On the macroscopic side, the pressure between our head and feet changes by 0.35 atmospheres. On the microscopic level the hydrostatic pressure on the upper half of a cell membrane is lower than on the lower half. This, by affecting the ion transport through the membrane, may change the surrounding electric potential. It has been suggested to be one of the reasons for graviperception. Following the discussion of these and other effects possibly important in life sciences in space, an order of magnitude analysis of the residual accelerations tolerable during experiments in materials sciences is outlined. In the field of life sciences only rough estimates are available at present. PMID:11537842

  4. Dnmt3a regulates both cell proliferation and differentiation of mouse neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhourui; Huang, Kevin; Yu, Juehua; Le, Thuc; Namihira, Masakasu; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Jun; Xue, Zhigang; Cheng, Liming; Fan, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is known to regulate cell differentiation and neuronal function in vivo. Here we examined whether deficiency of a de novo DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt3a, affects in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to neuronal and glial cell lineages. Early passage neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from Dnmt3a-deficient ESCs exhibited a moderate phenotype in precocious glial differentiation compared to wild-type counterparts. However, successive passaging to passage six (P6), when wild-type NSCs become gliogenic, revealed a robust phenotype of precocious astrocyte and oligodendrocyte differentiation in Dnmt3a−/− NSCs, consistent with our previous findings in the more severely hypomethylated Dnmt1−/− NSCs. Mass-spectrometry analysis revealed total levels of methylcytosine in Dnmt3a−/− NSCs at P6 were globally hypomethylated. Moreover, Dnmt3a−/− NSC proliferation rate was significantly increased when compared to control from P6 on. Thus, our work revealed a novel role for Dnmt3a in regulating both the timing of neural cell differentiation and cell proliferation in the paradigm of mESC-derived-NSCs. PMID:22714992

  5. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Andrea C.; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner. PMID:25641363

  6. Isocaloric meal and snack foods differentially affect eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Elizabeth D; Owens, Jacqueline Quinn; Privitera, Gregory J

    2006-03-01

    The present study tested whether foods categorized as meals reduce subsequent intake more than isocaloric foods categorized as snacks. The study was repeated three times with variations. In each variation we manipulated whether subjects received meal or snack foods in an isocaloric load. In Variation 1, subjects consumed less following a load of meal foods than snacks. Variation 2 found this effect to be short-term, affecting food choice 20 min following a load but not 3 h later. Variation 3 demonstrated: (1) this effect occurs independent of the effects of the weights of foods, and (2) this effect varies specifically with subject perceptions of foods (i.e. whether they are part of a meal or snack). These results are discussed in terms of how cognitive representations of preload foods can influence subsequent consumption. PMID:16442668

  7. Differentiation and characterization of myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Peter; Berliner, Nancy

    2005-07-01

    Recent molecular studies of myeloid differentiation have utilized several in vitro models of myelopoiesis. Hematopoietic progenitors expressing the CD34+ antigen can be induced in vitro in a process that recapitulates the normal myeloid development. Two human leukemic cell lines, NB-4 and HL-60, have been demonstrated to undergo retinoic acid-induced myeloid development, however, both cell lines exhibit defects in the upregulation of late-expressed neutrophil-specific genes. In contrast, two murine factor-dependent cell models of myelopoiesis express the full range of neutrophil maturation markers: 32Dcl3 cells, which undergo G-CSF-induced myeloid maturation, and EML/EPRO cells, which develop into mature neutrophils in response to cytokines and retinoic acid. In this unit, the induction of myeloid maturation in each of these model systems is described. Commonly used techniques to test for myeloid characteristics of developing cells are also described. Together, these assays provide a solid foundation for in vitro investigations of myeloid development. PMID:18432952

  8. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-03-01

    A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  9. Effects of Hoechst 33342 on C2C12 and PC12 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Danièle; Mayol, Jean-François; Platet, Nadine; Berger, François; Hérodin, Francis; Wion, Didier

    2007-06-26

    Accumulative evidence demonstrates that normal as well as cancer stem cells can be identified as a side population following Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometric analysis. This popular method is based on the ability of stem cells to efflux this fluorescent vital dye. We demonstrate that Hoechst 33342 can affect cell differentiation, suggesting potential complications in the interpretation of data. PMID:17560574

  10. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  11. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  12. Three-dimensional spherical spatial boundary conditions differentially regulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yin-Ping; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Rimando, Marilyn G.; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun; Lin, Keng-hui; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial boundary condition (SBC) arising from the surrounding microenvironment imposes specific geometry and spatial constraints that affect organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sensitively respond to alterations of mechanical cues generated from the SBC. However, mechanical cues provided by a three-dimensional (3D) environment are deprived in a reductionist 2D culture system. This study investigates how SBC affects osteogenic differentiation of MSCs using 3D scaffolds with monodispersed pores and homogenous spherical geometries. MSCs cultured under SBCs with diameters of 100 and 150 μm possessed the greatest capability of osteogenic differentiation. This phenomenon was strongly correlated with MSC morphology, organization of actin cytoskeleton, and distribution of focal adhesion involving α2 and α5 integrins. Further silencing either α2 or α5 integrin significantly reduced the above mentioned mechanosensitivity, indicating that the α2 and α5 integrins as mechano-sensitive molecules mediate MSCs’ ability to provide enhanced osteogenic differentiation in response to different spherical SBCs. Taken together, the findings provide new insights regarding how MSCs respond to mechanical cues from the surrounding microenvironment in a spherical SBC, and such biophysical stimuli should be taken into consideration in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in conjunction with biochemical cues. PMID:26884253

  13. MIR146A inhibits JMJD3 expression and osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Huszar, Jessica M.; Payne, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling is important for cell differentiation. Histone methyltransferase EZH2 and histone demethylase JMJD3 (KDM6B) modulate levels of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Interplay between the two modulators influence lineage specification in stem cells. Here, we identified microRNA MIR146A to be a negative regulator of JMJD3. In the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we observed an upregulation of JMJD3 and a downregulation of MIR146A. Blocking JMJD3 activity in differentiating hMSCs reduced transcript levels of osteogenic gene RUNX2. H3K27me3 levels decreased at the RUNX2 promoter during cell differentiation. Modulation of MIR146A levels in hMSCs altered JMJD3 and RUNX2 expression and affected osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that JMJD3 promotes osteogenesis in differentiating hMSCs, with MIR146A regulating JMJD3. PMID:24726732

  14. MIR146A inhibits JMJD3 expression and osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Chromatin remodeling is important for cell differentiation. Histone methyltransferase EZH2 and histone demethylase JMJD3 (KDM6B) modulate levels of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Interplay between the two modulators influence lineage specification in stem cells. Here, we identified microRNA MIR146A to be a negative regulator of JMJD3. In the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we observed an upregulation of JMJD3 and a downregulation of MIR146A. Blocking JMJD3 activity in differentiating hMSCs reduced transcript levels of osteogenic gene RUNX2. H3K27me3 levels decreased at the RUNX2 promoter during cell differentiation. Modulation of MIR146A levels in hMSCs altered JMJD3 and RUNX2 expression and affected osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that JMJD3 promotes osteogenesis in differentiating hMSCs, with MIR146A regulating JMJD3. PMID:24726732

  15. Implant Surface Design Regulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation.

    PubMed

    Boyan, B D; Cheng, A; Olivares-Navarrete, R; Schwartz, Z

    2016-03-01

    Changes in dental implant materials, structural design, and surface properties can all affect biological response. While bulk properties are important for mechanical stability of the implant, surface design ultimately contributes to osseointegration. This article reviews the surface parameters of dental implant materials that contribute to improved cell response and osseointegration. In particular, we focus on how surface design affects mesenchymal cell response and differentiation into the osteoblast lineage. Surface roughness has been largely studied at the microscale, but recent studies have highlighted the importance of hierarchical micron/submicron/nanosurface roughness, as well as surface roughness in combination with surface wettability. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that recognize changes in the surface and mediate downstream signaling pathways. Specifically, the noncanonical Wnt5a pathway has been implicated in osteoblastic differentiation of cells on titanium implant surfaces. However, much remains to be elucidated. Only recently have studies been conducted on the differences in biological response to implants based on sex, age, and clinical factors; these all point toward differences that advocate for patient-specific implant design. Finally, challenges in implant surface characterization must be addressed to optimize and compare data across studies. An understanding of both the science and the biology of the materials is crucial for developing novel dental implant materials and surface modifications for improved osseointegration. PMID:26927483

  16. Soft matrix supports osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Voellner, Florian; Moehl, Christoph; Kuepper, Kevin; Brockhoff, Gero; Reichert, Torsten E.; Schmalz, Gottfried; Morsczeck, Christian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Rigid stiffness supports osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). {yields} Our study examined stiffness and differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs). {yields} Soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. {yields} DFCs and MSCs react contrarily to soft and rigid surface stiffness. -- Abstract: The differentiation of stem cells can be directed by the grade of stiffness of the developed tissue cells. For example a rigid extracellular matrix supports the osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, less is known about the relation of extracellular matrix stiffness and cell differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells. Our study examined for the first time the influence of the surface stiffness on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells (DFCs). Cell proliferation of DFCs was only slightly decreased on cell culture surfaces with a bone-like stiffness. The osteogenic differentiation in DFCs could only be initiated with a dexamethasone based differentiation medium after using varying stiffness. Here, the softest surface improved the induction of osteogenic differentiation in comparison to that with the highest stiffness. In conclusion, different to bone marrow derived MSCs, soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs.

  17. Stochasticity and Spatial Interaction Govern Stem Cell Differentiation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Quinton; Stukalin, Evgeny; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell differentiation underlies many fundamental processes such as development, tissue growth and regeneration, as well as disease progression. Understanding how stem cell differentiation is controlled in mixed cell populations is an important step in developing quantitative models of cell population dynamics. Here we focus on quantifying the role of cell-cell interactions in determining stem cell fate. Toward this, we monitor stem cell differentiation in adherent cultures on micropatterns and collect statistical cell fate data. Results show high cell fate variability and a bimodal probability distribution of stem cell fraction on small (80-140 μm diameter) micropatterns. On larger (225-500 μm diameter) micropatterns, the variability is also high but the distribution of the stem cell fraction becomes unimodal. Using a stochastic model, we analyze the differentiation dynamics and quantitatively determine the differentiation probability as a function of stem cell fraction. Results indicate that stem cells can interact and sense cellular composition in their immediate neighborhood and adjust their differentiation probability accordingly. Blocking epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can diminish this cell-cell contact mediated sensing. For larger micropatterns, cell motility adds a spatial dimension to the picture. Taken together, we find stochasticity and cell-cell interactions are important factors in determining cell fate in mixed cell populations.

  18. Dystroglycan depletion inhibits the functions of differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zárate, Alma Delia; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Alonso-Rangel, Lea; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Winder, Steve J; Cerecedo, Doris

    2014-06-01

    Dystroglycan has recently been characterized in blood tissue cells, as part of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex but to date nothing is known of its role in the differentiation process of neutrophils. We have investigated the role of dystroglycan in the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60 differentiated to neutrophils. Depletion of dystroglycan by RNAi resulted in altered morphology and reduced properties of differentiated HL-60 cells, including chemotaxis, respiratory burst, phagocytic activities and expression of markers of differentiation. These findings strongly implicate dystroglycan as a key membrane adhesion protein involved in the differentiation process in HL-60 cells. PMID:24792180

  19. Differentiation of Competence and Affect Self-Perceptions in Elementary School Students: Extending Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to address two underexplored research questions regarding support for the separation between competence and affect self-perceptions due to differential relations to outcome criteria. First, it is tested whether higher relations between affect self-perceptions and effort than between competence self-perceptions and effort can also…

  20. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  1. Substrate & Cell Compliance Effects on Cell Spreading and Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Sheehan, Maureen; Engler, Adam

    2004-03-01

    The stiffness of the substrate that a cell adheres to is emerging as a critically important physical factor in the response of many cell types. The effects are seen with cells on gels as well as cells on cells - highlighting implications for organism development. The basis for the effects lies in the fact that cells literally 'feel' their substrate. Like other anchorage dependent cells, muscle cells feel their substrate and are found in our studies to spread more and organize their cytoskeleton and focal adhesions much more so on rigid glass and stiff substrates than on soft gels. Such spreading is not necessarily physiological or conducive to biological function. Collagen density certainly factors into cell on gel adhesive spreading, with minimal spreading on very low collagen and a weak maximum in cell spreading on intermediate collagen densities. Bell-shaped curves are readily modeled to highlight the coupling between ligand density and substrate stiffness. Most surprising, however, spreading on soft gels is found to be almost independent of adhesive ligand density: even with high collagen densities, the minimal spreading of cells cannot be over-ridden. Remarkably, muscle cells show the strongest tendency to differentiate and striate their acto-myosin on gels that have a stiffness similar to relaxed muscle. Cells gown on top of other cells also show a very strong tendency to striate, even if the underlying cells do not striate; elasticity measurements appear to unify all of the effects. The implications for organismal development as well as cell biological studies can be very important.

  2. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  3. Notch as a Possible Cell Differentiation Factor in Pleomorphic Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Takamine, Keisuke; Ueda, Yukiko; Nakano, Keisuke; Ochiai, Takanaga; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The expression of Notch in 30 cases of pleomorphic adenoma was examined by immunohistochemistry. Comparing the results of our study with previous literatures, from the partial CK7 expression and substantial Notch expression in ductal epithelial cells as well as the Notch expression in solid tumor nests, it can be inferred that Notch is involved in cell differentiation. CK13 expression was observed in cells undergoing squamous metaplasia and Notch expression was seen in the nucleus of basal and squamous cells. The intense Notch expression in basal cells and weak expression in squamous cells suggests that Notch is involved in the differentiation from basal to squamous cell. Moreover, the loss of nuclear expression on the inner layer would signify that differentiation is about to end or has been terminated. Notch was expressed in the cytoplasm of cartilage cells and in the cell membrane of mucous cells but not in the nucleus indicating that differentiation has been concluded. Notch involvement is suspected in cell differentiation in areas showing ductal structures and squamous metaplasia. In summary, Notch is involved in cell differentiation of ductal cells in PA. Nuclear expression was shown in tumor cells in solid nests and surrounding structures. Moreover, Notch is expressed by basal cells undergoing squamous metaplasia suggesting the participation of Notch in cell differentiation in PA. PMID:26516303

  4. Single-cell mass spectrometry reveals small molecules that affect cell fates in the 16-cell embryo

    PubMed Central

    Onjiko, Rosemary M.; Moody, Sally A.; Nemes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in molecular expression are essential to embryonic development, and their characterization is critical to understand mechanisms by which cells acquire different phenotypes. Although technological advances have made it possible to quantify expression of large molecules during embryogenesis, little information is available on metabolites, the ultimate indicator of physiological activity of the cell. Here, we demonstrate that single-cell capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is able to test whether differential expression of the genome translates to the domain of metabolites between single embryonic cells. Dissection of three different cell types with distinct tissue fates from 16-cell embryos of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and microextraction of their metabolomes enabled the identification of 40 metabolites that anchored interconnected central metabolic networks. Relative quantitation revealed that several metabolites were differentially active between the cell types in the wild-type, unperturbed embryos. Altering postfertilization cytoplasmic movements that perturb dorsal development confirmed that these three cells have characteristic small-molecular activity already at cleavage stages as a result of cell type and not differences in pigmentation, yolk content, cell size, or position in the embryo. Changing the metabolite concentration caused changes in cell movements at gastrulation that also altered the tissue fates of these cells, demonstrating that the metabolome affects cell phenotypes in the embryo. PMID:25941375

  5. Articular cartilage-derived cells hold a strong osteogenic differentiation potential in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, Achim; Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Adam, Stefanie; Rychly, Joachim; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Bader, Rainer; Lochner, Katrin; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Cartilaginous matrix-degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by gradual cartilage erosion, and also by increased presence of cells with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) character within the affected tissues. Moreover, primary chondrocytes long since are known to de-differentiate in vitro and to be chondrogenically re-differentiable. Since both findings appear to conflict with each other, we quantitatively assessed the mesenchymal differentiation potential of OA patient cartilage-derived cells (CDC) towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage in vitro and compared it to that of MSC isolated from adipose tissue (adMSC) of healthy donors. We analyzed expression of MSC markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and, following osteogenic and adipogenic induction in vitro, quantified their expression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, CDC phenotype and proliferation were monitored. We found that CDC exhibit an MSC CD marker expression pattern similar to adMSC and a similar increase in proliferation rate during osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, the marked reduction of proliferation observed during adipogenic differentiation of adMSC was absent in CDC. Quantification of differentiation markers revealed a strong osteogenic differentiation potential for CDC, however almost no capacity for adipogenic differentiation. Since in the pathogenesis of OA, cartilage degeneration coincides with high bone turnover rates, the high osteogenic differentiation potential of OA patient-derived CDC may affect clinical therapeutic regimens aiming at autologous cartilage regeneration in these patients. - Highlights: • We analyze the mesenchymal differentiation capacity of cartilage-derived cells (CDC). • CDC express mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166. • CDC and MSC proliferation is reduced in adipogenesis and increased in osteogenesis. • Adipogenic differentiation is virtually absent in CDC, but

  6. Successful differentiation to T cells, but unsuccessful B-cell generation, from B-cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kojo, Satoshi; Kusama, Chie; Okamoto, Naoki; Sato, Yorino; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Forced expression of certain transcription factors in somatic cells results in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which differentiate into various cell types. We investigated T-cell and B-cell lineage differentiation from iPS cells in vitro. To evaluate the impact of iPS cell source, murine splenic B-cell-derived iPS (B-iPS) cells were generated after retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). B-iPS cells were identical to embryonic stem (ES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived iPS cells in morphology, ES cell marker expression as well as teratoma and chimera mouse formation. Both B-iPS and MEF-derived iPS cells differentiated into lymphocytes in OP9 co-culture systems. Both efficiently differentiated into T-cell lineage that produced IFN-γ on T-cell receptor stimulation. However, iPS cells including B-iPS cells were relatively resistant to B-cell lineage differentiation. One of the reasons of the failure of B-cell lineage differentiation seemed due to a defect of Pax5 expression in the differentiated cells. Therefore, current in vitro differentiation systems using iPS cells are sufficient for inducing T-cell but not B-cell lineage. PMID:21135032

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical properties related to the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook

    2016-05-01

    Diverse intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical factors have a strong influence on the regulation of stem cell fate. In this work, we examined recent literature on the effects of mechanical environments on stem cells, especially on differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We provide a brief review of intrinsic mechanical properties of single MSC and examined the correlation between the intrinsic mechanical property of MSC and the differentiation ability. The effects of extrinsic mechanical factors relevant to the differentiation of MSCs were considered separately. The effect of nanostructure and elasticity of the matrix on the differentiation of MSCs were summarized. Finally, we consider how the extrinsic mechanical properties transfer to MSCs and then how the effects on the intrinsic mechanical properties affect stem cell differentiation. PMID:26403968

  8. Differentiation of chicken umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into beta-like pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunyu; Gao, Yuhua; Li, Qian; Feng, Yuan; Yu, Yanze; Meng, Gentong; Zhang, Minghai; Guan, Weijun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of using in vitro differentiation to create functional beta-like islet cells from chicken umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Passaged UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into pancreatic beta-like islet cells. Differentiated cells were observed through dithizone staining, and Pdx1 and insulin expressed in differentiated cells were detected with immunofluorescence. Insulin and C-peptide production from differentiated cells were analyzed using ELISA and western blotting. Differentiated cells were found to not only express Pdx1, insulin, and C-peptide, but also to display a glucose-responsive secretion of these hormones. PMID:24303870

  9. Bach2 is involved in neuronal differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Ki Shuk; Rosner, Margit; Freilinger, Angelika; Lubec, Gert . E-mail: gert.lubec@meduniwien.ac.at; Hengstschlaeger, Markus

    2006-07-15

    Bach1 and Bach2 are evolutionarily related members of the BTB-basic region leucine zipper transcription factor family. We found that Bach2 downregulates cell proliferation of N1E-115 cells and negatively affects their potential to differentiate. Nuclear localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is known to arrest cell cycle progression, and cytoplasmic p21 has been shown to promote neuronal differentiation of N1E-115 cells. We found that ectopic Bach2 causes upregulation of p21 expression in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm in undifferentiated N1E-115 cells. In differentiated cells, Bach2 specifically triggers upregulation of cytoplasmic p21. Our data suggest that Bach2 expression could represent a switch during the process of neuronal differentiation. Bach2 is not expressed in neuronal precursor cells. It would have negative effects on proliferation and differentiation of these cells. In differentiated neuronal cells Bach2 expression is upregulated, which could allow Bach2 to function as a gatekeeper of the differentiated status.

  10. Phenazopyridine induces and synchronizes neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Suter, David M; Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Tirefort, Diderik; Feki, Anis; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2009-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are powerful tools to understand mechanisms of neuronal differentiation and to engineer neurons for in vitro studies and cell therapy. We developed a screening approach to identify small organic molecules driving neuronal differentiation of ES cells. For this purpose, we used a lentivector carrying a dual luciferase reporter system to engineer an ES cell line which allowed us to screen for small organic molecules enhancing neuronal differentiation. One of them, phenazopyridine, was further analysed in human ES cells. Phenazopyridine: (i) enhanced neuronal differentiation, (ii) increased cell survival, (iii) decreased the amount of non-neuronal and undifferentiated cells and (iv) synchronized the cellular differentiation state. Phenazopyridine allowed the development of a differentiation protocol compatible with the generation of clinical grade neural precursors, which were able differentiate into different neuronal subtypes, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In summary, we describe a powerful approach to identify small molecules directing stem cell differentiation. This led to the establishment of a new application for an old drug and the development of a novel clinical grade protocol for neuronal differentiation of ES cells. PMID:20196783

  11. Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J. . E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2005-10-15

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

  12. Human embryonic stem cell differentiation toward regional specific neural precursors.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Slaven; Ronaghi, Mohammad; Stojković, Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are self-renewing pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. This potentiality represents a promising source to overcome many human diseases by providing an unlimited supply of all cell types, including cells with neural characteristics. Therefore, this review summarizes early neural development and the potential of hESCs to differentiate under in vitro conditions, examining at the same time the potential use of differentiated hESCs for therapeutic applications for neural tissue and cell regeneration. PMID:18845761

  13. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Toward Regional Specific Neural Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Erceg, Slaven; Ronaghi, Mohammad; Stojković, Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are self-renewing pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. This potentiality represents a promising source to overcome many human diseases by providing an unlimited supply of all cell types, including cells with neural characteristics. Therefore, this review summarizes early neural development and the potential of hESCs to differentiate under in vitro conditions, examining at the same time the potential use of differentiated hESCs for therapeutic applications for neural tissue and cell regeneration. PMID:18845761

  14. Hematopoietic Stem Cell: Self-renewal versus Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Seita, Jun; Weissman, Irving L.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian blood system, containing more than ten distinct mature cell types, stands on one specific cell type, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Within the system, only HSC possess the ability of both multi-potency and self-renewal. Multi-potency is the ability to differentiate into all functional blood cells. Self-renewal is the ability to give rise to HSC itself without differentiation. Since mature blood cells are predominantly short lived, HSC continuously provide more differentiated progenitors while properly maintaining the HSC pool size properly throughout life by precisely balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation of HSC has been a central issue. In this review, we focus on the hierarchical structure of the hematopoietic system, the current understanding of microenvironment and molecular cues regulating self-renewal and differentiation of adult HSC, and the currently emerging systems approaches to understand HSC biology. PMID:20890962

  15. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  16. Cell Fate and Differentiation of the Developing Ocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Greiling, Teri M. S.; Aose, Masamoto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Even though zebrafish development does not include the formation of a lens vesicle, the authors' hypothesis is that the processes of cell differentiation are similar in zebrafish and mammals and determine cell fates in the lens. Methods. Two-photon live embryo imaging was used to follow individual fluorescently labeled cells in real-time from the placode stage at 16 hours postfertilization (hpf) until obvious morphologic differentiation into epithelium or fiber cells had occurred at approximately 28 hpf. Immunohistochemistry was used to label proliferating, differentiating, and apoptotic cells. Results. Similar to the mammal, cells in the teleost peripheral lens placode migrated to the anterior lens mass and differentiated into an anterior epithelium. Cells in the central lens placode migrated to the posterior lens mass and differentiated into primary fiber cells. Anterior and posterior polarization in the zebrafish lens mass was similar to mammalian lens vesicle polarization. Primary fiber cell differentiation was apparent at approximately 21 hpf, before separation of the lens from the surface ectoderm, as evidenced by cell elongation, exit from the cell cycle, and expression of Zl-1, a marker for fiber differentiation. TUNEL labeling demonstrated that apoptosis was not a primary mechanism for lens separation from the surface ectoderm. Conclusions. Despite the absence of a lens vesicle in the zebrafish embryo, lens organogenesis appears to be well conserved among vertebrates. Results using three-dimensional live embryo imaging of zebrafish development showed minimal differences and strong similarities in the fate of cells in the zebrafish and mammalian lens placode. PMID:19834024

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-irradiation inhibits mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm but promotes ectoderm differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Taichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Shoko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation on living cells have been demonstrated, such as tissue sterilization, blood coagulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor elimination. However, the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clarified. A large number of reactive species are generated by plasma-irradiation in medium, of which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the main species generated. Here, we investigated the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mESCs using an embryoid body (EB) formation assay with plasma-irradiated medium or H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium. Our findings demonstrated that plasma-irradiated medium potently inhibits the differentiation from mESCs to mesoderm and endoderm by inhibiting Wnt signaling as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In contrast, both the plasma-irradiated medium and H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium enhanced the differentiation to epiblastoid, ectodermal, and neuronal lineages by activation of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling, suggesting that these effects are caused by the H2O2 generated by plasma-irradiation in medium. However, in each case, the differentiation to glial cells remained unaffected. This study is the first demonstration that plasma-irradiation affects the differentiation of mESCs by the regulation of Wnt and FGF4 signaling pathways.

  18. Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jessica H.; Vincent, Ludovic G.; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Choi, Yu Suk; Hribar, Kolin C.; Taylor-Weiner, Hermes; Chen, Shaochen; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    Stem cells regulate their fate by binding to, and contracting against, the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been proposed that in addition to matrix stiffness and ligand type, the degree of coupling of fibrous protein to the surface of the underlying substrate, that is, tethering and matrix porosity, also regulates stem cell differentiation. By modulating substrate porosity without altering stiffness in polyacrylamide gels, we show that varying substrate porosity did not significantly change protein tethering, substrate deformations, or the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Varying protein-substrate linker density up to 50-fold changed tethering, but did not affect osteogenesis, adipogenesis, surface-protein unfolding or underlying substrate deformations. Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. Our findings imply that the stiffness of planar matrices regulates stem cell differentiation independently of protein tethering and porosity.

  19. Overexpression of prothymosin alpha accelerates proliferation and retards differentiation in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, P; Viñuela, J E; Alvarez-Fernández, L; Buceta, M; Vidal, A; Domínguez, F; Gómez-Márquez, J

    1998-01-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTalpha) is an acidic nuclear protein the expression of which is related to the proliferation and differentiation processes in mammalian cells. In the present study we have stably transfected HL-60 cells, a biological system that allows the study of both proliferation and differentiation, with recombinant vectors encoding sense and antisense ProTalpha mRNA. In the HL-60 cell clones overexpressing ProTalpha we observed an acceleration in the growth rate, whereas expression of the antisense orientation showed the opposite effect. Moreover, cell-cycle analysis demonstrated that the G1-phase was shortened in the cells expressing the sense construct. Before studying how ProTalpha affects differentiation, we showed that the down-regulation of ProTalpha gene during differentiation occurs in all mammalian cell lines (HL-60, K562, U937, MEL C88, N2A and PC12) analysed. The biological effect evoked by the induction of the ProTalpha sense vector was the retardation of cell differentiation, although expression of the antisense construct showed no effect on differentiation. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that ProTalpha is directly implicated in cellular proliferation and that the maintenance of high levels of ProTalpha inside HL-60 cells is incompatible with their ability to differentiate. PMID:9560301

  20. Autologous Stem Cell Therapy: How Aging and Chronic Diseases Affect Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Efimenko, Anastasia Yu.; Kochegura, Tatiana N.; Akopyan, Zhanna A.; Parfyonova, Yelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During recent years different types of adult stem/progenitor cells have been successfully applied for the treatment of many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. The regenerative potential of these cells is considered to be due to their high proliferation and differentiation capacities, paracrine activity, and immunologic privilege. However, therapeutic efficacy of the autologous stem/progenitor cells for most clinical applications remains modest, possibly because of the attenuation of their regenerative potential in aged patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review we will discuss the risk factors affecting the therapeutic potential of adult stem/progenitor cells as well as the main approaches to mitigating them using the methods of regenerative medicine. PMID:26309780

  1. Exendin-4 induces cell adhesion and differentiation and counteracts the invasive potential of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Paola; Deledda, Cristiana; Benvenuti, Susanna; Squecco, Roberta; Cellai, Ilaria; Fibbi, Benedetta; Marone, Ilaria Maddalena; Giuliani, Corinna; Modi, Giulia; Francini, Fabio; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Peri, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exendin-4 is a molecule currently used, in its synthetic form exenatide, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exendin-4 binds and activates the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R), thus inducing insulin release. More recently, additional biological properties have been associated to molecules that belong to the GLP-1 family. For instance, Peptide YY and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide have been found to affect cell adhesion and migration and our previous data have shown a considerable actin cytoskeleton rearrangement after exendin-4 treatment. However, no data are currently available on the effects of exendin-4 on tumor cell motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this molecule on cell adhesion, differentiation and migration in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS. We first demonstrated, by Extra Cellular Matrix cell adhesion arrays, that exendin-4 increased cell adhesion, in particular on a vitronectin substrate. Subsequently, we found that this molecule induced a more differentiated phenotype, as assessed by i) the evaluation of neurite-like protrusions in 3D cell cultures, ii) the analysis of the expression of neuronal markers and iii) electrophysiological studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exendin-4 reduced cell migration and counteracted anchorage-independent growth in neuroblastoma cells. Overall, these data indicate for the first time that exendin-4 may have anti-tumoral properties. PMID:23990978

  2. CREBBP re-arrangements affect protein function and lead to aberrant neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeti; Jadhav, Shweta P; Bapat, Sharmila A

    2010-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the CREB-binding protein (CREBBP) a transcriptional co-activator produces an embryonic lethal phenotype in mice. In humans, re-arrangements in CREBBP are associated with the Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS) that is characterised by craniofacial, skeletal and neuronal symptoms. Neuronal defects in RSTS can be attributed to genetic re-arrangements in CREBBP, which has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. The present study was designed to investigate the role of CREBBP re-arrangements during neuronal differentiation. Towards this, deletion constructs of pCREBBP, viz. pDeltaCB-HAT and pDeltaHAT-CT were generated and transfected into NT2 cells. Expression profiling of the components of Notch, Wnt, SHH and Retinoid signaling along with screening of the neuronal markers was carried out in the NT2 cells and their mutant derivatives. ChIP-PCRs along with co-immunoprecipitations were also performed in these cells to investigate defects due to inappropriate interaction of mutated CREEBP with the corresponding transcription factor and other transcription regulatory proteins both at steady state as well as during differentiation. Mutant NT2 cells lacking the CREB, BROMO and HAT domains (CB-HAT) were highly proliferative and showed limited differentiation; while mutant NT2 cells expressing CREBBP lacking the HAT and CTAD domains (HAT-CT) are proliferation deficient and differentiate rapidly albeit generating an insufficient number of neurons. Altered CREBBP structure resulted in changes in HAT activity, cell cycle profiles and expression of basal levels of components of Notch, SHH, Wnt and retinoid pathways known to be critical in the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors. At the chromatin level, aberrant signaling correlated with altered binding affinities of the (CREBBP-transcription factor) complexes to promoter regions of components of these pathways. Thus, differentiation defects are manifested early at

  3. Primary pulmonary germ cell tumor with blastomatous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Champagne, K; Murray, R C

    1994-11-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a patient with mixed blastoma-germ cell malignancy primary in the lung. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were elevated at presentation, and normalized with anti-germ cell chemotherapy. The resection specimen contained massively necrotic germ cell tumor with viable mature neural tissue, plus viable biphasic blastoma with stromal bone and skeletal muscle differentiation. It is not clear whether the germ cell component represents unusual differentiation of a somatic cell line or whether the blastoma component represents an unusual pattern of teratomatous differentiation. PMID:7525163

  4. Labeling of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells with biocompatible fluorescent nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tzu-Chia; Liu, Kuang-Kai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hwang, Eric; Chao, Jui-I.

    2014-05-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising carbon nanomaterial developed for biomedical applications. Here, we show fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) with the biocompatible properties that can be used for the labeling and tracking of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells derived from embryonal carcinoma stem (ECS) cells. The fluorescence intensities of FNDs were increased by treatment with FNDs in both the mouse P19 and human NT2/D1 ECS cells. FNDs were taken into ECS cells; however, FNDs did not alter the cellular morphology and growth ability. Moreover, FNDs did not change the protein expression of stem cell marker SSEA-1 of ECS cells. The neuronal differentiation of ECS cells could be induced by retinoic acid (RA). Interestingly, FNDs did not affect on the morphological alteration, cytotoxicity and apoptosis during the neuronal differentiation. Besides, FNDs did not alter the cell viability and the expression of neuron-specific marker β-III-tubulin in these differentiated neuron cells. The existence of FNDs in the neuron cells can be identified by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Together, FND is a biocompatible and readily detectable nanomaterial for the labeling and tracking of neuronal differentiation process and neuron cells from stem cells.

  5. Augmentation of differentiation and gap junction function by kaempferol in partially differentiated colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Mori, Toshio; Sato, Kenji; Ohtsuki, Kozo; Upham, Brad L; Trosko, James E

    2005-03-01

    Kaempferol induces differentiation in partially differentiated colon cancer cells which express low levels of connexin43 protein and connexin43 mRNA (KNC cells). Differentiation was observed as changes in cell morphology and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Increased differentiation in kaempferol-treated KNC cells correlated with restoration of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), increased levels of connexin43 protein and its phosphorylation status. Phosphorylation (activation) of Stat3 and Erk was also reduced by kaempferol. An inhibitor of Stat3 phosphorylation also induced morphological changes in KNC cells similar to those in kaempferol-treated cells, suggesting that kaempferol-induced differentiation may be mediated by inhibition of Stat3 phosphorylation. These effects were not observed in HCT116 cells, a poorly differentiated colon cancer cell line deficient in expression of connexin43 mRNA and connexin43 protein. In conclusion, kaempferol might function as an anticancer agent by re-establishing GJIC through enhancement of the expression and phosphorylation of connexin43 protein in a tumorigenic colon cancer cell line that already expresses connexin43 mRNA via a Stat3-dependent mechanism. In contrast, kaempferol had no effect in a tumorigenic colon cancer cell line that did not express connexin43 mRNA and was deficient in GJIC. PMID:15618237

  6. Involvement of calreticulin in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in diallyl disulfide-treated HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lan; Shan, Jian; Chen, Xin; Li, Guoqing; Li, Linwei; Tan, Hui; Su, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) has shown potential as a therapeutic agent in various cancers. Previously, calreticulin (CRT) was found to be downregulated in differentiated HL-60 cells treated with DADS. The present study investigated the role of CRT proteins in DADS-induced proliferation, invasion and differentiation in HL-60 cells. The present study demonstrated that DADS treatment significantly changed the morphology of HL-60 cells and caused the significant time-dependent downregulation of CRT. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRT expression significantly inhibited proliferation, decreased invasion ability, increased the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)11b and reduced the expression of CD33 in DADS-treated HL-60 cells. DADS also significantly affected cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in CRT-overexpressed HL-60 cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays showed decreased NBT reduction activity in the CRT overexpression group and increased NBT reduction in the CRT siRNA group. Following treatment with DADS, the NBT reduction abilities in all groups were increased. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the downregulation of CRT during DADS-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells and indicates that CRT is involved in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in DADS-treated HL-60 cells. PMID:27588133

  7. Reserve stem cells: Reprogramming of differentiated cells fuels repair, metaplasia, and neoplasia in the adult gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jason C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that differentiated cells can switch fates, especially in vitro, but only recently has there been a critical mass of publications describing the mechanisms adult, post-mitotic cells use in vivo to reverse their differentiation state. We propose that this sort of cellular reprogramming is a fundamental cellular process akin to apoptosis or mitosis. Because reprogramming can invoke regenerative cells from mature cells, it is critical to the longterm maintenance of tissues like the pancreas, which encounter large insults during adulthood but lack constitutively active adult stem cells to repair the damage. However, even in tissues with adult stem cells, like stomach and intestine, reprogramming may allow mature cells to serve as reserve (“quiescent”) stem cells when normal stem cells are compromised. We propose that the potential downside to reprogramming is that it increases risk for cancers that occur late in adulthood. Mature, long-lived cells may have years of exposure to mutagens. Mutations that affect the physiological function of differentiated, post-mitotic cells may lead to apoptosis, but mutations in genes that govern proliferation might not be selected against. Hence, reprogramming with reentry into the cell cycle might unmask those mutations, causing an irreversible progenitor-like, proliferative state. We review recent evidence showing that reprogramming fuels irreversible metaplastic and precancerous proliferations in stomach and pancreas. Finally, we illustrate how we think reprogrammed differentiated cells are likely candidates as cells of origin for cancers of the intestine. PMID:26175494

  8. Thinking versus feeling: differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data were obtained from four surveys focusing on smoking (N=268), fruit consumption (N=989), sunbed use (N=251) and sun protection (N=858). Correlational analyses showed that affective likelihood was more strongly correlated with worry compared to cognitive likelihood and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor model of perceived likelihood instead of a one-factor model (i.e. cognition and affect combined). Furthermore, affective likelihood was significantly associated with the various outcome variables, whereas the association for cognitive likelihood was absent in three studies. The findings provide support for the construct validity of the measures used to assess cognitive and affective likelihood. Since affective likelihood might be a better predictor of health behaviour than the commonly used cognitive operationalisation, both dimensions should be considered in future research. PMID:21767108

  9. Electrical Property Characterization of Neural Stem Cells in Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, He; Chen, Deyong; Li, Zhaohui; Fan, Beiyuan; George, Julian; Xue, Chengcheng; Cui, Zhanfeng; Wang, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Electrical property characterization of stem cells could be utilized as a potential label-free biophysical approach to evaluate the differentiation process. However, there has been a lack of technology or tools that can quantify the intrinsic cellular electrical markers (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane) and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm)) for a large amount of stem cells or differentiated cells. In this paper, a microfluidic platform enabling the high-throughput quantification of Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm from hundreds of single neural stem cells undergoing differentiation was developed to explore the feasibility to characterize the neural stem cell differentiation process without biochemical staining. Experimental quantification using biochemical markers (e.g., Nestin, Tubulin and GFAP) of neural stem cells confirmed the initiation of the differentiation process featured with gradual loss in cellular stemness and increased cell markers for neurons and glial cells. The recorded electrical properties of neural stem cells undergoing differentiation showed distinctive and unique patterns: 1) in the suspension culture before inducing differentiation, a large distribution and difference in σcytoplasm among individual neural stem cells was noticed, which indicated heterogeneity that may result from the nature of suspension culture of neurospheres; and 2) during the differentiation in adhering monolayer culture, significant changes and a large difference in Cspecific membrane were located indicating different expressions of membrane proteins during the differentiation process, and a small distribution difference in σcytoplasm was less significant that indicated the relatively consistent properties of cytoplasm during the culture. In summary, significant differences in Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm were observed during the neural stem cell differentiation process, which may potentially be used as label-free biophysical markers

  10. Deconstructing Positive Affect in Later Life: A Differential Functionalist Analysis of Joy and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R.

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the…

  11. Nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) pathway mediates important physiological functions associated with various integrative body systems including the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Furthermore, NO regulates cell growth, survival, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation at the cellular level. To understand the significance of the NO-cGMP pathway in development and differentiation, studies have been conducted both in developing embryos and stem cells. Manipulation of the NO-cGMP pathway by employing activators and inhibitors as pharmacological probes and/or genetic manipulation of NO signaling components has implicated the involvement of this pathway in regulation of stem cell differentiation. This review will focus on some of the work pertaining to the role of NO-cGMP in differentiation of stem cells into cells of various lineages particularly into myocardial cells and stem cell based therapy. PMID:22019632

  12. The topographical regulation of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patricia; Edgar, David

    2004-01-01

    The potential use of pluripotent stem cells for tissue repair or replacement is now well recognized. While the ability of embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into all cells of the body is undisputed, their use is currently restricted by our limited knowledge of the mechanisms controlling their differentiation. This review discusses recent work by ourselves and others investigating the intercellular signalling events that occur within aggregates of mouse ES cells. The work illustrates that the processes of ES cell differentiation, epithelialization and programmed cell death are dependent upon their location within the aggregates and coordinated by the extracellular matrix. Establishment of the mechanisms involved in these events is not only of use for the manipulation of ES cells themselves, but it also throws light on the ways in which differentiation is coordinated during embryogenesis. PMID:15306413

  13. JAB1 accelerates odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Zhang, Ye; Shen, Qijie; Xing, Jing; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Cao, Peipei; Shen, Shuling; Zheng, Ke; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yi; Feng, Guijuan; Feng, Xingmei

    2016-06-01

    Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) is a multifunctional protein that participates in the control of cell proliferation and the stability of multiple proteins. JAB1 regulates several key proteins, and thereby produces varied effects on cell cycle progression, genome stability and cell survival. Some studies have shown that the loss of JAB1 in osteochondral progenitor cells severely impairs embryonic limb development in mice. However, the biological significance of JAB1 activity in the odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of JAB1, a key player in tooth development, in reparative dentin formation, especially odontogenic differentiation. We found that increased expression of JAB1 promoted odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The role of JAB1 in the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs was further confirmed by knocking down JAB1. Our findings provide novel insights on odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. PMID:26989054

  14. Effects of THAP11 on Erythroid Differentiation and Megakaryocytic Differentiation of K562 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yin, Rong-Hua; Ning, Hong-Mei; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Dong, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yang; Xu, Fei-Fei; Li, Jian-Jie; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Yu, Miao; Ge, Chang-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Chen, Hui; Li, Chang-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complex process regulated by sets of transcription factors in a stage-specific and context-dependent manner. THAP11 is a transcription factor involved in cell growth, ES cell pluripotency, and embryogenesis. Here we showed that THAP11 was down-regulated during erythroid differentiation but up-regulated during megakaryocytic differentiation of cord blood CD34+ cells. Overexpression of THAP11 in K562 cells inhibited the erythroid differentiation induced by hemin with decreased numbers of benzidine-positive cells and decreased mRNA levels of α-globin (HBA) and glycophorin A (GPA), and knockdown of THAP11 enhanced the erythroid differentiation. Conversely, THAP11 overexpression accelerated the megakaryocytic differentiation induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) with increased percentage of CD41+ cells, increased numbers of 4N cells, and elevated CD61 mRNA levels, and THAP11 knockdown attenuated the megakaryocytic differentiation. The expression levels of transcription factors such as c-Myc, c-Myb, GATA-2, and Fli1 were changed by THAP11 overexpression. In this way, our results suggested that THAP11 reversibly regulated erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation. PMID:24637716

  15. Crucial Genes and Pathways in Chicken Germ Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhentao; Elsayed, Ahmed Kamel; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Yani; Zuo, Qisheng; Li, Dong; Lian, Chao; Tang, Beibei; Xiao, Tianrong; Xu, Qi; Chang, Guobin; Chen, Guohong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Kehua; Wang, Yingjie; Jin, Kai; Wang, Yilin; Song, Jiuzhou; Cui, Hengmi; Li, Bichun

    2015-01-01

    Male germ cell differentiation is a subtle and complex regulatory process. Currently, its regulatory mechanism is still not fully understood. In our experiment, we performed the first comprehensive genome and transcriptome-wide analyses of the crucial genes and signaling pathways in three kinds of crucial cells (embryonic stem cells, primordial germ cell, and spermatogonial stem cells) that are associated with the male germ cell differentiation. We identified thousands of differentially expressed genes in this process, and from these we chose 173 candidate genes, of which 98 genes were involved in cell differentiation, 19 were involved in the metabolic process, and 56 were involved in the differentiation and metabolic processes, like GAL9, AMH, PLK1, and PSMD7 and so on. In addition, we found that 18 key signaling pathways were involved mainly in cell proliferation, differentiation, and signal transduction processes like TGF-β, Notch, and Jak-STAT. Further exploration found that the candidate gene expression patterns were the same between in vitro induction experiments and transcriptome results. Our results yield clues to the mechanistic basis of male germ cell differentiation and provide an important reference for further studies. PMID:25847247

  16. Parvalbumin-Positive Basket Cells Differentiate Among Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Marchionni, Ivan; Bezaire, Marianne; Varga, Csaba; Danielson, Nathan; Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Losonczy, Attila; Soltesz, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Summary CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) are not homogeneous, but rather can be grouped by molecular, morphological, and functional properties. However, less is known about synaptic sources differentiating PCs. Using paired recordings in vitro, 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in vivo and computational modeling, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (PVBCs) evoked greater inhibition in CA1 PCs located in the deep compared to superficial layer of stratum pyramidale. In turn, analysis of reciprocal connectivity revealed more frequent excitatory inputs to PVBCs by superficial PCs, demonstrating bias in target selection by both the excitatory and inhibitory local connections in CA1. Additionally, PVBCs further segregated among deep PCs, preferentially innervating the amygdala-projecting PCs but receiving preferential excitation from the prefrontal cortex-projecting PCs, thus revealing distinct perisomatic inhibitory interactions between separate output channels. These results demonstrate the presence of heterogeneous PVBC-PC microcircuits, potentially contributing to the sparse and distributed structure of hippocampal network activity. PMID:24836505

  17. The Hippo Pathway Controls a Switch between Retinal Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Photoreceptor Cell Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Hata, Shoji; Namae, Misako; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The precise regulation of numbers and types of neurons through control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation is an essential aspect of neurogenesis. The Hippo signaling pathway has recently been identified as playing a crucial role in promoting cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in multiple types of stem cells, including in retinal progenitor cells. When Hippo signaling is activated, the core Mst1/2 kinases activate the Lats1/2 kinases, which in turn phosphorylate and inhibit the transcriptional cofactor Yap. During mouse retinogenesis, overexpression of Yap prolongs progenitor cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of Yap decreases this proliferation and promotes retinal cell differentiation. However, to date, it remains unknown how the Hippo pathway affects the differentiation of distinct neuronal cell types such as photoreceptor cells. In this study, we investigated whether Hippo signaling regulates retinogenesis during early zebrafish development. Knockdown of zebrafish mst2 induced early embryonic defects, including altered retinal pigmentation and morphogenesis. Similar abnormal retinal phenotypes were observed in zebrafish embryos injected with a constitutively active form of yap [(yap (5SA)]. Loss of Yap’s TEAD-binding domain, two WW domains, or transcription activation domain attenuated the retinal abnormalities induced by yap (5SA), indicating that all of these domains contribute to normal retinal development. Remarkably, yap (5SA)-expressing zebrafish embryos displayed decreased expression of transcription factors such as otx5 and crx, which orchestrate photoreceptor cell differentiation by activating the expression of rhodopsin and other photoreceptor cell genes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Rx1 is a novel interacting partner of Yap that regulates photoreceptor cell differentiation. Our results suggest that Yap suppresses the differentiation of photoreceptor cells from retinal progenitor cells by repressing Rx1

  18. Advances and challenges in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdelalim, Essam M; Emara, Mohamed M

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are able to differentiate into several cell types, including pancreatic β cells. Differentiation of pancreatic β cells depends on certain transcription factors, which function in a coordinated way during pancreas development. The existing protocols for in vitro differentiation produce pancreatic β cells, which are not highly responsive to glucose stimulation except after their transplantation into immune-compromised mice and allowing several weeks for further differentiation to ensure the maturation of these cells in vivo. Thus, although the substantial improvement that has been made for the differentiation of induced PSCs and embryonic stem cells toward pancreatic β cells, several challenges still hindering their full generation. Here, we summarize recent advances in the differentiation of PSCs into pancreatic β cells and discuss the challenges facing their differentiation as well as the different applications of these potential PSC-derived β cells. PMID:25621117

  19. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  20. BMP4 and FGF strongly induce differentiation of mouse ES cells into oral ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suga, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomiko; Sakakibara, Mayu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Ozone, Chikafumi; Ogawa, Koichiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Tsunekawa, Shin; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    During embryonic development, oral ectoderm differentiates into the adenohypophysis, dental epithelia, salivary glands, and nasal pit. Few reports exist concerning the induction of oral ectoderm from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Generally, any lot differences in fetal bovine serum (FBS) and serum replacer may affect the induction of ES cell-differentiation. Using a previously established culture strategy for differentiation, the proportion of cell aggregates containing Pitx1+ oral ectoderm varied widely between 9-36% when several different lots of FBS or serum replacer were used. We therefore tried to enhance the differentiation method. We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) treatments improved oral ectoderm induction. Such treatment also improved the differentiation of oral ectoderm into the adenohypophysis. Furthermore, increased BMP4 treatment induced dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Such differentiation suggests that the Pitx1+ layer displays similar properties to oral ectoderm, as found in vivo. Differentiation of ES cells into oral ectoderm using different lots of FBS and serum replacer increased 78-90% after treatment with BMP4 and FGF. In summary, we have established a robust strategy for the induction of oral ectoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells. PMID:26209816

  1. Perturbation of Polyamine Catabolism Can Strongly Affect Root Development and Xylem Differentiation1[W

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Alessandra; Federico, Rodolfo; Moreno, Sandra; Lucretti, Sergio; Moschou, Panagiotis N.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Spermidine (Spd) treatment inhibited root cell elongation, promoted deposition of phenolics in cell walls of rhizodermis, xylem elements, and vascular parenchyma, and resulted in a higher number of cells resting in G1 and G2 phases in the maize (Zea mays) primary root apex. Furthermore, Spd treatment induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation as well as precocious differentiation and cell death in both early metaxylem and late metaxylem precursors. Treatment with either N-prenylagmatine, a selective inhibitor of polyamine oxidase (PAO) enzyme activity, or N,N1-dimethylthiourea, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, reverted Spd-induced autofluorescence intensification, DNA fragmentation, inhibition of root cell elongation, as well as reduction of percentage of nuclei in S phase. Transmission electron microscopy showed that N-prenylagmatine inhibited the differentiation of the secondary wall of early and late metaxylem elements, and xylem parenchymal cells. Moreover, although root growth and xylem differentiation in antisense PAO tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were unaltered, overexpression of maize PAO (S-ZmPAO) as well as down-regulation of the gene encoding S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase via RNAi in tobacco plants promoted vascular cell differentiation and induced programmed cell death in root cap cells. Furthermore, following Spd treatment in maize and ZmPAO overexpression in tobacco, the in vivo H2O2 production was enhanced in xylem tissues. Overall, our results suggest that, after Spd supply or PAO overexpression, H2O2 derived from polyamine catabolism behaves as a signal for secondary wall deposition and for induction of developmental programmed cell death. PMID:21746808

  2. Activin A programs the differentiation of human TFH cells.

    PubMed

    Locci, Michela; Wu, Jennifer E; Arumemi, Fortuna; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Dahlberg, Carol; Miller, Andrew T; Crotty, Shane

    2016-08-01

    Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are CD4(+) T cells specialized in helping B cells and are associated both with protective antibody responses and autoimmune diseases. The promise of targeting TFH cells therapeutically has been limited by fragmentary understanding of extrinsic signals that regulate the differentiation of human TFH cells. A screen of a human protein library identified activin A as a potent regulator of TFH cell differentiation. Activin A orchestrated the expression of multiple genes associated with the TFH program, independently or in concert with additional signals. TFH cell programming by activin A was antagonized by the cytokine IL-2. Activin A's ability to drive TFH cell differentiation in vitro was conserved in non-human primates but not in mice. Finally, activin-A-induced TFH programming was dependent on signaling via SMAD2 and SMAD3 and was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:27376469

  3. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-06-23

    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation. PMID:26074079

  4. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Coelho da Costa, Meline; Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Neves, Cynara Mendes; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Calloni, Giordano Wosgrau; Trentin, Andrea Goncalves

    2009-04-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effect was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells.

  5. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. PMID:24720912

  6. Transcriptional modulator ZBED6 affects cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar Ali, Muhammad; Younis, Shady; Wallerman, Ola; Gupta, Rajesh; Andersson, Leif; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor ZBED6 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 6) is a repressor of IGF2 whose action impacts development, cell proliferation, and growth in placental mammals. In human colorectal cancers, IGF2 overexpression is mutually exclusive with somatic mutations in PI3K signaling components, providing genetic evidence for a role in the PI3K pathway. To understand the role of ZBED6 in tumorigenesis, we engineered and validated somatic cell ZBED6 knock-outs in the human colorectal cancer cell lines RKO and HCT116. Ablation of ZBED6 affected the cell cycle and led to increased growth rate in RKO cells but reduced growth in HCT116 cells. This striking difference was reflected in the transcriptome analyses, which revealed enrichment of cell-cycle–related processes among differentially expressed genes in both cell lines, but the direction of change often differed between the cell lines. ChIP sequencing analyses displayed enrichment of ZBED6 binding at genes up-regulated in ZBED6-knockout clones, consistent with the view that ZBED6 modulates gene expression primarily by repressing transcription. Ten differentially expressed genes were identified as putative direct gene targets, and their down-regulation by ZBED6 was validated experimentally. Eight of these genes were linked to the Wnt, Hippo, TGF-β, EGF receptor, or PI3K pathways, all involved in colorectal cancer development. The results of this study show that the effect of ZBED6 on tumor development depends on the genetic background and the transcriptional state of its target genes. PMID:26056301

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kimura, Akinori; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Stem cells and its differentiations have got a lot of attentions in regenerative medicine. The process of differentiations, the formation of tissues, has become better understood by the study using a lot of cell types progressively. These studies of cells and tissue dynamics at molecular levels are carried out through various approaches like histochemical methods, application of molecular biology and immunology. However, in case of using regenerative sources (cells, tissues and biomaterials etc.) clinically, they are measured and quality-controlled by non-invasive methods from the view point of safety. Recently, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been used to monitor biochemical changes in cells, and has gained considerable importance. The objective of this study is to establish the infrared spectroscopy of cell differentiation as a quality control of cell sources for regenerative medicine. In the present study, as a basic study, we examined the adipose differentiation kinetics of preadipocyte (3T3-L1) and the osteoblast differentiation kinetics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (Kusa-A1) to analyze the infrared absorption spectra. As a result, we achieved to analyze the adipose differentiation kinetics using the infrared absorption peak at 1739 cm-1 derived from ester bonds of triglyceride and osteoblast differentiation kinetics using the infrared absorption peak at 1030 cm-1 derived from phosphate groups of calcium phosphate.

  8. Mutual enhancement of differentiation of osteoblasts and osteocytes occurs through direct cell-cell contact

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Koji; Xing, Qian; Khosla, Sundeep; Monroe, David G.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that osteocytes regulate multiple aspects of bone remodeling through bi-directional communication with osteoblasts. This is potentially mediated through cell-cell contact via osteocytic dendritic processes, through the activity of secreted factors, or both. To test whether cell-cell contact affects gene expression patterns in osteoblasts and osteocytes, we used a co-culture system where calvarial osteoblasts and IDG-SW3 osteocytes were allowed to touch through a porous membrane, while still being physically separated to allow for phenotypic characterization. Osteoblast/osteocyte cell-contact resulted in up-regulation of osteoblast differentiation genes in the osteoblasts, when compared to wells where no cell contact was allowed. Examination of osteocyte gene expression when in direct contact with osteoblasts also revealed increased expression of osteocyte-specific genes. These data suggest that physical contact mutually enhances both the osteoblastic and osteocytic character of each respective cell type. Interestingly, Gja1 (a gap junction protein) was increased in the osteoblasts only when in direct contact with the osteocytes, suggesting that Gja1 may mediate some of the effects of direct cell contact. To test this hypothesis, we treated the direct contact system with the gap junction inhibitor 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and found that Bglap expression was significantly inhibited. This suggests that osteocytes may regulate late osteoblast differentiation at least in part through Gja1. Identification of the specific factors involved in the enhancement of differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteocytes when in direct contact will uncover new biology concerning how these bone cells communicate. PMID:25043105

  9. Long-Term Tracking Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation with Photostable Fluorescent Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiying; Tay, Li Min; Anggara, Raditya; Chuah, Yon Jin; Kang, Yuejun

    2016-05-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proved to be a promising and abundant cell source for tissue and organ repair in regenerative medicine. However, the cell fate, distribution and migration of these transplanted cells are still unclear due to the limited tracking methods. It is desirable to develop a biocompatible and photostable probe to label the MSCs for long-term tracking without affecting the cell proliferation and potency. Herein we apply a recently developed nanoprobe system, in which di(thiophene-2-yl)-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) is covalently linked in the middle of polycaprolactone (PCL) forming the PCL-DPP-PCL polymer complex. Although the PCL-DPP-PCL nanoparticles uptaken by the MSCs did not affect the cell viability, it was interesting that they exhibited different effects on the multilineage potency of the MSCs in the subsequent differentiation in vitro. Specifically, we found that the PCL-DPP-PCL labeling was unfavorable to the MSC osteogenic differentiation, whereas the labeled MSCs exhibited the same adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiations compared to the unlabeled controls as verified by gene expressions and histological staining. Furthermore, the PCL-DPP-PCL nanoparticles remained strong fluorescence intensity even after 4 weeks of differentiation. This study indicated that PCL-DPP-PCL nanoparticles could be used for long-term cell tracing in MSC differentiation into adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. PMID:27124820

  10. T follicular helper cell differentiation, function, and roles in disease

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Summary Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are specialized providers of T cell help to B cells, and are essential for germinal center formation, affinity maturation, and the development of most high affinity antibodies and memory B cells. Tfh cell differentiation is a multi-stage, multi-factorial process involving B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) and other transcription factors. This article reviews understanding of Tfh cell biology, including their differentiation, migration, transcriptional regulation, and B cell help functions. Tfh cells are critical components of many protective immune responses against pathogens. As such, there is strong interest in harnessing Tfh cells to improve vaccination strategies. Tfh cells also have roles in a range of other diseases, particularly autoimmune diseases. Overall, there have been dramatic advances in this young field, but there is much to be learned about Tfh cell biology in the interest of applying that knowledge to biomedical needs. PMID:25367570

  11. Temporal competition between differentiation programs determines cell fate choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchina, Anna; Espinar, Lorena; Cagatay, Tolga; Balbin, Alejandro; Alvarado, Alma; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Suel, Gurol

    2011-03-01

    During pluripotent differentiation, cells adopt one of several distinct fates. The dynamics of this decision-making process are poorly understood, since cell fate choice may be governed by interactions between differentiation programs that are active at the same time. We studied the dynamics of decision-making in the model organism Bacillus subtilis by simultaneously measuring the activities of competing differentiation programs (sporulation and competence) in single cells. We discovered a precise switch-like point of cell fate choice previously hidden by cell-cell variability. Engineered artificial crosslinks between competence and sporulation circuits revealed that the precision of this choice is generated by temporal competition between the key players of two differentiation programs. Modeling suggests that variable progression towards a switch-like decision might represent a general strategy to maximize adaptability and robustness of cellular decision-making.

  12. Early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sujuan; Sun, Yunlong; Lu, Anming; Wang, Guangyuan

    1987-09-01

    The early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng was studied. Protoplasts or single cells were isolated from the blades using enzyme mixture comprising 2% sea snail gut enzyme and 1% cellulase. The isolated protoplasts or single cells were incubated in the MES medium. The cell differentiations were examined under the microscope at intervals after incubation. Four types of cell differentiation, namely, normal, abnormal, carposporangial and spermatorangial, and rhizoidal types, were observed. Since normal cell differentiations occur mostly in small thalli 50 mm in length and middle portions of big thalli 200 mm in length, it is essential to select tissues from these two kinds of thalli essential for commercial production.

  13. mef2 activity levels differentially affect gene expression during Drosophila muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Stuart J.; Han, Jun; Taylor, Michael V.

    2008-01-01

    Cell differentiation is controlled by key transcription factors, and a major question is how they orchestrate cell-type-specific genetic programs. Muscle differentiation is a well studied paradigm in which the conserved Mef2 transcription factor plays a pivotal role. Recent genomic studies have identified a large number of mef2-regulated target genes with distinct temporal expression profiles during Drosophila myogenesis. However, the question remains as to how a single transcription factor can control such diverse patterns of gene expression. In this study we used a strategy combining genomics and developmental genetics to address this issue in vivo during Drosophila muscle development. We found that groups of mef2-regulated genes respond differently to changes in mef2 activity levels: some require higher levels for their expression than others. Furthermore, this differential requirement correlates with when the gene is first expressed during the muscle differentiation program. Genes that require higher levels are activated later. These results implicate mef2 in the temporal regulation of muscle gene expression, and, consistent with this, we show that changes in mef2 activity levels can alter the start of gene expression in a predictable manner. Together these results indicate that Mef2 is not an all-or-none regulator; rather, its action is more subtle, and levels of its activity are important in the differential expression of muscle genes. This suggests a route by which mef2 can orchestrate the muscle differentiation program and contribute to the stringent regulation of gene expression during myogenesis. PMID:18198273

  14. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression. PMID:24356797

  15. Differential requirement for OBF-1 during antibody-secreting cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Lynn M.; Hasbold, Jhagvaral; Dietrich, Wendy; Hawkins, Edwin; Kallies, Axel; Nutt, Stephen L.; Tarlinton, David M.; Matthias, Patrick; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2005-01-01

    Resting B cells can be cultured to induce antibody-secreting cell (ASC) differentiation in vitro. A quantitative analysis of cell behavior during such a culture allows the influences of different stimuli and gene products to be measured. The application of this analytical system revealed that the OBF-1 transcriptional coactivator, whose loss impairs antibody production in vivo, has two effects on ASC development. Although OBF-1 represses early T cell–dependent (TD) differentiation, it is also critical for the completion of the final stages of ASC development. Under these conditions, the loss of OBF-1 blocks the genetic program of ASC differentiation so that Blimp-1/prdm1 induction fails, and bcl-6, Pax5, and AID are not repressed as in control ASC. Retroviral complementation confirmed that OBF-1 was the critical entity. Surprisingly, when cells were cultured in lipopolysaccharide to mimic T cell–independent conditions, OBF-1–null B cells differentiated normally to ASC. In the OBF-1−/− ASC generated under either culture regimen, antibody production was normal or only modestly reduced, revealing that Ig genes are not directly dependent on OBF-1 for their expression. The differential requirement for OBF-1 in TD ASC generation was confirmed in vivo. These studies define a new regulatory role for OBF-1 in determining the cell-autonomous capacity of B cells to undergo terminal differentiation in response to different immunological signals. PMID:15867091

  16. T cells induce terminal differentiation of transformed B cells to mature plasma cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, D M; Shen, M Y; Rapp, U R; Rudikoff, S

    1995-01-31

    Major interest in the analysis of mature plasma cell neoplasias of mice and humans has focused on identification of precursor cells that give rise to mature malignant plasma cells. Although several laboratories have recently suggested that such cells are present in the granulomas of pristane-treated mice and the bone marrow of some multiple myeloma patients, the in vivo cellular interactions required for their differentiation into mature plasma cell tumors remains unclear. Given the extensive interactions of peripheral T cells and normal B cells, we assessed the potential role of T cells in plasma-cell tumor development, by using a myc, raf-containing retrovirus, J3V1, to induce plasmacytomas in normal BALB/c mice, T-cell-deficient nude mice, and T-cell-reconstituted nude mice. The B-lineage tumors arising in normal BALB/c mice were uniformly mature plasmacytomas, most of which secreted immunoglobulin. In contrast, nude mice yielded predominantly non-immunoglobulin-secreting B-cell lymphomas with a phenotype characteristic of peripheral B cells. T-cell reconstitution of nude mice prior to tumor induction resulted in a shift from B-cell lymphomas to plasmacytomas. These results imply that transformation can occur prior to terminal differentiation of B cells and that such transformed cells can be driven to terminal differentiation by peripheral T cells. These findings further suggest that, in human multiple myeloma, the ability of T cells to influence the differentiation state of transformed B cells may provide a mechanism by which malignant plasma cells found in the bone marrow could arise from clonotypically related less-mature B cells found in both the bone marrow and periphery. PMID:7846031

  17. The Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether secreted Klotho (SKL) affects the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that short-form Klotho was expressed in mouse ADSCs. The Klotho gene mutation KL(-/-) significantly decreased proliferation of ADSCs and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Nanog, Sox-2, and Oct-4) in mice. The adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs was also decreased in KL(-/-) mice. Incubation with Klotho-deficient medium decreased ADSC proliferation, pluripotent transcription factor levels, and adipogenic differentiation, which is similar to what was found in KL(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Klotho deficiency suppresses ADSC proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant SKL protein rescued the Klotho deficiency-induced impairment in ADSC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. SKL also regulated ADSCs' differentiation to other cell lineages (osteoblasts, myofibroblasts), indicating that SKL maintains stemness of ADSCs. It is intriguing that overexpression of SKL significantly increased PPAR-γ expression and lipid formation in ADSCs following adipogenic induction, indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of SKL inhibited expression of TGFβ1 and its downstream signaling mediator Smad2/3. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SKL is essential to the maintenance of normal proliferation and differentiation in ADSCs. Klotho regulates adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs, likely via inhibition of TGFβ1 and activation of PPAR-γ. Stem Cells 2016;34:1615-1625. PMID:26865060

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of embryonic stem cell differentiation toward blood

    PubMed Central

    Piazzi, Manuela; Williamson, Andrew; Lee, Chia-Fang; Pearson, Stella; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie; McCubrey, James A.; Cocco, Lucio; Whetton, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate in vitro into three germ layers (endodermic, mesodermic, ectodermic). Studies on the differentiation of these cells to specific early differentiation stages has been aided by an ES cell line carrying the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) targeted to the Brachyury (Bry) locus which marks mesoderm commitment. Furthermore, expression of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptor 2 (Flk1) along with Bry defines hemangioblast commitment. Isobaric-tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQTM) and phosphopeptide enrichment coupled to liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry allow the study of phosphorylation changes occurring at different stages of ES cell development using Bry and Flk1 expression respectively. We identified and relatively quantified 37 phosphoentities which are modulated during mesoderm-induced ES cells differentiation, comparing epiblast-like, early mesoderm and hemangioblast-enriched cells. Among the proteins differentially phosphorylated toward mesoderm differentiation were: the epigenetic regulator Dnmt3b, the protein kinase GSK3b, the chromatin remodeling factor Smarcc1, the transcription factor Utf1; as well as protein specifically related to stem cell differentiation, as Eomes, Hmga2, Ints1 and Rif1. As most key factors regulating early hematopoietic development have also been implicated in various types of leukemia, understanding the post-translational modifications driving their regulation during normal development could result in a better comprehension of their roles during abnormal hematopoiesis in leukemia. PMID:25890499

  19. Gossypol-Induced Differentiation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Qing; Li, Rong; Bai, Qing-Xian; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Wang, Juan-Hong; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yuan-Fei; Chen, Xie-Qun; Huang, Gao-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    The main treatment of leukemia is traditional radiochemotherapy, which is associated with serious side effects. In the past twenty years, differentiation was found as an important effective measure to treat leukemia with fewer side effects. Gossypol, a natural compound which has been used as an effective contraceptive drug, has been proposed to be a potent drug to treat leukemia, but the differentiation effect has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the pro-differentiated effects, in vitro, of gossypol on the classic human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell line. The effects of gossypol were investigated by using morphological changes, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, surface markers, cell-cycle analysis and Western blot analysis, etc. When HL-60 cells were incubated with low concentrations of gossypol (2-5μM) for 48hr, a prominent G0/G1 arrest was observed. At 96 hr of treatment, 90% of HL-60 cells differentiated, as evidenced by morphological changes, NBT reduction, and increase in cell surface expression of some molecules were detected. This study is the first to identify gossypol’s pro-differentiated effects on the leukemia cell line, and it induced differentiation through the PBK (PDZ-binding kinase)/TOPK (T-LAKcell-originated protein kinase) (PBK/TOPK) pathway. It is concluded that gossypol could induce differentiation in the leukemia HL-60 cells, and it may be a potential therapeutic agent, chemoprevention or chemotherapeutic adjuvant especially in combination drug therapy for leukemia. PMID:23675007

  20. Differentiation signalobody: Demonstration of antigen-dependent osteoclast differentiation from a progenitor cell line.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Hideto; Aoyama, Saeko; Kawahara, Masahiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2016-09-01

    A "cytokine-less" in vitro differentiation method would be promising for cost-effective mass production of cells used for regenerative medicine. In this study, we developed a differentiation signalobody S-RANK, in which the extracellular domain of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) is replaced with a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) to attain signaling in response to an inexpensive antigen. A murine macrophage cell line RAW264, which is known to differentiate into an osteoclast by RANK ligand (RANKL), was lentivirally transduced with S-RANK. When the resultant cells were cultured with a specific antigen, the cells differentiated into multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts. The differentiation efficiency was almost comparable to those induced by RANKL. In addition, the signaling analysis demonstrated that nuclear factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, which are the major signaling pathways downstream of wild-type RANK, were also activated by S-RANK. These results demonstrate that S-RANK sufficiently mimics signal transduction of wild-type RANK. Differentiation signalobodies may be applied for controlling differentiation of other cell types by using appropriate signaling domains. PMID:26979343

  1. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results of a differential are usually reported as absolute values of the five types of WBCs and/or ... a percent of the total number of WBCs. Absolute values are calculated by multiplying the total number of ...

  2. Role of Hox genes in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Anne; Werheid, David F; Knapp, Silvana M; Tobiasch, Edda

    2015-01-01

    Hox genes are an evolutionary highly conserved gene family. They determine the anterior-posterior body axis in bilateral organisms and influence the developmental fate of cells. Embryonic stem cells are usually devoid of any Hox gene expression, but these transcription factors are activated in varying spatial and temporal patterns defining the development of various body regions. In the adult body, Hox genes are among others responsible for driving the differentiation of tissue stem cells towards their respective lineages in order to repair and maintain the correct function of tissues and organs. Due to their involvement in the embryonic and adult body, they have been suggested to be useable for improving stem cell differentiations in vitro and in vivo. In many studies Hox genes have been found as driving factors in stem cell differentiation towards adipogenesis, in lineages involved in bone and joint formation, mainly chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, in cardiovascular lineages including endothelial and smooth muscle cell differentiations, and in neurogenesis. As life expectancy is rising, the demand for tissue reconstruction continues to increase. Stem cells have become an increasingly popular choice for creating therapies in regenerative medicine due to their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Especially mesenchymal stem cells are used more and more frequently due to their easy handling and accessibility, combined with a low tumorgenicity and little ethical concerns. This review therefore intends to summarize to date known correlations between natural Hox gene expression patterns in body tissues and during the differentiation of various stem cells towards their respective lineages with a major focus on mesenchymal stem cell differentiations. This overview shall help to understand the complex interactions of Hox genes and differentiation processes all over the body as well as in vitro for further improvement of stem cell treatments in future regenerative

  3. RUNX1 is essential for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woosook; Barron, David A; San Martin, Rebeca; Chan, Keith S; Tran, Linda L; Yang, Feng; Ressler, Steven J; Rowley, David R

    2014-11-18

    Myofibroblasts are a key cell type in wound repair, cardiovascular disease, and fibrosis and in the tumor-promoting microenvironment. The high accumulation of myofibroblasts in reactive stroma is predictive of the rate of cancer progression in many different tumors, yet the cell types of origin and the mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation are unknown. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, the characterization of normal human prostate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the TGF-β1-regulated pathways that modulate MSC proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Human prostate MSCs combined with prostate cancer cells expressing TGF-β1 resulted in commitment to myofibroblasts. TGF-β1-regulated runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) was required for cell cycle progression and proliferation of progenitors. RUNX1 also inhibited, yet did not block, differentiation. Knockdown of RUNX1 in prostate or bone marrow-derived MSCs resulted in cell cycle arrest, attenuated proliferation, and constitutive differentiation to myofibroblasts. These data show that RUNX1 is a key transcription factor for MSC proliferation and cell fate commitment in myofibroblast differentiation. This work also shows that the normal human prostate gland contains tissue-derived MSCs that exhibit multilineage differentiation similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs. Targeting RUNX1 pathways may represent a therapeutic approach to affect myofibroblast proliferation and biology in multiple disease states. PMID:25313057

  4. The effect of bisphosphonates on the endothelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dileep; Hamlet, Stephen Mark; Petcu, Eugen Bogdan; Ivanovski, Saso

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the local stem cell niche to providing an adequate vascular framework during healing cannot be overemphasized. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to have a direct effect on the local vasculature, but their effect on progenitor cell differentiation is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect(s) of various BPs on the differentiation of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) along the endothelial lineage and their subsequent functional and morphogenic capabilities. pMSC multipotency was confirmed by successful differentiation into cells of both the osteogenic and endothelial lineages, as demonstrated by positive Alizarin Red S staining and Ac-LDL uptake. pMSC differentiation in the presence of non-cytotoxic BP concentrations showed that nitrogen containing BPs had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration and endothelial marker gene expression, as well as compromised endothelial differentiation as demonstrated using von Willebrand factor immunofluorescence staining and tube formation assay. This in vitro study demonstrated that at non-cytotoxic levels, nitrogen-containing BPs inhibit differentiation of pMSCs into cells of an endothelial lineage and affect the downstream functional capability of these cells supporting a multi-modal effect of BPs on angiogenesis as pathogenic mechanism contributing to bone healing disorders such as bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). PMID:26857282

  5. The effect of bisphosphonates on the endothelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dileep; Hamlet, Stephen Mark; Petcu, Eugen Bogdan; Ivanovski, Saso

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the local stem cell niche to providing an adequate vascular framework during healing cannot be overemphasized. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to have a direct effect on the local vasculature, but their effect on progenitor cell differentiation is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect(s) of various BPs on the differentiation of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) along the endothelial lineage and their subsequent functional and morphogenic capabilities. pMSC multipotency was confirmed by successful differentiation into cells of both the osteogenic and endothelial lineages, as demonstrated by positive Alizarin Red S staining and Ac-LDL uptake. pMSC differentiation in the presence of non-cytotoxic BP concentrations showed that nitrogen containing BPs had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration and endothelial marker gene expression, as well as compromised endothelial differentiation as demonstrated using von Willebrand factor immunofluorescence staining and tube formation assay. This in vitro study demonstrated that at non-cytotoxic levels, nitrogen-containing BPs inhibit differentiation of pMSCs into cells of an endothelial lineage and affect the downstream functional capability of these cells supporting a multi-modal effect of BPs on angiogenesis as pathogenic mechanism contributing to bone healing disorders such as bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). PMID:26857282

  6. Effects of NMDA receptor inhibition by phencyclidine on the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsook; Williams, Zakia; Goodman, Carl B; Oriaku, Ebenezer T; Harris, Cynthia; Thomas, Mathews; Soliman, Karam F A

    2006-07-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and exposing the developing brain to PCP has been shown to cause deficits in neurobehavioral functions. In the present study we tested the effects of PCP, as an NMDA receptor inhibitor, on the neuronal differentiation and biogenic amines levels including norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. After PC12 cells were differentiated with nerve growth factor (NGF) in the presence of PCP, NMDA binding kinetics, biogenic amines analysis and NMDA receptor protein expression assay were conducted. The results showed that NMDA receptor binding activities were significantly increased after differentiated with NGF in PC12 cells. B(max) values were increased in differentiated cells by four-folds, whereas K(d) values were not changed. All of biogenic amines were significantly increased in differentiated cells. On the other hand, PCP at 50 and 100 microM inhibited neuronal differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells without affecting cell viability. PCP treatment during differentiation significantly reduced NMDA binding activity and biogenic amine levels. Western blotting analysis revealed that NMDA receptor protein expression was significantly higher in NGF-differentiated cells and PCP treatment decreased the expression of NMDA receptor proteins. These results indicate that NMDA receptor functions and monoaminergic nervous systems are significantly stimulated during NGF-induced differentiation. PCP suppresses neuronal outgrowth and hampers neuronal functions possibly by inhibiting NMDA receptor functions and biogenic amine production, implying the suppressive effects of PCP exposure on neuronal developments. PMID:16580729

  7. Directed Myogenic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Emi; Woltjen, Knut; Sakurai, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have opened the door to recreating pathological conditions in vitro using differentiation into diseased cells corresponding to each target tissue. Yet for muscular diseases, a method for reproducible and efficient myogenic differentiation from human iPSCs is required for in vitro modeling. Here, we introduce a myogenic differentiation protocol mediated by inducible transcription factor expression that reproducibly and efficiently drives human iPSCs into myocytes. Delivering a tetracycline-inducible, myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) piggyBac (PB) vector to human iPSCs enables the derivation of iPSCs that undergo uniform myogenic differentiation in a short period of time. This differentiation protocol yields a homogenous skeletal muscle cell population, reproducibly reaching efficiencies as high as 70-90 %. MYOD1-induced myocytes demonstrate characteristics of mature myocytes such as cell fusion and cell twitching in response to electric stimulation within 14 days of differentiation. This differentiation protocol can be applied widely in various types of patient-derived human iPSCs and has great prospects in disease modeling particularly with inherited diseases that require studies of early pathogenesis and drug screening. PMID:25971915

  8. Transcriptional Regulatory Networks for CD4 T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response by secreting cytokines to activate target cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into at least four subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, and inducible regulatory T cells, each with unique functions for pathogen elimination. The differentiation of these subsets is induced in response to cytokine stimulation, which is translated into Stat activation, followed by induction of master regulator transcription factors. In addition to these factors, multiple other transcription factors, both subset specific and shared, are also involved in promoting subset differentiation. This review will focus on the network of transcription factors that control CD4+ T cell differentiation. PMID:24839135

  9. Specialized proresolving mediators enhance human B cell differentiation to antibody secreting cells1

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Sesquile; Gao, Fei; Serhan, Charles N.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation is an active and dynamic process critical in maintaining homeostasis. Newly identified lipid mediators have been recognized as key players during the resolution phase. These specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) constitute separate families that include lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins each derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. New results demonstrate that SPM regulate aspects of the immune response, including reduction of neutrophil infiltration, decreased T cell cytokine production and stimulation of macrophage phagocytic activity. The actions of SPM on B lymphocytes remain unknown. Our study shows for the first time that the novel SPM 17-hydroxydosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and protectin D1 (PD1) are present in the spleen. Interestingly, 17-HDHA, RvD1 but not PD1, strongly increase activated human B cell IgM and IgG production. Furthermore, increased antibody production by 17-HDHA is due to augmented B cell differentiation towards a CD27+CD38+ antibody-secreting cell phenotype. 17-HDHA did not affect proliferation and was non-toxic to cells. Increase of plasma cell differentiation and antibody production supports the involvement of SPM during the late stages of inflammation and pathogen clearance. The present study provides new evidence for SPM activity in the humoral response. These new findings highlight the potential applications of SPM as endogenous and non-toxic adjuvants, and as anti-inflammatory therapeutic molecules. PMID:22711890

  10. Transcriptional Enhancers in the Regulation of T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Michelle L. T.; Jones, Sarah A.; Prier, Julia E.; Russ, Brendan E.

    2015-01-01

    The changes in phenotype and function that characterize the differentiation of naïve T cells to effector and memory states are underscored by large-scale, coordinated, and stable changes in gene expression. In turn, these changes are choreographed by the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that act to restructure the genome, ultimately ensuring lineage-appropriate gene expression. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that control T cell differentiation, with a particular focus on the role of regulatory elements encoded within the genome, known as transcriptional enhancers (TEs). We discuss the central role of TEs in regulating T cell differentiation, both in health and disease. PMID:26441967

  11. Regulatory T cells inhibit CD34+ cell differentiation into NK cells by blocking their proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Shah, Divya; Domogala, Anna; Luevano, Martha; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) remains one of the main complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to their ability to suppress effector cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed as a cellular therapy to prevent GvHD, however they also inhibit the functions of natural killer (NK) cells, key effectors of the Graft versus Leukemia effect. In this study, we have explored whether a Tregs therapy will also impact on NK cell differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation into NK cells, we found that activated Tregs led to a 90% reduction in NK cell numbers when added at the time of commitment to the NK cell lineage. This effect was contact dependent and was reversible upon Tregs depletion. The few NK cells that developed in these cultures were mature and exhibited normal functions. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of activated Tregs in rag(-/-) γc(-/-) mice abrogated HSC differentiation into NK cells thus confirming our in vitro findings. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that activated Tregs can inhibit NK cell differentiation from HSC under specific conditions. PMID:26915707

  12. Regulatory T cells inhibit CD34+ cell differentiation into NK cells by blocking their proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Shah, Divya; Domogala, Anna; Luevano, Martha; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) remains one of the main complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to their ability to suppress effector cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed as a cellular therapy to prevent GvHD, however they also inhibit the functions of natural killer (NK) cells, key effectors of the Graft versus Leukemia effect. In this study, we have explored whether a Tregs therapy will also impact on NK cell differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation into NK cells, we found that activated Tregs led to a 90% reduction in NK cell numbers when added at the time of commitment to the NK cell lineage. This effect was contact dependent and was reversible upon Tregs depletion. The few NK cells that developed in these cultures were mature and exhibited normal functions. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of activated Tregs in rag-/- γc-/- mice abrogated HSC differentiation into NK cells thus confirming our in vitro findings. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that activated Tregs can inhibit NK cell differentiation from HSC under specific conditions. PMID:26915707

  13. Interplay of Matrix Stiffness and Cell-Cell Contact in Regulating Differentiation of Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Kai; Cao, Luping; Li, Shiyu; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2016-08-31

    Stem cells are capable of sensing and responding to the mechanical properties of extracellular matrixes (ECMs). It is well-known that, while osteogenesis is promoted on the stiff matrixes, adipogenesis is enhanced on the soft ones. Herein, we report an "abnormal" tendency of matrix-stiffness-directed stem cell differentiation. Well-defined nanoarrays of cell-adhesive arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides were modified onto the surfaces of persistently nonfouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels to achieve controlled specific cell adhesion and simultaneously eliminate nonspecific protein adsorption. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultivated on the RGD-nanopatterned PEG hydrogels with the same RGD nanospacing but different hydrogel stiffnesses and incubated in the induction medium to examine the effect of matrix stiffness on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation extents. When stem cells were kept at a low density during the induction period, the differentiation tendency was consistent with the previous reports in the literature; however, both lineage commitments were favored on the stiff matrices at a high cell density. We interpreted such a complicated stiffness effect at a high cell density in two-dimensional culture as the interplay of matrix stiffness and cell-cell contact. As a result, this study strengthens the essence of the stiffness effect and highlights the combinatory effects of ECM cues and cell cues on stem cell differentiation. PMID:26600563

  14. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  15. Differentiation of Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aijun; Yuan, Falei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bo; Chu, Julia S.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the de-differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative/synthetic phenotype has an important role during vascular remodeling and diseases. Here we provide evidence that challenges this theory. We identify a new type of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) in blood vessel wall. MVSCs express markers including Sox17, Sox10 and S100β, are cloneable, have telomerase activity, and can differentiate into neural cells and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells that subsequently differentiate into SMCs. On the other hand, we use lineage tracing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain as a marker to show that MVSCs and proliferative or synthetic SMCs do not arise from the de-differentiation of mature SMCs. Upon vascular injuries, MVSCs, instead of SMCs, become proliferative, and MVSCs can differentiate into SMCs and chondrogenic cells, thus contributing to vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. These findings support a new hypothesis that the differentiation of MVSCs, rather than the de-differentiation of SMCs, contributes to vascular remodeling and diseases. PMID:22673902

  16. The differential influences of positive affect, random reward, and performance-contingent reward on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive affect and reward have differential effects on cognitive control. So far, however, these effects have never been studied together. Here, the authors present one behavioral study investigating the influences of positive affect and reward (contingent and noncontingent) on proactive control. A modified version of the AX-continuous performance task, which has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to reward and affect manipulations, was used. In a first phase, two experimental groups received either neutral or positive affective pictures before every trial. In a second phase, the two halves of a given affect group additionally received, respectively, performance-contingent or random rewards. The results replicated the typical affect effect, in terms of reduced proactive control under positive as compared to neutral affect. Also, the typical reward effects associated with increased proactive control were replicated. Most interestingly, performance-contingent reward counteracted the positive affect effect, whereas random reward mirrored that effect. In sum, this study provides first evidence that performance-contingent reward, on the one hand, and positive affect and performance-noncontingent reward, on the other hand, have oppositional effects on cognitive control: Only performance-contingent reward showed a motivational effect in terms of a strategy shift toward increased proactive control, whereas positive affect alone and performance-noncontingent reward reduced proactive control. Moreover, the integrative design of this study revealed the vulnerability of positive affect effects to motivational manipulations. The results are discussed with respect to current neuroscientific theories of the effects of dopamine on affect, reward, and cognitive control. PMID:24659000

  17. Relaxin affects cell organization and early and late stages of spermatogenesis in a coculture of rat testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M T; Francisco, R A R; Silva, R P; Porto, C S; Lazari, M F M

    2015-07-01

    Relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 are co-expressed in Sertoli cells, and relaxin can stimulate proliferation of Sertoli cells. In this study, we investigated a role of relaxin in spermatogenesis, using a short-term culture of testicular cells of the rat that allowed differentiation of spermatogonia to spermatids. Sertoli, germ, and peritubular myoid cells were the predominant cell types in the culture. Sertoli and germ cells expressed RXFP1. Cultures were incubated without (control) or with 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 100 ng/mL H2 relaxin (RLN) for 2 days. Cell organization, number, and differentiation were analyzed after 2 (D2), 5 (D5) or 8 (D8) days of culturing. Although the proportion of germ cells decayed from D2 to D5, the relative contribution of HC, 1C, 2C, and 4C germ cell populations remained constant in the control group during the whole culture. RLN did not affect the proportion of germ cell populations compared with control, but increased gene and/or protein expression of the undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia markers PLZF and c-KIT, and of the post-meiotic marker Odf2 in D5. RLN favored organization of cells in tubule-like structures, the arrangement of myoid cells around the tubules, arrangement of c-KIT-positive spermatogonia at the basal region of the tubules, and expression of the cell junction protein β-catenin close to the plasma membrane region. Knockdown of relaxin with small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced expression of β-catenin at the cell junctions, and shifted its expression to the nucleus. We propose that relaxin may affect spermatogenesis by modulating spermatogonial self renewal and favoring cell contact. PMID:26041439

  18. Osteoprotegerin exposure at different stages of osteoclastogenesis differentially affects osteoclast formation and function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Gu, Jianhong; Dai, Nannan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Dong; Song, Ruilong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Liu, Zongping

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), during the various stages of osteoclast differentiation, and additionally investigate its effects on osteoclast adhesion and activity. RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells were incubated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and RANKL for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days, followed by an additional 24-h incubation in the presence or absence of OPG (80 ng/mL). We examined osteoclast differentiation and adhesion capacity using the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and immunofluorescence microscopy, and additionally examined cell growth in real time using the xCELLigence system. Furthermore, the expression levels of TRAP, RANK, integrin β3, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and vesicular-type H(+)-ATPase A1 were examined using western blotting. OPG exposure on day 1 enhanced the osteoclast growth curve as well as adhesion, and increased RANK and integrin β3 expression. In contrast, exposure to OPG at later time points (days 3-7) inhibited osteoclast differentiation, adhesion structure formation, and protease expression. In conclusion, the biological effects of OPG exposure at the various stages of osteoclast differentiation were varied, and included the enhanced adhesion and survival of preosteoclasts, the block of differentiation from the early to the terminal stages of osteoclastogenesis, and suppression of mature osteoclast activation following OPG exposure during the terminal differentiation stage, suggesting that the effects of OPG exposure differ based on the stage of differentiation. PMID:26044733

  19. Effects of cell-cell contact and oxygen tension on chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bin; Li, Zhenhua; Peng, Rong; Ding, Jiandong

    2015-09-01

    While cell condensation has been thought to enhance chondrogenesis, no direct evidence so far confirms that cell-cell contact itself increases chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, since the change of cell-cell contact is usually coupled with those of other cell geometry cues and soluble factors in cell culture. The present study semi-quantitatively examined the effect of cell-cell contact in a decoupled way. We fabricated two-dimensional micropatterns with cell-adhesive peptide arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) microdomains on a nonfouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were well localized on the microdomains for a long time. Based on our micropattern design, single MSCs or cell clusters with given cell numbers (1, 2, 3, 6 and 15) and a similar spreading area per cell were achieved on the same substrate, thus the interference of soluble factor difference from cell autocrine and that of cell spreading area were ruled out. After 9-day chondrogenic induction, collagen II was stained to characterize the chondrogenic induction results; the mRNA expression levels of SOX9, collagen II, aggrecan, HIF-1α and collagen I were also detected. The statistics confirmed unambiguously that the extent of the chondrogenic differentiation increased with cell-cell contact, and even a linear relation between differentiation extent and contact extent was established within the examined range. The cell-cell contact effect worked under both hypoxia (5% O2) and normoxia (21% O2) conditions, and the hypoxia condition promoted the chondrogenic induction of MSCs on adhesive microdomains more efficiently than the normoxia condition under the same cell-cell contact extents. PMID:26113183

  20. Progressive Chromatin Condensation and H3K9 Methylation Regulate the Differentiation of Embryonic and Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte, Fernando; Sousae, Rebekah; Cinquin, Bertrand; Martin, Eric W.; Krietsch, Jana; Sanchez, Gabriela; Inman, Margaux; Tsang, Herman; Warr, Matthew; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Forsberg, E. Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic regulation serves as the basis for stem cell differentiation into distinct cell types, but it is unclear how global epigenetic changes are regulated during this process. Here, we tested the hypothesis that global chromatin organization affects the lineage potential of stem cells and that manipulation of chromatin dynamics influences stem cell function. Using nuclease sensitivity assays, we found a progressive decrease in chromatin digestion among pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and mature hematopoietic cells. Quantitative high-resolution microscopy revealed that ESCs contain significantly more euchromatin than HSCs, with a further reduction in mature cells. Increased cellular maturation also led to heterochromatin localization to the nuclear periphery. Functionally, prevention of heterochromatin formation by inhibition of the histone methyltransferase G9A resulted in delayed HSC differentiation. Our results demonstrate global chromatin rearrangements during stem cell differentiation and that heterochromatin formation by H3K9 methylation regulates HSC differentiation. PMID:26489895

  1. Gremlins sabotage the mechanisms of cancer stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Joan

    2014-06-16

    BMP is highly expressed in glioblastoma and promotes differentiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently, Yan and colleagues found the explanation to this apparent paradox by showing that the antagonist of BMP, Gremlin1, is secreted by CSCs to protect them against the BMP-induced differentiation. PMID:24937457

  2. The organelle of differentiation in embryos: the cell state splitter.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Natalie K; Gordon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The cell state splitter is a membraneless organelle at the apical end of each epithelial cell in a developing embryo. It consists of a microfilament ring and an intermediate filament ring subtending a microtubule mat. The microtubules and microfilament ring are in mechanical opposition as in a tensegrity structure. The cell state splitter is bistable, perturbations causing it to contract or expand radially. The intermediate filament ring provides metastability against small perturbations. Once this snap-through organelle is triggered, it initiates signal transduction to the nucleus, which changes gene expression in one of two readied manners, causing its cell to undergo a step of determination and subsequent differentiation. The cell state splitter also triggers the cell state splitters of adjacent cells to respond, resulting in a differentiation wave. Embryogenesis may be represented then as a bifurcating differentiation tree, each edge representing one cell type. In combination with the differentiation waves they propagate, cell state splitters explain the spatiotemporal course of differentiation in the developing embryo. This review is excerpted from and elaborates on "Embryogenesis Explained" (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2016). PMID:26965444

  3. Competitive Interactions Eliminate Unfit Embryonic Stem Cells at the Onset of Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Margarida; Di-Gregorio, Aida; George, Nancy; Pozzi, Sara; Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Pernaute, Barbara; Rodríguez, Tristan A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A fundamental question in developmental biology is whether there are mechanisms to detect stem cells with mutations that, although not adversely affecting viability, would compromise their ability to contribute to further development. Here, we show that cell competition is a mechanism regulating the fitness of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that ESCs displaying defective bone morphogenetic protein signaling or defective autophagy or that are tetraploid are eliminated at the onset of differentiation by wild-type cells. This elimination occurs in an apoptosis-dependent manner and is mediated by secreted factors. Furthermore, during this process, we find that establishment of differential c-Myc levels is critical and that c-Myc overexpression is sufficient to induce competitive behavior in ESCs. Cell competition is, therefore, a process that allows recognition and elimination of defective cells during the early stages of development and is likely to play important roles in tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. PMID:23867226

  4. Tenuigenin promotes proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujing; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wenqiang; Wang, Ningqun; Li, Lin

    2012-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the influence of tenuigenin, an active ingredient of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, on the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro. Tenuigenin was added to a neurosphere culture and neurosphere growth was measured using MTT assay. The influence of tenuigenin on the proliferation of neural progenitors was examined by Clone forming assay and BrdU detection. In addition, the differentiation of neural stem cells was compared using immunocytochemistry for β III-tubulin and GFAP. The results showed that addition of tenuigenin to the neural stem cell medium increased the number of newly formed neurospheres. More neurons were also obtained when tenuigenin was added in the differentiation medium. These findings suggest that tenuigenin is involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells. This result may be one of the underlying reasons for tenuigenin's nootropic and anti-aging effects. PMID:22179853

  5. T Cell Receptor Signaling in the Control of Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming O.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (TReg cells), a specialized T cell lineage, have a pivotal function in the control of self-tolerance and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have revealed a discrete mode of TCR signaling that regulates Treg cell differentiation, maintenance and function and that impacts on gene expression, metabolism, cell adhesion and migration of these cells. Here, we discuss the emerging understanding of TCR-guided differentiation of Treg cells in the context of their function in health and disease. PMID:27026074

  6. Improvement of Cell Survival During Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Definitive Endoderm Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Luo, Xie; Yao, Li; Lehman, Donna M; Wang, Pei

    2015-11-01

    Definitive endoderm (DE) is a vital precursor for internal organs such as liver and pancreas. Efficient protocol to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to DE is essential for regenerative medicine and for modeling diseases; yet, poor cell survival during DE differentiation remains unsolved. In this study, our use of B27 supplement in modified differentiation protocols has led to a substantial improvement. We used an SOX17-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter hESC line to compare and modify established DE differentiation protocols. Both total live cell numbers and the percentages of eGFP-positive cells were used to assess differentiation efficiency. Among tested protocols, three modified protocols with serum-free B27 supplement were developed to generate a high number of DE cells. Massive cell death was avoided during DE differentiation and the percentage of DE cells remained high. When the resulting DE cells were further differentiated toward the pancreatic lineage, the expression of pancreatic-specific markers was significantly increased. Similar high DE differentiation efficiency was observed in H1 hESCs and iPSCs through the modified protocols. In B27 components, bovine serum albumin was found to facilitate DE differentiation and cell survival. Using our modified DE differentiation protocols, satisfactory quantities of quality DE can be produced as primary material for further endoderm lineage differentiation. PMID:26132288

  7. BMS-777607 promotes megakaryocytic differentiation and induces polyploidization in the CHRF-288-11 cells.

    PubMed

    Nurhayati, Retno Wahyu; Ojima, Yoshihiro; Taya, Masahito

    2015-04-01

    Introduction of a polyploidy inducer is a promising strategy to achieve a high level of polyploidization during megakaryocytic (MK) differentiation. Here, we report that a multi-kinase inhibitor, BMS-777607, is a potent polyploidy inducer for elevating high ploidy cell formation in the MK-differentiated CHRF-288-11 (CHRF) cells. Our result showed that BMS-777607 strongly inhibited cell division without affecting cell viability when detected at day 1 after treatment. As a consequence, the high ploidy (≥8N) cells were accumulated in culture for 8 days, with an increase from 16.2 to 75.2 % of the total cell population. The elevated polyploidization was accompanied by the increased expression level of MK marker, CD41 (platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, GPIIb/IIIa), suggesting that BMS-777607 promoted both polyploidization and commitment of MK-differentiated CHRF cells. Platelet-like fragments (PFs) were released by mature CHRF cells. Based on a flow cytometry assay, it was found that the PFs produced from BMS-777607-treated cells tended to have larger size and higher expression of GPIIb/IIIa, a receptor for platelet adhesion. Taken together, these results suggested that BMS-777607 promoted MK differentiation of CHRF cells and increased the functional property of platelet-like fragments. PMID:25304900

  8. Systematic analysis of embryonic stem cell differentiation in hydrodynamic environments with controlled embryoid body size

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of stem cells to environmental perturbations has prompted many studies which aim to characterize the influence of mechanical factors on stem cell morphogenesis and differentiation. Hydrodynamic cultures, often employed for large scale bioprocessing applications, impart complex fluid shear and transport profiles, and influence cell fate as a result of changes in media mixing conditions. However, previous studies of hydrodynamic cultures have been limited in their ability to distinguish confounding factors that may affect differentiation, including modulation of embryoid body size in response to changes in the hydrodynamic environment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to control and maintain embryoid body (EB) size using a combination of forced aggregation formation and rotary orbital suspension culture, in order to assess the impact of hydrodynamic cultures on ESC differentiation, independent of EB size. Size-controlled EBs maintained at different rotary orbital speeds exhibited similar morphological features and gene expression profiles, consistent with ESC differentiation. The similar differentiation of ESCs across a range of hydrodynamic conditions suggests that controlling EB formation and resultant size may be important for scalable bioprocessing applications, in order to standardize EB morphogenesis. However, perturbations in the hydrodynamic environment also led to subtle changes in differentiation toward certain lineages, including temporal modulation of gene expression, as well changes in the relative efficiencies of differentiated phenotypes, thereby highlighting important tissue engineering principles that should be considered for implementation in bioreactor design, as well as for directed ESC differentiation. PMID:22609810

  9. Midostaurin (PKC412) modulates differentiation and maturation of human myeloid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chuen; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2010-09-01

    Midostaurin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown efficacy against acute myeloid leukemia and various other malignancies in clinical trials. Prior studies indicate midostaurin affects the function of immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages. To understand the effect of midostaurin on human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), we conducted an ex vivo study using immature DCs differentiated from CD14(+) monocytes and further maturated using lipopolysaccharide. Addition of midostaurin to a culture of starting CD14(+) monocytes markedly and dose-dependently reduced DC recovery. Mature DCs differentiating in the presence of midostaurin had fewer, shorter cell projections than those differentiating in the absence of midostaurin. Changes in morphological features characteristic of apoptotic cells were also evident. Moreover, midostaurin affected DC differentiation and maturation patterns; CD83 expression levels decreased, whereas CD14 and CD80 expressions increased. Additionally, DCs derived in the presence of midostaurin possessed a lower endocytotic capacity and less allostimulatory activity on naive CD4(+)CD45(+)RA(+) T cell proliferation than those derived in its absence, suggesting that midostaurin redirects DC differentiation toward a less mature stage and that this effect is not solely due to its cytotoxicity. Whether this effect underlies immune suppression or tolerance to disease treatments with unwanted immune reactions needs further evaluation. PMID:20685248

  10. Motivation and Affective Judgments Differentially Recruit Neurons in the Primate Dorsolateral Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Amemori, Ken-ichi; Amemori, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions, but it still is unclear whether neurons in these regions are related to affective judgment or to motivation. To address this issue, we recorded simultaneously the neuronal spike activities of single units in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys as they performed approach–avoidance (Ap–Av) and approach–approach (Ap–Ap) decision-making tasks that can behaviorally dissociate affective judgment and motivation. Notably, neurons having activity correlated with motivational condition could be distinguished from neurons having activity related to affective judgment, especially in the Ap–Av task. Although many neurons in both regions exhibited similar, selective patterns of task-related activity, we found a larger proportion of neurons activated in low motivational conditions in the dlPFC than in the ACC, and the onset of this activity was significantly earlier in the dlPFC than in the ACC. Furthermore, the temporal onsets of affective judgment represented by neuronal activities were significantly slower in the low motivational conditions than in the other conditions. These findings suggest that motivation and affective judgment both recruit dlPFC and ACC neurons but with differential degrees of involvement and timing. PMID:25653353

  11. Motivation and affective judgments differentially recruit neurons in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Amemori, Ken-ichi; Amemori, Satoko; Graybiel, Ann M

    2015-02-01

    The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions, but it still is unclear whether neurons in these regions are related to affective judgment or to motivation. To address this issue, we recorded simultaneously the neuronal spike activities of single units in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys as they performed approach-avoidance (Ap-Av) and approach-approach (Ap-Ap) decision-making tasks that can behaviorally dissociate affective judgment and motivation. Notably, neurons having activity correlated with motivational condition could be distinguished from neurons having activity related to affective judgment, especially in the Ap-Av task. Although many neurons in both regions exhibited similar, selective patterns of task-related activity, we found a larger proportion of neurons activated in low motivational conditions in the dlPFC than in the ACC, and the onset of this activity was significantly earlier in the dlPFC than in the ACC. Furthermore, the temporal onsets of affective judgment represented by neuronal activities were significantly slower in the low motivational conditions than in the other conditions. These findings suggest that motivation and affective judgment both recruit dlPFC and ACC neurons but with differential degrees of involvement and timing. PMID:25653353

  12. A Cbx8-containing polycomb complex facilitates the transition to gene activation during ES cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Creppe, Catherine; Palau, Anna; Malinverni, Roberto; Valero, Vanesa; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Polycomb proteins play an essential role in maintaining the repression of developmental genes in self-renewing embryonic stem cells. The exact mechanism allowing the derepression of polycomb target genes during cell differentiation remains unclear. Our project aimed to identify Cbx8 binding sites in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Therefore, we used a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous Cbx8 coupled to direct massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq). Our analysis identified 171 high confidence peaks. By crossing our data with previously published microarray analysis, we show that several differentiation genes transiently recruit Cbx8 during their early activation. Depletion of Cbx8 partially impairs the transcriptional activation of these genes. Both interaction analysis, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments support the idea that activating Cbx8 acts in the context of an intact PRC1 complex. Prolonged gene activation results in eviction of PRC1 despite persisting H3K27me3 and H2A ubiquitination. The composition of PRC1 is highly modular and changes when embryonic stem cells commit to differentiation. We further demonstrate that the exchange of Cbx7 for Cbx8 is required for the effective activation of differentiation genes. Taken together, our results establish a function for a Cbx8-containing complex in facilitating the transition from a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state to an active state. As this affects several key regulatory differentiation genes this mechanism is likely to contribute to the robust execution of differentiation programs. PMID:25500566

  13. SOCS3 induces neurite differentiation and promotes neuronal cell survival.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kanchan Kumar; Gupta, Sakshi; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines and growth factors play an important role in neuronal survival as well as cell death. The family of suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins, which includes SOCS1-7 and cytokine-induced suppressor (CIS), has been shown to act as negative regulators of cytokine-induced signalling. In this report, we highlight the role of SOCS3 in regulating neuronal differentiation and survival. We observed increased SOCS3 expression upon differentiation of PC12 cells as well as neural stem cells. SOCS3 overexpression upregulated differentiation of both neural stem cells and PC12 cells even in the absence of NGF, as evidenced by enhanced neurite outgrowth and upregulation of GAP43, marker associated with neurite outgrowth. siRNA-mediated silencing of SOCS3 confirmed the potential role of SOCS3 in neuritogenesis. We observed that, SOCS3-induced neurite differentiation was mediated via the PI3 kinase pathway. Another interesting observation was that SOCS3 overexpression promoted neuronal cell survival under H2 O2 -mediated stress indicating its fundamental role in cell survival. In conclusion, our results indicate that SOCS3 promotes differentiation and survival of neural cells and could be potentially useful in future therapy for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):468-476, 2016. PMID:27118613

  14. DIRECTED DIFFERENTIATION OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS INTO BLADDER TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Oottamasathien, Siam; Wang, YongQing; Williams, Karin; Franco, Omar E.; Wills, Marcia L.; Thomas, John C.; Saba, Katrina; Sharif-Afshar, Ali-Reza; Makari, John H.; Bhowmick, Neil A; DeMarco, Romano T.; Hipkens, Susan; Magnuson, Mark; Brock, John W.; Hayward, Simon W.; Pope, John C.; Matusik, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Manipulatable models of bladder development which interrogate specific pathways are badly needed. Such models will allow a systematic investigation of the multitude of pathologies which result from developmental defects of the urinary bladder. In the present communication, we describe a model in which mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are directed to differentiate to form bladder tissue by specific interactions with fetal bladder mesenchyme. This model allows us to visualize the various stages in the differentiation of urothelium from ES cells, including the commitment to an endodermal cell lineage, with the temporal profile characterized by examining the induction of specific endodermal transcription factors (Foxa1 and Foxa2). In addition, final functional urothelial differentiation was characterized by examining uroplakin expression. It is well established that ES cells will spontaneously develop teratomas when grown within immunocompromised mouse hosts. We determined the specific mesenchymal to ES cell ratios necessary to dictate organ-specific differentiation while completely suppressing teratomatous growth. Embryonic mesenchyme is well established as an inductive tissue which dictates organ-specific programming of epithelial tissues. The present study demonstrates that embryonic bladder mesenchyme can also steer ES cells towards developing specific endodermal derived urothelium. These approaches allow us to capture specific stages of stem cell differentiation and to better define stem cell hierarchies. PMID:17289017

  15. Proteome changes during bone mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into photoreceptor-like cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Xu, Guo-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Human bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) may be directed to differentiate into multiple cell types, including adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteocyte and photoreceptor, among others. At present, little is known about the features of the BMSC and the protein control mechanism underlying their differentiation into photoreceptor-like cells. In the present study, BMSCs are induced to differentiate into photoreceptor-like cells in an in vitro model simulating the in vivo microenvironment. Up to 32 proteins are identified and differentially expressed through two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to establish a differential protein database for photoreceptor-like cells from BMSC-induced differentiation. Western blot analysis further confirms the expression of some of the identified proteins. The present study proposes the total protein expression and possible molecular mechanism during the differentiation of BMSCs into photoreceptor cells. PMID:22553704

  16. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  17. Interferons Mediate Terminal Differentiation of Human Cortical Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Laine, David; Zaffran, Yona; Azocar, Olga; Servet-Delprat, Christine; Wild, T. Fabian; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Valentin, Hélène

    2002-01-01

    In the thymus, epithelial cells comprise a heterogeneous population required for the generation of functional T lymphocytes, suggesting that thymic epithelium disruption by viruses may compromise T-cell lymphopoiesis in this organ. In a previous report, we demonstrated that in vitro, measles virus induced differentiation of cortical thymic epithelial cells as characterized by (i) cell growth arrest, (ii) morphological and phenotypic changes, and (iii) apoptotis as a final step of this process. In the present report, we have analyzed the mechanisms involved. First, measles virus-induced differentiation of thymic epithelial cells is shown to be strictly dependent on beta interferon (IFN-β) secretion. In addition, transfection with double-stranded RNA, a common intermediate of replication for a broad spectrum of viruses, is reported to similarly mediate thymic epithelial cell differentiation through IFN-β induction. Finally, we demonstrated that recombinant IFN-α, IFN-β, or IFN-γ was sufficient to induce differentiation and apoptosis of uninfected thymic epithelial cells. These observations suggested that interferon secretion by either infected cells or activated leukocytes, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells or lymphocytes, may induce thymic epithelium disruption in a pathological context. Thus, we have identified a new mechanism that may contribute to thymic atrophy and altered T-cell lymphopoiesis associated with many infections. PMID:12050353

  18. Inhibins Tune the Thymocyte Selection Process by Regulating Thymic Stromal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Franco, Ebzadrel; de la Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Alemán-Muench, Germán R.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins and Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily that regulate the differentiation of several cell types. These ligands were initially identified as hormones that regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, increasing evidence has demonstrated that they are key regulators in the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that Inhibins are the main Activin ligands expressed in the murine thymus and that they regulate thymocyte differentiation, promoting the DN3-DN4 transition and the selection of SP thymocytes. As Inhibins are mainly produced by thymic stromal cells, which also express Activin receptors and Smad proteins, we hypothesized that Inhibins might play a role in stromal cell differentiation and function. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of Inhibins, thymic conventional dendritic cells display reduced levels of MHC Class II (MHCII) and CD86. In addition, the ratio between cTECs and mTECs was affected, indicating that mTEC differentiation was favoured and cTEC diminished in the absence of Inhibins. These changes appeared to impact thymocyte selection leading to a decreased selection of CD4SP thymocytes and increased generation of natural regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that Inhibins tune the T cell selection process by regulating both thymocyte and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:25973437

  19. Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

  20. The effect of temperature on proliferation and differentiation of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells isolated from different muscle types.

    PubMed

    Harding, Rachel L; Halevy, Orna; Yahav, Shlomo; Velleman, Sandra G

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are a muscle stem cell population that mediate posthatch muscle growth and repair. Satellite cells respond differentially to environmental stimuli based upon their fiber-type of origin. The objective of this study was to determine how temperatures below and above the in vitro control of 38°C affected the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from the chicken anaerobic pectoralis major (p. major) or mixed fiber biceps femoris (b.femoris) muscles. The satellite cells isolated from the p. major muscle were more sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures compared to the b.femoris satellite cells during both proliferation and differentiation. The expressions of myogenic regulatory transcription factors were also different between satellite cells from different fiber types. MyoD expression, which partially regulates proliferation, was generally expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells compared to the b.femoris satellite cells from 33 to 43°C during proliferation and differentiation. Similarly, myogenin expression, which is required for differentiation, was also expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells in response to both cold and hot temperatures during proliferation and differentiation than b. femoris satellite cells. These data demonstrate that satellite cells from the anaerobic p. major muscle are more sensitive than satellite cells from the aerobic b. femoris muscle to both hot and cold thermal stress during myogenic proliferation and differentiation. PMID:27125667

  1. [The differentiation potential of stem cells (the problem of plasticity)].

    PubMed

    Chertkov, I L; Drize, N I

    2005-01-01

    Numerous publications on the ability of adult stem cells to differentiate into the cells of various tissues, not always homodermic (stem cell flexibility), to contain serious methodic errors. The main flexibility phenomena, such as "transdifferentiation" of hemopoietic stem cells into hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, beta-cells of islets of Langerhans, neurons etc., are caused not by a shift of the differentiation path, but by cell merging, resulting in appearance of hybrids with unusual markers of cells of non-hemopoietic origin. The second most frequent error is wrong identification of macrophages and lymphocytes, which are present in any tissue and have the donor's genotype in chimeras. Even when the cause of the error is unknown, the phenomenon of unusual cell formation is exclusively rare and never bears therapeutic potential. In general, it is at least too early to revise the main tenets of the stem cell doctrine. Embryonic stem cells are totipotent indeed; however, the time of their clinical use has not come yet. Attempts to induce their ordered differentiation keep on failing; they very often lead to formation of teratomas and, even if necessary cells such as hemopoietic stem cells are formed, they do not work after administration into an organism that has been exposed to radiation. Clinical use of embryonic stem cells do not seem possible in this decade. PMID:16320705

  2. Plasma treatment of biomaterials to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Erik

    In this work, we explore how embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation patterns are affected by surface interactions with plasma-processed materials. We hypothesize that mouse embryonic stem-cell exposure to certain plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces will direct their differentiation into endothelial cells. R1 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were plated on surfaces onto which tetraglyme was deposited by plasma polymerization. In addition, tissue-treated polystyrene and control glass cover slips were also examined. Some samples were fixed three days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with platelet endothelial-cell adhesion molecule, while the others were fixed seven days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with von Willebrand Factor. Positive results seen by ES cell derivatives precociously expressing the vWF and PECAM genetic markers on the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme treated surfaces suggest that the plasma-polymerized surfaces direct differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells. Research goals of this dissertation include: characterization of the material properties of the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces that induce directed differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells, optimization of the plasma-polymerization process to maximize the number of endothelial cells derived from R1 ES cells, and biological experimentation to characterize properties of the mechanism of directed differentiation. A potential application of this work is in the design and construction of an artificial blood vessel. Current small-scale arterial substitutes have proved inadequate because of thrombogenicity and infection. Moreover, the lower blood flow velocities of smaller vessels pose a different set of design criteria and introduce new problems not encountered in large arterial substitutes. By utilizing a tissue engineering approach that incorporates embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells, the longevity of the prosthesis can be ensured.

  3. Differentiation of human alloreactive CD8+ T cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rentenaar, Rob J; Vosters, Jelle L G; Van Diepen, Frank N J; Remmerswaal, Ester B M; Van Lier, René A W; Ten Berge, Ineke J M

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and differentiation of alloantigen-reactive CD8+ T cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures was followed by measurement of the loss of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) fluorescence of responder cells. Proliferation of CD8+ T cells became detectable on day 4 of culture and, 2 days later, > 60% of the CD8+ T cells in culture were dividing alloreactive lymphocytes. In parallel with expansion, CD8+ T-cell differentiation was initiated, as evidenced by an increase in the number of CD45RA− and CD27− T cells and acquisition of the ability to produce interferon-γ after restimulation with the specific alloantigen. Finally, although short-term stimulation and measurement of intracellular cytokine production allowed visualization of alloreactive CD8+ T cells expanded in vitro, this procedure did not detect circulating alloreactive CD8+ T cells activated in vivo in recipients of allogeneic kidney grafts. PMID:11918689

  4. Mutagenesis and differentiation induction in mammalian cells by environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.; Huberman, E.

    1980-01-01

    These studies indicate that in agreement with the somatic mutation hypothesis, chemical carcinogens: (1) are mutagenic for mammalian cells as tested in the cell-mediated assay; (2) the degree of mutagenicity is correlated with their degree of carcinogenicity; (3) that at least in cases when analyzed carefully the metabolites responsible for mutagenesis are also responsible for initiating the carcinogenic event; and (4) that a cell organ type specificity can be established using the cell-mediated assay. Studies with HL-60 cells and HO melanoma cells and those of others suggest that tumor-promoting phorbol diesters can alter cell differentiation in various cell types and that the degree of the observed alteration in the differentiation properties may be related to the potency of the phorbol esters. Thus these and similar systems may serve as models for both studies and identification of certain types of tumor promoting agents. (ERB)

  5. Integrin Signaling, Cell Survival, and Anoikis: Distinctions, Differences, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, Pierre H.

    2011-01-01

    Cell survival and apoptosis implicate an increasing complexity of players and signaling pathways which regulate not only the decision-making process of surviving (or dying), but as well the execution of cell death proper. The same complex nature applies to anoikis, a form of caspase-dependent apoptosis that is largely regulated by integrin-mediated, cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Not surprisingly, the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis, and anoikis furthermore implicates additional mechanistic distinctions according to the specific tissue, cell type, and species. Incidentally, studies in recent years have unearthed yet another layer of complexity in the regulation of these cell processes, namely, the implication of cell differentiation state-specific mechanisms. Further analyses of such differentiation state-distinct mechanisms, either under normal or physiopathological contexts, should increase our understanding of diseases which implicate a deregulation of integrin function, cell survival, and anoikis. PMID:21785723

  6. Calcium phosphate surfaces promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Petra; Bulnheim, Ulrike; Diener, Annette; Lüthen, Frank; Teller, Marianne; Klinkenberg, Ernst-Dieter; Neumann, Hans-Georg; Nebe, Barbara; Liebold, Andreas; Steinhoff, Gustav; Rychly, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Although studies in vivo revealed promising results in bone regeneration after implantation of scaffolds together with osteogenic progenitor cells, basic questions remain how material surfaces control the biology of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). We used human MSC derived from bone marrow and studied the osteogenic differentiation on calcium phosphate surfaces. In osteogenic differentiation medium MSC differentiated to osteoblasts on hydroxyapatite and BONITmatrix®, a degradable xerogel composite, within 14 days. Cells revealed a higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased RNA expression of collagen I and osteocalcin using real-time RTPCR compared with cells on tissue culture plastic. To test whether material surface characteristics alone are able to stimulate osteogenic differentiation, MSC were cultured on the materials in expansion medium without soluble additives for osteogenic differentiation. Indeed, cells on calcium phosphate without osteogenic differentiation additives developed to osteoblasts as shown by increased ALP activity and expression of osteogenic genes, which was not the case on tissue culture plastic. Because we reasoned that the stimulating effect on osteogenesis by calcium phosphate surfaces depends on an altered cell–extracellular matrix interaction we studied the dynamic behaviour of focal adhesions using cells transfected with GFP labelled vinculin. On BONITmatrix®, an increased mobility of focal adhesions was observed compared with cells on tissue culture plastic. In conclusion, calcium phosphate surfaces are able to drive MSC to osteoblasts in the absence of osteogenic differentiation supplements in the medium. An altered dynamic behaviour of focal adhesions on calcium phosphate surfaces might be involved in the molecular mechanisms which promote osteogenic differentiation. PMID:18366455

  7. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Lin; Ma, Shi-Rong; Peng, Tao; Teng, Zeng-Hui; Liang, Xiang-Yan; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Kang-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP), stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3), SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells. PMID:25196518

  8. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on differentiation of HUES-17 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Lin; Ma, Shi-Rong; Peng, Tao; Teng, Zeng-Hui; Liang, Xiang-Yan; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Kang-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP), stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3), SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells. PMID:25196518

  9. Overlapping DNA Methylation Dynamics in Mouse Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Early Stages of Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Forn, Marta; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Muñoz, Mar; Lois, Sergi; Carriò, Elvira; Jordà, Mireia; Bigas, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Peinado, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal crypt cell differentiation and tumorigenesis have been used to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying both processes. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark and plays an important role in cell identity and differentiation programs and cancer. To get insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and malignant transformation we have compared the DNA methylation profiles along the mouse small intestine crypt and early stages of tumorigenesis. Genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation together with microarray gene expression have been applied to compare intestinal crypt stem cells (EphB2high), differentiated cells (EphB2negative), ApcMin/+ adenomas and the corresponding non-tumor adjacent tissue, together with small and large intestine samples and the colon cancer cell line CT26. Compared with late stages, small intestine crypt differentiation and early stages of tumorigenesis display few and relatively small changes in DNA methylation. Hypermethylated loci are largely shared by the two processes and affect the proximities of promoter and enhancer regions, with enrichment in genes associated with the intestinal stem cell signature and the PRC2 complex. The hypermethylation is progressive, with minute levels in differentiated cells, as compared with intestinal stem cells, and reaching full methylation in advanced stages. Hypomethylation shows different signatures in differentiation and cancer and is already present in the non-tumor tissue adjacent to the adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice, but at lower levels than advanced cancers. This study provides a reference framework to decipher the mechanisms driving mouse intestinal tumorigenesis and also the human counterpart. PMID:25933092

  10. Nitric Oxide Receptor Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Undergoes Splicing Regulation in Differentiating Human Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharin, Vladislav G.; Mujoo, Kalpana; Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator molecule in mammalian physiology, initiates a number of signaling mechanisms by activating the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Recently, a new role for NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in embryonic development and cell differentiation has emerged. The changes in expression of NO synthase isoforms and various sGC subunits has been demonstrated during human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiation. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that nascent α1 sGC transcript undergoes alternative splicing and that expression of α1 sGC splice forms directly affects sGC activity. Expression of sGC splice variants in the process of human ES (hES) cells differentiation has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate that α1 sGC undergoes alternative splicing during random hES differentiation for the first time. Our results indicate that C-α1 sGC splice form is expressed at high levels in differentiating cells and its intracellular distribution varies from canonical α1 sGC subunit. Together, our data suggest that alternative splicing of sGC subunits is associated with differentiation of hES cells. PMID:20964618

  11. A Cell-Based High-Throughput Screening for Inducers of Myeloid Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Radomska, Hanna S; Jernigan, Finith; Nakayama, Sohei; Jorge, Susan E; Sun, Lijun; Tenen, Daniel G; Kobayashi, Susumu S

    2015-10-01

    Recent progress of genetic studies has dramatically unveiled pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, overall survival of AML still remains unsatisfactory, and development of novel therapeutics is required. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) is one of the crucial transcription factors that induce granulocytic differentiation, and its activity is perturbed in human myeloid leukemias. As its reexpression can induce differentiation and subsequent apoptosis of leukemic cells in vitro, we hypothesized that chemical compounds that restore C/EBPα expression and/or activity would lead to myeloid differentiation of leukemic cells. Using a cell-based high-throughput screening, we identified 2-[(E)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4(3H)-quinazolinone as a potent inducer of C/EBPα and myeloid differentiation. Leukemia cell lines and primary blast cells isolated from human patients with AML treated with ICCB280 demonstrated evidence of morphological and functional differentiation, as well as massive apoptosis. We performed conformational analyses of the high-throughput screening hit compounds to postulate the spatial requirements for high potency. Our results warrant a development of novel differentiation therapies and significantly affect care of patients with AML with unfavorable prognosis in the near future. PMID:26109609

  12. Adult mesenchymal stem cells: differentiation potential and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L; Jones, D R; Scotting, P; Sottile, V

    2007-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent cells found primarily in the bone marrow. They have long been known to be capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and are currently the subject of a number of trials to assess their potential use in the clinic. Recently, the plasticity of these cells has come under close scrutiny as it has been suggested that they may have a differentiation potential beyond the mesenchymal lineage. Myogenic and in particular cardiomyogenic potential has been shown in vitro. MSCs have also been shown to have the ability to form neural cells both in vitro and in vivo, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these apparent transdifferentiation events are yet to be elucidated. We describe here the cellular characteristics and differentiation potential of MSCs, which represent a promising stem cell population for future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:17495381

  13. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage.

    PubMed

    Chani, Baldeep; Puri, Veena; Chander Sobti, Ranbir; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity. PMID:27397998

  14. Multiple mechanisms of interference between transformation and differentiation in thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Francis-Lang, H; Zannini, M; De Felice, M; Berlingieri, M T; Fusco, A; Di Lauro, R

    1992-12-01

    Transformation of the thyroid cell line FRTL-5 results in loss or reduction of differentiation as measured by the expression of thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase, two proteins whose genes are exclusively expressed in thyroid follicular cells. The biochemical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon were investigated in three cell lines obtained by transformation of FRTL-5 cells with Ki-ras, Ha-ras, and polyomavirus middle-T oncogenes. With the ras oncogenes, transformation leads to undetectable expression of the thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase genes. However, the mechanisms responsible for the extinction of the differentiated phenotype seem to be different for the two ras oncogenes. In Ki-ras-transformed cells, the mRNA encoding TTF-1, a transcription factor controlling thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase gene expression, is severely reduced. On the contrary, nearly wild-type levels of TTF-1 mRNA are detected in Ha-ras-transformed cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TTF-1 can activate transcription of the thyroglobulin promoter in Ki-ras-transformed cells, whereas it has no effect on thyroglobulin transcription in the Ha-ras-transformed line. Expression of polyoma middle-T antigen in thyroid cells leads to only a reduction of differentiation and does not severely affect either the activity or the amount of TTF-1. Another thyroid cell-specific transcription factor, TTF-2, is more sensitive to transformation, since it disappears in all three transformed lines, and probably contributes to the reduced expression of the differentiated phenotype. PMID:1448106

  15. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Chani, Baldeep; Puri, Veena; Chander Sobti, Ranbir; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity. PMID:27397998

  16. Differential cell photosensitivity following porphyrin photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Gomer, C J; Rucker, N; Murphree, A L

    1988-08-15

    Experiments were performed to determine if differences in porphyrin photosensitivity could be observed for cells with varying efficiency in DNA damage repair, as well as for cells which make up components of the vasculature. Photofrin II is undergoing current clinical evaluation for photodynamic therapy of solid tumors, and therefore the retention, dark toxicity, and photosensitizing effects of this drug on human DNA repair-deficient fibroblasts (ataxia telangiectasia and xeroderma pigmentosum) were compared to normal human fibroblasts. In addition, bovine cells of endothelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast origin were compared for porphyrin retention, toxicity, and photosensitivity. All human fibroblasts exhibited porphyrin-induced dark toxicity, but there were no significant differences in photosensitization or porphyrin retention for any of these cell lines. However, bovine endothelial cells were considerably more photosensitive than smooth muscle or fibroblast cells treated under identical conditions. All bovine cells accumulated similar levels of porphyrin, and therefore the increased sensitivity of the endothelial cells was not due to differences in porphyrin retention. These results provide additional evidence that nuclear damage and/or repair is not a dominant factor in the cytotoxicity induced by porphyrin photosensitization. In addition, these results indicate that endothelial cell photosensitivity may play a role in the vascular damage observed following photodynamic therapy. PMID:2969280

  17. Stem cell origin differently affects bone tissue engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Orciani, Monia; Dicarlo, Manuela; Fini, Milena; Orsini, Giovanna; Di Primio, Roberto; Falconi, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering approaches are encouraging for the improvement of conventional bone grafting technique drawbacks. Thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation ability, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and among these adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) are the first- identified and well-recognized stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue. On the basis of these considerations, we analyzed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e., periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum) as well as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches. PMID:26441682

  18. Communication is key: Reducing DEK1 activity reveals a link between cell-cell contacts and epidermal cell differentiation status.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2015-01-01

    Plant epidermis development requires not only the initial acquisition of tissue identity, but also the ability to differentiate specific cell types over time and to maintain these differentiated states throughout the plant life. To set-up and maintain differentiation, plants activate specific transcriptional programs. Interfering with these programs can prevent differentiation and/or force differentiated cells to lose their identity and re-enter a proliferative state. We have recently shown that the Arabidopsis Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) protein is required both for the differentiation of epidermal cells and for the maintenance of their fully differentiated state. Defects in DEK1 activity lead to a deregulation of the expression of epidermis-specific differentiation-promoting HD-ZIP IV transcription factors. Here we propose a working model in which DEK1, by maintaining cell-cell contacts, and thus communication between neighboring cells, influences HD-ZIP IV gene expression and epidermis differentiation. PMID:27064205

  19. Histone content increases in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Karnavas, Theodoros; Pintonello, Luisa; Agresti, Alessandra; Bianchi, Marco E

    2014-01-01

    Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) are pluripotent mammalian cells derived from the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of mouse blastocysts, which give rise to all three embryonic germ layers both in vivo and in vitro. Mouse ESCs have a distinct epigenetic landscape and a more decondensed chromatin compared to differentiated cells. Numerous studies have shown that distinct histone modifications in ESCs serve as hallmarks of pluripotency. However, so far it is still unknown whether the total histone content (as opposed to histone modifications) remains the same in cells of different developmental stage and differentiation capacity. In this work we show that total histone content differs between pluripotent and differentiated cells. In vitro spontaneous differentiation from ESCs to Embryoid Bodies (EBs) and directed differentiation toward neuronal and endodermal cells entails an increase in histone content. Primary MEFs also contain more histones than ESCs. We suggest that the difference in histone content is an additional hallmark of pluripotency, in addition to and besides histone modifications. PMID:25221520

  20. Tissue-specific DNA demethylation is required for proper B-cell differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Orlanski, Shari; Labi, Verena; Reizel, Yitzhak; Spiro, Adam; Lichtenstein, Michal; Levin-Klein, Rena; Koralov, Sergei B; Skversky, Yael; Rajewsky, Klaus; Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2016-05-01

    There is ample evidence that somatic cell differentiation during development is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation of specific sites that vary between cell types. Although the mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated, it is likely to involve the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC by Tet enzymes. We show that a Tet2/Tet3 conditional knockout at early stages of B-cell development largely prevents lineage-specific programmed demethylation events. This lack of demethylation affects the expression of nearby B-cell lineage genes by impairing enhancer activity, thus causing defects in B-cell differentiation and function. Thus, tissue-specific DNA demethylation appears to be necessary for proper somatic cell development in vivo. PMID:27091986

  1. The transcriptional landscape of αβ T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mingueneau, Michael; Kreslavsky, Taras; Gray, Daniel; Heng, Tracy; Cruse, Richard; Ericson, Jeffrey; Bendall, Sean; Spitzer, Matt; Nolan, Garry; Kobayashi, Koichi; von Boehmer, Harald; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    αβT cell differentiation from thymic precursors is a complex process, explored here with the breadth of ImmGen expression datasets, analyzing how differentiation of thymic precursors gives rise to transcriptomes. After surprisingly gradual changes though early T commitment, transit through the CD4+CD8+ stage involves a shutdown or rare breadth, and correlating tightly with MYC. MHC-driven selection promotes a large-scale transcriptional reactivation. We identify distinct signatures that mark cells destined for positive selection versus apoptotic deletion. Differential expression of surprisingly few genes accompany CD4 or CD8 commitment, a similarity that carries through to peripheral T cells and their activation, revealed by mass cytometry phosphoproteomics. The novel transcripts identified as candidate mediators of key transitions help define the “known unknown” of thymocyte differentiation. PMID:23644507

  2. Microenvironment influences vascular differentiation of murine cardiovascular progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Jessica M; Delman, Connor; Chyu, Jennifer; MacLellan, W Robb; Shemin, Richard J; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the microenvironment on vascular differentiation of murine cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs). We isolated CPCs and seeded them in culture exposed to the various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D culture systems. To better understand the contribution of the microenvironment to vascular differentiation, we analyzed endothelial and smooth muscle cell differentiation at both day 7 and day 14. We found that laminin and vitronectin enhanced vascular endothelial cell differentiation while fibronectin enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. We also observed that the effects of the 3D electrospun scaffolds were delayed and not noticeable until the later time point (day 14), which may be due to the amount of time necessary for the cells to migrate to the interior of the scaffold. The study characterized the contributions of both ECM proteins and the addition of a 3D culture system to continued vascular differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrated the capability bioengineer a CPC-derived vascular graft. PMID:24687591

  3. In Vitro Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD133+Cells into Insulin Producing Cells in Co-Culture with Rat Pancreatic Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Zandieh, Tahereh; Khoshchehreh, Reyhaneh; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic stroma plays an important role in the induction of pancreatic cells by the use of close range signaling. In this respect, we presume that pancreatic mesenchymal cells (PMCs) as a fundamental factor of the stromal niche may have an effective role in differentiation of umbilical cord blood cluster of differentiation 133+ (UCB-CD133+) cells into newly-formed β-cells in vitro. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research. The UCB-CD133+cells were purified by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs) in co-culture, both directly and indirectly with rat PMCs. Immunocytochemistry and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine expression and production of insulin and C-peptide at the protein level. Results Our results demonstrated that UCB-CD133+differentiated into IPCs. Cells in islet-like clusters with (out) co-cultured with rat pancreatic stromal cells produced insulin and C-peptide and released them into the culture medium at the end of the induction protocol. However they did not respond well to glucose challenges. Conclusion Rat PMCs possibly affect differentiation of UCB-CD133+cells into IPCs by increasing the number of immature β-cells. PMID:26199900

  4. Genes associated with T helper 17 cell differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Nalbant, Ayten; Eskier, Doga

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) constitute a lineage of CD4 effector T helper cells that is distinct from the Th1 and Th2 CD4 phenotypes. In humans, Th17 differentiation is induced in the presence of the cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TGF beta, whereas IL-23 maintains Th17 survival. Effector human Th17 cells express several cytokines and cell surface markers, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, CCR6 and TNFalpha. Studies on human cells have revealed that the RORC2 transcription factor plays an effective role in Th17 differentiation. Th17 cells contribute to the host immune response by involving various pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. However, the full extent of their contribution to diseases is being investigated. The differentiation of Th17 cells is controlled by many transcription factors, including ROR gammat, IRF4, RUNX1, BATF, and STAT3. This review covers the general principles of CD4 T helper differentiation and the known transcription factors that play a role in the recently discovered Th17 cells. PMID:27100349

  5. Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Moller-Holst S.

    1998-11-01

    Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

  6. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  7. Differential responses of scirrhous and well-differentiated gastric cancer cells to orthotopic fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, M.; Chung, Y. S.; Kubo, T.; Hato, F.; Sowa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Scirrhous gastric cancer cells proliferate rapidly with fibrosis, when the cancer cells invade into the submucosa of the stomach. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the rapid proliferation, the growth interaction between gastric cancer cells and fibroblasts was examined. Human gastric cancer cell lines established from scirrhous carcinoma or well-differentiated adenocarcinoma were used. Human fibroblast cell lines were obtained from various organs. The growth interaction between gastric cancer cells and fibroblasts was examined by calculating the number of cancer cells or by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation of cancer cells. Gastric fibroblasts specifically stimulated the growth of scirrhous gastric cancer cells, but not that of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. The growth factor(s) produced from gastric fibroblasts were then partially purified and characterised. The growth-promoting factor(s) had apparent molecular weights of 10000 dalton and was sensitive both to heat and proteinase treatment. No inhibition for the factor(s) was achieved with defined anti-growth factor antibodies. In this study, differential responses of scirrhous and well-differentiated gastric cancer cells to orthotopic fibroblasts were shown. Rapid proliferation of scirrhous gastric carcinoma should be partly controlled by orthotopic fibroblasts. The growth factor(s) from gastric fibroblasts, which was distinct from various defined growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) may play an important role in the progression of scirrhous gastric cancer cells. PMID:8855981

  8. Oncogenic NRAS Primes Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells for Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Cornelia; Teichler, Sabine; Millahn, Axel; Stiewe, Thorsten; Krause, Michael; Stabla, Kathleen; Ross, Petra; Huynh, Minh; Illmer, Thomas; Mernberger, Marco; Barckhausen, Christina; Neubauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    RAS mutations are frequently found among acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML), generating a constitutively active signaling protein changing cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that treatment of AML patients with high-dose cytarabine is preferentially beneficial for those harboring oncogenic RAS. On the basis of a murine AML cell culture model, we ascribed this effect to a RAS-driven, p53-dependent induction of differentiation. Hence, in this study we sought to confirm the correlation between RAS status and differentiation of primary blasts obtained from AML patients. The gene expression signature of AML blasts with oncogenic NRAS indeed corresponded to a more mature profile compared to blasts with wildtype RAS, as demonstrated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and real-time PCR analysis of myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 homolog (MEIS1) in a unique cohort of AML patients. In addition, in vitro cell culture experiments with established cell lines and a second set of primary AML cells showed that oncogenic NRAS mutations predisposed cells to cytarabine (AraC) driven differentiation. Taken together, our findings show that AML with inv(16) and NRAS mutation have a differentiation gene signature, supporting the notion that NRAS mutation may predispose leukemic cells to AraC induced differentiation. We therefore suggest that promotion of differentiation pathways by specific genetic alterations could explain the superior treatment outcome after therapy in some AML patient subgroups. Whether a differentiation gene expression status may generally predict for a superior treatment outcome in AML needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25901794

  9. Differential Effects of Isoxazole-9 on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells, Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells, and Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Takakuni; Shindo, Akihiro; Osumi, Noriko; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Hong; Holder, Julie C.; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; McNeish, John D.; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brain can be plastic after injury and disease. Therefore, boosting endogenous repair mechanisms would be a useful therapeutic approach for neurological disorders. Isoxazole-9 (Isx-9) has been reported to enhance neurogenesis from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). However, the effects of Isx-9 on other types of progenitor/precursor cells remain mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Isx-9 on the three major populations of progenitor/precursor cells in brain: NSPCs, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Cultured primary NSPCs, OPCs, or EPCs were treated with various concentrations of Isx-9 (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 μM), and their cell numbers were counted in a blinded manner. Isx-9 slightly increased the number of NSPCs and effectively induced neuronal differentiation of NSPCs. However, Isx-9 significantly decreased OPC number in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting cytotoxicity. Isx-9 did not affect EPC cell number. But in a matrigel assay of angiogenesis, Isx-9 significantly inhibited tube formation in outgrowth endothelial cells derived from EPCs. This potential anti-tube-formation effect of Isx-9 was confirmed in a brain endothelial cell line. Taken together, our data suggest that mechanisms and targets for promoting stem/progenitor cells in the central nervous system may significantly differ between cell types. PMID:26407349

  10. Differential Regulation of Cellular Senescence and Differentiation by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Cardiac Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Toko, Haruhiro; Hariharan, Nirmala; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie A.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Joyo, Eri; Joyo, Anya Y.; Collins, Brett; Din, Shabana; Mohsin, Sadia; Uchida, Takafumi; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Autologous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are currently used in the clinic to treat heart disease. CPC-based regeneration may be further augmented by better understanding molecular mechanisms of endogenous cardiac repair and enhancement of pro-survival signaling pathways that antagonize senescence while also increasing differentiation. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates multiple signaling cascades by modulating protein folding and thereby activity and stability of phosphoproteins. In this study, we examine the heretofore unexplored role of Pin1 in CPCs. Pin1 is expressed in CPCs in vitro and in vivo and is associated with increased proliferation. Pin1 is required for cell cycle progression and loss of Pin1 causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in CPCs, concomitantly associated with decreased expression of Cyclins D and B and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb). Pin1 deletion increases cellular senescence but not differentiation or cell death of CPCs. Pin1 is required for endogenous CPC response as Pin1 knock-out mice have a reduced number of proliferating CPCs after ischemic challenge. Pin1 overexpression also impairs proliferation and causes G2/M phase cell cycle arrest with concurrent down-regulation of Cyclin B, p53, and Rb. Additionally, Pin1 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence, increases differentiation, and inhibits cell death of CPCs, indicating that cell cycle arrest caused by Pin1 overexpression is a consequence of differentiation and not senescence or cell death. In conclusion, Pin1 has pleiotropic roles in CPCs and may be a molecular target to promote survival, enhance repair, improve differentiation, and antagonize senescence. PMID:24375406

  11. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  12. Metabolic regulation of T cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Benjamin V.; Pan, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Upon encountering pathogens, T cells mount immune responses by proliferating, increasing cellular mass and differentiating. These cellular changes impose significant energetic challenges on T cells. It was believed that TCR and cytokine-mediated signaling are dominant dictators of T cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, it was recognized that T cells utilize metabolic transporters and metabolic sensors that allow them to rapidly respond to nutrient-limiting inflammatory environments. Metabolic sensors allow T cells to find a balance between energy consumption (anabolic metabolism) and production (catabolic metabolism) in order to mount effective immune responses. Also, metabolic regulators interact with cytokine-dependent transcriptional regulators, suggesting a more integrative and advanced model of T cell activation and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss recent discoveries regarding the roles of metabolic regulators in effector and memory T cell development and their interaction with canonical transcription factors. PMID:26277275

  13. Cell adhesion property affected by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase: Opto-electric approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Kyoung; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Seong-Ho; English, Anthony; Kihm, Kenneth D; Baek, Seung Joon

    2010-01-15

    Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- and COX-2-expressing cells enhanced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, but all the transfected cells showed invasion activity. However, in a real-time experiment using opto-electric approaches, transmitted cellular morphology was much different with tight adhesion being shown in COX-2 expressing cells, as imaged by differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM) and interference reflection contrast microscopy (IRCM). Furthermore, micro-impedance measurements showed a continued increase in both resistance and reactance of COX- and LOX-transfected cells, consistent with the imaging data. Our data indicate that both COX- and LOX-expressing cells have strong cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesions, and that cell imaging analysis with cell impedance data generates fully reliable results on cell adhesion measurement. PMID:20026301

  14. Glyceroglycolipids Affect Uptake of Carotenoids Solubilized in Mixed Micelles by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Yonekura, Lina; Nagao, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that phospholipids markedly affected the uptake of carotenoids solubilized in mixed micelles by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. In the present study, we found that two classes of dietary glyceroglycolipids and the corresponding lysoglyceroglycolipids affected uptake of β-carotene and lutein by differentiated Caco-2 cells. The levels of carotenoid uptake from micelles containing digalactosyldiacylglycerol or sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol were significantly lower than that from control micelles. On the other hand, the uptakes from micelles containing digalactosylmonoacylglycerol or sulfoquinovosylmonoacylglycerol were significantly higher than that from control micelles. In dispersed cells and Caco-2 cells with poor cell-to-cell adhesion, however, the levels of uptake from micelles containing these lyso-lipids were much lower than that from control micelles. The uptake levels from control micelles were markedly decreased depending on the development of cell-to-cell/cell-matrix adhesion in Caco-2 cells, but the uptake levels from the micelles containing these lyso-lipids were not substantially changed, suggesting that the intercellular barrier formed by cell-to-cell/cell-matrix adhesion inhibited the uptake from control micelles, but not from the lyso-lipid-containing micelles. The lyso-lipids appeared to enhance carotenoid uptake by decreasing the intercellular barrier integrity. The results showed that some types of glyceroglycolipids have the potential to modify the intestinal uptake of carotenoids. PMID:26012480

  15. Tinospora cordifolia Induces Differentiation and Senescence Pathways in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rachana; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-08-01

    Children diagnosed with neuroblastomas often suffer from severe side as well as late effects of conventional treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent advances in understanding of molecular pathways involved in cellular differentiation and apoptosis have helped in the development of new therapeutic approach based on differentiation-based therapy of malignant tumours. Natural medicines with their holistic therapeutic approach are known to selectively eliminate cancer cells thus provide a better substitute for the conventional treatment modes. The current study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) using IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line as a model system. TCE is highly recommended in Ayurveda for its general body and metal health-promoting properties. TCE treatment was seen to arrest the majority of cells in G0/G1 phase and modulated the expression of DNA clamp sliding protein (PCNA) and cyclin D1. Further, TCE-treated cells showed differentiation as revealed by their morphology and the expression of neuronal cell specific differentiation markers NF200, MAP-2 and NeuN in neuroblastoma cells. The differentiated phenotype was associated with induction of senescence and pro-apoptosis pathways by enhancing expression of senescence marker mortalin and Rel A subunit of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) along with decreased expression of anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl-xl. TCE exhibited anti-metastatic activity and significantly reduced cell migration in the scratched area along with downregulation of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) polysialylation and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our data suggest that crude extract or active phytochemicals from this plant may be a potential candidate for differentiation-based therapy of malignant neuroblastoma cells. PMID:25280667

  16. Ageing and muscular dystrophy differentially affect murine pharyngeal muscles in a region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E; Luo, Qingwei; Ho, Justin; Vest, Katherine E; Sokoloff, Alan J; Pavlath, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    The inability to swallow, or dysphagia, is a debilitating and life-threatening condition that arises with ageing or disease. Dysphagia results from neurological or muscular impairment of one or more pharyngeal muscles, which function together to ensure proper swallowing and prevent the aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs. Little is known about the effects of age or disease on pharyngeal muscles as a group. Here we show ageing affected pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy in wild-type mice depending on the particular muscle analysed. Furthermore, wild-type mice also developed dysphagia with ageing. Additionally, we studied pharyngeal muscles in a mouse model for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, a dysphagic disease caused by a polyalanine expansion in the RNA binding protein, PABPN1. We examined pharyngeal muscles of mice overexpressing either wild-type A10 or mutant A17 PABPN1. Overexpression of mutant A17 PABPN1 differentially affected growth of the palatopharyngeus muscle dependent on its location within the pharynx. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type A10 PABPN1 was protective against age-related muscle atrophy in the laryngopharynx and prevented the development of age-related dysphagia. These results demonstrate that pharyngeal muscles are differentially affected by both ageing and muscular dystrophy in a region-dependent manner. These studies lay important groundwork for understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy, which may lead to novel therapies for individuals with dysphagia. PMID:25326455

  17. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins. PMID:27358127

  18. The role of purinergic receptors in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kaebisch, Constanze; Schipper, Dorothee; Babczyk, Patrick; Tobiasch, Edda

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge modern society has to face is the increasing need for tissue regeneration due to degenerative diseases or tumors, but also accidents or warlike conflicts. There is great hope that stem cell-based therapies might improve current treatments of cardiovascular diseases, osteochondral defects or nerve injury due to the unique properties of stem cells such as their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Since embryonic stem cells raise severe ethical concerns and are prone to teratoma formation, adult stem cells are still in the focus of research. Emphasis is placed on cellular signaling within these cells and in between them for a better understanding of the complex processes regulating stem cell fate. One of the oldest signaling systems is based on nucleotides as ligands for purinergic receptors playing an important role in a huge variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and differentiation. Besides their natural ligands, several artificial agonists and antagonists have been identified for P1 and P2 receptors and are already used as drugs. This review outlines purinergic receptor expression and signaling in stem cells metabolism. We will briefly describe current findings in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells as well as in cancer-, hematopoietic-, and neural crest-derived stem cells. The major focus will be placed on recent findings of purinergic signaling in mesenchymal stem cells addressed in in vitro and in vivo studies, since stem cell fate might be manipulated by this system guiding differentiation towards the desired lineage in the future. PMID:26900431

  19. Silicon Micropore based Electromechanical Transducer to Differentiate Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Waqas; Raza, Muhammad U.; Khanzada, Raja R.; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2015-03-01

    Solid-state micropores have been used before to differentiate cancer cells from normal cells using size-based filtering. Tumor cells differ from normal ones not only in size but also in physical properties like elasticity, shape, motility etc. Tumor cells show different physical attributes depending on the stage and type of cancer. We report a micropore based electromechanical transducer that differentiated cancer cells based on their mechanophysical properties. The device was interfaced with a high-speed patch-clamp measurement system that biased the ionic solution across the silicon-based membrane. The bias resulted in the flow of ionic current. Electrical pulses were generated when cells passed through. Different cells depicted characteristic pulses. Translocation profiles of cells that were either small or were more elastic and flexible caused electrical pulses shorter in widths and amplitudes whereas cells with larger size or lesser elasticity/flexibility showed deeper and wider pulses. Three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines NCI-H1155, A549 and NCI-H460 were successfully differentiated. NCI-H1155, due to their comparatively smaller size, were found quickest in translocating through. The solid-sate micropore based electromechanical transducer could process the whole blood sample of cancer patient without any pre-processing requirements and is ideal for point-of-care applications. Support Acknowledged from NSF through ECCS-1201878.

  20. Differential protein network analysis of the immune cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Trevor; Hovig, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen) completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks. PMID:25309909

  1. Cell cycle imaging with quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyk, Piotr; Phelan, Shelley; Xu, Min

    2013-02-01

    We report a microscopic approach for determining cell cycle stages by measuring the nuclear optical path length (OPL) with quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The approach is validated by the excellent agreement between the proportion of proliferating-to-quiescent cancerous breast epithelial cells obtained from DIC microscopy, and that from a standard immunofluorescence assay.

  2. Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad

    2007-11-13

    A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.

  3. Cell line models of differentiation: preadipocytes and adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intense study of adipocyte biology spurred by interest in regulating body composition and metabolism has given rise to a number of in vitro cell models. These in vitro models have been invaluable in determining the mechanisms involved in adipocyte differentiation. In addition in vitro cell sys...

  4. Hearing loss differentially affects thalamic drive to two cortical interneuron subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Sharma, Neeti; Sanes, Dan H.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory deprivation, such as developmental hearing loss, leads to an adjustment of synaptic and membrane properties throughout the central nervous system. These changes are thought to compensate for diminished sound-evoked activity. This model predicts that compensatory changes should be synergistic with one another along each functional pathway. To test this idea, we examined the excitatory thalamic drive to two types of cortical inhibitory interneurons that display differential effects in response to developmental hearing loss. The inhibitory synapses made by fast-spiking (FS) cells are weakened by hearing loss, whereas those made by low threshold-spiking (LTS) cells remain strong but display greater short-term depression (Takesian et al. 2010). Whole-cell recordings were made from FS or LTS interneurons in a thalamocortical brain slice, and medial geniculate (MG)-evoked postsynaptic potentials were analyzed. Following hearing loss, MG-evoked net excitatory potentials were smaller than normal at FS cells but larger than normal at LTS cells. Furthermore, MG-evoked excitatory potentials displayed less short-term depression at FS cells and greater short-term depression at LTS cells. Thus deprivation-induced adjustments of excitatory synapses onto inhibitory interneurons are cell-type specific and parallel the changes made by the inhibitory afferents. PMID:23719211

  5. Dendritic cells treated with resveratrol during differentiation from monocytes gain substantial tolerogenic properties upon activation

    PubMed Central

    Švajger, Urban; Obermajer, Nataša; Jeras, Matjaž

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that acts on multiple molecular targets important for cell differentiation and activation. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a functionally diverse cell type and represent the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. In this study, we investigated resveratrol-induced effects on DCs during their differentiation and maturation. Our results show that resveratrol induces DC-associated tolerance, particularly when applied during DC differentiation. Costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 were down-regulated, as was the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Surface expression of inhibitory immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 molecules was induced, while human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G expression was not affected. Resveratrol-treated DCs lost the ability to produce interleukin (IL)-12p70 after activation, but had an increased ability to produce IL-10. Such DCs were poor stimulators of allogeneic T cells and had lowered ability to induce CD4+ T-cell migration. Furthermore, treated cells were able to generate allogeneic IL-10-secreting T cells, but were not competent in inducing FoxP3 expression These tolerogenic effects are probably associated with the effect of resveratrol on multiple molecular targets through which it interferes with DC differentiation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB translocation. Our data provide new insights into the molecular and functional mechanisms of the tolerogenic effects that resveratrol exerts on DCs. PMID:20002210

  6. DNA topoisomerase IIβ as a molecular switch in neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Isik, Sevim; Zaim, Merve; Yildiz, Mehmet Taha; Negis, Yesim; Kunduraci, Tuba; Karakas, Nihal; Arikan, Gulsum; Cetin, Guven

    2015-02-01

    Two isoforms of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) have been identified in mammalian cells, named topo IIα and topo IIβ. Topo IIα plays an essential role in segregation of daughter chromosomes and thus for cell proliferation in mammalian cells. Unlike its isozyme topo IIα, topo IIβ is greatly expressed upon terminal differentiation of neuronal cells. Although there have been accumulating evidence about the crucial role of topo IIβ in neural development through activation or repression of developmentally regulated genes at late stages of neuronal differentiation, there have been no reports that analyzed the roles of topo IIβ in the neural trans differentiation process of multipotent stem cells. Terminal differentiation of neurons and transdifferentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are two distinct processes. Therefore, the functional significance of topo IIβ may also be different in these differentiation systems. MSC transdifferentiation into neuron-like cells represents an useful model to further validate the role of topo IIβ in neuronal differentiation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the subset of genes that are regulated in neural transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived human MSCs (BM-hMSCs) in vitro and find genes related with topo IIβ. For this purpose, topo IIβ was silenced by specific small interfering RNAs in hMSCs and cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells. Differentiation and silencing of topo IIβ were monitored by real-time cell analysis and also expressions of topo II isoforms were analyzed. Change in transcription patterns of genes upon topo IIβ silencing was identified by DNA microarray analysis, and apparently genes involved in regulation of several ion channels and transporters, vesicle function, and cell calcium metabolism were particularly affected by topo IIβ silencing suggesting that topoIIβ silencing can significantly alter the gene expression pattern of genes involved in variety of biological

  7. Substrate Induced Osteoblast-Like Differentiation of Stromal Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizar, Jacqueline; Glaser, Reena; Hung, Matthew; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Shih, Alice

    2009-03-01

    We have demonstrated that Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be induced to biomineralize on a polybutadiene (PB) coated Si substrate. The cells began to generate calcium phosphate deposits after a five-day incubation period in the absence of dexamethasone. Control cells plated on tissue culture PS culture dish (TCP) did not biomineralize. In addition, the biomineralizing culture retained proliferative cells In order to determine whether the induction was transient, we transferred the cells exposed to polybutadiene after 14 and 28-day incubation periods to TCP dishes. These cells continued to biominerlize. Genetic testing is underway which will determine whether differentiation is maintained after transfer.

  8. Somatic mutation and cell differentiation in neoplastic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Collart, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    In brief, the authors suggest that tumor formation may result from continuous expression of growth facilitating genes that, as a result of irreversible changes during the initiation step, are placed under the control of genes expressed during normal differentiation. Thus, to understand carcinogenesis, we must decipher the processes that lead to the acquisition of a mature phenotype in both normal and tumor cells and characterize the growth dependency of tumor cells to inducers of cell differentiation. Furthermore, the growth of a variety of tumors may be controlled through the use of inducers of maturation that activate genes located beyond the gene that is altered during tumor initiation. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (Keystone Sym)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal is to establish an in vitro model system to evaluate chemical effects using a single stem cell culture technique that would improve throughput and provide quantitative markers of differentiation and cell number. To this end, we have used an adherent cell differentiation ...

  10. Wnt3a is critical for endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Du, Yibin; Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Tao; Du, Gongwen; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Zongsheng

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether co-culture with bone marrow‑derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) affects the proliferation and differentiation of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The proliferation and differentiation of the NSCs were evaluated by an MTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, and immunofluorescence, respectively. The number of neurospheres and the number of β‑tubulin III‑positive cells were detected by microscopy. The wingless‑type MMTV integration site family, member 3a (Wnt3a)/β-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction to elucidate the possible mechanisms of EPC‑mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation. The results revealed that co‑culture with EPCs significantly induced NSC proliferation and differentiation. In addition, co‑culture with EPCs markedly induced the expression levels of Wnt3a and β‑catenin and inhibited the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK‑3β). By contrast, Wnt3a knockdown using a short hairpin RNA plasmid in the EPCs reduced EPC‑mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation, accompanied by inhibition of the EPC‑mediated expression of β‑catenin, and its phosphorylation and activation of GSK‑3β. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrated that Wnt3a was critical for EPC‑mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:27484039

  11. Wnt3a is critical for endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yibin; Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Tao; Du, Gongwen; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Zongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether co-culture with bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) affects the proliferation and differentiation of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The proliferation and differentiation of the NSCs were evaluated by an MTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, and immunofluorescence, respectively. The number of neurospheres and the number of β-tubulin III-positive cells were detected by microscopy. The wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3a (Wnt3a)/β-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to elucidate the possible mechanisms of EPC-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation. The results revealed that co-culture with EPCs significantly induced NSC proliferation and differentiation. In addition, co-culture with EPCs markedly induced the expression levels of Wnt3a and β-catenin and inhibited the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). By contrast, Wnt3a knockdown using a short hairpin RNA plasmid in the EPCs reduced EPC-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation, accompanied by inhibition of the EPC-mediated expression of β-catenin, and its phosphorylation and activation of GSK-3β. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrated that Wnt3a was critical for EPC-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:27484039

  12. Detection of Osteogenic Differentiation by Differential Mineralized Matrix Production in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He-Guei; Chiang, Hui-Hua Kenny; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold great potential in skeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, conventional methods that are used in molecular biology to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of MSCs require a relatively large amount of cells. Cell lysis and cell fixation are also required and all these steps are time-consuming. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a facile technique which can provide real-time information with high sensitivity and selectivity to detect the osteogenic maturation of MSCs. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as a biosensor to monitor the production of mineralized matrices during osteogenic induction of MSCs. In summary, Raman spectroscopy is an excellent biosensor to detect the extent of maturation level during MSCs-osteoblast differentiation with a non-disruptive, real-time and label free manner. We expect that this study will promote further investigation of stem cell research and clinical applications. PMID:23734254

  13. A matter of identity - Phenotype and differentiation potential of human somatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    New, S E P; Alvarez-Gonzalez, C; Vagaska, B; Gomez, S G; Bulstrode, N W; Madrigal, A; Ferretti, P

    2015-07-01

    Human somatic stem cells with neural differentiation potential can be valuable for developing cell-based therapies, including treatment of birth-related defects, while avoiding issues associated with cell reprogramming. Precisely defining the "identity" and differentiation potential of somatic stem cells from different sources, has proven difficult, given differences in sets of specific markers, protocols used and lack of side-by-side characterization of these cells in different studies. Therefore, we set to compare expression of mesenchymal and neural markers in human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), pediatric adipose-derived stem cells (p-ADSCs) in parallel with human neural stem cells (NSCs). We show that UC-MSCs at a basal level express mesenchymal and so-called "neural" markers, similar to that we previously reported for the p-ADSCs. All somatic stem cell populations studied, independently from tissue and patient of origin, displayed a remarkably similar expression of surface markers, with the main difference being the restricted expression of CD133 and CD34 to NSCs. Expression of certain surface and neural markers was affected by the expansion medium used. As predicted, UC-MSCs and p-ADSCs demonstrated tri-mesenchymal lineage differentiation potential, though p-ADSCs display superior chondrogenic differentiation capability. UC-MSCs and p-ADSCs responded also to neurogenic induction by up-regulating neuronal markers, but crucially they appeared morphologically immature when compared with differentiated NSCs. This highlights the need for further investigation into the use of these cells for neural therapies. Crucially, this study demonstrates the lack of simple means to distinguish between different cell types and the effect of culture conditions on their phenotype, and indicates that a more extensive set of markers should be used for somatic stem cell characterization, especially when developing therapeutic approaches. PMID:25957945

  14. Differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor β-cells into insulin secreting cells in mice with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Ermakova, N N; Khmelevskaya, E S; Pershina, O V; Krupin, V A; Ermolaeva, L A; Dygai, A M

    2014-04-01

    We studied in vitro differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor cells into insulin secreting cells in the model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in C57Bl/6 mice. Streptozotocin was shown to increase the population of pancreatic oligopotent β-cell precursors (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD133(+), and CD49f(low)) and did not affect multipotent (stem) progenitor cells (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), CD309(-)). During long-term culturing, diabetic multipotent progenitor cells showed high capacity for self-renewal. A population of dithizone-positive (insulin secreting cells) mononuclear cells was obtained releasing insulin after prolonged culturing in suspension enriched with diabetic CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), and CD309(-) cells. The rate of generation of "new" insulin-producing cells and insulin release in the samples of experimental group considerably exceeded activity of the corresponding processes in the control group. PMID:24824681

  15. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  16. Isolation and in vitro differentiation of human erythroid precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Marks, P A; Rifking, R A; Maniatis, G M; Bank, A

    1976-05-01

    There is decreased beta-globin production in beta-thalassemic reticulocytes and nucleated erythroid cells. In this study, we have examined whether unbalanced globin synthesis is expressed at all stages of human erythroid cell maturation. In order to determine the pattern of globin synthesis in early erythroid cells during erythroid cell maturation, an in vitro culture system using human bone marrow erythroid precursor cells has been developed. Early erythroid precursor cells (proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts) have been isolated from nonthalassemic and thalassemic human bone marrows by lysing more mature erythroid cells, using complement and a rabbit antiserum prepared against normal human red cells. In the presence of erythropoietin, differentiation and proliferation of erythroid cells in demonstrable in liquid suspension culture for 24-48 hr, as determined by morphological criteria and by an increase in globin synthesis. The ratio of alpha- to beta-globin chain synthesis in nonthalassemic cells in approximately 1 at all stages of erythroid cell differentiation during culture. In cells from four patients with homozygous beta- thalassemia there is decreased beta-globin synthesis compared to alpha-globin synthesis, both in early erythroid precursor cells and during their maturation in culture. These findings indicate that unbalanced globin chain synthesis is expressed at all stages of red cell maturation in homozygous beta-thalassemia. PMID:1260133

  17. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  18. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  19. Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ki-Mo; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Jang, Ji-Hun; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yoon, Il-Joo; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Kwang Dong; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure also induced decreases in NK cytolytic activity and in the expression of NK cell-associated genes, such as IFN-γ, perforin and CD122. To determine the effect of FA on tumorigenicity, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with B16F10 melanoma cells after FA exposure. The mass of the B16F10 tumor and the concentration of extravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes were greater than those in unexposed tumor-bearing control mice. The number and cytolytic activity of NK cells were also reduced in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice exposed to FA. To determine how FA reduces the NK cell number, NK precursor (pNK) cells were treated with FA, and the differentiation status of the NK cells was analyzed. NK cell differentiation was impaired by FA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that FA exposure may promote tumor progression by impairing NK cell function and differentiation. PMID:24060340

  20. Sox2 in the differentiation of cochlear progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kempfle, Judith S.; Turban, Jack L.; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2016-01-01

    HMG domain transcription factor, Sox2, is a critical gene for the development of cochlear hair cells, the receptor cells for hearing, but this has been ascribed to expansion of the progenitors that become hair cells. Here, we show that Sox2 activated Atoh1, a transcription factor important for hair cell differentiation, through an interaction with the 3′ enhancer of Atoh1. Binding to consensus sequences in the Atoh1 enhancer was dependent on the level of Sox2, and the extent of enhancer binding correlated to the extent of activation. Atoh1 activation by Sox2 was required for embryonic hair cell development: deletion of Sox2 in an inducible mutant, even after progenitor cells were fully established, halted development of hair cells, and silencing also inhibited postnatal differentiation of hair cells induced by inhibition of γ-secretase. Sox2 is thus required in the cochlea to both expand the progenitor cells and initiate their differentiation to hair cells. PMID:26988140

  1. [B-cell neoplasms with plasmacellular and plasmablastic differentiation].

    PubMed

    Fend, F; Quintanilla-Martínez, L

    2013-05-01

    Plasma cell malignancies are tumors of terminally differentiated B-cells in which the neoplastic plasma cells are the dominant and proliferating tumor cell component. Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is one of the most common hematological neoplasms and typically does not cause diagnostic problems. A morphologically and immunophenotypically detectable plasmacellular orplasmablastic differentiation is, however, commonly observed in a wide range of mature B-cell lymphomas. A confident separation of the distinct entities requires the integration of clinical and morphological findings as well as an adequate phenotyping of both the plasma cell and the B-cell component if present. Detection of lymphotropic viruses, specific translocations and novel molecular markers, such as the MYD88 L265P mutation occurring in the vast majority of lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas complement our diagnostic repertoire. In this review we describe the most commonly observed diagnostic problems in separating small B-cell lymphomas from PCM and high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) with plasmablastic differentiation from extramedullary spread of aggressive PCM and provide helpful criteria for routine diagnostics. PMID:23462793

  2. Sox2 in the differentiation of cochlear progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kempfle, Judith S; Turban, Jack L; Edge, Albert S B

    2016-01-01

    HMG domain transcription factor, Sox2, is a critical gene for the development of cochlear hair cells, the receptor cells for hearing, but this has been ascribed to expansion of the progenitors that become hair cells. Here, we show that Sox2 activated Atoh1, a transcription factor important for hair cell differentiation, through an interaction with the 3' enhancer of Atoh1. Binding to consensus sequences in the Atoh1 enhancer was dependent on the level of Sox2, and the extent of enhancer binding correlated to the extent of activation. Atoh1 activation by Sox2 was required for embryonic hair cell development: deletion of Sox2 in an inducible mutant, even after progenitor cells were fully established, halted development of hair cells, and silencing also inhibited postnatal differentiation of hair cells induced by inhibition of γ-secretase. Sox2 is thus required in the cochlea to both expand the progenitor cells and initiate their differentiation to hair cells. PMID:26988140

  3. Transplantation Dose Alters the Differentiation Program of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Casey; Chu, Elizabeth; Chin, Mike; Lu, Rong

    2016-05-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the most prevalent stem cell therapy, but it remains a risky procedure. To improve this treatment, it is important to understand how transplanted stem cells rebuild the blood and immune systems and how this process is impacted by transplantation variables such as the HSC dose. Here, we find that, in the long term following transplantation, 70%-80% of donor-HSC-derived clones do not produce all measured blood cell types. High HSC doses lead to more clones that exhibit balanced lymphocyte production, whereas low doses produce more T-cell-specialized clones. High HSC doses also produce significantly higher proportions of early-differentiating clones compared to low doses. These complex differentiation behaviors uncover the clonal-level regeneration dynamics of hematopoietic regeneration and suggest that transplantation dose can be exploited to improve stem cell therapy. PMID:27184851

  4. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Hirose, Motohiro . E-mail: motohiro-hirose@aist.go.jp; Kotobuki, Noriko; Shimaoka, Hideki; Tadokoro, Mika; Maeda, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yoshiko; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2006-04-21

    We isolated dental papilla from impacted human molar and proliferated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase treatment of the papilla. The cells were negative for hematopoietic markers but positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166. When the cells were further cultured in the presence of {beta}-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone for 14 days, mineralized areas together with osteogenic differentiation evidenced by high alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin contents were observed. The differentiation was confirmed at both protein and gene expression levels. The cells can also be cryopreserved and, after thawing, could show in vivo bone-forming capability. These results indicate that mesenchymal type cells localize in dental papilla and that the cells can be culture expanded/utilized for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Controlling Redox Status for Stem Cell Survival, Expansion, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sart, Sébastien; Song, Liqing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been considered as pathological agents inducing apoptosis under adverse culture conditions. However, recent findings have challenged this dogma and physiological levels of ROS are now considered as secondary messengers, mediating numerous cellular functions in stem cells. Stem cells represent important tools for tissue engineering, drug screening, and disease modeling. However, the safe use of stem cells for clinical applications still requires culture improvements to obtain functional cells. With the examples of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), this review investigates the roles of ROS in the maintenance of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. In addition, this work highlights that the tight control of stem cell microenvironment, including cell organization, and metabolic and mechanical environments, may be an effective approach to regulate endogenous ROS generation. Taken together, this paper indicates the need for better quantification of ROS towards the accurate control of stem cell fate. PMID:26273419

  6. Gravity, a regulation factor in the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Stem cell therapy has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but many issues remain to be resolved, such as the amount of seed cells, committed differentiation and the efficiency. Several previous studies have focused on the study of chemical inducement microenvironments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gravity on the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into force-sensitive or force-insensitive cells. Methods and results Rat BMSCs (rBMSCs) were cultured under hypergravity or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions with or without inducement medium. The expression levels of the characteristic proteins were measured and analyzed using immunocytochemical, RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses. After treatment with 5-azacytidine and hypergravity, rBMSCs expressed more characteristic proteins of cardiomyocytes such as cTnT, GATA4 and β-MHC; however, fewer such proteins were seen with SMG. After treating rBMSCs with osteogenic inducer and hypergravity, there were marked increases in the expression levels of ColIA1, Cbfa1 and ALP. Reverse results were obtained with SMG. rBMSCs treated with adipogenic inducer and SMG expressed greater levels of PPARgamma. Greater levels of Cbfa1- or cTnT-positive cells were observed under hypergravity without inducer, as shown by FACS analysis. These results indicate that hypergravity induces differentiation of rBMSCs into force-sensitive cells (cardiomyocytes and osteoblasts), whereas SMG induces force-insensitive cells (adipocytes). Conclusion Taken together, we conclude that gravity is an important factor affecting the differentiation of rBMSCs; this provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated or undifferentiated cells. PMID:19772591

  7. Activated mast cells promote differentiation of B cells into effector cells

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Anna-Karin E.; Garcia-Faroldi, Gianni; Lundberg, Marcus; Pejler, Gunnar; Kleinau, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Based on the known accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in B cell-dependent inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, we hypothesized that MCs directly modulate B cells. We show here that degranulated, and to a lesser extent naïve or IgE-sensitized, MCs activate both naïve and B cell receptor-activated B cells. This was shown by increased proliferation, blast formation, and expression of CD19, MHC class II and CD86 in the B cells. Further, MCs stimulated the secretion of IgM and IgG in IgM+ B cells, indicating that MCs can induce class-switch recombination in B cells. We also show that coculture of MCs with B cells promotes surface expression of L-selectin, a homing receptor, on the B cells. The effects of MCs on B cells were partly dependent on cell-cell contact and both follicular and marginal zone B cells could be activated by MCs. Our findings suggest that degranulated MCs support optimal activation of B cells, a finding that is in line with in vivo studies showing that MCs frequently degranulate in the context of B-cell driven pathologies such as arthritis. Together, our findings show that MCs have the capacity to differentiate B cells to effector cells. PMID:26847186

  8. Differentiated kidney epithelial cells repair injured proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Kusaba, Tetsuro; Lalli, Matthew; Kramann, Rafael; Kobayashi, Akio; Humphreys, Benjamin D

    2014-01-28

    Whether kidney proximal tubule harbors a scattered population of epithelial stem cells is a major unsolved question. Lineage-tracing studies, histologic characterization, and ex vivo functional analysis results conflict. To address this controversy, we analyzed the lineage and clonal behavior of fully differentiated proximal tubule epithelial cells after injury. A CreER(T2) cassette was knocked into the sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate transporter SLC34a1 locus, which is expressed only in differentiated proximal tubule. Tamoxifen-dependent recombination was absolutely specific to proximal tubule. Clonal analysis after injury and repair showed that the bulk of labeled cells proliferate after injury with increased clone size after severe compared with mild injury. Injury to labeled proximal tubule epithelia induced expression of CD24, CD133, vimentin, and kidney-injury molecule-1, markers of putative epithelial stem cells in the human kidney. Similar results were observed in cultured proximal tubules, in which labeled clones proliferated and expressed dedifferentiation and injury markers. When mice with completely labeled kidneys were subject to injury and repair there was no dilution of fate marker despite substantial proliferation, indicating that unlabeled progenitors do not contribute to kidney repair. During nephrogenesis and early kidney growth, single proximal tubule clones expanded, suggesting that differentiated cells also contribute to tubule elongation. These findings provide no evidence for an intratubular stem-cell population, but rather indicate that terminally differentiated epithelia reexpress apparent stem-cell markers during injury-induced dedifferentiation and repair. PMID:24127583

  9. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marie; Visser, Allerdien; Buabeng, Kwadwo M L; Poutsma, Ankie; van der Schors, Roel C; Oudejans, Cees B M

    2015-10-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively affect this trophoblast differentiation either by inducing proliferation rate or by causing cell cycle exit as shown by a decrease in both proliferation and invasion. As LincRNAs predominantly function through interactions with proteins, we identified the directly interacting proteins using chromatin isolation by RNA purification followed by protein mass spectrometry. We found 22 proteins predominantly clustering in two functional networks, i.e. RNA splicing and the ribosome. YBX1, PCBP1, PCBP2, RPS6 and RPL7 were validated, and binding to these proteins was influenced by the HELLP mutations carried. Finally, we show that the LINC-HELLP transcript levels are significantly upregulated in plasma of women in their first trimester of pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women, whereas this upregulation seems absent in a pilot set of patients later developing pregnancy complications, indicative of its functional significance in vivo. PMID:26173455

  10. Lack of vimentin impairs endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boraas, Liana C; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeletal filament vimentin is inherent to the endothelial phenotype and is critical for the proper function of endothelial cells in adult mice. It is unclear, however, if the presence of vimentin is necessary during differentiation to the endothelial phenotype. Here we evaluated gene and protein expression of differentiating wild type embryonic stem cells (WT ESCs) and vimentin knockout embryonic stem cells (VIM -/- ESCs) using embryoid bodies (EBs) formed from both cell types. Over seven days of differentiation VIM -/- EBs had altered morphology compared to WT EBs, with a rippled outer surface and a smaller size due to decreased proliferation. Gene expression of pluripotency markers decreased similarly for EBs of both cell types; however, VIM -/- EBs had impaired differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype. This was quantified with decreased expression of markers along the specification pathway, specifically the early mesodermal marker Brachy-T, the lateral plate mesodermal marker FLK1, and the endothelial-specific markers TIE2, PECAM, and VE-CADHERIN. Taken together, these results indicate that the absence of vimentin impairs spontaneous differentiation of ESCs to the endothelial phenotype in vitro. PMID:27480130

  11. Lack of vimentin impairs endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Boraas, Liana C.; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeletal filament vimentin is inherent to the endothelial phenotype and is critical for the proper function of endothelial cells in adult mice. It is unclear, however, if the presence of vimentin is necessary during differentiation to the endothelial phenotype. Here we evaluated gene and protein expression of differentiating wild type embryonic stem cells (WT ESCs) and vimentin knockout embryonic stem cells (VIM −/− ESCs) using embryoid bodies (EBs) formed from both cell types. Over seven days of differentiation VIM −/− EBs had altered morphology compared to WT EBs, with a rippled outer surface and a smaller size due to decreased proliferation. Gene expression of pluripotency markers decreased similarly for EBs of both cell types; however, VIM −/− EBs had impaired differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype. This was quantified with decreased expression of markers along the specification pathway, specifically the early mesodermal marker Brachy-T, the lateral plate mesodermal marker FLK1, and the endothelial-specific markers TIE2, PECAM, and VE-CADHERIN. Taken together, these results indicate that the absence of vimentin impairs spontaneous differentiation of ESCs to the endothelial phenotype in vitro. PMID:27480130

  12. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Charlson, Mary E; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  13. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  14. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  15. Hand proximity differentially affects visual working memory for color and orientation in a binding task.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shane P; Brockmole, James R

    2014-01-01

    Observers determined whether two sequentially presented arrays of six lines were the same or different. Differences, when present, involved either a swap in the color of two lines or a swap in the orientation of two lines. Thus, accurate change detection required the binding of color and orientation information for each line within visual working memory. Holding viewing distance constant, the proximity of the arrays to the hands was manipulated. Placing the hands near the to-be-remembered array decreased participants' ability to remember color information, but increased their ability to remember orientation information. This pair of results indicates that hand proximity differentially affects the processing of various types of visual information, a conclusion broadly consistent with functional and anatomical differences in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. It further indicates that hand proximity affects the likelihood that various object features will be encoded into integrated object files. PMID:24795671

  16. Harvesting Technique Affects Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Yield

    PubMed Central

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi; Hubenak, Justin; Liu, Jun; Chang, Edward I.; Beahm, Elisabeth K.; Zhang, Qixu

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of an autologous fat graft depends in part on its total stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). However, variations in the yields of ASCs and SVF cells as a result of different harvesting techniques and donor sites are poorly understood. Objective To investigate the effects of adipose tissue harvesting technique and donor site on the yield of ASCs and SVF cells. Methods Subcutaneous fat tissues from the abdomen, flank, or axilla were harvested from patients of various ages by mechanical liposuction, direct surgical excision, or Coleman's technique with or without centrifugation. Cells were isolated and then analyzed with flow cytometry to determine the yields of total SVF cells and ASCs (CD11b−, CD45−, CD34+, CD90+, D7-FIB+). Differences in ASC and total SVF yields were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. Differentiation experiments were performed to confirm the multilineage potential of cultured SVF cells. Results Compared with Coleman's technique without centrifugation, direct excision yielded significantly more ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P = .007); liposuction yielded significantly fewer ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P < .05); and Coleman's technique with centrifugation yielded significantly more total SVF cells (P < .005), but not ASCs. The total number of SVF cells in fat harvested from the abdomen was significantly larger than the number in fat harvested from the flank or axilla (P < .05). Cultured SVF cells differentiated to adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Conclusions Adipose tissue harvested from the abdomen through direct excision or Coleman's technique with centrifugation was found to yield the most SVF cells and ASCs. PMID:25791999

  17. THY-1 Receptor Expression Differentiates Cardiosphere-Derived Cells with Divergent Cardiogenic Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Gago-Lopez, Nuria; Awaji, Obinna; Zhang, Yiqiang; Ko, Christopher; Nsair, Ali; Liem, David; Stempien-Otero, April; MacLellan, W. Robb

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite over a decade of intense research, the identity and differentiation potential of human adult cardiac progenitor cells (aCPC) remains controversial. Cardiospheres have been proposed as a means to expand aCPCs in vitro, but the identity of the progenitor cell within these 3D structures is unknown. We show that clones derived from cardiospheres could be subdivided based on expression of thymocyte differentiation antigen 1 (THY-1/CD90) into two distinct populations that exhibit divergent cardiac differentiation potential. One population, which is CD90+, expressed markers consistent with a mesenchymal/myofibroblast cell. The second clone type was CD90− and could form mature, functional myocytes with sarcomeres albeit at a very low rate. These two populations of cardiogenic clones displayed distinct cell surface markers and unique transcriptomes. Our study suggests that a rare aCPC exists in cardiospheres along with a mesenchymal/myofibroblast cell, which demonstrates incomplete cardiac myocyte differentiation. PMID:24936447

  18. Differentiation patterns of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into neurons.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mai; Kamishibahara, Yu; Kitazawa, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Shimizu, Norio

    2016-05-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages including neurons. The differentiation of these cells into neurons has potential applications in regenerative medicine. Previously, we reported that a chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-conditioned medium (CM) promoted the differentiation of mouse ES and iPS cells into neurons. Here, we used real-time PCR to investigate the differentiation patterns of ES and iPS cells into neurons when DRG-CM was added. DRG-CM promoted the expression levels of βIII-tubulin gene (a marker of postmitotic neurons) in ES and iPS cells. ES cells differentiated into neurons faster than iPS cells, and the maximum peaks of gene expression involved in motor, sensory, and dopaminergic neurons were different. Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors could be very valuable at numerous stages in the production and use of stem cells in basic research and eventual cell-based therapies. Thus, we investigated whether the addition of a ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and DRG-CM on the basis of the differentiation patterns promotes the neuronal differentiation of ES cells. When the ROCK inhibitor was added to the culture medium at the initial stages of cultivation, it stimulated the neuronal differentiation of ES cells more strongly than that stimulated by DRG-CM. Moreover, the combination of the ROCK inhibitor and DRG-CM promoted the neuronal differentiation of ES cells when the ROCK inhibitor was added to the culture medium at day 3. The ROCK inhibitor may be useful for promoting neuronal differentiation of ES cells. PMID:25354731

  19. IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system resident cells during inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoli; Cao, Fang; Cui, Langjun; Ciric, Bogoljub; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL) 9, a dominant cytokine in Th9 cells, has been proven to play a pathogenic role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by augmenting T cell activation and differentiation; however, whether IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells during CNS autoimmunity remains unknown. In the present study, we found that the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) was highly expressed in astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), oligodendrocytes and microglia cells, and that its expression was significantly upregulated in brain and spinal cord during EAE. In addition, IL-9 increased chemokine expression, including CXCL9, CCL20 and MMP3, in primary astrocytes. Although IL-9 had no effect on the proliferation of microglia cells, it decreased OPC proliferation and differentiation when in combination with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not with IFN-γ. IL-9 plus IFN-γ promoted OPC proliferation and differentiation. These findings indicate that CNS-restricted IL-9 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for future MS/EAE treatment through disruption of CNS cell-specific IL-9 signaling. PMID:26216406

  20. Cell Cycle–Dependent Differentiation Dynamics Balances Growth and Endocrine Differentiation in the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Pau; Lemaire, Laurence A.; Ferrer, Jorge; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine, ductal, and acinar cells but become bipotent by embryonic day 13.5, giving rise to endocrine cells and ductal cells. However, the dynamics of individual progenitors balancing self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation has never been described. Using three-dimensional live imaging and in vivo clonal analysis, we reveal the contribution of individual cells to the global behaviour and demonstrate three modes of progenitor divisions: symmetric renewing, symmetric endocrinogenic, and asymmetric generating a progenitor and an endocrine progenitor. Quantitative analysis shows that the endocrine differentiation process is consistent with a simple model of cell cycle–dependent stochastic priming of progenitors to endocrine fate. The findings provide insights to define control parameters to optimize the generation of β-cells in vitro. PMID:25786211

  1. Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Pau; Lemaire, Laurence A; Ferrer, Jorge; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine, ductal, and acinar cells but become bipotent by embryonic day 13.5, giving rise to endocrine cells and ductal cells. However, the dynamics of individual progenitors balancing self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation has never been described. Using three-dimensional live imaging and in vivo clonal analysis, we reveal the contribution of individual cells to the global behaviour and demonstrate three modes of progenitor divisions: symmetric renewing, symmetric endocrinogenic, and asymmetric generating a progenitor and an endocrine progenitor. Quantitative analysis shows that the endocrine differentiation process is consistent with a simple model of cell cycle-dependent stochastic priming of progenitors to endocrine fate. The findings provide insights to define control parameters to optimize the generation of β-cells in vitro. PMID:25786211

  2. Regulation of endothelial cell differentiation and specification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The circulatory system is the first organ system to develop in the vertebrate embryo and is critical throughout gestation for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, as well as removal of metabolic waste products from, growing tissues. Endothelial cells, which constitute the luminal layer of all bl...

  3. Sertoli Cell Differentiation in Pubertal Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meishan boars experience puberty at a younger age than crossbred (BX) boars in association with earlier cessation of Sertoli cell proliferation and smaller post pubertal testicular size. The current study defined changes in expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry, of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH...

  4. Transcriptional control of dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Izumi; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells involved critically not only in provoking innate immune responses but also in establishing adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells are heterogenous and divided into several subsets, including plasmactyoid DCs (pDCs) and several types of conventional DCs (cDCs), which show subset-specific functions. Plasmactyoid DCs are featured by their ability to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to nucleic acid sensors, TLR7 and TLR9 and involved in anti-viral immunity and pathogenesis of certain autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis. Conventional DCs include the DC subsets with high crosspresentation activity, which contributes to anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. These subsets are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) via several intermediate progenitors and the development is regulated by the transcriptional mechanisms in which subset-specific transcription factors play major roles. We have recently found that an Ets family transcription factor, SPI-B, which is abundantly expressed in pDCs among DC subsets, plays critical roles in functions and late stage development of pDCs. SPI-B functions in cooperation with other transcription factors, especially, interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members. Here we review the transcription factor-based molecular mechanisms for generation and functions of DCs, mainly by focusing on the roles of SPI-B and its relatives. PMID:24875951

  5. Phenotypic Characterization of Retinoic Acid Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Korecka, Joanna A.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Blaas, Eva; Spitzer, Sonia O.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Smit, August B.; Swaab, Dick F.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bossers, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The main neuropathological hallmark of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To study genetic and molecular contributors to the disease process, there is a great need for readily accessible cells with prominent DAergic features that can be used for reproducible in vitro cellular screening. Here, we investigated the molecular phenotype of retinoic acid (RA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using genome wide transcriptional profiling combined with gene ontology, transcription factor and molecular pathway analysis. We demonstrated that RA induces a general neuronal differentiation program in SH-SY5Y cells and that these cells develop a predominantly mature DAergic-like neurotransmitter phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by increased dopamine levels together with a substantial suppression of other neurotransmitter phenotypes, such as those for noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin and histamine. In addition, we show that RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells express the dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmitter transporters that are responsible for uptake of MPP(+), a well known DAergic cell toxicant. MPP(+) treatment alters mitochondrial activity according to its proposed cytotoxic effect in DAergic neurons. Taken together, RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have a DAergic-like phenotype, and provide a good cellular screening tool to find novel genes or compounds that affect cytotoxic processes that are associated with PD. PMID:23724009

  6. Effect of calcium phosphate ceramic substrate geometry on mesenchymal stromal cell organization and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Urquia Edreira, Eva R; Hayrapetyan, Astghik; Wolke, Joop G C; Croes, Huib J E; Klymov, Alexey; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2016-01-01

    The composition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in combination with surface features have been shown to influence biological performance, and micro- and nano-scale topography is known to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In view of this, adipose tissue derived MSCs were cultured on CaP disks featuring hemispherical concavities of various sizes (440, 800 or 1800 μm diameter). It was hypothesized that (i) surface concavities would promote cell proliferation, cellular organization within the concavities, and osteogenic differentiation, as a result of a more pronounced 3D micro-environment and CaP nucleation in concavities, and (ii) MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation would increase with smaller concavity size due to more rapidly occurring 3D cell-cell interactions. We found that concavities indeed affect cell proliferation, with 440 μm concavities increasing cell proliferation to a larger extent compared to 800 and 1800 μm concavities as well as planar surfaces. Additionally, concavity size influenced 3D cellular organization within the concavity volume. Interestingly, concavity size promoted osteogenic differentiation of cells, as evidenced by increased osteocalcin gene expression in 440 μm concavities, and osteocalcin staining predominantly for 440 and 800 μm concavities, but not for 1800 μm concavities and only slightly for planar surface controls. PMID:27150445

  7. Optical quantification of forces at play during stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Christine M.; Brickman, Joshua M.; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2016-03-01

    A cell is in constant interaction with its environment, it responds to external mechanical, chemical and biological signals. The response to these signals can be of various nature, for instance intra-cellular mechanical re-arrangements, cell-cell interactions, or cellular reinforcements. Optical methods are quite attractive for investigating the mechanics inside living cells as, e.g., optical traps are amongst the only nanotools that can reach and manipulate, measure forces, inside a living cell. In the recent years it has become increasingly evident that not only biochemical and biomolecular cues, but also that mechanical ones, play an important roles in stem cell differentiation. The first evidence for the importance of mechanical cues emerged from studies showing that substrate stiffness had an impact on stem cell differentiation. Recently, techniques such as optical tweezers and stretchers have been applied to stem cells, producing new insights into the role of mechanics in regulating renewal and differentiation. Here, we describe how optical tweezers and optical stretchers can be applied as a tool to investigate stem cell mechanics and some of the recent results to come out of this work.

  8. Placental-derived stem cells: Culture, differentiation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maira S; Barreto-Filho, João B

    2015-05-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach to clinical healing in several diseases. A great variety of tissues (bone marrow, adipose tissue, and placenta) are potentially sources of stem cells. Placenta-derived stem cells (p-SCs) are in between embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, sharing characteristics with both, such as non-carcinogenic status and property to differentiate in all embryonic germ layers. Moreover, their use is not ethically restricted as fetal membranes are considered medical waste after birth. In this context, the present review will be focused on the biological properties, culture and potential cell therapy uses of placental-derived stem cells. Immunophenotype characterization, mainly for surface marker expression, and basic principles of p-SC isolation and culture (mechanical separation or enzymatic digestion of the tissues, the most used culture media, cell plating conditions) will be presented. In addition, some preclinical studies that were performed in different medical areas will be cited, focusing on neurological, liver, pancreatic, heart, muscle, pulmonary, and bone diseases and also in tissue engineering field. Finally, some challenges for stem cell therapy applications will be highlighted. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the p-SCs differentiation and the achievement of pure cell populations (after differentiation) are key points that must be clarified before bringing the preclinical studies, performed at the bench, to the medical practice. PMID:26029347

  9. The microRNA-dependent cell fate of multipotent stromal cells differentiating to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Min-Ji; Choi, Eunhyun; Lee, Seahyoung; Song, Byeong-Wook; Yoon, Cheesoon; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2016-02-15

    In the endothelial recovery process, bone marrow-derived MSCs are a potential source of cells for both research and therapy, and their capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into all the cell types in the human body make them a promising therapeutic agent for remodeling cellular differentiation and a valuable resource for the treatment of many diseases. Based on the results provided in a miRNA database, we selected miRNAs with unique targets in cell fate-related signaling pathways. The tested miRNAs targeting GSK-3β (miR-26a), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and CD133 (miR-26a and miR-29b) induced MSC differentiation into functional ECs, whereas miRNAs targeting VEGF receptor (miR-15, miR-144, miR-145, and miR-329) inhibited MSC differentiation into ECs through VEGF stimulation. In addition, the expression levels of these miRNAs were correlated with in vivo physiological endothelial recovery processes. These findings indicate that the miRNA expression profile is distinct for cells in different stages of differentiation from MSCs to ECs and that specific miRNAs can function as regulators of endothelialization. PMID:26854694

  10. Methylsulfonylmethane enhances BMP‑2‑induced osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Don Nam; Joung, Youn Hee; Darvin, Pramod; Kang, Dong Young; Sp, Nipin; Byun, Hyo Joo; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Kyung Do; Lee, Hak Kyo; Yang, Young Mok

    2016-07-01

    As human lifespans have increased, the incidence of osteoporosis has also increased. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) affects the process of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into osteoblasts via the Janus kinase 2 (Jak2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5b signaling pathway, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‑2) is also known to significantly affect bone health. In addition, the phosphorylation of small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)1/5/8 regulates the Runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) gene, which encodes a transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation markers. In the present study, the differentiation of MSCs treated with MSM, BMP‑2, and their combination were examined. The differentiation of osteoblasts was demonstrated through observation of morphological changes and mineralization, using alizarin red and Von Kossa staining. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the combination of MSM and BMP-2 increased the phosphorylation of the BMP signaling-associated protein, Smad1/5/8. Combination of MSM and BMP-2 significantly increased osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of the MSCs compared with either MSM or BMP-2 alone. Additionally, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that combination of MSM and BMP-2 increased the expression level of the Runx2 gene and the osteoblast differentiation marker genes, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, in MSCs compared with controls. Thus, the combination of MSM and BMP-2 may promote the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. PMID:27175741

  11. Trimethyltin chloride inhibits neuronal cell differentiation in zebrafish embryo neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Kim, C-Yoon; Song, Juha; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Park, Jae-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a neurotoxicant widely present in the aquatic environment, primarily from effluents of the plastic industry. It is known to cause acute neuronal death in the limbic-cerebellar system, particularly in the hippocampus. However, relatively few studies have estimated the effects of TMT toxicity on neurodevelopment. In this study, we confirmed the dose-dependent effects of TMT on neurodevelopmental stages through analysis of morphological changes and fluorescence assays using HuC-GFP and olig2-dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos. In addition, we analyzed the expression of genes and proteins related to neurodevelopment. Exposure of embryos to TMT for 4days post fertilization (dpf) elicited a concentration-related decrease in body length and increase in axial malformation. TMT affected the fluorescent CNS structure by decreasing pattern of HuC-GFP and olig2-dsRed transgenic zebrafish. In addition, it significantly modulated the expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog a (Shha), Neurogenin1 (Ngn1), Embryonic lethal abnormal vision like protein 3 (Elavl3), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap). The overexpression of Shha and Ngn1, and downregulation of Elavl3 and Gfap, indicate repression of proneural cell differentiation. Our study demonstrates that TMT inhibits specific neurodevelopmental stages in zebrafish embryos and suggests a possible mechanism for the toxicity of TMT in vertebrate neurodevelopment. PMID:26687135

  12. The Role of Lymphatic Niches in T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Tara; Kim, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term immunity to many viral and bacterial pathogens requires CD8+ memory T cell development, and the induction of long-lasting CD8+ memory T cells from a naïve, undifferentiated state is a major goal of vaccine design. Formation of the memory CD8+ T cell compartment is highly dependent on the early activation cues received by naïve CD8+ T cells during primary infection. This review aims to highlight the cellularity of various niches within the lymph node and emphasize recent evidence suggesting that distinct types of T cell activation and differentiation occur within different immune contexts in lymphoid organs. PMID:27306645

  13. Metabolic profiling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation into red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Daud, Hasbullah; Browne, Susan; Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Murphy, William; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-01-25

    An understanding of the metabolic profile of cell proliferation and differentiation should support the optimization of culture conditions for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into red blood cells. We have evaluated the key metabolic parameters during each phase of HSPC culture for red blood cell production in serum-supplemented (SS) and serum-free (SF) conditions. A simultaneous decrease in growth rate, total protein content, cell size, and the percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase of cell cycle, as well as an increase in the percentage of cells with a CD71(-)/GpA(+) surface marker profile, indicates HSPC differentiation into red blood cells. Compared with proliferating HSPCs, differentiating HSPCs showed significantly lower glucose and glutamine consumption rates, lactate and ammonia production rates, and amino acid consumption and production rates in both SS and SF conditions. Furthermore, extracellular acidification was associated with late proliferation phase, suggesting a reduced cellular metabolic rate during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. Under both SS and SF conditions, cells demonstrated a high metabolic rate with a mixed metabolism of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in early and late proliferation, an increased dependence on OXPHOS activity during differentiation, and a shift to glycolytic metabolism only during maturation phase. These changes indicate that cell metabolism may have an important impact on the ability of HSPCs to proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells. PMID:26013297

  14. Proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase regulates schwann cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-27

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is composed of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells drastically change their phenotype following peripheral nerve injury. These phenotypic changes are required for efficient degeneration/regeneration. We previously identified ZNRF1 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing a RING finger motif, whose expression is upregulated in the Schwann cells following nerve injury. This suggested that posttranscriptional regulation of protein expression in Schwann cells may be involved in their phenotypic changes during nerve degeneration/regeneration. Here we report the identification of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that synthesizes glutamine using glutamate and ammonia, as a substrate for E3 activity of ZNRF1 in Schwann cells. GS is known to be highly expressed in differentiated Schwann cells, but its functional significance has remained unclear. We found that during nerve degeneration/regeneration, GS expression is controlled mostly by ZNRF1-dependent proteasomal degradation. We also found that Schwann cells increase oxidative stress upon initiation of nerve degeneration, which promotes carbonylation and subsequent degradation of GS. Surprisingly, we discovered that GS expression regulates Schwann cell differentiation; i.e., increased GS expression promotes myelination via its enzymatic activity. Among the substrates and products of GS, increased glutamate concentration inhibited myelination and yet promoted Schwann cell proliferation by activating metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling. This would suggest that GS may exert its effect on Schwann cell differentiation by regulating glutamate concentration. These results indicate that the ZNRF1-GS system may play an important role in correlating Schwann cell metabolism with its differentiation. PMID:20107048

  15. Deconstructing positive affect in later life: a differential functionalist analysis of joy and interest.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the present study measured trait joy and interest in a population-based sample of 1,118 adults aged 65-86 years. As predicted, trait joy was associated with greater religious participation, while trait interest was associated with greater education. Joy was associated with lower morbidity and stress while interest was not. Interest was, in fact, associated with greater stress. Both emotions were positively associated with social support. We use the pattern of predictors to develop a functionalist conceptualization of these two emotions in later life, concluding that it is worthwhile to treat interest and joy as partially-independent positive affects contributing differentially to human emotionality and later life adaptation. PMID:15248472

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell adhesion but not plasticity is affected by high substrate stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kal Van Tam, Janice; Uto, Koichiro; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Forte, Giancarlo; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The acknowledged ability of synthetic materials to induce cell-specific responses regardless of biological supplies provides tissue engineers with the opportunity to find the appropriate materials and conditions to prepare tissue-targeted scaffolds. Stem and mature cells have been shown to acquire distinct morphologies in vitro and to modify their phenotype when grown on synthetic materials with tunable mechanical properties. The stiffness of the substrate used for cell culture is likely to provide cells with mechanical cues mimicking given physiological or pathological conditions, thus affecting the biological properties of cells. The sensitivity of cells to substrate composition and mechanical properties resides in multiprotein complexes called focal adhesions, whose dynamic modification leads to cytoskeleton remodeling and changes in gene expression. In this study, the remodeling of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells in response to substrate stiffness was followed in the first phases of cell-matrix interaction, using poly-ɛ-caprolactone planar films with similar chemical composition and different elasticity. As compared to mature dermal fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells showed a specific response to substrate stiffness, in terms of adhesion, as a result of differential focal adhesion assembly, while their multipotency as a bulk was not significantly affected by matrix compliance. Given the sensitivity of stem cells to matrix mechanics, the mechanobiology of such cells requires further investigations before preparing tissue-specific scaffolds.

  17. Turning terminally differentiated skeletal muscle cells into regenerative progenitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Lööf, Sara; Borg, Paula; Nader, Gustavo A; Blau, Helen M; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    The ability to repeatedly regenerate limbs during the entire lifespan of an animal is restricted to certain salamander species among vertebrates. This ability involves dedifferentiation of post-mitotic cells into progenitors that in turn form new structures. A long-term enigma has been how injury leads to dedifferentiation. Here we show that skeletal muscle dedifferentiation during newt limb regeneration depends on a programmed cell death response by myofibres. We find that programmed cell death-induced muscle fragmentation produces a population of 'undead' intermediate cells, which have the capacity to resume proliferation and contribute to muscle regeneration. We demonstrate the derivation of proliferating progeny from differentiated, multinucleated muscle cells by first inducing and subsequently intercepting a programmed cell death response. We conclude that cell survival may be manifested by the production of a dedifferentiated cell with broader potential and that the diversion of a programmed cell death response is an instrument to achieve dedifferentiation. PMID:26243583

  18. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering for Noninvasive Molecular Probing of Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sathuluri, Ramachandra Rao; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Eiichi; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the use of gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for probing the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, including undifferentiated single cells, embryoid bodies (EBs), and terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were successfully delivered into all 3 mES cell differentiation stages without affecting cell viability or proliferation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the localization of GNPs inside the following cell organelles: mitochondria, secondary lysosome, and endoplasmic reticulum. Using bright- and dark-field imaging, the bright scattering of GNPs and nanoaggregates in all 3 ES cell differentiation stages could be visualized. EB (an early differentiation stage) and terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes both showed SERS peaks specific to metabolic activity in the mitochondria and to protein translation (amide I, amide II, and amide III peaks). These peaks have been rarely identified in undifferentiated single ES cells. Spatiotemporal changes observed in the SERS spectra from terminally differentiated cardiomyocyte tissues revealed local and dynamic molecular interactions as well as transformations during ES cell differentiation. PMID:21829653

  19. Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Ido; Chia, Gloryn; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Peretz, Mordecai; Weissbein, Uri; Sui, Lina; Sauer, Mark V; Yanuka, Ofra; Egli, Dieter; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2016-04-01

    Diploidy is a fundamental genetic feature in mammals, in which haploid cells normally arise only as post-meiotic germ cells that serve to ensure a diploid genome upon fertilization. Gamete manipulation has yielded haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells from several mammalian species, but haploid human ES cells have yet to be reported. Here we generated and analysed a collection of human parthenogenetic ES cell lines originating from haploid oocytes, leading to the successful isolation and maintenance of human ES cell lines with a normal haploid karyotype. Haploid human ES cells exhibited typical pluripotent stem cell characteristics, such as self-renewal capacity and a pluripotency-specific molecular signature. Moreover, we demonstrated the utility of these cells as a platform for loss-of-function genetic screening. Although haploid human ES cells resembled their diploid counterparts, they also displayed distinct properties including differential regulation of X chromosome inactivation and of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, alongside reduction in absolute gene expression levels and cell size. Surprisingly, we found that a haploid human genome is compatible not only with the undifferentiated pluripotent state, but also with differentiated somatic fates representing all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, despite a persistent dosage imbalance between the autosomes and X chromosome. We expect that haploid human ES cells will provide novel means for studying human functional genomics and development. PMID:26982723

  20. Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolation, characterization, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Federico; Spelat, Renza; Baheney, Chelsea S

    2014-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) have been proposed as an alternative to pluripotent stem cells to study multilineage differentiation in vitro and for therapeutic application. Standard culture media for isolation and expansion of stem cells includes animal sera or animal-derived matrix components (e.g., Matrigel(®)). However, animal-derived reagents raise significant concerns with respect to the translational ability of these cells due to the possibility of infection and/or severe immune reaction. For these reasons clinical grade substitutes to animal components are needed in order for stem cells to reach their full therapeutic potential. In this chapter we detail a method for isolation and proliferation of DPSC in a chemically defined medium containing a low percentage of human serum. We demonstrate that in this defined culture medium a 1.25 % human serum component sufficiently replaces fetal bovine serum. This method allows for isolation of a morphologically and phenotypically uniform population of DPSCs from dental pulp tissue. DPSCs represent a rapidly proliferating cell population that readily differentiates into the osteoblastic, neuronal, myocytic, and hepatocytic lineages. This multilineage capacity of these DPSCs suggests that they may have a more broad therapeutic application than lineage-restricted adult stem cell populations such as mesenchymal stem cells. Further the culture protocol presented here makes these cells more amenable to human application than current expansion techniques for other pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cell lines or induced pluripotent stem cells). PMID:25173163

  1. Accumulation of differentiating intestinal stem cell progenies drives tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Kondo, Shu; Ha, Nati; Boquete, Jean-Philippe; Brunner, Michael; Ueda, Ryu; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are coordinated to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent cancer. Mutations causing stem cell proliferation are traditionally the focus of cancer studies. However, the contribution of the differentiating stem cell progenies in tumorigenesis is poorly characterized. Here we report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation programme of enteroblast (EB), the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut. This results in EB accumulation and formation of tumours. Sox21a tumour initiation and growth involve stem cell proliferation induced by the unpaired 2 mitogen released from accumulating EBs generating a feed-forward loop. EBs found in the tumours are heterogeneous and grow towards the intestinal lumen. Sox21a tumours modulate their environment by secreting matrix metalloproteinase and reactive oxygen species. Enterocytes surrounding the tumours are eliminated through delamination allowing tumour progression, a process requiring JNK activation. Our data highlight the tumorigenic properties of transit differentiating cells. PMID:26690827

  2. Accumulation of differentiating intestinal stem cell progenies drives tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Kondo, Shu; Ha, Nati; Boquete, Jean-Philippe; Brunner, Michael; Ueda, Ryu; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are coordinated to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent cancer. Mutations causing stem cell proliferation are traditionally the focus of cancer studies. However, the contribution of the differentiating stem cell progenies in tumorigenesis is poorly characterized. Here we report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation programme of enteroblast (EB), the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut. This results in EB accumulation and formation of tumours. Sox21a tumour initiation and growth involve stem cell proliferation induced by the unpaired 2 mitogen released from accumulating EBs generating a feed-forward loop. EBs found in the tumours are heterogeneous and grow towards the intestinal lumen. Sox21a tumours modulate their environment by secreting matrix metalloproteinase and reactive oxygen species. Enterocytes surrounding the tumours are eliminated through delamination allowing tumour progression, a process requiring JNK activation. Our data highlight the tumorigenic properties of transit differentiating cells. PMID:26690827

  3. HEXIM1 Induces Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Vanessa; Lew, Qiao Jing; Chu, Kai Ling; Natarajan, Subaashini; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Gurumurthy, Meera; Choo, Andre B. H.; Chao, Sheng-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) is best known as the inhibitor of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which is composed of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1. P-TEFb is an essential regulator for the transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. A genome-wide study using human embryonic stem cells shows that most mRNA synthesis is regulated at the stage of transcription elongation, suggesting a possible role for P-TEFb/HEXIM1 in the gene regulation of stem cells. In this report, we detected a marked increase in HEXIM1 protein levels in the differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) induced by LY294002 treatment. Since no changes in CDK9 and cyclin T1 were observed in the LY294002-treated cells, increased levels of HEXIM1 might lead to inhibition of P-TEFb activity. However, treatment with a potent P-TEFb inhibiting compound, flavopiridol, failed to induce hPSC differentiation, ruling out the possible requirement for P-TEFb kinase activity in hPSC differentiation. Conversely, differentiation was observed when hPSCs were incubated with hexamethylene bisacetamide, a HEXIM1 inducing reagent. The involvement of HEXIM1 in the regulation of hPSCs was further supported when overexpression of HEXIM1 concomitantly induced hPSC differentiation. Collectively, our study demonstrates a novel role of HEXIM1 in regulating hPSC fate through a P-TEFb-independent pathway. PMID:23977357

  4. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Lumelsky, N; Blondel, O; Laeng, P; Velasco, I; Ravin, R; McKay, R

    2001-05-18

    Although the source of embryonic stem (ES) cells presents ethical concerns, their use may lead to many clinical benefits if differentiated cell types can be derived from them and used to assemble functional organs. In pancreas, insulin is produced and secreted by specialized structures, islets of Langerhans. Diabetes, which affects 16 million people in the United States, results from abnormal function of pancreatic islets. We have generated cells expressing insulin and other pancreatic endocrine hormones from mouse ES cells. The cells self-assemble to form three-dimensional clusters similar in topology to normal pancreatic islets where pancreatic cell types are in close association with neurons. Glucose triggers insulin release from these cell clusters by mechanisms similar to those employed in vivo. When injected into diabetic mice, the insulin-producing cells undergo rapid vascularization and maintain a clustered, islet-like organization. PMID:11326082

  5. Decreased ferroportin promotes myeloma cell growth and osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhimin; Wang, He; Xia, Jiliang; Yang, Ye; Jin, Zhendong; Xu, Hongwei; Shi, Jumei; De Domenico, Ivana; Tricot, Guido; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2015-06-01

    Iron homeostasis is disrupted in multiple myeloma, a difficult-to-cure plasma cell malignancy with lytic bone lesions. Here, we systematically analyzed iron gene expression signature and demonstrated that mRNA expression of iron exporter ferroportin (FPN1) is significantly downregulated in myeloma cells and correlates negatively with clinic outcome. Restoring expression of FPN1 reduces intracellular liable iron pool, inhibits STAT3-MCL-1 signaling, and suppresses myeloma cells growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mRNA of FPN1 is also downregulated at the initial stages of osteoclast differentiation and suppresses myeloma cell-induced osteoclast differentiation through regulating iron regulator TFRC, NF-κB, and JNK pathways. Altogether, we demonstrated that downregulation of FPN1 plays critical roles in promoting myeloma cell growth and bone resorption in multiple myeloma. PMID:25855377

  6. Regulation of the differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, K; Lazarovici, P; Guroff, G

    1989-01-01

    The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle cells in culture. The changes induced by nerve growth factor lead to cells that, by any number of criteria, resemble mature sympathetic neurons. These changes are accompanied by a series of biochemical alterations occurring in the membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus of the cell. Some of these events are independent of changes in transcription, while others clearly involve changes in gene expression. A number of the alterations seen in the cells involve increases or decreases in the phosphorylation of key cellular proteins. The information available thus far allows the construction of a hypothesis regarding the biochemical basis of PC12 differentiation. PMID:2647474

  7. Nrf2 activation diminishes during adipocyte differentiation of ST2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Ziros, Panos G; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Psyrogiannis, Agathoklis I; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsana E; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Habeos, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    Adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) is a highly controlled process known to be affected, among other factors, by the redox status of the cell. Nrf2 (NFE2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that orchestrates the expression of a battery of antioxidant and detoxification genes under both basal and stress conditions. The present study investigated the activation of Nrf2 during adipocyte differentiation using as a model the mouse bone marrow-derived ST2 cell line. Treatment of ST2 cells with a differentiation cocktail containing IBMX, indomethacin, hydrocortisone and insulin induced differentiation into adipocytes over 5 days. During adipogenesis, the intracellular glutathione redox potential, which is an indicator of oxidative stress levels, became steadily more oxidized, as shown by real-time measurement in differentiating ST2 cells stably transfected with a redox-sensitive Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein. The nuclear abundance of Nrf2 was assessed by Western immunoblotting and its DNA binding activity by EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) performed on nuclear protein extracts prepared every 24 h. The nuclear abundance of Nrf2 continuously decreased during adipogenesis in ST2 cells. Its DNA binding activity reached a nadir during the first two days of differentiation, after which it increased slightly without approaching its initial level. The pattern of Nrf2 DNA binding corresponded to its transcriptional activity as assessed in ST2 cells stably transfected with a reporter construct bearing a Nrf2 bind site upstream of the luciferase gene. In conclusion, the activation of Nrf2 decreased significantly during adipogenesis. The observed changes might lead to increased oxidative stress levels that could facilitate the differentiation process. These findings could shed new light on the pathogenesis of obesity, in which the adipose tissue and oxidative stress play prominent roles. PMID:21805027

  8. Mechanical stimuli differentially control stem cell behavior: morphology, proliferation, and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Timothy M.; Chew, Douglas W.; Nieponice, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has demonstrated applications in vascular regenerative medicine. Although blood vessels exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, there has been no rigorous, systematic analysis of mechanical stimulation on stem cell differentiation. We hypothesize that mechanical stimuli, relevant to the vasculature, can differentiate MSCs toward smooth muscle (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs). This was tested using a unique experimental platform to differentially apply various mechanical stimuli in parallel. Three forces, cyclic stretch, cyclic pressure, and laminar shear stress, were applied independently to mimic several vascular physiologic conditions. Experiments were conducted using subconfluent MSCs for 5 days and demonstrated significant effects on morphology and proliferation depending upon the type, magnitude, frequency, and duration of applied stimulation. We have defined thresholds of cyclic stretch that potentiate SMC protein expression, but did not find EC protein expression under any condition tested. However, a second set of experiments performed at confluence and aimed to elicit the temporal gene expression response of a select magnitude of each stimulus revealed that EC gene expression can be increased with cyclic pressure and shear stress in a cell-contact-dependent manner. Further, these MSCs also appear to express genes from multiple lineages simultaneously which may warrant further investigation into post-transcriptional mechanisms for controlling protein expression. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic examination of the effects of mechanical stimulation on MSCs and has implications for the understanding of stem cell biology, as well as potential bioreactor designs for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. PMID:21253809

  9. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Roberts, Matthew A; Hoff, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6), FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3) and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set) were changed by dietary treatment (P < 0.001). Relative to other groups, COMB had unique affects on murine hepatic transcripts involved in cytoskeletal and carbohydrate metabolism; whereas FUNG affected amino acid metabolism via CTNB1 signaling. All three diets affected transcripts linked to apoptosis and cell proliferation, with evidence FISH may have increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation via various transcription factors, kinases, and phosphatases. The three diets affected lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and bile acid metabolism through diverse pathways. Relative to other groups, FISH activated cyps that form hydroxylated fatty acids known to affect vascular tone and ion channel activity. FA synthesis and delta 9 desaturation were down regulated by COMB relative to other groups, implying that a FA mixture of 20:4n6, 20:5n3, and 22:6n3 is most effective at down regulating synthesis, via INS1, SREBP, PPAR alpha, and TNF signaling. Heme synthesis and the utilization of heme for hemoglobin production were likely affected by FUNG and FISH. Finally, relative to other groups, FISH increased numerous transcripts linked to combating oxidative such as peroxidases, an aldehyde dehydrogenase, and heat shock proteins, consistent with the major LC-PUFA in FISH (20:5n3, 22:5n3, 22:6n3) being more oxidizable than the major fatty acids in FUNG (20:4n6). Conclusion Distinct

  10. Physical plasticity of the nucleus in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pajerowski, J. David; Dahl, Kris Noel; Zhong, Franklin L.; Sammak, Paul J.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    Cell differentiation in embryogenesis involves extensive changes in gene expression structural reorganization within the nucleus, including chromatin condensation and nucleoprotein immobilization. We hypothesized that nuclei in naive stem cells would therefore prove to be physically plastic and also more pliable than nuclei in differentiated cells. Micromanipulation methods indeed show that nuclei in human embryonic stem cells are highly deformable and stiffen 6-fold through terminal differentiation, and that nuclei in human adult stem cells possess an intermediate stiffness and deform irreversibly. Because the nucleo-skeletal component Lamin A/C is not expressed in either type of stem cell, we knocked down Lamin A/C in human epithelial cells and measured a deformability similar to that of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Rheologically, lamin-deficient states prove to be the most fluid-like, especially within the first ≈10 sec of deformation. Nuclear distortions that persist longer than this are irreversible, and fluorescence-imaged microdeformation with photobleaching confirms that chromatin indeed flows, distends, and reorganizes while the lamina stretches. The rheological character of the nucleus is thus set largely by nucleoplasm/chromatin, whereas the extent of deformation is modulated by the lamina. PMID:17893336

  11. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health. PMID:26330309

  12. NLRP7 affects trophoblast lineage differentiation, binds to overexpressed YY1 and alters CpG methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal-effect mutations in NLRP7 cause rare biparentally inherited hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA methylation patterns affecting maternally methylated germline differentially methy...

  13. X Inactivation Lessons from Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pintacuda, Greta; Cerase, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the dosage compensation mechanism that evolved in female mammals to correct the genetic imbalance of X-linked genes between sexes. X chromosome inactivation occurs in early development when one of the two X chromosomes of females is nearly-completely silenced. Differentiating Embryonic Stem cells (ESC) are regarded as a useful tool to study XCI, since they recapitulate many events occurring during early development. In this review we aim to summarise the advances in the field and to discuss the close connection between cell differentiation and X chromosome inactivation, with a particular focus on mouse ESCs. PMID:26198263

  14. Cell surface lectin array: parameters affecting cell glycan signature.

    PubMed

    Landemarre, Ludovic; Cancellieri, Perrine; Duverger, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Among the "omics", glycomics is one of the most complex fields and needs complementary strategies of analysis to decipher the "glycan dictionary". As an alternative method, which has developed since the beginning of the 21st century, lectin array technology could generate relevant information related to glycan motifs, accessibility and a number of other valuable insights from molecules (purified and non-purified) or cells. Based on a cell line model, this study deals with the key parameters that influence the whole cell surface glycan interaction with lectin arrays and the consequences on the interpretation and reliability of the results. The comparison between the adherent and suspension forms of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, showed respective glycan signatures, which could be inhibited specifically by neoglycoproteins. The modifications of the respective glycan signatures were also revealed according to the detachment modes and cell growth conditions. Finally the power of lectin array technology was highlighted by the possibility of selecting and characterizing a specific clone from the mother cell line, based on the slight difference determination in the respective glycan signatures. PMID:22899543

  15. Effects of human mesenchymal stem cells on the differentiation of dendritic cells from CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Han; Han, Qin; Chen, Bin; Shi, Mingxia; Li, Jing; Li, Binzong; You, Shengguo; Shi, Yufang; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2007-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have profound immunomodulatory functions both in vitro and in vivo. However, their effects on the differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) are unknown. In this study, we employed an in vitro model to investigate the effects of human MSCs on the development of DCs. CD34(+) cells isolated from cord blood were cultured under conventional DC(cDC) or plasmacytoid DC (pDC) differentiation conditions, in the presence or absence of MSCs or their conditioned medium. Here we show that both MSCs and their conditioned medium dramatically increased the numbers of cells generated under either condition. The percentage of cells with the cDC phenotype is significantly reduced in the presence of MSCs or their conditioned medium, whereas the percentage of pDC increased. The capacity of cDCs from MSCs or their conditioned medium-treated CD34(+) cells to stimulate allogeneic T cells was weakened. Furthermore, MSCs can skew the DC function from cDC to pDC, thus biasing the immune system toward Th2 and away from Th1 responses. Blocking the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis of MSCs can reverse most of these influences of MSCs on DCs differentiation and function. Therefore, MSCs can significantly influence DC development through PGE(2) production. PMID:17999594

  16. Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Nuebel, Esther; Wisidagama, Dona R R; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Hong, Jason S; Van Horn, Christine M; Imam, Sarah S; Vergnes, Laurent; Malone, Cindy S; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular contexts. In human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their differentiated progeny, this analysis can be challenging because of the unique cell properties, growth conditions and expense required to maintain these cell types. Here we provide protocols for analyzing energy metabolism in hPSCs and their early differentiated progenies that are generally applicable to mature cell types as well. Our approach has revealed distinct energy metabolism profiles used by hPSCs, differentiated cells, a variety of cancer cells and Rho-null cells. The protocols measure or estimate glycolysis on the basis of the extracellular acidification rate, and they measure or estimate oxidative phosphorylation on the basis of the oxygen consumption rate. Assays typically require 3 h after overnight sample preparation. Companion methods are also discussed and provided to aid researchers in developing more sophisticated experimental regimens for extended analyses of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:22576106

  17. Differentiation capacity of epithelial cells in the sponge Suberites domuncula.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Heinz C; Perović-Ottstadt, Sanja; Wiens, Matthias; Batel, Renato; Müller, Isabel M; Müller, Werner E G

    2004-05-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) represent the oldest metazoans. Their characteristic metazoan adhesion molecules and transcription factors enable them to establish a complex "Bauplan"; three major differentiated cell types (epithelial cells, skeletal cells/sclerocytes, and contractile cells) can be distinguished. Since no molecular markers are as yet available to distinguish these somatic cells or the corresponding embryonic cells from which they originate, we have selected the following three genes for their characterization: noggin (a signaling molecule in development), a caspase that encodes an apoptotic molecule, and silicatein. Silicatein is an enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of siliceous spicules and can hence be considered as a marker for scleroblasts. We have used the demosponge Suberites domuncula as a model system. During the hatching of the gemmules (asexual reproduction bodies) of S. domuncula, the expression of both noggin and caspase increases, whereas no transcripts for silicatein can be detected, irrespective of the presence of silicate or ferric iron (Fe3+) in the medium. In contrast, in adult specimens, silicate/Fe3+ cause an increased expression of these genes. In situ analysis has revealed that the first cells that express noggin, caspase, and silicatein lie in the epithelial layer of the pinacoderm. In a later phase, the noggin- and silicatein-positive cells migrate into the mesohyl, where they are found in association with spicules. Thus, the pinacoderm of sponges contains cells that have a differentiating capacity and from which somatic cells, such as skeletal cells/sclerocytes, derive. PMID:15024642

  18. Uncoupling T-cell expansion from effector differentiation in cell-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with advanced cancer. Eradication of tumor in mouse models and humans correlates with both a high dose of adoptively transferred cells and cells with a minimally differentiated phenotype that maintain replicative capacity and multipotency. We speculate that response to ACT not only requires transfer of cells with immediate cytolytic effector function to kill the bulk of fast-growing tumor, but also transfer of tumor-specific cells that maintain an ability for self-renewal and the capacity to produce a continual supply of cytolytic effector progeny until all malignant cells are eliminated. Current in vitro methods to expand cells to sufficient numbers and still maintain a minimally differentiated phenotype are hindered by the biological coupling of clonal expansion and effector differentiation. Therefore, a better understanding of the physiologic mechanism that couples cell expansion and differentiation in CD8+ T cells may improve the efficacy of ACT. PMID:24329803

  19. In vitro differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into keratinocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ingo; Knaup, Renate; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich; Hescheler, Jürgen; Mahrle, Gustav

    2007-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are omnipotent; they can differentiate into every cell type of the body. The development of culture conditions that allow their differentiation has made it conceivable to produce large numbers of cells with lineage-specific characteristics in vitro. Here, we describe a method by which murine ES cells can be differentiated into cells with characteristics of epidermal keratinocytes. Keratinocyte-like cells were isolated from embryoid bodies and grown in culture. Potential applications of this method are the in vitro differentiation of cells of interest from ES cells of mice with lethal phenotypes during embryonic development and the production of genetically modified epidermal keratinocytes that could be used as temporary wound dressing or as carriers of genes of interest in gene therapeutic treatments. PMID:17716780

  20. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues. PMID:26842556

  1. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures.

  2. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  3. Natural Genetic Variation Differentially Affects the Proteome and Transcriptome in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kamkina, Polina; Snoek, L Basten; Grossmann, Jonas; Volkers, Rita J M; Sterken, Mark G; Daube, Michael; Roschitzki, Bernd; Fortes, Claudia; Schlapbach, Ralph; Roth, Alexander; von Mering, Christian; Hengartner, Michael O; Schrimpf, Sabine P; Kammenga, Jan E

    2016-05-01

    Natural genetic variation is the raw material of evolution and influences disease development and progression. An important question is how this genetic variation translates into variation in protein abundance. To analyze the effects of the genetic background on gene and protein expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we quantitatively compared the two genetically highly divergent wild-type strains N2 and CB4856. Gene expression was analyzed by microarray assays, and proteins were quantified using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. Among all transcribed genes, we found 1,532 genes to be differentially transcribed between the two wild types. Of the total 3,238 quantified proteins, 129 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between N2 and CB4856. The differentially expressed proteins were enriched for genes that function in insulin-signaling and stress-response pathways, underlining strong divergence of these pathways in nematodes. The protein abundance of the two wild-type strains correlates more strongly than protein abundance versus transcript abundance within each wild type. Our findings indicate that in C. elegans only a fraction of the changes in protein abundance can be explained by the changes in mRNA abundance. These findings corroborate with the observations made across species. PMID:26944343

  4. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells. PMID:27189526

  5. Roles of Nrf2 in cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shohei; Motohashi, Hozumi

    2015-11-01

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays pivotal roles in defense mechanisms by regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 is an inducible transcription factor that activates a battery of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and phase II enzymes in response to oxidative stress and electrophilic xenobiotics. The activity of Nrf2 is regulated by Keap1, which promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Nrf2 under normal conditions and releases the inhibited Nrf2 activity upon exposure to the stresses. Though an impressive contribution of the Keap1-Nrf2 system to the protection from exogenous and endogenous electrophilic insults has been well established, a line of evidence has suggested that the Keap1-Nrf2 system has various novel functions, particularly in cell proliferation and differentiation. Because the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types are often influenced and modulated by the cellular redox balance, Nrf2 has been considered to control these cellular processes by regulating the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, analyses of the genome-wide distribution of Nrf2 have identified new sets of Nrf2 target genes whose products are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation but not necessarily in the regulation of oxidative stress. Considering the most characteristic features of Nrf2 as an inducible transcription factor, a newly emerged concept proposes that the Keap1-Nrf2 system translates environmental stresses into regulatory network signals in cell fate determination. In this review, we introduce the contribution of Nrf2 to lineage-specific differentiation, maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, and proliferation of normal and cancer cells, and we discuss how the response to fluctuating environments modulates cell behavior through the Keap1-Nrf2 system. PMID:26119783

  6. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem.

    PubMed

    Barradas, P C; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-02-01

    Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions. PMID:9686148

  7. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Function by EZH2.

    PubMed

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Chistofides, Anthos; Barhdan, Kankana; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2016-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), one of the polycomb-group proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity, while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12, and RpAp46/48, induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency, and cancer biology, being currently at the cutting edge of research. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD. PMID:27199994

  8. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Function by EZH2

    PubMed Central

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Chistofides, Anthos; Barhdan, Kankana; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.

    2016-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), one of the polycomb-group proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity, while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12, and RpAp46/48, induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency, and cancer biology, being currently at the cutting edge of research. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD. PMID:27199994

  9. The FRIABLE1 Gene Product Affects Cell Adhesion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Neumetzler, Lutz; Humphrey, Tania; Lumba, Shelley; Snyder, Stephen; Yeats, Trevor H.; Usadel, Björn; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Patel, Jignasha; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Persson, Staffan; Bonetta, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1), was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246). Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22916179

  10. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17β-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  11. CAM and cell fate targeting: molecular and energetic insights into cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Carlo

    2005-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence-based CAM. PMID:16136206

  12. Tenascin‐C Aggravates Autoimmune Myocarditis via Dendritic Cell Activation and Th17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Machino‐Ohtsuka, Tomoko; Tajiri, Kazuko; Kimura, Taizo; Sakai, Satoshi; Sato, Akira; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Imanaka‐Yoshida, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Background Tenascin‐C (TN‐C), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, appears at several important steps of cardiac development in the embryo, but is sparse in the normal adult heart. TN‐C re‐expresses under pathological conditions including myocarditis, and is closely associated with tissue injury and inflammation in both experimental and clinical settings. However, the pathophysiological role of TN‐C in the development of myocarditis is not clear. We examined how TN‐C affects the initiation of experimental autoimmune myocarditis, immunologically. Methods and Results A model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis was established in BALB/c mice by immunization with murine α‐myosin heavy chains. We found that TN‐C knockout mice were protected from severe myocarditis compared to wild‐type mice. TN‐C induced synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‐6, in dendritic cells via activation of a Toll‐like receptor 4, which led to T‐helper (Th)17 cell differentiation and exacerbated the myocardial inflammation. In the transfer experiment, dendritic cells loaded with cardiac myosin peptide acquired the functional capacity to induce myocarditis when stimulated with TN‐C; however, TN‐C‐stimulated dendritic cells generated from Toll‐like receptor 4 knockout mice did not induce myocarditis in recipients. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that TN‐C aggravates autoimmune myocarditis by driving the dendritic cell activation and Th17 differentiation via Toll‐like receptor 4. The blockade of Toll‐like receptor 4‐mediated signaling to inhibit the proinflammatory effects of TN‐C could be a promising therapeutic strategy against autoimmune myocarditis. PMID:25376187

  13. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F.; Psathaki, Olympia E.; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R.; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34+ cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. PMID:25326431

  14. Regulatory T Cells: Differentiation and Function.

    PubMed

    Plitas, George; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    The immune system of vertebrate animals has evolved to mount an effective defense against a diverse set of pathogens while minimizing transient or lasting impairment in tissue function that could result from the inflammation caused by immune responses to infectious agents. In addition, misguided immune responses to "self" and dietary antigens, as well as to commensal microorganisms, can lead to a variety of inflammatory disorders, including autoimmunity, metabolic syndrome, allergies, and cancer. Regulatory T cells expressing the X chromosome-linked transcription factor Foxp3 suppress inflammatory responses in diverse biological settings and serve as a vital mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 721-5. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27590281

  15. Retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Villeneuve, E M; Rudnicki, M A; Harris, J F; McBurney, M W

    1983-01-01

    We have previously shown that the P19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells develops into neurons, astroglia, and fibroblasts after aggregation and exposure to retinoic acid. The neurons were initially identified by their morphology and by the presence of neurofilaments within their cytoplasm. We have more fully documented the neuronal nature of these cells by showing that their cell surfaces display tetanus toxin receptors, a neuronal cell marker, and that choline acetyl-transferase and acetyl cholinesterase activities appear coordinately in neuron-containing cultures. Several days before the appearance of neurons, there is a marked decrease in the amount of an embryonal carcinoma surface antigen, and at the same time there is a substantial decrease in the volumes of individual cells. Various retinoids were able to induce the development of neurons in cultures of aggregated P19 cells, but it did not appear that polyamine metabolism was involved in the effect. We have isolated a mutant clone which does not differentiate in the presence of any of the drugs which are normally effective in inducing differentiation of P19 cells. This mutant and others may help to elucidate the chain of events triggered by retinoic acid and other differentiation-inducing drugs. Images PMID:6656766

  16. T helper cell differentiation more than just cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Beata; Veldhoen, Marc

    2011-01-01

    CD4(+) T helper (T(H)) cells play a critical role in orchestrating a pleiotropy of immune activities against a large variety of pathogens. It is generally thought that this is achieved through the acquisition of highly specialized functions after activation followed by the differentiation into various functional subsets. The differentiation process of naive precursor T(H) cells into defined effector subsets is controlled by cells of the innate immune system and their complex array of effector molecules such as secreted cytokines and membrane bound costimulatory molecules. These provide a unique quantitative or qualitative signal initiating T(H) development, which is subsequently reinforced via T cell-mediated feedback signals and selective survival and proliferative cues, ultimately resulting in the predominance of a particular T cell subset. In recent years, the number of defined T(H)cell subsets has expanded and the once rigid division of labor among them has been blurred with reports of plasticity among the subsets. In this chapter, we summarize and speculate on the current knowledge of the differentiation requirements of T(H) cell lineages, with particular focus on the T(H)17 subset. PMID:21569915

  17. Cell responses to FGFR3 signalling: growth, differentiation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    L'Hote, Corine G.M. . E-mail: Corine.LHote@cancer.org.uk; Knowles, Margaret A.

    2005-04-01

    FGFR3 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the FGF receptor family, known to have a negative regulatory effect on long bone growth. Fgfr3 knockout mice display longer bones and, accordingly, most germline-activating mutations in man are associated with dwarfism. Somatically, some of the same activating mutations are associated with the human cancers multiple myeloma, cervical carcinoma and carcinoma of the bladder. How signalling through FGFR3 can lead to either chondrocyte apoptosis or cancer cell proliferation is not fully understood. Although FGFR3 can be expressed as two main splice isoforms (IIIb or IIIc), there is no apparent link with specific cell responses, which may rather be associated with the cell type or its differentiation status. Depending on cell type, differential activation of STAT proteins has been observed. STAT1 phosphorylation seems to be involved in inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation while activation of the ERK pathway inhibits chondrocyte differentiation and B-cell proliferation (as in multiple myeloma). The role of FGFR3 in epithelial cancers (bladder and cervix) is not known. Some of the cell specificity may arise via modulation of signalling by crosstalk with other signalling pathways. Recently, inhibition of the ERK pathway in achondroplastic mice has provided hope for an approach to the treatment of dwarfism. Further understanding of the ability of FGFR3 to trigger different responses depending on cell type and cellular context may lead to treatments for both skeletal dysplasias and cancer.

  18. Cannabinoid receptor signaling in progenitor/stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Chiurchiù, Valerio; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Bari, Monica; Guzmán, Manuel; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of cannabis (Cannabis sativa) extracts, have attracted the attention of human civilizations for centuries, much earlier than the discovery and characterization of their substrate of action, the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The latter is an ensemble of endogenous lipids, their receptors [in particular type-1 (CB1) and type-2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors] and metabolic enzymes. Cannabinoid signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, with different outcomes depending on the molecular targets and cellular context involved. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed and functional from the very early developmental stages, when they regulate embryonic and trophoblast stem cell survival and differentiation, and thus may affect the formation of manifold adult specialized tissues derived from the three different germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). In the ectoderm-derived nervous system, both CB1 and CB2 receptors are present in neural progenitor/stem cells and control their self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. CB1 and CB2 show opposite patterns of expression, the former increasing and the latter decreasing along neuronal differentiation. Recently, endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has also been shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of mesoderm-derived hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, with a key role in determining the formation of several cell types in peripheral tissues, including blood cells, adipocytes, osteoblasts/osteoclasts and epithelial cells. Here, we will review these new findings, which unveil the involvement of eCB signaling in the regulation of progenitor/stem cell fate in the nervous system and in the periphery. The developmental regulation of cannabinoid receptor expression and cellular/subcellular localization, together with their role in progenitor/stem cell biology, may have important implications in human health and disease. PMID:24076098

  19. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Muffley, Lara A.; Pan, Shin-Chen; Smith, Andria N.; Ga, Maricar; Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  20. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Family Members Are Differentially Affected by Alterations in Host Glycans and Membrane Cholesterol*

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Aria; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J.; Gargi, Amandeep; Cardwell, Marissa M.; Prouty, Michael G.; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are tripartite protein exotoxins produced by a diverse group of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Based on their ability to induce DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of cultured cells, CDTs are proposed to enhance virulence by blocking cellular division and/or directly killing epithelial and immune cells. Despite the widespread distribution of CDTs among several important human pathogens, our understanding of how these toxins interact with host cells is limited. Here we demonstrate that CDTs from Haemophilus ducreyi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni differ in their abilities to intoxicate host cells with defined defects in host factors previously implicated in CDT binding, including glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids. The absence of cell surface sialic acid sensitized cells to intoxication by three of the four CDTs tested. Surprisingly, fucosylated N-linked glycans and glycolipids, previously implicated in CDT-host interactions, were not required for intoxication by any of the CDTs tested. Finally, altering host-cellular cholesterol, also previously implicated in CDT binding, affected intoxication by only a subset of CDTs tested. The findings presented here provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of CDT-host interactions. PMID:20385557

  1. Cell-Imprinted Substrates Modulate Differentiation, Redifferentiation, and Transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Shahin; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Montazeri, Leila; Taghipoor, Mojtaba; Bertsch, Arnaud; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sharifi, Shahriar; Majidi, Mohammad; Mashinchian, Omid; Hamrang Sekachaei, Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Pegah; Renaud, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Differentiation of stem cells into mature cells through the use of physical approaches is of great interest. Here, we prepared smart nanoenvironments by cell-imprinted substrates based on chondrocytes, tenocytes, and semifibroblasts as templates and demonstrated their potential for differentiation, redifferentiation, and transdifferentiation. Analysis of shape and upregulation/downregulation of specific genes of stem cells, which were seeded on these cell-imprinted substrates, confirmed that imprinted substrates have the capability to induce specific shapes and molecular characteristics of the cell types that were used as templates for cell-imprinting. Interestingly, immunofluorescent staining of a specific protein in chondrocytes (i.e., collagen type II) confirmed that adipose-derived stem cells, semifibroblasts, and tenocytes can acquire the chondrocyte phenotype after a 14 day culture on chondrocyte-imprinted substrates. In summary, we propose that common polystyrene tissue culture plates can be replaced by this imprinting technique as an effective and promising way to regulate any cell phenotype in vitro with significant potential applications in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies. PMID:27196338

  2. Differentiation and transdifferentiation potentials of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Allan Yi; Ouyang, Gaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells actively contribute to constructing their own microenvironment during tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The tumor microenvironment contains multiple types of stromal cells that work together with the extracellular matrix and local and systemic factors to coordinately contribute to tumor initiation and progression. Tumor cells and their stromal compartments acquire many genetic and/or epigenetic alternations to facilitate tumor growth and metastasis. The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept has been widely applied to interpreting tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, dormancy and relapse. CSCs have differentiation abilities to generate the original lineage cells that are similar to their normal stem cell counterparts. Interestingly, recent evidence demonstrates that CSCs also have the potential to transdifferentiate into vascular endothelial cells and pericytes, indicating that CSCs can transdifferentiate into other lineage cells for promoting tumor growth and metastasis in some tissue contexts instead of only recruiting stromal cells from local or distant tissues. Although the transdifferentiation of CSCs into tumor stromal cells provides a new dimension that explains tumor heterogeneity, many aspects of CSC transdifferentiation remain elusive. In this review, we summarize the multi-lineage differentiation and transdifferentiation potentials of CSCs as well as discuss their potential contributions to tumor heterogeneity and tumor microenvironment in tumor progression. PMID:26474460

  3. Transdifferentiation of differentiated stem cells contributes to remyelination.

    PubMed

    Chelluboina, Bharath; Dinh, Dzung H; Veeravalli, Krishna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into various neuronal cells contributes to functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury. Qiu et al. have recently published an exciting article in Stem Cell Research & Therapy demonstrating the transdifferentiation of already differentiated MSCs that contributes to remyelination of injured/regenerating axons, and thereby to functional recovery of spinal cord injured animals. The authors highlight the importance of interaction between neurotrophin-3 and tropomyosin receptor kinase C for the observed effects. This study provided important evidence that manipulation of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs before transplantation could enhance the therapeutic benefit of cell-based treatment. PMID:26437650

  4. In vitro Differentiation Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Guilak, Farshid; Nuttall, Mark E.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Vidal, Martin; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a class of multipotent progenitor cells that have been isolated from multiple tissue sites. Of these, adipose tissue and bone marrow offer advantages in terms of access, abundance, and the extent of their documentation in the literature. This review focuses on the in vitro differentiation capability of cells derived from adult human tissue. Multiple, independent studies have demonstrated that MSCs can commit to mesodermal (adipocyte, chondrocyte, hematopoietic support, myocyte, osteoblast, tenocyte), ectodermal (epithelial, glial, neural), and endodermal (hepatocyte, islet cell) lineages. The limitations and promises of these studies in the context of tissue engineering are discussed. PMID:21547120

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    -immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l β-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to α particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent

  6. 5-Fluorouracil targets thymidylate synthase in the selective suppression of TH17 cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Peng, Liang; Zhang, Ruihua; Zheng, Zihan; Chen, Chun; Cheung, Ka Lung; Cui, Miao; Bian, Guanglin; Xu, Feihong; Chiang, David; Hu, Yuan; Chen, Ye; Lu, Geming; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jianfei; Zhu, Hongfa; Chen, Shu-hsia; Liu, Kebin; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Sikora, Andrew G.; Li, Liwu; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Huabao

    2016-01-01

    While it is well established that treatment of cancer patients with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) can result in immune suppression, the exact function of 5-FU in the modulation of immune cells has not been fully established. We found that low dose 5-FU selectively suppresses TH17 and TH1 cell differentiation without apparent effect on Treg, TH2, and significantly suppresses thymidylate synthase (TS) expression in TH17 and TH1 cells but has a lesser effect in tumor cells and macrophages. Interestingly, the basal expression of TS varies significantly between T helper phenotypes and knockdown of TS significantly impairs TH17 and TH1 cell differentiation without affecting the differentiation of either Treg or TH2 cells. Finally, low dose 5-FU is effective in ameliorating colitis development by suppressing TH17 and TH1 cell development in a T cell transfer colitis model. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of the anti-inflammatory functions of low dose 5-FU by selectively suppressing TH17 and TH1 immune responses. PMID:27027355

  7. Zebrafish yap1 plays a role in differentiation of hair cells in posterior lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Siau-Lin; Teh, Cathleen; Muller, Julius; Guccione, Ernesto; Hong, Wanjin; Korzh, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis and this process involves Yap1. The zebrafish Yap1 acts during neural differentiation, but its function is not fully understood. The detailed analysis of yap1 expression in proliferative regions, revealed it in the otic placode that gives rise to the lateral line system affected by the morpholino-mediated knockdown of Yap1. The comparative microarray analysis of transcriptome of Yap1-deficient embryos demonstrated changes in expression of many genes, including the Wnt signaling pathway and, in particular, prox1a known for its role in development of mechanoreceptors in the lateral line. The knockdown of Yap1 causes a deficiency of differentiation of mechanoreceptors, and this defect can be rescued by prox1a mRNA. Our studies revealed a role of Yap1 in regulation of Wnt signaling pathway and its target Prox1a during differentiation of mechanosensory cells. PMID:24598795

  8. Zebrafish yap1 plays a role in differentiation of hair cells in posterior lateral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Siau-Lin; Teh, Cathleen; Muller, Julius; Guccione, Ernesto; Hong, Wanjin; Korzh, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis and this process involves Yap1. The zebrafish Yap1 acts during neural differentiation, but its function is not fully understood. The detailed analysis of yap1 expression in proliferative regions, revealed it in the otic placode that gives rise to the lateral line system affected by the morpholino-mediated knockdown of Yap1. The comparative microarray analysis of transcriptome of Yap1-deficient embryos demonstrated changes in expression of many genes, including the Wnt signaling pathway and, in particular, prox1a known for its role in development of mechanoreceptors in the lateral line. The knockdown of Yap1 causes a deficiency of differentiation of mechanoreceptors, and this defect can be rescued by prox1a mRNA. Our studies revealed a role of Yap1 in regulation of Wnt signaling pathway and its target Prox1a during differentiation of mechanosensory cells.

  9. Agitation increases expansion of cord blood hematopoietic cells and promotes their differentiation into myeloid lineage.

    PubMed

    Hosseinizand, Hasti; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical stress caused by agitation is one of the factors that can affect hematopoietic stem cell expansion in suspension bioreactors. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of agitation on umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell (UCB-HSC) growth and differentiation. A comparison was made between various agitation rates (20, 40 and 60 rpm) in spinner-flask and cells cultured in glass petri dish as a static culture. Moreover, the fluid dynamic at various agitation rates of spinner-flask was analyzed to determine shear stress. The spinner-flask contained a rotational moving mixer with glass ball and was kept in tissue culture incubator. To reduce consumption of cytokines, UCB-serum was used which widely decreased the costs. Our results determined that, agitation rate at 40 rpm promoted UCB-HSCs expansion and their colony forming potential. Myeloid progenitors were the main type of cells at 40 rpm agitation rate. The results of glucose consumption and lactic acid production were in complete agreement with colony assay and expansion data and indicated the superiority of culture in spinner-flask when agitated at 40 rpm over to other agitation speeds and also static culture. Cell viability and colony count was affected by changing the agitation speed. We assume that changes in cell growth resulted from the effect of shear stress directly on cell viability, and indirectly on signaling pathways that influence the cells to differentiate. PMID:26264594

  10. Control of NKT cell differentiation by tissue-specific microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ueno, Aito; Bao, Min; Wang, Zhongying; Im, Jin Seon; Porcelli, Steven; Yoon, Ji-Won

    2003-12-01

    CD1d-restricted Valpha14 NKT cells play an important role in both Th1- and Th2-type immune responses. To determine whether NKT cells develop two functionally distinct subsets that provoke different types of responses, we examined the phenotypes and cellular functions of NK1.1(+) and DX5(+) T cells. We found that both NK1.1(+) and DX5(+) T cells are CD1d-restricted Valpha14 T cells with identical Ag specificities, phenotypes, tissue locations, and functions. Similar to the NK1.1 marker, the DX5 marker (CD49b) is expressed on mature NKT cells in both NK1.1 allele-positive and allele-negative strains. However, when NK1.1(+) and DX5(+) NKT cells isolated from different tissues were compared, we found that thymic and splenic NKT cells differed not only in their cytokine profiles, but also in their phenotype and requirements for costimulatory signals. Thymic NKT cells displayed the phenotype of activated T cells and could be fully activated by TCR ligation. In contrast, splenic NKT cells displayed the phenotype of memory T cells and required a costimulatory signal for activation. Furthermore, the function and phenotype of thymic and splenic NKT cells were modulated by APCs from various tissues that expressed different levels of costimulatory molecules. Modulation of NKT cell function and differentiation may be mediated by synergic effects of costimulatory molecules on the surface of APCs. The results of the present study suggest that the costimulatory signals of tissue-specific APCs are key factors for NKT cell differentiation, and these signals cannot be replaced by anti-CD28 or anti-CD40 ligand Abs. PMID:14634102

  11. Plant Phosphoglycerolipids: The Gatekeepers of Vascular Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gujas, Bojan; Rodriguez-Villalon, Antia

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, the plant vascular system has evolved as an inter-organ communication network essential to deliver a wide range of signaling factors among distantly separated organs. To become conductive elements, phloem and xylem cells undergo a drastic differentiation program that involves the degradation of the majority of their organelles. While the molecular mechanisms regulating such complex process remain poorly understood, it is nowadays clear that phosphoglycerolipids display a pivotal role in the regulation of vascular tissue formation. In animal cells, this class of lipids is known to mediate acute responses as signal transducers and also act as constitutive signals that help defining organelle identity. Their rapid turnover, asymmetrical distribution across subcellular compartments as well as their ability to rearrange cytoskeleton fibers make phosphoglycerolipids excellent candidates to regulate complex morphogenetic processes such as vascular differentiation. Therefore, in this review we aim to summarize, emphasize and connect our current understanding about the involvement of phosphoglycerolipids in phloem and xylem differentiation. PMID:26904069

  12. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-07-15

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells.

  13. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  14. Induced differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells into myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guizhu; Zheng, Xiu; Jiang, Zhongqing; Wang, Jinhua; Song, Yanfeng

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to induce the differentiation of isolated and purified adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into myoblasts, which may provide a new strategy for tissue engineering in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). ADSCs, isolated and cultured ex vivo, were identified by flow cytometry and induced to differentiate into myoblasts in the presence of an induction solution consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5-azacytidine (5-aza), 5% FBS, and 5% horse serum. Cellular morphology was observed under an inverted microscope. Ultrastructural changes occurring during the differentiation were observed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in cells with and without induced differentiation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression, respectively, of sarcomeric and desmin smooth muscle proteins. The results showed that ADSCs were mainly of a spindle or polygon shape. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ADSCs did not express CD34, CD45, and CD106 but high levels of CD44 and CD90, which confirmed that the cultured cells were indeed ADSCs. After induction with a 5-aza-containing solution, morphological changes in ADSCs, including irregular cell size, were observed. Cells gradually changed from long spindles to polygons and star-shaped cells with microvilli on the cell surface. Many organelles were observed and the cytoplasm was found to contain many mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and myofilament-like structures. Cell immunohistochemical staining revealed different levels of desmin expression in each phase of the induction process, with the highest expression level found on day 28 of induction. RT-PCR and Western blot results confirmed significantly higher desmin gene expression in induced cells compared with control cells, but no

  15. Zfp423 Promotes Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Stromal Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Das, Arun Kr; Yang, Qi-Yuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was higher (156.1±48.7%, P<0.05) in low adipogenic cells. Following adipogenic differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) were much higher (239.4±84.1% and 310.7±138.4%, respectively, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells. Over-expression of Zfp423 in stromal vascular cells and cloned low adipogenic cells dramatically increased their adipogenic differentiation, accompanied with the inhibition of TGF-β expression. Zfp423 knockdown by shRNA in high adipogenic cells largely prevented their adipogenic differentiation. The differential regulation of Zfp423 and TGF-β between low and high adipogenic cells is associated with the DNA methylation in their promoters. In conclusion, data show that Zfp423 is a critical regulator of adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells of bovine muscle, and Zfp423 may provide a molecular target for enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    -immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l β-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to α particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent

  17. Differentiate or Die: 3-Bromopyruvate and Pluripotency in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Sandro L.; Correia, Marcelo; Gomes, Andreia; Perestrelo, Tânia; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2015-01-01

    Background Pluripotent embryonic stem cells grown under standard conditions (ESC) have a markedly glycolytic profile, which is shared with many different types of cancer cells. Thus, some therapeutic strategies suggest that pharmacologically shifting cancer cells towards an oxidative phenotype, using glycolysis inhibitors, may reduce cancer aggressiveness. Given the metabolic parallels between cancer and stemness would chemotherapeutical agents have an effect on pluripotency, and could a strategy involving these agents be envisioned to modulate stem cell fate in an accessible manner? In this manuscript we attempted to determine the effects of 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP) in pluripotency. Although it has other intracellular targets, this compound is a potent inhibitor of glycolysis enzymes thought to be important to maintain a glycolytic profile. The goal was also to determine if we could contribute towards a pharmacologically accessible metabolic strategy to influence cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) grown under standard pluripotency conditions (in the presence of Leukemia Inducing Factor- LIF) were treated with 3BrP. As a positive control for differentiation other mESCs were grown without LIF. Overall our results demonstrate that 3BrP negatively affects pluripotency, forcing cells to become less glycolytic and with more active mitochondria. These changes in metabolism are correlated with increased differentiation, even under pluripotency conditions (i.e. in the presence of LIF). However, 3BrP also significantly impaired cell function, and may have other roles besides affecting the metabolic profile of mESCs. Conclusions/Findings Treatment of mESCs with 3BrP triggered a metabolic switch and loss of pluripotency, even in the presence of LIF. Interestingly, the positive control for differentiation allowed for a distinction between 3BrP effects and changes associated with spontaneous differentiation/loss of pluripotency

  18. Microwell regulation of pluripotent stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Cheston; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    The fates of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including survival, self-renewal, and differentiation, are regulated by chemical and mechanical cues presented in the three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment. Most PSC studies have been performed on two-dimensional substrates. However, 3D culture systems have demonstrated the importance of intercellular interactions in regulating PSC self-renewal and differentiation. Microwell culture systems have been developed to generate homogenous PSC colonies of defined sizes and shapes and to study how colony morphology affects cell fate. Using microwells, researchers have demonstrated that PSCs remain in a self-renewing undifferentiated state as a result of autocrine and paracrine signaling. Other studies have shown that microwell regulation of embryoid body size affects lineage commitment during differentiation via cell-cell contact and expression of soluble signals. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the design and utilization of 3D microwell platforms for studying intercellular regulation of PSC cell fate decisions and the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:23483802

  19. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control