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  1. ANALYSIS OF BIOMECHANICAL PARAMETERS IN COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    IWANAGA, Tiago Cavalcanti; AGUIAR, José Lamartine de Andrade; MARTINS-FILHO, Euclides Dias; KREIMER, Flávio; SILVA-FILHO, Fernando Luiz; de ALBUQUERQUE, Amanda Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The use of measures in colonic anastomoses to prevent dehiscences is of great medical interest. Sugarcane molasses, which has adequate tolerability and compatibility in vivo, has not yet been tested for this purpose. Aim: To analyze the biomechanical parameters of colonic suture in rats undergoing colectomy, using sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape or gel. Methods: 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were randomized into three groups of 15 animals: irrigation of enteric sutures with 0.9% saline solution; application of sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape; and sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as gel. The rats underwent colon ressection, with subsequent reanastomosis using polypropylene suture; they were treated according to their respective groups. Five rats from each group were evaluated at different times after the procedure: 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively. The following variables were evaluated: maximum rupture force, modulus of elasticity and specific deformation of maximum force. Results: The biomechanical variables among the scheduled times and treatment groups were statistically calculated. The characteristics of maximum rupture force and modulus of elasticity of the specimens remained identical, regardless of treatment with saline, polysaccharide gel or tape, and treatment time. However, it was found that the specific deformation of maximum force of the intestinal wall was higher after 180 days in the group treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel (p=0.09). Conclusion: Compared to control, it was detected greater elasticity of the intestinal wall in mice treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel, without changing other biomechanical characteristics, regardless of type or time of treatment. PMID:27438033

  2. Model-based recovery of histological parameters from multispectral images of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidovic-Rowe, Dzena; Claridge, Ela

    2005-04-01

    Colon cancer alters the macroarchitecture of the colon tissue. Common changes include angiogenesis and the distortion of the tissue collagen matrix. Such changes affect the colon colouration. This paper presents the principles of a novel optical imaging method capable of extracting parameters depicting histological quantities of the colon. The method is based on a computational, physics-based model of light interaction with tissue. The colon structure is represented by three layers: mucosa, submucosa and muscle layer. Optical properties of the layers are defined by molar concentration and absorption coefficients of haemoglobins; the size and density of collagen fibres; the thickness of the layer and the refractive indexes of collagen and the medium. Using the entire histologically plausible ranges for these parameters, a cross-reference is created computationally between the histological quantities and the associated spectra. The output of the model was compared to experimental data acquired in vivo from 57 histologically confirmed normal and abnormal tissue samples and histological parameters were extracted. The model produced spectra which match well the measured data, with the corresponding spectral parameters being well within histologically plausible ranges. Parameters extracted for the abnormal spectra showed the increase in blood volume fraction and changes in collagen pattern characteristic of the colon cancer. The spectra extracted from multi-spectral images of ex-vivo colon including adenocarcinoma show the characteristic features associated with normal and abnormal colon tissue. These findings suggest that it should be possible to compute histological quantities for the colon from the multi-spectral images.

  3. ANALYSIS OF BIOMECHANICAL PARAMETERS IN COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tiago Cavalcanti; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Martins-Filho, Euclides Dias; Kreimer, Flávio; Silva-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos de

    2016-01-01

    The use of measures in colonic anastomoses to prevent dehiscences is of great medical interest. Sugarcane molasses, which has adequate tolerability and compatibility in vivo, has not yet been tested for this purpose. To analyze the biomechanical parameters of colonic suture in rats undergoing colectomy, using sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape or gel. 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were randomized into three groups of 15 animals: irrigation of enteric sutures with 0.9% saline solution; application of sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape; and sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as gel. The rats underwent colon ressection, with subsequent reanastomosis using polypropylene suture; they were treated according to their respective groups. Five rats from each group were evaluated at different times after the procedure: 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively. The following variables were evaluated: maximum rupture force, modulus of elasticity and specific deformation of maximum force. The biomechanical variables among the scheduled times and treatment groups were statistically calculated. The characteristics of maximum rupture force and modulus of elasticity of the specimens remained identical, regardless of treatment with saline, polysaccharide gel or tape, and treatment time. However, it was found that the specific deformation of maximum force of the intestinal wall was higher after 180 days in the group treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel (p=0.09). Compared to control, it was detected greater elasticity of the intestinal wall in mice treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel, without changing other biomechanical characteristics, regardless of type or time of treatment. A aplicação de produtos em anastomoses colônicas que possam prevenir o surgimento de deiscências são de grande interesse médico. O emprego do polissacarídeo de melaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum), que possui adequada tolerabilidade e compatibilidade in vivo

  4. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients’ age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  5. Model based recovery of histological parameters starting from reflectance spectra of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidovic-Rowe, Dzena; Claridge, Ela

    2005-06-01

    Colon cancer alters the tissue macro-architecture. Changes include increase in blood content and distortion of the collagen matrix, which affect the reflectance spectra of the colon and its colouration. We have developed a physics-based model for predicting colon tissue spectra. The colon structure is represented by three layers: mucosa, submucosa and smooth muscle. Each layer is represented by parameters defining its optical properties: molar concentration and absorption coefficients of haemoglobins, describing absorption of light; size and density of collagen fibres; refractive index of the medium and collagen fibres, describing light scattering; and layer thicknesses. Spectra were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The output of the model was compared to experimental data comprising 50 spectra acquired in vivo from normal tissue. The extracted histological parameters showed good agreement with known values. An experiment was carried out to study the differences between normal and abnormal tissue. These were characterised by increased blood content and decreased collagen density, which is consistent with known differences between normal and abnormal tissue. This suggests that histological quantities of the colon could be computed from its reflectance spectra. The method is likely to have diagnostic value in the early detection of colon cancer.

  6. Factors affecting length of stay following colonic resection.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Mostafa, Gamal; Lincourt, Amy E; Camp, Steven M; Kercher, Kent W; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2008-05-15

    In-hospital length of stay (LOS) has become a valuable measure of outcomes following any operation, which also directly impacts cost. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that affect LOS after colonic resection. A retrospective analysis was performed of adult patients who underwent colonic resection over an 8-y period at a tertiary institution. Data collected included demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative comorbidities and medications, operative management, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and LOS. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression to identify variables predictive of prolonged LOS. A total of 899 consecutive patients were identified. One hundred eighty-seven resections were performed urgently, and 712 were elective. Two-hundred forty-five cases were performed laparoscopically. Complications occurred in 205 cases (23%), and there were 32 deaths (4%). The median LOS was 7 d. Logistic analysis showed 15 variables to be predictive of prolonged LOS. These included advanced age, warfarin sodium use, ASA score >or=3, alcoholism, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, illicit drug use, total colectomy (versus segmental), open resections (versus laparoscopic), and postoperative complications. In addition, the presence of at least one postoperative complication was predictive of prolonged LOS (P = 0.0002, OR 2.4 95% CI 1.5-3.8). ASA score and the incidence of postoperative complications are the only significant categories of variables that predict prolonged LOS after colectomy. Laparoscopic approach and the extent of the resection are predictive as well.

  7. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  8. Larval size and age affect colonization in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Dustin J; Steinberg, Peter D

    2014-11-15

    The relationship between offspring size and performance determines the optimal trade-off between producing many small offspring or fewer large offspring and the existence of this relationship has become a central tenet of life-history theory. For organisms with multiple life-history stages, the relationship between offspring size and performance is determined by the effects of offspring size in each life-history stage. Marine invertebrates have long been a model system for examining the evolutionary ecology of offspring size, and whilst offspring size effects have been found in several life-history stages, the crucial stage of colonization has received less attention. We examined the effect of offspring size on the settlement response of sea-urchin larvae (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) to preferred and less preferred host plants, how these effects changed over the larval period and estimated the success of juveniles in the field on preferred and less-preferred host plants. We found that smaller larvae became competent to respond to preferred host plant cues sooner than larger larvae but larger larvae rejected less-preferred host plants for longer than smaller larvae. Overall, smaller H. erythrogramma larvae are likely to have less dispersal potential and are more likely to settle in less-preferred habitats whereas larger larvae appear to have an obligately longer dispersal period but settle in preferred habitats. Our results suggest that marine invertebrates that produce non-feeding larvae may have the potential to affect the dispersal of their offspring in previously unanticipated ways and that offspring size is subject to a complex web of selection across life-history stages. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. [Influence of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on prognosis in colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-ying; Di, Mei-juan; Dong, Jian-kang; Wang, Feng-juan; Jin, Yi-sen; Zhu, Yi-min; Lai, Mao-de

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on the prognosis of colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the clinical and pathomorphological factors on the prognosis in 101 cases of colon carcinoma, 219 of rectal carcinoma and 137 of rectal carcinoma under curative resections. By using univariate analysis, we identified that lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were the common prognostic factors for both colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Smoking, deep infiltration, chemotherapy and serum albumin concentration were the uncertain prognostic factors for colon carcinoma. Signet-ring cell carcinoma, larger tumor size (>6 cm), deep infiltration, lack of radical surgery, and advanced TNM stage were the exclusive adverse prognostic factors for rectal carcinoma. Further studies showed that the adverse prognostic factors for the rectal carcinoma under curative resection included deep infiltration, lymph node metastasis, vessel invasion, less of peritumoral lymphocyte infiltration, lack of Crohn's like reactivity, high level of tumor budding, advanced TNM stage and positive urine glucose. By using multivariate analysis based on a COX proportional hazard model, it was identified that smoking, lymph node metastasis and serum albumin concentration were independent prognostic factors for colon carcinoma; advanced TNM stage, distant metastasis and palliative surgery for rectal carcinoma; and vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and urine glucose for rectal carcinoma under curative resections. The various clinical and pathomorphological parameters show different prognostic value for colon carcinoma, rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma under curative resections.

  10. The influence of distal colon irritation on the changes of cystometry parameters to esophagus and colon distentions.

    PubMed

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G

    2016-01-01

    The co-occurrence of multiple pathologies in the pelvic viscera in the same patient, such as, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis, indicates the complexity of viscero-visceral interactions and the necessity to study these interactions under multiple pathological conditions. In the present study, the effect of distal colon irritation (DCI) on the urinary bladder interaction with distal esophagus distention (DED), distal colon distention (DCD), and electrical stimulation of the abdominal branches of vagus nerve (abd-vagus) were investigated using cystometry parameters. The DCI significantly decreased the intercontraction time (ICT) by decreasing the storage time (ST); nonetheless, DED and Abd-vagus were still able to significantly decrease the ICT and ST following DCI. However, DCD had no effect on ICT following the DCI. The DCI, also, significantly decreased the Intravesical pressure amplitude (P-amplitude) by increasing the resting pressure (RP). Although DED has no effect on the P-amplitude, both in the intact and the irritated animals, the abd-vagus significantly increased the P-amplitude following DCI by increasing the maximum pressure (MP). In the contrary, 3mL DCD significantly increased the P-amplitude by increasing the MP and lost that effect following the DCI. Concerning the pressure threshold (PT), none of the stimuli had any significant changes in the intact animals. However, DCI significantly decreased the PT, also, the abd-vagus and 3mL DCD significantly decreased the PT. The results of this study indicate that chemical irritation of colon complicates the effects of mechanical irritation of esophagus and colon on urinary bladder function.

  11. The influence of distal colon irritation on the changes of cystometry parameters to esophagus and colon distentions

    PubMed Central

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The co-occurrence of multiple pathologies in the pelvic viscera in the same patient, such as, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis, indicates the complexity of viscero-visceral interactions and the necessity to study these interactions under multiple pathological conditions. In the present study, the effect of distal colon irritation (DCI) on the urinary bladder interaction with distal esophagus distention (DED), distal colon distention (DCD), and electrical stimulation of the abdominal branches of vagus nerve (abd-vagus) were investigated using cystometry parameters. The DCI significantly decreased the intercontraction time (ICT) by decreasing the storage time (ST); nonetheless, DED and Abd-vagus were still able to significantly decrease the ICT and ST following DCI. However, DCD had no effect on ICT following the DCI. The DCI, also, significantly decreased the Intravesical pressure amplitude (P-amplitude) by increasing the resting pressure (RP). Although DED has no effect on the P-amplitude, both in the intact and the irritated animals, the abd-vagus significantly increased the P-amplitude following DCI by increasing the maximum pressure (MP). In the contrary, 3mL DCD significantly increased the P-amplitude by increasing the MP and lost that effect following the DCI. Concerning the pressure threshold (PT), none of the stimuli had any significant changes in the intact animals. However, DCI significantly decreased the PT, also, the abd-vagus and 3mL DCD significantly decreased the PT. The results of this study indicate that chemical irritation of colon complicates the effects of mechanical irritation of esophagus and colon on urinary bladder function. PMID:27286126

  12. [Liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer in terms of differences in their clinical parameters].

    PubMed

    Liška, V; Emingr, M; Skála, M; Pálek, R; Troup, O; Novák, P; Vyčítal, O; Skalický, T; Třeška, V

    2016-02-01

    primary rectal carcinoma, DFI (after the resection of liver metastases) was not influenced by the positivity of lymph node metastases of primary tumor or locally advanced primary tumor. The other factors studied (time from diagnosis of organ metastases to primary operation, grading, sex or age) were not shown to be statistically significant for the prognosis of OS and DFI (colorectal cancer in total). As proven by our study, rectal cancer and colon cancer are two different nosological units with specific prognostic factors with respect to their liver metastases. These differences have not been fully understood yet and require further exploration and classification based not only on histopathological, immunohistochemical and clinical factors, but also on molecular biological parameters. colon carcinoma metastases rectal carcinoma metastases prognostic factors overall survival - liver metastases.

  13. FAK and HAS Inhibition Synergistically Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Viability and Affect Expression of Critical Genes

    PubMed Central

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William; Dunn, Kelli B.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p<0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p<0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heat-shock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways. PMID:22934709

  14. FAK and HAS inhibition synergistically decrease colon cancer cell viability and affect expression of critical genes.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G; Dunn, Kelli B

    2013-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2 μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p < 0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p < 0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heatshock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways.

  15. Terahertz absorption and reflection imaging of carcinoma-affected colon tissues embedded in paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Venckevicius, Rimvydas; Seliuta, Dalius; Valusis, Gintaras; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Molis, Gediminas; Carneiro, Fatima; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Granja, Pedro L.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, dehydrated human colon tissues embedded in paraffin were studied at THz frequency. A compact THz imaging system with high numerical aperture optics was developed for the analysis of adenocarcinoma-affected colon sections, in transmission and reflection geometry. A comprehensive analysis of the THz images revealed a contrast up to 23% between the neoplastic and control tissues. Absorption and reflection THz images demonstrated the possibility to distinguish adenocarcinoma-affected areas even without water in the tissue, as the main contrast mechanism in THz measurements has been observed to be water absorption in in vivo or freshly excised tissues. The present results corroborate with previous histologic findings in the same tissues, and confirm that the contrast prevails even in dehydrated tissues.

  16. Colon cancer: association of histopathological parameters and patients' survival with clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Alexiusdottir, Kristin K; Snaebjornsson, Petur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonasson, Larus; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Björnsson, Einar Stefan; Möller, Pall Helgi; Jonasson, Jon G

    2013-10-01

    Available data correlating symptoms of colon cancer patients with the severity of the disease are very limited. In a population-based setting, we correlated information on symptoms of colon cancer patients with several pathological tumor parameters and survival. Information on all patients diagnosed with colon cancer in Iceland in 1995-2004 for this retrospective, population-based study was obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Information on symptoms of patients and blood hemoglobin was collected from patients' files. Pathological parameters were obtained from a previously performed standardized tumor review. A total of 768 patients entered this study; the median age was 73 years. Tumors in patients presenting at diagnosis with visible blood in stools were significantly more likely to be of lower grade, having pushing border, conspicuous peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration, and lower frequency of vessel invasion. Patients with abdominal pain and anemia were significantly more likely to have vessel invasion. Logistic regression showed that visible blood in stools was significantly associated with protecting pathological factors (OR range 0.38-0.83, p < 0.05). Tumors in patients presenting with abdominal pain were strongly associated with infiltrative margin and scarce peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration (OR = 1.95; 2.18 respectively, p < 0.05). Changes in bowel habits were strongly associated with vessel invasion (OR = 2.03, p < 0.05). Cox regression showed that blood in stools predicted survival (HR = 0.54). In conclusion, visible blood in stools correlates significantly with all the beneficial pathological parameters analyzed and with better survival of patients. Anemia, general symptoms, changes in bowel habits, acute symptoms, and abdominal pain correlate with more aggressive tumor characteristics and adverse outcome for patients.

  17. Does Timing of Colon Procedures Affect Outcomes in D-IBS Trials?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Sherrill, Beth; Hamm, Lynne A.; Mangel, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy is usually performed prior to enrollment into clinical trials of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Two main reasons are to rule out alternative diagnoses and to ensure that colitis is not present. However, the possible impact of a recent versus remote colon procedure on symptoms in IBS trials has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of colon procedures on symptoms in IBS trials. Methods Post hoc analyses were conducted using placebo patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS in a phase 2 trial. Pain, frequency, consistency, and urgency were analyzed using repeated measures models during the first 7 days of treatment and over the entire 12-week treatment period. Results Fifty-two placebo patients were grouped by whether they had a colon exam performed between screening and randomization (Group 1) or had a normal colon procedure during the 3 years prior to screening for this trial (Group 2). Average screening symptom scores were comparable between the two groups. Evaluation of various symptoms showed that there were no consistent significant differences between the two groups in pain, frequency, consistency, or urgency. Conclusions After the required 3-day post-procedure recovery period, there was no evidence that colonoscopy timing affected subsequent IBS symptoms. PMID:27956995

  18. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  19. Supplementation by vitamin D compounds does not affect colonic tumor development in vitamin D sufficient murine models

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A.; Halberg, Richard B.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Plum, Lori A.; Krentz, Kathleen J.; Clipson, Linda; Drinkwater, Norman; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Dove, William F.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that sunlight exposure and vitamin D are each associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. The few controlled supplementation trials testing vitamin D in humans reported to date show conflicting results. We have used two genetic models of familial colon cancer, the ApcPirc/+ (Pirc) rat and the ApcMin/+ (Min) mouse, to investigate the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and two analogs of vitamin D hormone on colonic tumors. Longitudinal endoscopic monitoring allowed us to test the efficacy of these compounds in preventing newly arising colonic tumors and in affecting established colonic tumors. 25(OH)D3 and two analogs of vitamin D hormone each failed to reduce tumor multiplicities or alter the growth patterns of colonic tumors in the Pirc rat or the Min mouse. PMID:21907701

  20. Transient lactose malabsorption in patients affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon.

    PubMed

    Tursi, Antonio; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Giorgetti, Gian Marco; Elisei, Walter

    2006-03-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) may be secondary to several small bowel diseases, and small intestinal overgrowth (SIBO) may be one of them. We looked for a correlation between symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon and LM and assessed whether this correlation may be related to SIBO. Ninety consecutive patients (pts; 39 males, 51 females; mean age, 67.2 years; range, 32-91 years) affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon were evaluated to assess orocecal transit time (OCTT), SIBO, and LM by lactulose and lactose H2 breath test (H2-BT) at entry and after 8 weeks of treatment. OCTT was delayed in 67 of 90 pts (74.44%). Fifty-three of 90 pts (58.88%) showed SIBO, and OCTT was normal in 23 of 90 pts (25.56%). LM was diagnosed in 59 of 90 pts (65.55%): 49 of 59 (71.74%) were simultaneously affected by SIBO and delayed OCTT (and thus 49 of 53 pts [92.45%] with delayed OCTT and SIBO were affected by LM); 3 of 59 pts (5.09%) showed only delayed OCTT; 7 of 59 pts (11.86%) did not show either SIBO or delayed OCTT. The association of LM and SIBO was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Seventy-nine of 86 pts (91.86%) showed normal OCTT, while OCTT remained prolonged but shorter in the remaining 7 pts (8.14%). SIBO was eradicated in all pts completing the study, while a new lactulose H2-BT showed persistence of SIBO in one pt with recurrence of symptomatic diverticular disease. Forty-seven of 59 pts (79.66%) had a normal lactose H2-BT (P < 0.002), while 12 of 59 pts (20.34%) showed persistence of LM. LM disappeared in 46 of 49 pts (93.88%) concurrently with normalization of OCTT and eradication of SIBO (P < 0.002); it also disappeared in 1 of 3 pts (33.33%) previously affected by delayed OCTT (without SIBO) and LM concurrently with normalization of OCTT. On the contrary, it persisted in all pts with normal OCTT and absence of SIBO. Moreover, it persisted also in the pt with recurrence of symptomatic diverticular disease and persistence of SIBO

  1. Expression of oncogenic BARD1 isoforms affects colon cancer progression and correlates with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-Q; Pilyugin, M; Kuester, D; Leoni, V P; Li, L; Casula, G; Zorcolo, L; Schneider-Stock, R; Atzori, L; Irminger-Finger, I

    2012-08-07

    Colon cancer predisposition is associated with mutations in BRCA1. BRCA1 protein stability depends on binding to BARD1. In different cancers, expression of differentially spliced BARD1 isoforms is correlated with poor prognosis and decreased patient survival. We therefore suspected a role of BARD1 isoforms in colon cancer. We performed immunohistochemistry in 168 colorectal cancers, using four antibodies directed against differentially expressed regions of BARD1. We determined structure and relative expression of BARD1 mRNA isoforms in 40 tumour and paired normal peri-tumour tissues. BARD1 expression was correlated with clinical outcome. BARD1 isoforms were expressed in 98% of cases and not correlated with BRCA1. BARD1 mRNA isoforms were upregulated in all tumours as compared with paired normal peri-tumour tissues. Non-correlated expression and localisation of different epitopes suggested insignificant expression of full-length (FL) BARD1. Expression of N- and C-terminal epitopes correlated with increased survival, but expression of epitopes mapping to the middle of BARD1 correlated with decreased survival. Middle epitopes are present in oncogenic BARD1 isoforms, which have pro-proliferative functions. Correlated upregulation of only N- and C-terminal epitopes reflects the expression of isoforms BARD1δ and BARD1φ. Our results suggest that BARD1 isoforms, but not FL BARD1, are expressed in colon cancer and affect its progression and clinical outcome.

  2. Impact of model parameters on Monte Carlo simulations of backscattering Mueller matrix images of colon tissue

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Pierangelo, Angelo; Novikova, Tatiana; Validire, Pierre; Benali, Abdelali; Gayet, Brice; De Martino, Antonello

    2011-01-01

    Polarimetric imaging is emerging as a viable technique for tumor detection and staging. As a preliminary step towards a thorough understanding of the observed contrasts, we present a set of numerical Monte Carlo simulations of the polarimetric response of multilayer structures representing colon samples in the backscattering geometry. In a first instance, a typical colon sample was modeled as one or two scattering “slabs” with monodisperse non absorbing scatterers representing the most superficial tissue layers (the mucosa and submucosa), above a totally depolarizing Lambertian lumping the contributions of the deeper layers (muscularis and pericolic tissue). The model parameters were the number of layers, their thicknesses and morphology, the sizes and concentrations of the scatterers, the optical index contrast between the scatterers and the surrounding medium, and the Lambertian albedo. With quite similar results for single and double layer structures, this model does not reproduce the experimentally observed stability of the relative magnitudes of the depolarizing powers for incident linear and circular polarizations. This issue was solved by considering bimodal populations including large and small scatterers in a single layer above the Lambertian, a result which shows the importance of taking into account the various types of scatterers (nuclei, collagen fibers and organelles) in the same model. PMID:21750762

  3. Practice parameters for the treatment of colonic diverticular disease: Italian Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery (SICCR) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Binda, G A; Cuomo, R; Laghi, A; Nascimbeni, R; Serventi, A; Bellini, D; Gervaz, P; Annibale, B

    2015-10-01

    The mission of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) is to optimize patient care. Providing evidence-based practice guidelines is therefore of key importance. About the present report it concernes the SICCR practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diverticular disease of the colon. The guidelines are not intended to define the sole standard of care but to provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the available therapeutic options.

  4. MiR-21/RASA1 axis affects malignancy of colon cancer cells via RAS pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bo; Liu, Wan-Wei; Nie, Wen-Jing; Li, Dong-Feng; Xie, Zi-Jun; Liu, Chao; Liu, Yan-Hui; Mei, Ping; Li, Zi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine how the oncogene miR-21 regulates the RAS signaling pathways and affects colon cancer cell behaviors. METHODS: RAS p21 GTPase activating protein 1 (RASA1) protein expression in six colon cancer cell lines was assessed by Western blot. Colon cancer RKO cells were chosen for transfection because they are KRAS wild type colon cancer cells whose RASA1 expression is significantly decreased. RKO cells were transfected with vectors overexpressing or down-regulating either miR-21 or RASA1. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay was used to determine whether RASA1 is a gene target of miR-21. Then, changes in mRNA and protein levels of RASA1, RAS-GTP, and other components of the RAS signaling pathways were assessed in transfected RKO cells by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunoprecipitation. Finally, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and tumor formation ability were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye assay, flow cytometry, transwell assay, and animal experiment, respectively. RESULTS: RASA1 protein levels were significantly decreased in RKO cells compared with the other 5 colon cancer cell lines, and RASA1 was confirmed as a target gene of miR-21. Interestingly, RASA1 mRNA and protein levels in pre-miR-21-LV (up-regulation of miR-21) cells were lower than those in anti-miR-21-LV (down-regulation of miR-21) cells (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-miR-21-LV or siRASA1 (down-regulation of RASA1) cells showed higher cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, increased expression of RAS-GTP, p-AKT, Raf-1, KRAS, and p-ERK1/2, and higher invasion and tumor formation ability, compared with control, anti-miR-21-LV or pcDNA3.1-RASA1 (up-regulation of RASA1) cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RASA1 is a target gene of miR-21, which promotes malignant behaviors of RKO cells through regulation of RASA1 expression. PMID:25663768

  5. The use of morphometric and fractal parameters to assess the effects of 5-fluorouracil, interferon and dexamethasone treatment on colonic anastomosis healing: an experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Lętowska-Andrzejewicz, Katarzyna; Torres, Anna; Torres, Kamil; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Piersiak, Tomasz; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Gawron, Antoni; Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Plewa, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy and steroid therapy have been demonstrated to interfere with the wound healing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5-fluorouracil, interferon, and dexamethasone, on the healing of colon anastomosis by assessing morphometric and fractal parameters of the colonic wall. An experimental anastomosis of the ascending colon was performed in 60 male Wistar rats, which were then randomly assigned to four groups. On the second to sixth post-operative days, the rats were administered 5-fluorouracil, interferon-α, dexamethasone, or 0.9% NaCl solution as a control. Macroscopic, histomorphometric and microbiological evaluation was performed in order to assess healing of the anastomosis. In three animals from the dexamethasone group, there was leakage of anastomosis; adhesion formation was highest in the interferon group, and significantly higher than in the control and 5-fluorouracil groups. Histomorphometric parameter alterations were most pronounced on the seventh and fourteenth post-operative days in all treatment groups, with submucosal thickness the most affected parameter. Connective tissue fractal dimension was significantly decreased in those animals treated with interferon and dexamethasone. All three pharmaceutical agents impaired healing of anastomosis, and promoted infection in the anastomosis and skin wound sites. As dexamethasone induced both morphometric and macroscopic alterations, it was considered the most detrimental in this study.

  6. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L; Schauer, Christine; Brune, Andreas

    2015-12-04

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success.

  7. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model

    PubMed Central

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L.; Schauer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success. PMID:26637604

  8. Relaxin Affects Smooth Muscle Biophysical Properties and Mechanical Activity of the Female Mouse Colon.

    PubMed

    Squecco, Roberta; Garella, Rachele; Idrizaj, Eglantina; Nistri, Silvia; Francini, Fabio; Baccari, Maria Caterina

    2015-12-01

    The hormone relaxin (RLX) has been reported to influence gastrointestinal motility in mice. However, at present, nothing is known about the effects of RLX on the biophysical properties of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Other than extending previous knowledge of RLX on colonic motility, the purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the hormone to induce changes in resting membrane potential (RMP) and on sarcolemmal ion channels of colonic SMCs of mice that are related to its mechanical activity. To this aim, we used a combined mechanical and electrophysiological approach. In the mechanical experiments, we observed that RLX caused a decay of the basal tone coupled to an increase of the spontaneous contractions, completely abolished by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). The electrophysiological results indicate for the first time that RLX directly affects the SMC biophysical properties inducing hyperpolarization of RMP and cycles of slow hyperpolarization/depolarization oscillations. The effects of RLX on RMP were abolished by ODQ as well as by a specific inhibitor of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, KT5823. RLX reduced Ca(2+) entry through the voltage-dependent L-type channels and modulated either voltage- or ATP-dependent K(+) channels. These effects were abolished by ODQ, suggesting the involvement of the nitric oxide/guanylate cyclase pathway in the effects of RLX on RMP and ion channel modulation. These actions of RLX on membrane properties may contribute to the regulation of the proximal colon motility by the nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway.

  9. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal by Raw or Extruded Pea Seeds on Growth Performance and Selected Physiological Parameters of the Ileum and Distal Colon of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Taciak, Marcin; Barszcz, Marcin; Święch, Ewa; Bachanek, Ilona; Skomiał, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The use of pea seeds is limited due to the content of antinutritional factors that may affect gut physiology. Heat treatment such as extrusion may reduce heat-labile antinutritional factors and improve the nutritional value of pea seeds. This study determined the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal in pig diets by raw or extruded pea seeds on growth performance, nitrogen balance and physiology of the ileum and distal colon. The experiment was carried out in 18 castrated male piglets of initial body weight of 11 kg, divided into three groups. The animals were fed cereal-based diets with soybean meal (C), which was partly replaced by raw (PR) or extruded pea (PE) seeds. Nitrogen balance was measured at about 15 kg body weight. After 26 days of feeding, tissue samples were taken from the ileum and distal colon for histological measurements, and colonic digesta samples for analyses of microbial activity indices. The animals fed the PE diet had a significantly greater average daily gain than those fed the C diet and better apparent protein digestibility than those on the PR diet. Pigs fed the PR diet had a significantly greater butyric acid concentration and lower pH in the colon than pigs fed PE and C diets. There was no significant effect of the diet on other indices of microbial activity or morphological parameters. In conclusion, feeding a diet with extruded pea seeds improved growth performance of pigs, did not affect intestinal morphology and had a negligible effect on microbial activity in the distal colon. PMID:28060879

  10. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal by Raw or Extruded Pea Seeds on Growth Performance and Selected Physiological Parameters of the Ileum and Distal Colon of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tuśnio, Anna; Taciak, Marcin; Barszcz, Marcin; Święch, Ewa; Bachanek, Ilona; Skomiał, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The use of pea seeds is limited due to the content of antinutritional factors that may affect gut physiology. Heat treatment such as extrusion may reduce heat-labile antinutritional factors and improve the nutritional value of pea seeds. This study determined the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal in pig diets by raw or extruded pea seeds on growth performance, nitrogen balance and physiology of the ileum and distal colon. The experiment was carried out in 18 castrated male piglets of initial body weight of 11 kg, divided into three groups. The animals were fed cereal-based diets with soybean meal (C), which was partly replaced by raw (PR) or extruded pea (PE) seeds. Nitrogen balance was measured at about 15 kg body weight. After 26 days of feeding, tissue samples were taken from the ileum and distal colon for histological measurements, and colonic digesta samples for analyses of microbial activity indices. The animals fed the PE diet had a significantly greater average daily gain than those fed the C diet and better apparent protein digestibility than those on the PR diet. Pigs fed the PR diet had a significantly greater butyric acid concentration and lower pH in the colon than pigs fed PE and C diets. There was no significant effect of the diet on other indices of microbial activity or morphological parameters. In conclusion, feeding a diet with extruded pea seeds improved growth performance of pigs, did not affect intestinal morphology and had a negligible effect on microbial activity in the distal colon.

  11. Vanillin differentially affects azoxymethane-injected rat colon carcinogenesis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  13. Biofilm formation by the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: development and parameters affecting surface attachment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Arias, Covadonga R

    2013-09-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems.

  14. Do colonization by dark septate endophytes and elevated temperature affect pathogenicity of oomycetes?

    PubMed

    Tellenbach, Christoph; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-10-01

    Phialocephala subalpina is one of the most frequent dark septate root endophytes in tree roots but its function in forest ecosystems is largely unknown. A full-factorial infection experiment was performed, using six P. subalpina isolates, two pathogenic oomycetes (Phytophthora plurivora [syn. Phytophthora citricola s.l.] and Elongisporangium undulatum [syn. Pythium undulatum]) and two temperature regimes (17.9 and 21.6 °C) to examine the ability of P. subalpina to protect Norway spruce seedlings against root pathogens. Seedling survival, disease intensity and seedling growth were affected by P. subalpina genotype, temperature and pathogen species. Some P. subalpina isolates effectively reduced mortality and disease intensity caused by the two pathogens. Elevated temperature adversely affected seedling growth but did not aggravate the effect of the pathogens. Elongisporangium undulatum but not P. plurivora significantly reduced plant growth. Colonization density of P. subalpina measured by quantitative PCR was not affected by temperature or the presence of the pathogens. In conclusion, P. subalpina confers an indirect benefit to its host and might therefore be tolerated in natural ecosystems, despite negative effects on plant health and plant growth.

  15. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  16. Does body posture affect the parameters of a cutaneous electrogastrogram?

    PubMed

    Jonderko, Krzysztof; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    In a study aimed to test the effect of body position on the parameters derived from surface electrogastrograms, 17 healthy volunteers (2M, 15F; median age 22.5 years) attended in random order two examination sessions held on separate days. A 30-min recording of the interdigestive gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) was followed by a 90-min postprandial recording after intake of a 394 kcal mixed solid-liquid test meal. For the first examination the subject was examined in a recumbent position, whereas for the second examination a sitting position was maintained. The dominant frequency and relative time occupied by normogastria was negligibly affected by the posture of the subject during GMA recording. However, a decrease in the dominant power (DP) of the gastric slow waves was observed during both the interdigestive and the postprandial recording period in a sitting position compared to a recumbent position. Consequently, the fed to fasted state DP ratio remained unaffected by body posture during GMA recording. The results indicate that by carefully observing procedural guidelines, good quality electrogastrograms can be obtained with a sitting subject, enabling the provision of comparable parameters to those achieved from standard examination in a recumbent position.

  17. Increased expression of TRPS1 affects tumor progression and correlates with patients' prognosis of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Sun, Jie; Huang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    To detect the expression pattern of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome-1 (TRPS1) in human colon cancer and to analyze its correlation with prognosis of patients with this disease. The expressions of TRPS1 in human colon cancer and its corresponding noncancerous colon tissues were detected at both mRNA and protein levels. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPS1 were both significantly higher in colon cancer than in corresponding noncancerous colon tissues (both P < 0.001). The protein level of TRPS1 in colon cancer tissues was significantly correlated with the mRNA level (r = 0.9, P < 0.001). Additionally, immunohistochemistry analysis also found increased TRPS1 expression in 63.0% (63/100) of colon cancer tissues. High TRPS1 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006) and higher pathological stage (P = 0.008) of patients with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further suggested that the increased expression of TRPS1 was an independent poor prognostic factor for this disease. Our data offer the convincing evidence for the first time that the increased expression of TRPS1 may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of colon cancer. TRPS1 might be a potential marker to predict the prognosis in colon cancer.

  18. Gastrointestinal Mucins of Fut2-Null Mice Lack Terminal Fucosylation without Affecting Colonization by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Holmén, Jessica M.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Domino, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Post-translational modification of apomucins by the sequential action of glycosyltransferases is required to produce mature mucins. The “Secretor” gene (FUT2) encodes an α(1,2)fucosyltransferase (E.C. 2.4.1.69) that catalyzes addition of terminal α(1,2)fucose residues on mucins and other molecules in mucosal epithelium. Mutant mice containing targeted replacement of Fut2 with the bacterial reporter gene lacZ were studied to determine the affect of the loss of Fut2 on glycosylation of mucins in the gastrointestinal tract. By whole organ X-gal staining, lacZ activity is prominently expressed in the foveolar pit and chief cells of the glandular stomach, Brunner's glands of the duodenum, and goblet cells in the large intestine of Fut2-LacZ null mice. Staining with Aleuria aurantia agglutinin demonstrates loss of l-fucosylated epithelial glycans throughout the gastrointestinal tract of Fut2-LacZ null mice, however, histologic appearance of the tissues appears normal. Analysis of oligosaccharides released from insoluble colonic mucins, largely Muc2, by mass spectrometry shows complete lack of terminal fucosylation of O-linked oligosaccharides in Fut2-LacZ null mice. Precursor glycans accumulate with no evidence of compensation by other fucosyltransferases or sialyltransferases on mucin glycosylation. Since Candida albicans has been reported to adhere to intestinal mucins creating a potential reservoir associated with vaginitis, Fut2-LacZ null and wild type mice were inoculated by gastric lavage with C. albicans. We observe no difference in colonization between genotypes suggesting mucin terminal fucosylation does not significantly influence C. albicans-host interaction in the intestine, highlighting that infections caused by the same organism at different mucosal surfaces are not equal. PMID:15958416

  19. Regulation of the proliferation of colon cancer cells by compounds that affect glycolysis, including 3-bromopyruvate, 2-deoxyglucose and biguanides.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael A; Qureshi, Mehreen S; Buxhoeveden, Michael; Gengel, Nicolette; Kleinschmit, Jessica; Desbordes, Charles

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies performed by our group, we observed that 2-deoxyglucose blocked the acidification of the medium used for culture of colon cancer cells caused by incubation with biguanides and it had an additive inhibitory effect on growth. In the present work, we found that 3-bromopyruvate can also prevent the lowering of pH caused by biguanide treatment. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited colonic cancer cell proliferation, but the effect was not always additive to that of biguanides and an additive effect was more notable in combined treatment with 3-bromopyruvate and 2-deoxyglucose. The induction of alkaline phosphatase activity by butyrate was not consistently affected by combination with other agents that modified glucose metabolism. The drug combinations that were examined inhibited proliferation of wild-type and p53-null cells and affected colonic cancer lines with different growth rates.

  20. Global sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter inference for solute transport in porous media colonized by biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, A.; Delay, F.; Fajraoui, N.; Fahs, M.; Mara, T. A.

    2016-08-01

    The concept of dual flowing continuum is a promising approach for modeling solute transport in porous media that includes biofilm phases. The highly dispersed transit time distributions often generated by these media are taken into consideration by simply stipulating that advection-dispersion transport occurs through both the porous and the biofilm phases. Both phases are coupled but assigned with contrasting hydrodynamic properties. However, the dual flowing continuum suffers from intrinsic equifinality in the sense that the outlet solute concentration can be the result of several parameter sets of the two flowing phases. To assess the applicability of the dual flowing continuum, we investigate how the model behaves with respect to its parameters. For the purpose of this study, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and a Statistical Calibration (SC) of model parameters are performed for two transport scenarios that differ by the strength of interaction between the flowing phases. The GSA is shown to be a valuable tool to understand how the complex system behaves. The results indicate that the rate of mass transfer between the two phases is a key parameter of the model behavior and influences the identifiability of the other parameters. For weak mass exchanges, the output concentration is mainly controlled by the velocity in the porous medium and by the porosity of both flowing phases. In the case of large mass exchanges, the kinetics of this exchange also controls the output concentration. The SC results show that transport with large mass exchange between the flowing phases is more likely affected by equifinality than transport with weak exchange. The SC also indicates that weakly sensitive parameters, such as the dispersion in each phase, can be accurately identified. Removing them from calibration procedures is not recommended because it might result in biased estimations of the highly sensitive parameters.

  1. Global sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter inference for solute transport in porous media colonized by biofilms.

    PubMed

    Younes, A; Delay, F; Fajraoui, N; Fahs, M; Mara, T A

    2016-08-01

    The concept of dual flowing continuum is a promising approach for modeling solute transport in porous media that includes biofilm phases. The highly dispersed transit time distributions often generated by these media are taken into consideration by simply stipulating that advection-dispersion transport occurs through both the porous and the biofilm phases. Both phases are coupled but assigned with contrasting hydrodynamic properties. However, the dual flowing continuum suffers from intrinsic equifinality in the sense that the outlet solute concentration can be the result of several parameter sets of the two flowing phases. To assess the applicability of the dual flowing continuum, we investigate how the model behaves with respect to its parameters. For the purpose of this study, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and a Statistical Calibration (SC) of model parameters are performed for two transport scenarios that differ by the strength of interaction between the flowing phases. The GSA is shown to be a valuable tool to understand how the complex system behaves. The results indicate that the rate of mass transfer between the two phases is a key parameter of the model behavior and influences the identifiability of the other parameters. For weak mass exchanges, the output concentration is mainly controlled by the velocity in the porous medium and by the porosity of both flowing phases. In the case of large mass exchanges, the kinetics of this exchange also controls the output concentration. The SC results show that transport with large mass exchange between the flowing phases is more likely affected by equifinality than transport with weak exchange. The SC also indicates that weakly sensitive parameters, such as the dispersion in each phase, can be accurately identified. Removing them from calibration procedures is not recommended because it might result in biased estimations of the highly sensitive parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell surface fucosylation does not affect development of colon tumors in mice with germline Smad3 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Steven E.; Karnak, David M.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aims: Neoplasia-related alterations in cell surface α(1,2)fucosylated glycans have been reported in multiple tumors including colon, pancreas, endometrium, cervix, bladder, lung, and choriocarcinoma. Spontaneous colorectal tumors from mice with a germline null mutation of transforming growth factor-β signaling gene Smad3 (Madh3) were tested for α(1,2)fucosylated glycan expression. Methods: Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-I lectin staining, fucosyltransferase gene northern blot analysis, and a cross of mutant mice with Fut2 and Smad3 germline mutations were performed. Results: Spontaneous colorectal tumors from Smad3 (-/-) homozygous null mice were found to express α(1,2)fucosylated glycans in an abnormal pattern compared to adjacent nonneoplastic colon. Northern blot analysis of α(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes Fut1 and Fut2 revealed that Fut2, but not Fut1, steady-state mRNA levels were significantly increased in tumors relative to adjacent normal colonic mucosa. Mutant mice with a Fut2-inactivating germline mutation were crossed with Smad3 targeted mice. In Smad3 (-/-)/Fut2 (-/-) double knock-out mice, UEA-I lectin staining was eliminated from colon and colon tumors, however, the number and size of tumors present by 24 weeks of age did not vary regardless of the Fut2 genotype. Conclusions: In this model of colorectal cancer, cell surface α(1,2)fucosylation does not affect development of colon tumors. PMID:17264540

  3. Epididymal contraction and sperm parameters are affected by clonidine.

    PubMed

    da Silva Júnior, E D; de Souza, B P; Vilela, V V; Rodrigues, J Q D; Nichi, M; de Agostini Losano, J D; Dalmazzo, A; Barnabe, V H; Jurkiewicz, A; Jurkiewicz, N H

    2014-11-01

    The use of clonidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenoceptors, is related to the fertility impairment. Thus, it has been described that changes in the epididymal function are related to the loss of fertility. Therefore, this study was sought to further evaluate the effects of clonidine in the rat distal cauda epididymis contractions and its consequence in the sperm parameters. The in vitro effects of clonidine in the isolated distal cauda epididymis were evaluated by pharmacological experiments. The consecutive contractile responses for clonidine in distal cauda epididymis showed desensitization. The noradrenaline-induced contractions were desensitized after in vitro clonidine pre-treatment (10(-5) M for 10 min). Clonidine was unable to alter the noradrenaline contractions if the in vitro pre-treatment was made in the presence of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), whereas prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) was ineffective. Moreover, the in vitro clonidine pre-treatment increased frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of distal cauda epididymis. In addition, to induce in vivo desensitization of α2-adrenoceptors, male Wistar rats were treated with crescent doses of clonidine and distal cauda of epididymis contraction and sperm parameters were analyzed. The in vivo treatment with clonidine diminished the potency of the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists and augmented the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of distal cauda epididymis. This treatment also altered the sperm transit time in epididymis, epididymal sperm reserves, sperm lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes activity. The results suggest that clonidine was able to affect the sperm quantity and quality by decreasing the transit time related to the increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in epididymis, although the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists were desensitized.

  4. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  5. Parasitoid-specific induction of plant responses to parasitized herbivores affects colonization by subsequent herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Poelman, Erik H.; Zheng, Si-Jun; Zhang, Zhao; Heemskerk, Nanda M.; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Dicke, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a suite of herbivorous attackers that often arrive sequentially. Herbivory affects interactions between the host plants and subsequently attacking herbivores. Moreover, plants may respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. However, information borne by VOCs is ubiquitous and may attract carnivores, such as parasitoids, that differ in their effectiveness at releasing the plant from its herbivorous attackers. Furthermore, the development of parasitoids within their herbivorous hosts, attacking a given host plant, may influence the elicitation of defensive reactions in the host plant. This may, in turn, affect the behavior of subsequent herbivores attacking the host plant. Here, we show that the species identity of a parasitoid had a more significant effect on defense responses of Brassica oleracea plants than the species identity of the herbivorous hosts of the parasitoids. Consequently, B. oleracea plants that were damaged by caterpillars (Pieris spp.) parasitized by different parasitoid species varied in the degree to which diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) selected the plants for oviposition. Attracting parasitoids in general benefitted the plants by reducing diamondback moth colonization. However, the species of parasitoid that parasitized the herbivore significantly affected the magnitude of this benefit by its species-specific effect on herbivore–plant interactions mediated by caterpillar regurgitant. Our findings show that information-mediated indirect defense may lead to unpredictable consequences for plants when considering trait-mediated effects of parasitized caterpillars on the host plant and their consequences because of community-wide responses to induced plants. PMID:22084113

  6. Plant species affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of associated endophytes during phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Fatima, K; Imran, A; Amin, I; Khan, Q M; Afzal, M

    2016-04-01

    Plants coupled with endophytic bacteria hold great potential for the remediation of polluted environment. The colonization patterns and activity of inoculated endophytes in rhizosphere and endosphere of host plant are among the primary factors that may influence the phytoremediation process. However, these colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the inoculated endophytes are in turn controlled by none other than the host plant itself. The present study aims to determine such an interaction specifically for plant-endophyte systems remediating crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortium (AP) of two oil-degrading endophytic bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BRRI54) was inoculated to two grasses, Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, vegetated in crude oil-contaminated soil. Colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the endophytes were monitored in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the plants. Bacterial augmentation enhanced plant growth and crude oil degradation. Maximum crude oil degradation (78%) was achieved with B. mutica plants inoculated with AP consortium. This degradation was significantly higher than those treatments, where plants and bacteria were used individually or L. fusca and endophytes were used in combination. Moreover, colonization and metabolic activity of the endophytes were higher in the rhizosphere and endosphere of B. mutica than L. fusca. The plant species affected not only colonization pattern and biofilm formation of the inoculated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the host plant but also affected the expression of alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB. Hence, the investigation revealed that plant species can affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of inoculated endophytic bacteria and ultimately the phytoremediation process.

  7. Parameters affecting morphologies and efficiencies of mesoporous perovskite solars cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoul-latif, M. M.; Xu, J.; Yao, J.; Dai, S.

    2017-07-01

    The mesoporous perovskite morphologies and optical and electronic properties are influenced by many parameters with which the device performance could be affected. Firstly, the working temperature can be mentioned. Secondly the substrate temperature which combined with spin coated speed could permit to load perovskite inside the mesoporous independent to working temperature. And other factor as the methyl ammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) solution concentration could be temperature dependent on the lead iodide, means the reaction is most probable done when the concentration increase with the increasing temperature, whereas the reaction between lead iodide and methyl ammonium can be decrease with lead iodide thickness. It is most probable that the solution concentration also has a significant effect on the morphology of the perovskite that is confined in the pores of the mesoporous TiO2. It is most probable also the spin coating speed has added at this decreasing, meaning the large size of crystal decreased the transformation lead iodide to Perovskite. Andhere it will try to explain thickness of capping layer can improve the short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) but this enhancement decrease with high working temperature.

  8. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An approach to determining functional parameters of microperiphyton fauna in colonization surveys for marine bioassessment based on rarefaction curves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjian; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yangfan; Warren, Alan; Xu, Henglong

    2014-12-01

    The functional parameters, i.e., the estimated equilibrium species number (S eq), the colonization rate constant, and the time taken to reach 90 % of S eq (T 90), of microperiphyton fauna have been widely used to determine the water quality status in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this investigation was to develop a protocol for determining functional parameters of microperiphyton fauna in colonization surveys for marine bioassessment based on rarefaction and regression analyses. The temporal dynamics in species richness of microperiphyton fauna during the colonization period was analyzed based on a dataset of periphytic ciliates in Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea. The results showed that (1) based on observed species richness and estimated maximum species numbers, a total of 16 glass slides were required in order to achieve coefficients of variation of <5 % in the functional parameters; (2) the rarefied average species richness and functional parameters showed weak sensitivity to sampling effort; (3) the temporal variations in average species richness were well-fitted to the MacArthur-Wilson model; and (4) the sampling effort of ~8 glass slides was sufficient to achieve coefficients of variation of <5 % in equilibrium average species number (AvS eq), colonization rate (AvG), and the time to reach 90 % of AvS eq (AvT 90) based on the average species richness. The findings suggest that the AvS eq, AvG, and AvT 90 values based on rarefied average species richness of microperiphyton might be used as reliable ecological indicators for the bioassessment of marine water quality in coastal habitats.

  10. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    PubMed

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy.

  11. Plant acclimation to elevated CO₂ affects important plant functional traits, and concomitantly reduces plant colonization rates by an herbivorous insect.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, Jeannine; Najar-Rodriguez, Adriana J; Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Plants growing under elevated CO₂ concentration may acclimatize to this environmental change by modification of chemical, physiological, and/or morphological traits. As a consequence, not only plant functioning but also plant-insect interactions might be altered, with important consequences particularly for agricultural systems. Whereas most studies have focused on the plant acclimation effects of elevated CO₂ with regard to crop growth and productivity, acclimation effects on the behavioral response of insects associated with these plants have been largely neglected. In this study, we used a model system comprised of Brussels sprout Brassica oleraceae var. gemmifera and a specialized herbivorous insect, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, to test for the effects of various periods of exposure to an elevated (2× ambient) CO₂ concentration on key plant functional traits and on host plant location behavior by the insect, assessed as plant colonization rates. Elevated CO₂ had no measurable effect on colonization rates or total plant volatile emissions after a 2-week exposure, but it led to 15 and 26 % reductions in plant colonization rates after 6- and 10-week exposures, respectively. This reduction in plant colonization was associated with significant decreases in leaf stomatal conductance and plant volatile emission. Terpene emission, in particular, exhibited a great reduction after the 10-week exposure to elevated CO₂. Our results provide empirical evidence that plants might acclimatize to a future increase in CO₂, and that these acclimation responses might affect host plant choice and colonization behavior by herbivorous insects, which might be advantageous from the plant's perspective.

  12. Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Klenow, S; Glei, M; Haber, B; Owen, R; Pool-Zobel, B L

    2008-04-01

    An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was quantified. After 1h 97+/-4 microM or 70+/-15 microM were found in HT29 medium and 6+/-1 microM or 3+/-3 microM in LT97 medium for carob fibre extract or GA, respectively. After 72 h carob fibre extract reduced survival of rapidly proliferating HT29 cells (by 76.4+/-12.9%) whereas metabolic activity and DNA-synthesis were only transiently impaired. Survival of slower growing LT97 cells was less decreased (by 21.5+/-12.9%), but there were marked effects on DNA-synthesis (reduction by 95.6+/-7%, 72 h). GA and fermented carob fibre did not have comparable effects. Thus, carob fibre extract resulted in H2O2 formation, which, however, could not explain impairment of cell growth. The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.

  13. Colonization and persistence of urban ant populations as revealed by joint estimation of kinship and population genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Uchida, Kei; Takami, Yasuoki

    2013-01-01

    The decrease in biodiversity due to increasing urbanization has been well documented, but the processes of colonization and maintenance of wildlife populations in urban areas remain poorly understood. We address this issue using 462 individuals from 10 urban populations of the ant Formica japonica in Kobe City, Japan. We sampled workers regardless of colony identity, genotyped them using 6 microsatellite loci, and estimated allele frequencies and genotypes of reproductive individuals, together with other population genetic parameters, by estimating kinship structure using a likelihood method. Estimated genetic diversity and effective size of populations were not associated with environmental parameters, suggesting that populations are unaffected by urbanization. However, effective population sizes were small, and frequent population bottlenecks were detected. These results suggest that urban F. japonica populations are unstable, and the possibility of frequent extinctions and recolonizations in urban habitats. Populations were moderately differentiated without isolation by distance, suggesting a strong dispersal ability that enables colonization of urban habitats. Dispersal was male biased. Collectively, F. japonica was regarded as an urban adapter, which can colonize urban habitats by virtue of its preference for open ground and high dispersal ability but can persist in urban populations for only a short time, showing a tendency as a temporary urban inhabitant.

  14. Feed Deprivation Affects Crop Environment and Modulates Salmonella enteritidis Colonization and Invasion of Leghorn Hens

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Juliet A.; Corrier, Donald E.; Byrd, J. Allen; Stanker, Larry H.; Ricke, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 105 Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion. PMID:10223980

  15. Colonic fermentation as affected by antibiotics and acidic pH: Application of an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Bender, A; Breves, G; Stein, J; Leonhard-Marek, S; Schröder, B; Winckler, C

    2001-11-01

    Antimicrobial substances such as vancomycin or metronidazole suppress normal gut flora, thereby preventing physiological fermentation of colonic substrates that may promote mucosal inflammation. This study was designed to establish an in vitro model of microbial metabolism in the colon under control and disturbed conditions (acidic pH) to investigate specific effects of vancomycin and metronidazole on the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which play a pivotal role in maintaining homeostasis in the colon. The experiments were carried out with the colon simulation technique (Cositec) representing an in vitro model for the semi-continuous incubation of defined colon contents. Inocula and fermentable substrates were sampled from cecal contents of fistulated pigs. Disturbed microbial metabolism was generated by reduction of pH in the fermentation vessels from 6.7 to 5.8 and 5.1. In general, application of either vancomycin or metronidazole resulted in a significant decrease of SCFA production rates indicating substantial disturbance of the homeostasis of microbial metabolism. With low doses of vancomycin acetate and butyrate production rates were reduced and with high doses of the antibiotic propionate production was inhibited to a greater extent. Treatment with metronidazole inhibited butyrate production almost completely. Similarly, low pH caused a reduction in total SCFA production, which was mainly due to respective decrease of acetate synthesis. Metronidazole effects were not consistently changed at low pH. The Cositec system provides an excellent facility to test the effects of different antibiotics under defined conditions. In this study, both vancomycin and metronidazole affected microbial metabolism to a considerable extent. Both substances may thus be responsible for disturbances of colon function in vivo.

  16. Identification of Critical Biological Parameters Affecting Gastrointestinal Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    significantly affect the kinetics of absorption. For compounds that are absorbed relatively slowly, the time of residence in the gut may affect the extent of...from tissues, carrying it from tissues to lung, where it is exhaled. In the extent that the absorption of chemical from the gut continues through this...of corn oil. The authors attributed this difference to the fact that mineral oil is not digested or absorbed and thus remains in the gut as a solvent

  17. Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations.

    PubMed

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G

    2010-01-07

    Currently, the habitat of many species is fragmented, resulting in small local populations with individuals occasionally dispersing between the remaining habitat patches. In a solitary bee metapopulation, extinction probability was related to both local bee population sizes and pollen resources measured as host plant population size. Patch size, on the other hand, had no additional predictive power. The turnover rate of local bee populations in 63 habitat patches over 4 years was high, with 72 extinction events and 31 colonization events, but the pollen plant population was stable with no extinctions or colonizations. Both pollen resources and bee populations had strong and independent effects on extinction probability, but connectivity was not of importance. Colonizations occurred more frequently within larger host plant populations. For metapopulation survival of the bee, large pollen plant populations are essential, independent of current bee population size.

  18. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  19. Can a Short Term of Repeated Ejaculations Affect Seminal Parameters?

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Torres, Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Cadavid, Angela; Cardona-Maya, Walter Dario

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of four repeated ejaculations on the same day at two-hour intervals on conventional and functional semen parameters. Methods: Three healthy men (32±3.6 years) donated the first semen samples after 3–4 days of sexual abstinence followed by three subsequent samples on the same day at two-hour interval each. Semen samples were processed and analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines. Furthermore, intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) production, sperm DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial function were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: An overall decreasing trend was noted in the conventional semen parameters at second, third and fourth evaluations after two hours of abstinence in comparison to first evaluation after 3–4 days of abstinence. The statistical comparison of the conventional semen parameters at fourth evaluation after 2 hr of abstinence revealed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the parameters of concentration, total sperm count and total motile sperm count at fourth evaluation. The functional parameter of intracellular ROS production showed a decreasing trend with each subsequent evaluation, the difference being significant (p<0.05) at fourth evaluation in comparison to first evaluation. An increasing trend was noted for DNA fragmentation index (DFI), although it remained within acceptable levels (<29%). The ΔΨm high permatozoa and the integrity of the plasma membrane remained stable throughout the evaluations. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the potential use of additional semen samples with repeated ejaculations at short abstinence times in assisted reproduction procedures particularly from severe oligospermic men. PMID:27478772

  20. How Does Calibration Timing and Seasonality Affect Item Parameter Estimates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Continuously administered examination programs, particularly credentialing programs that require graduation from educational programs, often experience seasonality where distributions of examine ability may differ over time. Such seasonality may affect the quality of important statistical processes, such as item response theory (IRT) item…

  1. How Does Calibration Timing and Seasonality Affect Item Parameter Estimates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Continuously administered examination programs, particularly credentialing programs that require graduation from educational programs, often experience seasonality where distributions of examine ability may differ over time. Such seasonality may affect the quality of important statistical processes, such as item response theory (IRT) item…

  2. Folate supplementation differently affects uracil content in DNA in the mouse colon and liver

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High folate intake may increase the risk of cancer, especially in the elderly. The present study examined the effects of ageing and dietary folate on uracil misincorporation into DNA, which has a mutagenic effect, in the mouse colon and liver. Old (18 months; n 42) and young (4 months; n 42) male C5...

  3. Parameters affecting genome simulation for evaluating genomic selection method.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Motohide; Satoh, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the parameter settings for obtaining a simulated genome at steady state of allele frequency (mutation-drift equilibrium) and linkage disequilibrium (LD), and evaluated the impact of whether or not the simulated genome reached steady state of allele frequency and LD on the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs). After 500 to 50,000 historical generations, the base population and subsequent seven generations were generated as recent populations. The allele frequency distribution of the last generations of the historical population and LD in the base population were calculated when varying the values of five parameters: initial minor allele frequency, mutation rate, effective population size, number of markers and chromosome length. The accuracies of GEBVs in the last generation of the recent population were calculated by genomic best linear unbiased prediction. The number of historical generations required to reach mutation-drift equilibrium depended on the initial allele frequency and mutation rate. Regardless of the parameters, LD reached a steady state before allele frequency distribution reached mutation-drift equilibrium. The accuracies of GEBVs largely reflect the extent of linkage disequilibrium with the exception of varying chromosome length, although there were no associations between the accuracies of GEBVs and allele frequency distribution. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Up-regulation of microRNA-1290 impairs cytokinesis and affects the reprogramming of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Ji, Xiaowei; Zhu, Linlin; Jiang, Qiaoli; Wen, Zhenzhen; Xu, Song; Shao, Wei; Cai, Jianting; Du, Qin; Zhu, Yongliang; Mao, Jianshan

    2013-02-28

    Abnormal cytokinesis increases the possibility of nuclear fusion in tumor cells. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in abnormal cytokinesis is unclear. Here, we found that miR-1290 was significantly up-regulated in clinical colon cancer tissues. Up-regulation of miR-1290 postponed cytokinesis and led to the formation of multinucleated cells. KIF13B was a target of miR-1290 that was involved in aberrant cytokinesis. Furthermore, enforced expression of miR-1290 activated the Wnt pathway and increased the reprogramming-related transcript factors c-Myc and Nanog. Our results suggest that up-regulation of miR-1290 in colon cancer cells impaired cytokinesis and affected reprogramming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Many Parameters Actually Affect the Mobility of Conjugated Polymers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, Rocco P.; Blom, Paul W. M.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    We describe charge transport along a polymer chain with a generic theoretical model depending in principle on tens of parameters, reflecting the chemistry of the material. The charge carrier states are obtained from a model Hamiltonian that incorporates different types of disorder and electronic structure (e.g., the difference between homo- and copolymer). The hopping rate between these states is described with a general rate expression, which contains the rates most used in the literature as special cases. We demonstrate that the steady state charge mobility in the limit of low charge density and low field ultimately depends on only two parameters: an effective structural disorder and an effective electron-phonon coupling, weighted by the size of the monomer. The results support the experimental observation [N. I. Craciun, J. Wildeman, and P. W. M. Blom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056601 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.056601] that the mobility in a broad range of (polymeric) semiconductors follows a universal behavior, insensitive to the chemical detail.

  6. Altered expression of KLC3 may affect semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kargar- Dastjerdy, Pegah; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Salehi, Mansoor; Falahati, Mojtaba; Izadi, Tayebeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: KLC3 protein as a member of the kinesin light-chain protein family plays an important role in spermatogenesis, during formation of mitochondrial sheath in the mid piece of the sperm tail. Objective: This study for the first time aims to compare the expression of the KLC3 gene between fertile and infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 19 fertile individuals who were selected from embryo-donor volunteers and 57 infertile individuals who had abnormal sperm parameters according to world health organization criteria. Sperm parameters using computer assisted sperm analysis and the quantitative KLC3-gene expression using the real-time PCR method were measured. Results: Our results revealed a significant correlations between sperm concentration with relative expression of KLC3 only in infertile groups (r=0.45, p=0.00). A significant correlation was not found between KLC3 expression and sperm motility; however, the relative expression of KLC3 was significantly higher in asthenozoospermic compared to non-asthenozoospermic individuals. Conclusion: Low expression of KLC3 may result in improper function of midpiece, which has important function in sperm motility. The results of this study show that aberrant expression of KLC3 might be associated with phenomena like oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. This article is extracted from student’s thesis. PMID:27141544

  7. Natural variation in populations of persistently colonizing bacteria affect human host cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Aras, Rahul A; Lee, Yongchan; Kim, Sung-Kook; Israel, Dawn; Peek, Richard M; Blaser, Martin J

    2003-08-15

    The highly diverse bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonizes the human stomach, provides models to study the role of genome plasticity in host adaptation. Within H. pylori populations from 2 colonized individuals, intragenomic recombination between cagA DNA repeat sequences leads to deletion or duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the CagA protein, which is injected by a type IV secretion system into host cells. Experimental coculture of gastric epithelial cells with the strains containing these naturally occurring CagA phosphorylation site variants induced markedly divergent host cell morphologic responses. Mutants were constructed in which a phosphorylation site was either added or deleted in the expressed CagA protein; coculture studies confirmed that the naturally occurring differences in CagA phosphorylation are responsible for the observed phenotypic variation. These findings indicate that within an individual host, intragenomic recombination between H. pylori repetitive DNA produces strain variants differing in their signals to host cells.

  8. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

  9. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu's safety assessment for severe core damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, Yusuf; Karasulu, Muzaffer

    2015-07-01

    We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents) and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO) is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the "what went wrong " scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors'like in TMI); Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl) and natural disasters( like in Fukushima) and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu's postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  10. Does yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium longum affect colonic microbiology and fecal metabolites in health subjects?

    PubMed

    Bartram, H P; Scheppach, W; Gerlach, S; Ruckdeschel, G; Kelber, E; Kasper, H

    1994-02-01

    Diet-induced changes in the colonic microflora seem to play a role in colon carcinogenesis. In this study the effects of a yogurt (500 mL/d for 3 wk) enriched with Bifidobacterium longum and 5 g lactulose/L (A) on the fecal bacterial flora and various risk indexes for colon carcinogenesis were tested in 12 healthy volunteers and compared with a conventional yogurt (B). Increased excretion of bifidobacteria (P < 0.017) was found after consumption of both yogurts compared with the prestudy periods, whereas cultural counts of aerobes and anaerobes were not different. Breath-hydrogen exhalation was elevated and mouth-to-cecum transit time was accelerated in the period of yogurt A ingestion (P < 0.05) whereas no differences were found for oral-anal mean transit time, stool weight and pH, and fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, and neutral sterols. The results generally indicate great stability of the human fecal flora to this kind of dietary intervention.

  11. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    PubMed Central

    Osbak, Philip S; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen S; Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Hansen, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Background Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1) to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2) to adapt a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS) chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All patients were referred for colonoscopy on suspicion of neoplasia and they were without pathological findings at colonoscopy (controls) except for diverticulosis in 22 (D-patients). Biopsies were mounted in MUAS chambers with an exposed area of 5 mm2. Electrical responses to various stimulators and inhibitors of ion transport were investigated together with histological examination. The MUAS chamber was easy to use and reproducible data were obtained. Results Median basal short circuit current (SCC) was 43.8 μA·cm-2 (0.8 – 199) for controls and 59.3 μA·cm-2 (3.0 – 177.2) for D-patients. Slope conductance was 77.0 mS·cm-2 (18.6 – 204.0) equal to 13 Ω·cm2 for controls and 96.6 mS·cm-2 (8.4 – 191.4) equal to 10.3 Ω·cm2 for D-patients. Stimulation with serotonin, theophylline, forskolin and carbachol induced increases in SCC in a range of 4.9 – 18.6 μA·cm-2, while inhibition with indomethacin, bumetanide, ouabain and amiloride decreased SCC in a range of 6.5 – 27.4 μA·cm-2, and all with no significant differences between controls and D-patients. Histological examinations showed intact epithelium and lamina propria before and after mounting for both types of patients. Conclusion We conclude that epithelial ion transport is not significantly altered in patients with diverticulosis and that the MUAS chamber can be adapted for studies of human colonic endoscopic biopsies. PMID:17888183

  12. Determination of the key parameters affecting historic communications satellite trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1984-01-01

    Data representing 13 series of commercial communications satellites procured between 1968 and 1982 were analyzed to determine the factors that have contributed to the general reduction over time of the per circuit cost of communications satellites. The model by which the data were analyzed was derived from a general telecommunications application and modified to be more directly applicable for communications satellites. In this model satellite mass, bandwidth-years, and technological change were the variable parameters. A linear, least squares, multiple regression routine was used to obtain the measure of significance of the model. Correlation was measured by coefficient of determination (R super 2) and t-statistic. The results showed that no correlation could be established with satellite mass. Bandwidth-year however, did show a significant correlation. Technological change in the bandwidth-year case was a significant factor in the model. This analysis and the conclusions derived are based on mature technologies, i.e., satellite designs that are evolutions of earlier designs rather than the first of a new generation. The findings, therefore, are appropriate to future satellites only if they are a continuation of design evolution.

  13. The Histopathological Parameters Affecting Biochemical Recurrence in Radical Prostatectomies.

    PubMed

    Dere, Yelda; Altinboga, Aysegu Aksoy; Bal, Kaan; Calli, Aylin; Ermete, Murat; Sari, Aysegul Akder

    2017-04-01

    To determine the relationship between biochemical recurrence and other histopathological factors in prostate cancer. Analytical study. Pathology and Urology Departments, Izmir Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, between 2001 - 2013. 117 cases diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma and treated by radical prostatectomy were reviewed retrospectively for histopathological features; whereas, other prognostic findings were noted. PSA levels and many other histopathological parameters were assessed in order to put forth their effect on biochemical recurrence. PSA level (p<0.001), tumor volume (p<0.001), Gleason score (p<0.001), extraprostatic extension (p<0.001), perineural invasion (p<0.001), ganglion involvement (p=0.040), vascular invasion (p<0.001), positive surgical margins (p<0.001), presence of tertiary pattern (p=0.004) and the involvement of the seminal vesicles (p<0.001) were found to be statistically related to the pathological stage. Age, perineural invasion, high grade tertiary pattern, intraluminal mucin, collagenous micronodules and foamy cytoplasmic changes were unrelated to recurrence. Histopathological features can be helpful in predicting prognosis in prostatic adenocarcinomas. However some of the histopathological factors such as intraluminal mucin and foamy cytoplasmic changes may not reflect high recurrence.

  14. Determination of the key parameters affecting historic communications satellite trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1984-06-01

    Data representing 13 series of commercial communications satellites procured between 1968 and 1982 were analyzed to determine the factors that have contributed to the general reduction over time of the per circuit cost of communications satellites. The model by which the data were analyzed was derived from a general telecommunications application and modified to be more directly applicable for communications satellites. In this model satellite mass, bandwidth-years, and technological change were the variable parameters. A linear, least squares, multiple regression routine was used to obtain the measure of significance of the model. Correlation was measured by coefficient of determination (R super 2) and t-statistic. The results showed that no correlation could be established with satellite mass. Bandwidth-year however, did show a significant correlation. Technological change in the bandwidth-year case was a significant factor in the model. This analysis and the conclusions derived are based on mature technologies, i.e., satellite designs that are evolutions of earlier designs rather than the first of a new generation. The findings, therefore, are appropriate to future satellites only if they are a continuation of design evolution.

  15. The Relationship between Serum Oxalic Acid, Central Hemodynamic Parameters and Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Gulhan, Baris; Turkmen, Kultigin; Aydin, Merve; Gunay, Murat; Cıkman, Aytekin; Kara, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central aortic blood pressures are independent predictors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Oxalic acid is a uremic retention molecule that is extensively studied in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the colon microbiota, has important roles in oxalate homeostasis. Data regarding the colonization by and the exact role of O. formigenes in the pathogenesis of oxalic acid metabolism in HD patients are scant. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between fecal O. formigenes colonization, serum oxalic acid and hemodynamic parameters in HD patients with regard to the colo-reno-cardiac axis. Fifty HD patients were enrolled in this study. PWV and central aortic systolic (cASBP) and diastolic blood pressures (cADBP) were measured with a Mobil-O-Graph (I.E.M. GmbH, Stolberg, Germany). Serum oxalic acid levels were assessed by ELISA, and fecal O. formigenes DNA levels were isolated and measured by real-time PCR. Isolation of fecal O. formigenes was found in only 2 HD patients. One of them had 113,609 copies/ml, the other one had 1,056 copies/ml. Serum oxalic acid levels were found to be positively correlated with PWV (r = 0.29, p = 0.03), cASBP (r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and cADBP (r = 0.42, p = 0.002) and negatively correlated with LDL (r = -0.30, p = 0.03). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PWV was independently predicted by oxalic acid, glucose and triglyceride. This is the first study that demonstrates the absence of O. formigenes as well as a relation between serum oxalic acid and cASBP, cADBP and PWV in HD patients. Replacement of O. formigenes with pre- and probiotics might decrease serum oxalic acid levels and improve cardiovascular outcomes in HD patients.

  16. Fermentable Carbohydrates Differentially Affect Colon Tumor Formation in Azoxymethane-Induced Male Fischer 344 Rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Chen, QiXuan; Aziz, Syed A; Caldwell, Don; Bird, Ranjana P; Scoggan, Kylie A; Brooks, Stephen Pj

    2016-03-09

    The role of fermentation compared with the source or type of the fermentable material in colon tumorigenesis remains an issue in refining the definition of dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation and source-specific effects of various carbohydrates in a medium-term colon tumorigenesis model. Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n = 36/group) to receive either AIN-93G (control) or diets containing fructooligosaccharides, wheat bran (WB), oat bran (OB), polydextrose, or high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), each adjusted to contain a total DF concentration of 7% (wt:wt) and have a fermentability of 3% (wt:wt). After 2 wk, 24 rats/group received 2 subcutaneous doses of azoxymethane (at 15 mg/kg body weight) 1 wk apart while 12 rats/group were injected with a saline vehicle; all rats were maintained on the assigned diets for 24 wk postinjection and then killed. Colon tumor outcomes and pathology together with cecal short-chain fatty acid composition were assessed. No tumors were found in saline-injected rats, and all subsequent analyses were restricted to azoxymethane-injected rats. Colon tumor incidence was significantly lower in the polydextrose (21%) and WB (13%) groups than in the control group (63%; P < 0.05) but not different from the fructooligosaccharide (58%), HAMS (46%), and OB (33%) groups. In comparison to the control group (8 proximal/31 total tumors), fermentable materials reduced the number of tumors (P < 0.05) originating in the proximal colon: HAMS (5/15), polydextrose (2/7), OB (2/9), fructooligosaccharides (1/21), and WB (1/3). The mean ± SEM number of tumors/tumor-bearing rats was significantly lower in the WB (1.00 ± 0.00), OB (1.13 ± 0.13), and HAMS (1.36 ± 0.15) groups than in the control group (2.07 ± 0.27; P < 0.02); other groups did not differ. The mean ± SEM tumor burden/diet group was lower in the WB (1.2 ± 0.7 mm(2)), polydextrose (6.7 ± 3.2 mm(2)), and OB (7.0

  17. Factors affecting colonization and dissemination of Candida albicans from the gastrointestinal tract of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ekenna, O; Sherertz, R J

    1987-01-01

    Male ICR Swiss mice (2 to 3 months old) were fed Candida albicans in their drinking water for 3 days, followed by no treatment, antibiotics in their drinking water (daily), or immunosuppressants given by intraperitoneal injection (two to three times weekly) over a 3- to 4-week period. The organs of animals were processed to determine the numbers of C. albicans and total aerobic bacteria per g of tissue. Untreated animals had mean Candida counts during the 1-month period of 10(2.3) CFU/g of cecum. Animals in six of eight antibiotic-treated groups had mean cecal Candida counts higher than those of control animals (P less than 0.05), with clindamycin-gentamicin producing the highest counts (10(4.7) CFU/g). Cyclophosphamide produced counts (10(4.3) CFU/g) which were higher (P less than 0.05) than those resulting from methotrexate (10(3.0) CFU/g) or steroid (10(2.7) CFU/g) treatment. Cyclophosphamide-clindamycin-gentamicin treatment was associated with the highest (P less than 0.05) levels of Candida colonization (10(6.5) CFU/g). Mice receiving immunosuppressants plus clindamycin-gentamicin were more likely to disseminate C. albicans than were mice receiving antibiotics alone (P less than 0.001). Our findings suggest that colonization of the guts of mice by C. albicans can be facilitated by manipulating the aerobic, anaerobic, or both types of gut flora. The combined effect of immunosuppressants on both Candida gut colonization and dissemination appears multifactorial and deserves further investigation. PMID:3596800

  18. Effects of mycorrhizal colonization on growth parameters of onion under different irrigation and soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza; Aliasgharzad, Nasser; Chaparzadeh, Nader

    2007-05-01

    The effects of three Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF), Glomus versiforme, G. intraradices and G. etonicatum) and three irrigation intervals (7, 9 and 11 days) on growth of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Red Azar Shahr were studied under two soil conditions (sterilized and non-sterilized). The results indicated that, AMF colonization improved plant height, Leaf Area Index (LAI), total biomass, bulb dry mass and diameter, Harvest Index (HI) and chlorophyll content (p < 0.001). Bulbing occurred 10-15 days earlier in mycorrhizal plants. Irrigation interval decreased biomass, LAI, Leaf Area Ratio (LAR), bulb diameter and dry mass and chlorophyll content (b and total) at 11 day irrigation interval. In term of interaction, G. versiforme at 9 day and non-mycorrhizal plants at 11 day produced the greatest and the lowest LAI (8.56 vs. 1.57), respectively. Mycorrhizal onions in contrary to non-mycorrhizal ones produced more LAI and biomass in sterilized soil and inoculation with G. etonicatum and the non-mycorrhizal onions in sterilized soil had the highest and the lowest biomass, respectively.

  19. Methanolic extracts of bitter melon inhibit colon cancer stem cells by affecting energy homeostasis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Moran, Elizabeth; Velayutham, Ravichandiran; Mitra, Ashim; Umar, Shahid; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW) and skin (BMSk) extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  20. Proteome analysis of the macroscopically affected colonic mucosa of Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rukmangadachar, Lokesh A.; Makharia, Govind K.; Mishra, Asha; Das, Prasenjit; Hariprasad, Gururao; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Ahuja, Vineet; Acharya, Subrat K.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and Crohn’s disease (CD) is challenging in geographical regions where both these diseases are prevalent. There is a need of biomarkers for differentiation between these two disorders. Colonic biopsies from inflamed mucosa of treatment-naive patients with ITB, CD and controls were used for analysis. Protein extracted from biopsies was digested with trypsin and resulting peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents. The peptides were subsequently analyzed using LC-MS/MS for identification and quantification. Gene ontology annotation for proteins was analyzed in PANTHER. Validation experiments were done for six differentially expressed proteins using immunohistochemistry. 533 proteins were identified and 241 proteins were quantified from 5 sets of iTRAQ experiments. While 63 were differentially expressed in colonic mucosa of patients with CD and ITB in at least one set of iTRAQ experiment, 11 proteins were differentially expressed in more than one set of experiments. Six proteins used for validation using immunohistochemistry in a larger cohort of patients; none of them however was differentially expressed in patients with ITB and CD. There are differentially expressed proteins in tissue proteome of CD and ITB. Further experiments are required using a larger cohort of homogeneous tissue samples. PMID:26988818

  1. dsdA Does Not Affect Colonization of the Murine Urinary Tract by Escherichia coli CFT073

    PubMed Central

    Hryckowian, Andrew J.; Baisa, Gary A.; Schwartz, Kevin J.; Welch, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract environment provides many conditions that deter colonization by microorganisms. D-serine is thought to be one of these stressors and is present at high concentrations in urine. D-serine interferes with L-serine and pantothenate metabolism and is bacteriostatic to many species. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli commonly possess the dsdCXA genetic locus, which allows them to use D-serine as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. It was previously reported that in the model UPEC strain CFT073, a dsdA mutant outcompetes wild type in the murine model of urinary tract infection. This “hypercolonization” was used to propose a model whereby UPEC strains sense D-serine in the urinary tract and subsequently up-regulate genes necessary for pathogenesis. Here, we show that inactivation of dsdA does not lead to hypercolonization. We suggest that this previously observed effect is due to an unrecognized secondary mutation in rpoS and that some D-serine specific effects described in other studies may be affected by the rpoS status of the strains used. Inactivation of dsdA in the original clinical isolate of CFT073 gives CFT073 ΔdsdA a growth defect in human urine and renders it unable to grow on minimal medium containing D-serine as the sole carbon source. However, CFT073 ΔdsdA is able to colonize the urinary tracts of CBA/J mice indistinguishably from wild type. These findings indicate that D-serine catabolism, though it may play role(s) during urinary tract infection, does not affect the ability of uropathogenic E. coli to colonize the murine urinary tract. PMID:26366567

  2. dsdA Does Not Affect Colonization of the Murine Urinary Tract by Escherichia coli CFT073.

    PubMed

    Hryckowian, Andrew J; Baisa, Gary A; Schwartz, Kevin J; Welch, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract environment provides many conditions that deter colonization by microorganisms. D-serine is thought to be one of these stressors and is present at high concentrations in urine. D-serine interferes with L-serine and pantothenate metabolism and is bacteriostatic to many species. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli commonly possess the dsdCXA genetic locus, which allows them to use D-serine as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. It was previously reported that in the model UPEC strain CFT073, a dsdA mutant outcompetes wild type in the murine model of urinary tract infection. This "hypercolonization" was used to propose a model whereby UPEC strains sense D-serine in the urinary tract and subsequently up-regulate genes necessary for pathogenesis. Here, we show that inactivation of dsdA does not lead to hypercolonization. We suggest that this previously observed effect is due to an unrecognized secondary mutation in rpoS and that some D-serine specific effects described in other studies may be affected by the rpoS status of the strains used. Inactivation of dsdA in the original clinical isolate of CFT073 gives CFT073 ΔdsdA a growth defect in human urine and renders it unable to grow on minimal medium containing D-serine as the sole carbon source. However, CFT073 ΔdsdA is able to colonize the urinary tracts of CBA/J mice indistinguishably from wild type. These findings indicate that D-serine catabolism, though it may play role(s) during urinary tract infection, does not affect the ability of uropathogenic E. coli to colonize the murine urinary tract.

  3. MDM2 promoter SNP55 (rs2870820) affects risk of colon cancer but not breast-, lung-, or prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helwa, Reham; Gansmo, Liv B.; Romundstad, Pål; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars; Ryan, Bríd M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Lønning, Per E.; Knappskog, Stian

    2016-01-01

    Two functional SNPs (SNP285G > C; rs117039649 and SNP309T > G; rs2279744) have previously been reported to modulate Sp1 transcription factor binding to the promoter of the proto-oncogene MDM2, and to influence cancer risk. Recently, a third SNP (SNP55C > T; rs2870820) was also reported to affect Sp1 binding and MDM2 transcription. In this large population based case-control study, we genotyped MDM2 SNP55 in 10,779 Caucasian individuals, previously genotyped for SNP309 and SNP285, including cases of colon (n = 1,524), lung (n = 1,323), breast (n = 1,709) and prostate cancer (n = 2,488) and 3,735 non-cancer controls, as well as 299 healthy African-Americans. Applying the dominant model, we found an elevated risk of colon cancer among individuals harbouring SNP55TT/CT genotypes compared to the SNP55CC genotype (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01–1.30). The risk was found to be highest for left-sided colon cancer (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00–1.45) and among females (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.01–1.74). Assessing combined genotypes, we found the highest risk of colon cancer among individuals harbouring the SNP55TT or CT together with the SNP309TG genotype (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00–1.46). Supporting the conclusions from the risk estimates, we found colon cancer cases carrying the SNP55TT/CT genotypes to be diagnosed at younger age as compared to SNP55CC (p = 0.053), in particular among patients carrying the SNP309TG/TT genotypes (p = 0.009). PMID:27624283

  4. Affective state influences perception by affecting decision parameters underlying bias and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Spencer K; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person's affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a "locally focused" style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a "globally focused" style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers' experienced affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We compared 3 perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and nonthreats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the 3 environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver's affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk.

  5. Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers’ experience affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We created three perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and non-threats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the three environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver’s affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk. PMID:22251054

  6. Exogenous auxin affects the oxidative burst in barley roots colonized by Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Magdalena; Nostadt, Robin; Zuccaro, Alga

    2013-01-01

    Beside a cardinal role in coordination of many developmental processes in the plant, the phytohormone auxin has been recognized as a regulator of plant defense. The molecular mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. Using a sensitive chemiluminescence assay, which measures the oxidation of luminol in the presence of H2O2 by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we report here on the ability of exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to enhance the suppressive effect of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on the chitin-elicited oxidative burst in barley roots. Thus, the potential of P. indica to produce free IAA during the early colonization phase in barley might provide the symbiont with a means to interfere with the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity. PMID:23333979

  7. Chemopreventive effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the membrane lipid composition and fluidity parameters of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Shailender Singh; Vaiphei, Kim; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, Sankar N

    2007-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, celecoxib, and etoricoxib are reported to act as chemopreventive agents in experimental colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) as they are known cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitors. To determine whether NSAIDs can also effectively modulate the membrane lipid compositions and the fluidity parameters of colonic brush border membrane, rats were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with DMH 30 mg/kg body weight per week for 6 weeks. The animals were simultaneously treated with NSAIDs orally at the dose of aspirin, 60 mg/kg body weight; celecoxib, 6 mg/kg body weight; and etoricoxib, 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The animals were sacrificed after 6 weeks of treatments. Brush border membrane was isolated from proximal and distal portions of the colon. Membrane lipids were extracted and analyzed while the fluidity parameters were assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization technique using the membrane extrinsic fluorophore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The translational diffusion was measured by using the excimer formation of pyrene incorporated in the membrane. Colonic mucosal changes in DMH alone and DMH+NSAID treated animals were assessed histologically. The results demonstrate that (a) there is a distinct occurrence of premalignant alterations in DMH-induced colon in the form of multiple plaque lesions (MPLs), which were greatly reduced by the NSAIDs used, (b) the membrane lipid changes in DMH-induced colon were completely restored back, (c) the alterations in membrane fluorescence polarization and the fluidity parameters are partially recovered, particularly with etoricoxib, and (d) the pyrene excimer formation process was completely restored. It may be concluded that the NSAIDs, particularly the coxib group of the drugs (COX-2 selective), are effective in chemoprevention in the DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis and membrane alterations.

  8. The Relationship between Serum Oxalic Acid, Central Hemodynamic Parameters and Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gulhan, Baris; Turkmen, Kultigin; Aydin, Merve; Gunay, Murat; Cıkman, Aytekin; Kara, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central aortic blood pressures are independent predictors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Oxalic acid is a uremic retention molecule that is extensively studied in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the colon microbiota, has important roles in oxalate homeostasis. Data regarding the colonization by and the exact role of O. formigenes in the pathogenesis of oxalic acid metabolism in HD patients are scant. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between fecal O. formigenes colonization, serum oxalic acid and hemodynamic parameters in HD patients with regard to the colo-reno-cardiac axis. Methods Fifty HD patients were enrolled in this study. PWV and central aortic systolic (cASBP) and diastolic blood pressures (cADBP) were measured with a Mobil-O-Graph (I.E.M. GmbH, Stolberg, Germany). Serum oxalic acid levels were assessed by ELISA, and fecal O. formigenes DNA levels were isolated and measured by real-time PCR. Results Isolation of fecal O. formigenes was found in only 2 HD patients. One of them had 113,609 copies/ml, the other one had 1,056 copies/ml. Serum oxalic acid levels were found to be positively correlated with PWV (r = 0.29, p = 0.03), cASBP (r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and cADBP (r = 0.42, p = 0.002) and negatively correlated with LDL (r = −0.30, p = 0.03). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PWV was independently predicted by oxalic acid, glucose and triglyceride. Conclusions This is the first study that demonstrates the absence of O. formigenes as well as a relation between serum oxalic acid and cASBP, cADBP and PWV in HD patients. Replacement of O. formigenes with pre- and probiotics might decrease serum oxalic acid levels and improve cardiovascular outcomes in HD patients. PMID:26195968

  9. Total colonic aganglionosis and imperforate anus in a severely affected infant with Pallister-Hall syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Mindy H; Eberhard, Moriah; Mudd, Pamela; Javia, Luv; Zimmerman, Robert; Khalek, Nahla; Zackai, Elaine H

    2015-03-01

    Pallister-Hall syndrome is a complex malformation syndrome characterized by a wide range of anomalies including hypothalamic hamartoma, polydactyly, bifid epiglottis, and genitourinary abnormalities. It is usually caused by truncating frameshift/nonsense and splicing mutations in the middle third of GLI3. The clinical course ranges from mild to lethal in the neonatal period. We present the first patient with Pallister-Hall syndrome reported with total colonic aganglionosis, a rare form of Hirschsprung disease with poor long-term outcome. The patient also had an imperforate anus, which is the third individual with Pallister-Hall syndrome reported with both Hirschsprung disease and an imperforate anus. Molecular testing via amniocentesis showed an apparently de novo novel nonsense mutation c.2641 C>T (p.Gln881*). His overall medical course was difficult and was complicated by respiratory failure and pan-hypopituitarism. Invasive care was ultimately withdrawn, and the patient expired at three months of age. This patient's phenotype was complex with unusual gastrointestinal features ultimately leading to a unfavorable prognosis and outcome, highlighting the range of clinical severity in patients with Pallister-Hall syndrome.

  10. Phenotypic differentiation does not affect tumorigenicity of primary human colon cancer initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Dubash, Taronish D; Hoffmann, Christopher M; Oppel, Felix; Giessler, Klara M; Weber, Sarah; Dieter, Sebastian M; Hüllein, Jennifer; Zenz, Thorsten; Herbst, Friederike; Scholl, Claudia; Weichert, Wilko; Werft, Wiebke; Benner, Axel; Schmidt, Manfred; Schneider, Martin; Glimm, Hanno; Ball, Claudia R

    2016-02-28

    Within primary colorectal cancer (CRC) a subfraction of all tumor-initiating cells (TIC) drives long-term progression in serial xenotransplantation. It has been postulated that efficient maintenance of TIC activity in vitro requires serum-free spheroid culture conditions that support a stem-like state of CRC cells. To address whether tumorigenicity is indeed tightly linked to such a stem-like state in spheroids, we transferred TIC-enriched spheroid cultures to serum-containing adherent conditions that should favor their differentiation. Under these conditions, primary CRC cells did no longer grow as spheroids but formed an adherent cell layer, up-regulated colon epithelial differentiation markers, and down-regulated TIC-associated markers. Strikingly, upon xenotransplantation cells cultured under either condition equally efficient formed serially transplantable tumors. Clonal analyses of individual lentivirally marked TIC clones cultured under either culture condition revealed no systematic differences in contributing clone numbers, indicating that phenotypic differentiation does not select for few individual clones adapted to unfavorable culture conditions. Our results reveal that CRC TIC can be propagated under conditions previously thought to induce their elimination. This phenotypic plasticity allows addressing primary human CRC TIC properties in experimental settings based on adherent cell growth.

  11. Microbial colonization affects the efficiency of photovoltaic panels in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Marcia A; Zilles, Roberto; Mocelin, Andre; Gaylarde, Christine C; Gorbushina, Anna; Heidrich, Gabriele; Giudice, Mauro C; Del Negro, Gilda M B; John, Vanderley M

    2015-07-01

    Sub-aerial biofilm (SAB) development on solar panels was studied in São Paulo. After 6, 12 and 18 months' exposure, photovoltaic panels were covered by increasing proportions of organic matter (42%, 53% and 58%, respectively). Fungi were an important component of these biofilms; very few phototrophs were found. Major microorganisms detected were melanised meristematic ascomycetes and pigmented bacterial genera Arthrobacter and Tetracoccus. While diverse algae, cyanobacteria and bacteria were identified in biofilms at 6 and 12 months, diversity at a later stage was reduced to that typical for SAB: the only fungal group detected in 18 month biofilm was the meristematic Dothideomycetes and the only phototrophs Ulothrix and Chlorella. Photovoltaic modules showed significant power reductions after 6, 12 (both 7%) and 18 (11%) months. The lack of difference in power reduction between 6 and 12 months reflects the dual nature of soiling, which can result from the deposition of particulates as well as from SAB fouling. Although 12-month old SAB demonstrated an almost 10-fold increase in fungal colonization and a higher organic content, the larger non-microbial particles (above 10 μm), which were important for efficiency reduction of lightly-biofilmed panels, were removed by high rainfall just before the 12-month sampling.

  12. Wheat bran extract alters colonic fermentation and microbial composition, but does not affect faecal water toxicity: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; De Preter, Vicky; Huys, Geert; Broekaert, Willem F; Delcour, Jan A; Louat, Thierry; Herman, Jean; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-28

    Wheat bran extract (WBE), containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides that are potential prebiotic substrates, has been shown to modify bacterial colonic fermentation in human subjects and to beneficially affect the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. However, it is unclear whether these changes in fermentation are able to reduce the risk of developing CRC in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBE on the markers of CRC risk in healthy volunteers, and to correlate these effects with colonic fermentation. A total of twenty healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, cross-over, randomised, controlled trial in which the subjects ingested WBE (10 g/d) or placebo (maltodextrin, 10 g/d) for 3 weeks, separated by a 3-week washout period. At the end of each study period, colonic handling of NH3 was evaluated using the biomarker lactose[15N, 15N']ureide, colonic fermentation was characterised through a metabolomics approach, and the predominant microbial composition was analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. As markers of CRC risk, faecal water genotoxicity was determined using the comet assay and faecal water cytotoxicity using a colorimetric cell viability assay. Intake of WBE induced a shift from urinary to faecal 15N excretion, indicating a stimulation of colonic bacterial activity and/or growth. Microbial analysis revealed a selective stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In addition, WBE altered the colonic fermentation pattern and significantly reduced colonic protein fermentation compared with the run-in period. However, faecal water cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were not affected. Although intake of WBE clearly affected colonic fermentation and changed the composition of the microbiota, these changes were not associated with the changes in the markers of CRC risk.

  13. Colon cancer metastasis in mouse liver is not affected by hypercoagulability due to Factor V Leiden mutation

    PubMed Central

    Klerk, CPW; Smorenburg, SM; Spek, CA; Van Noorden, CJF

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Clinical trials have shown life-prolonging effects of antithrombotics in cancer patients, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown due to the multitude of their effects. We investigated in a mouse model whether one of the targets of antithrombotic therapy, fibrin deposition, stimulates tumour development. Fibrin may provide either protection of cancer cells in the circulation against mechanical stress and the immune system, or form a matrix for tumours and/or angiogenesis in tumours to develop. Mice homozygous for Factor V Leiden (FVL), a mutation in one of the coagulation factors that facilitates fibrin formation, were used to investigate whether hypercoagulability affects tumour development in an experimental metastasis model. Liver metastases of colon cancer were induced in mice with the FVL mutation and wild-type littermates. At day 21, number and size of tumours at the liver surface, fibrin/fibrinogen distribution, vessel density and the presence of newly formed vessels in tumours were analysed. Number and size of tumours did not differ between mice with and without the FVL mutation. Fibrin/fibrinogen was found in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and cancer cells, in blood vessels in liver and tumour tissue and diffusely distributed outside vessels in tumours, indicating leaky vessels. Vessel density and angiogenesis varied widely between tumours, but a pre-dominance for vessel-rich or vessel-poor tumours or vessel formation could not be found in either genotype. In conclusion, the FVL mutation has no effect on the development of secondary tumours of colon cancer in livers of mice. Fibrin deposition and thus inhibition of fibrin formation by anticoagulants do not seem to affect tumour development in this model. PMID:17635646

  14. Short-term oxycodone treatment does not affect electrogenic ion transport in isolated mucosa from the human rectosigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Bindslev, Niels; Hansen, Mark Berner; Louring Christrup, Lona; Drewes, A M

    2016-01-01

    Opioid therapy is associated with altered secretion and motility of the gut. The relative contribution of decreased secretion to the development of opioid-induced constipation remains unknown. Twenty-five healthy males were treated with oxycodone for 5 d in a placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over design. Gastrointestinal adverse effects were assessed with validated questionnaires (bowel function index and gastrointestinal symptom rating scale). Rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies were taken at baseline and on day 5 during both treatments and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current (SCC) and slope conductance) were measured after addition of secretagogues (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (6 μm), theophylline (400 μm)), and an inhibitor (ouabain (200 μm)). Additionally, morphine (50 μm) was added to investigate the direct opioid effect on colonic mucosa. Questionnaires showed pronounced bowel symptoms, including constipation during oxycodone treatment (eight-fold increase in bowel function index score from day 1 to day 5 (p < 0.001) while no significant change occurred during placebo treatment (p = 0.47). Basal SCC and slope conductance did not differ between treatments (all p > 0.05) and application with PGE2, theophylline, and ouabain yielded comparable results on all examinations (all p > 0.05). Morphine application consistently did not evoke a change in ion transport. Compared to placebo, epithelial electrogenic ion transport is not altered in mucosal biopsies from the rectosigmoid colon following 5-d oxycodone treatment. The secretory mechanisms in isolated mucosa appear to play a negligible role in the development of opioid-induced constipation.

  15. The effect of L-ascorbic acid and/or tocopherol supplementation on electrophysiological parameters of the colon of rats chronically exposed to lead

    PubMed Central

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Łanocha, Natalia; Wiernicki, Ireneusz; Millo, Barbara; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diet supplementation with L-ascorbic acid (500 mg/L), tocopherol (3 mg/kg b.w.), and/or a water soluble analog of tocopherol (Trolox) (48 mg/L) on ion transport in the colon of rats subjected to a chronic exposure (9 months) to 0.1% lead acetate in drinking water. Material/Methods The electrophysiological parameters of the colon wall were measured with Ussing methods. Lead content in the whole blood was analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) using Zeeman correction. L-ascorbic acid and tocopherol in plasma was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Immunohistochemical reaction was carried out for visualization of occludin, the intracellular tight junction protein. Results We showed a strong inhibitory effect of lead on the electrophysiological parameters, changes in intestinal permeability, disappearance of junctional occludin, decreased amount of mucus covering the colon surface, and the accumulation of PAS-positive substance in the apical region of the cytoplasm in the absorptive cells. Conclusions Supplementation with tocopherol or Trolox did not exert a beneficial influence on the studied parameters. L-ascorbic acid positively influenced the examined electrophysiological parameters, as it cancelled the inhibitory influence of lead on ion transport in the rat colon. L-ascorbic acid also protected against tight junction disruption of epithelial cells in the colon of the lead-treated rats. A similar effect was observed in the group of rats receiving lead and supplemented with L-ascorbic acid plus Trolox. PMID:21169903

  16. Glucocorticoids and the non-steroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, compound A, differentially affect colon cancer-derived myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Drebert, Zuzanna; Bracke, Marc; Beck, Ilse M

    2015-05-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor that positively or negatively regulates the transcription of various specific target genes. Not only steroidal glucocorticoids can bind and activate the glucocorticoid receptor, but also the intensively examined non-steroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators can do so, albeit with a select effector profile skewed to glucocorticoid receptor transrepression. Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat inflammatory afflictions, but also as anti-cancer therapies or adjuvants thereof. As the impact of glucocorticoids and selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators has scarcely been researched in this setting, we focused on colon cancer and its stromal environment, in particular the stromal myofibroblasts, which are known to influence cancer cells via paracrine signaling. In these myofibroblasts, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone is able to drive the glucocorticoid receptor into the nucleus and thus negatively regulates the expression of particular pro-inflammatory genes in TNFα-stimulated cells. The selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator compound A has an impaired ability to translocate GR, presumably underpinning its modest anti-inflammatory properties in these cells. Only dexamethasone, and not compound A, can upregulate the glucocorticoid receptor transactivation-dependent GILZ expression. Neither dexamethasone, nor compound A affects myofibroblast cell viability. However, compound A retards the growth of this myofibroblast cell line. Additionally, dexamethasone can inhibit the expression of Tenascin C, hepatocyte growth factor, and TGFβ, which are all factors known for their impact on colon cancer cell invasion, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner. In contrast, compound A can only slightly diminish the expression of just hepatocyte growth factor, and not tenascin C or TGFβ. Combined, our results expose new tumor microenvironment-modulating effects of

  17. Solid lipid nanoparticles affect microbial colonization and enzymatic activity throughout the decomposition of alder leaves in freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, A C; Mendes, R J; Castro, P G; Silva, A M

    2017-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we investigated the effects of SLNs on alder leaf litter decomposition by aquatic microbes. Alder leaves were immersed in a stream of Northeast Portugal to allow microbial colonization before being exposed in microcosms of two types of SLNs at two concentrations for 42 days. Results showed that rates of leaf decomposition decreased with exposure to SLNs. Bacterial biomass was not inhibited by SLNs, and cultivable fungi densities remained constant (SLN-A) or increased (SLN-C) compared with control microcosms. The type and concentration of SLNs influenced differently the leaf colonization by fungi as well as fungal sporulation rate. These effects were accompanied by changes in the community extraenzymatic profile: the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase, Naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (P cycle) and lipases increased in the SLNs microcosms. This study provided the first evidence of the adverse effects of the release of SLNs to streams on leaf litter decomposition. Those effects seem to depend on the composition and concentration of SLNs, as well on the microbial target group, or enzyme. Thus, prior to massive industrial production of these nanomaterials, some measures should be taken to avoid environmental impact affecting the microbial communities responsible for detritus decomposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of pre- and/or probiotics on human colonic metabolism: does it affect human health?

    PubMed

    De Preter, Vicky; Hamer, Henrike M; Windey, Karen; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Since many years, the role of the colonic microbiota in maintaining the host's overall health and well-being has been recognized. Dietary modulation of the microbiota composition and activity has been achieved by the use of pre-, pro- and synbiotics. In this review, we will summarize the available evidence on the modification of bacterial metabolism by dietary intervention with pre-, pro- and synbiotics. Enhanced production of SCFA as a marker of increased saccharolytic fermentation is well documented in animal and in vitro studies. Decreased production of potentially toxic protein fermentation metabolites, such as sulfides, phenolic and indolic compounds, has been less frequently demonstrated. Besides, pre-, pro- and synbiotics also affect other metabolic pathways such as the deconjugation of secondary bile acids, bacterial enzyme activities and mineral absorption. Data from human studies are less conclusive. The emergence of new analytical techniques such as metabolite profiling has revealed new pathways affected by dietary intervention. However, an important challenge for current and future research is to relate changes in bacterial metabolism to concrete health benefits. Potential targets and expected benefits have been identified: reduced risk for the metabolic syndrome and prevention of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stages of Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history affects the risk of developing colon cancer. Anything ... colorectal cancer include the following: Having a family history of colon or rectal cancer in a first- ...

  20. Study on spectral parameters and the support vector machine in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of serum for the detection of colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Yao, Jun; Song, Youtao; Wang, Deli; Ding, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been recognized as an effective tool for the analysis of tissue samples and biofluids. In this work, a total of 27 spectral parameters were chosen and compared using SERS. Four parameters with the highest prediction ability were selected for further support vector machine (SVM) analysis. As a comparison, principal component analysis (PCA) was used on the same dataset for feature extraction. SVM was used with the above two data reduction methods separately to differentiate colon cancer and the control groups. Serum taken from 52 colon cancer patients and 60 healthy volunteers were collected and tested by SERS. The accuracy for Parameter-SVM was 95.0%, the sensitivity was 96.2%, and the specificity was 95.5%, which was much higher than the results using only one parameter, while for PCA-SVM, the results are 93.3%, 92.3%, and 92.9%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the SERS analysis method can be used to identify serum differences between colon cancer patients and normal people.

  1. Summary of typical parameters that affect sound transmission through general aviation aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F.; Navaneethan, R.; Roskam, J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents results of a systematic experimental investigation of parameters which affect sound transmission through general aviation structures. Parameters studied include angle of sound incidence, panel curvature, panel stresses, and edge conditions for bare panels; pane thickness, spacing, inclination of window panes, and depressurization for dual pane windows; densities of hard foam and sound absorption materials, air gaps, and trim panel thickness for multilayered panels. Based on the study, some promising methods for reducing interior noise in general aviation airplanes are discussed.

  2. Virosecurinine induces apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 and Bax expression in human colon cancer SW480 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Rong; Xia, Yong-Hui; Yao, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Ying; Ji, Zhao-Ning

    2012-04-01

    Virosecurinine, the major alkaloid isolated from Securinega suffruticosa Pall Rehd was found to exhibit growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against huaman colon cancer SW480 cells via the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Due to its greater cytotoxic potency and selectivity towards SW480 cells, flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution of control and treated SW480 cells whereas Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis was carried out to confirm apoptosis induced by virosecurinine in SW480 cells. Apoptotic regulatory genes were determined by RT-PCR analysis. Virosecurinine was found to induce G1/S cell cycle arrest which led to predominantly apoptotic mode of cell death. Mechanistically, virosecurinine was found to up-regulated the Bax gene expression and down-regulated the Bcl-2 expression in SW480, The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax was significantly decreased. Hence, we suggest that virosecurinine induced apoptosis in SW480 cells by affecting the expression of bcl-2 and bax.

  3. Colon Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer. Colon polyps often don't cause symptoms. It's important ... removed safely and completely. The best prevention for colon cancer is regular screening for polyps. Colon polyps care ...

  4. Genistein affects histone modifications on Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) gene in SW480 human colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Li, Qian; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Genistein (GEN) is a plant-derived isoflavone and can block uncontrolled cell growth in colon cancer by inhibiting the WNT signaling pathway. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the enhanced gene expression of the WNT signaling pathway antagonist, DKK1 by genistein treatment is associated with epigenetic modifications of the gene in colon cancer cells. Genistein treatment induced a concentration-dependent G2 phase arrest in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 and reduced cell proliferation. Results from several other human colon cancer cell lines confirmed the growth inhibitory effects of genistein. Overexpression of DKK1 confirmed its involvement in growth inhibition. Knockdown of DKK1 expression by siRNA slightly induced cell growth. DKK1 gene expression was increased by genistein in SW480 and HCT15 cells. DNA methylation at the DKK1 promoter was not affected by genistein treatment in all the cell lines tested. On the other hand, genistein induced histone H3 acetylation of the DKK1 promoter region in SW480 and HCT15 cells. This indicates that increased histone acetylation is associated with the genistein-induced DKK1 expression. The association between histone acetylation and DKK1 gene expression is confirmed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) treatment. In conclusion, genistein treatment decreases cell growth and proliferation in colon cancer cell lines. The effect is associated with the increased DKK1 expression through the induction of histone acetylation at the DKK1 promoter region.

  5. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  6. A Case Study Showing Parameters Affecting the Quality of Education: Faculty Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to examine the faculty members' perspective (age Wise, Gender Wise and Work Experience wise) of parameters affecting the quality of education in an affiliated Undergraduate Engineering Institution in Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research. The data has been collected with the help of 'Questionnaire Based Survey'. The sample…

  7. [Research on the performance comparing and building of affective computing database based on physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ying, Lijuan; Li, Changwuz

    2014-08-01

    The validity and reasonableness of emotional data are the key issues in the cognitive affective computing research. Effects of the emotion recognition are decided by the quality of selected data directly. Therefore, it is an important part of affective computing research to build affective computing database with good performance, so that it is the hot spot of research in this field. In this paper, the performance of two classical cognitive affective computing databases, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) cognitive affective computing database and Germany Augsburg University emotion recognition database were compared, their data structure and data types were compared respectively, and emotional recognition effect based on the data were studied comparatively. The results indicated that the analysis based on the physical parameters could get the effective emotional recognition, and would be a feasible method of pressure emotional evaluation. Because of the lack of stress emotional evaluation data based on the physiological parameters domestically, there is not a public stress emotional database. We hereby built a dataset for the stress evaluation towards the high stress group in colleges, candidates of postgraduates of Ph. D and master as the subjects. We then acquired their physiological parameters, and performed the pressure analysis based on this database. The results indicated that this dataset had a certain reference value for the stress evaluation, and we hope this research can provide a reference and support for emotion evaluation and analysis.

  8. Parameter on systemic conditions affected by periodontal diseases. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on systemic conditions affected by periodontal diseases. It is well known that systemic conditions may affect the onset, progression, and treatment of such diseases (see Parameter on Periodontitis Associated With Systemic Conditions, pages 876-879). The concept of periodontal diseases as localized entities affecting only the teeth and supporting apparatus is increasingly being questioned. Periodontal diseases may have widespread systemic effects. While these effects may be limited in some individuals, periodontal infections may significantly impact systemic health in others, and may serve as risk indicators for certain systemic diseases or conditions. As part of the approach to establishing and maintaining health, patients should be informed of the possible effects of periodontal infection on their overall well-being. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  9. Injection parameters affect cell viability and implant volumes in automated cell delivery for the brain.

    PubMed

    Kondziolka, Douglas; Gobbel, Glenn T; Fellows-Mayle, Wendy; Chang, Yue-Fang; Uram, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The technique of central nervous system cell implantation can affect the outcome of preclinical or clinical studies. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of various injection parameters that may be of consequence during the delivery of solute-suspended cells. These parameters included (1) the type and concentration of cells used for implantation, (2) the rate at which cells are injected (flow rate), (3) the acceleration of the delivery device, (4) the period of time between cell loading and injection into the CNS (delay), and (5) the length and gauge of the needle used to deliver the cells. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were injected an automated device. These parameters were assessed in relation to their effect on the volume of cells injected and cell viability. Longer and thinner cannulae and higher cell concentrations were detrimental for cell delivery. Devices and techniques that optimize these parameters should be of benefit.

  10. Colon emptying induced by sequential electrical stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevcencu, Cristian; Rijkhoff, Nico J M; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Electrical stimulation could be used to induce colon emptying. The present experiments were performed to establish a stimulation pattern to optimize the stimulation parameters and to test neural involvement in propulsion induced by electrical stimulation. Colon segments were sequentially stimulated using rectangular pulses. The resulting propulsive activity displaced intraluminal content in consecutive propulsion steps. The propulsion steps differed in displacement latency, distance, and velocity along the stimulated colon. Increasing the pulse duration or amplitude resulted in a decrease of the latency. Increasing the stimulation amplitude doubled the displacement distance. The frequencies tested in the present study did not affect propulsion. Inhibition of cholinergic and nitrergic pathways inhibited propulsion. Electrical stimulation can induce colonic propulsion. Motor differences are present along the descending colon. The most suitable combination of pulse parameters regarding colon stimulation is 0.3 ms, 5 mA, 10 Hz. Neural circuits are involved in propulsion when using these values.

  11. Does chronic supplementation of the diet with dietary fibre extracted from pea or carrot affect colonic motility in man?

    PubMed

    Guédon, C; Ducrotté, P; Antoine, J M; Denis, P; Colin, R; Lerebours, E

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess, in healthy volunteers and under physiological conditions, the acceptability, clinical tolerance and effects on colonic motility of chronic supplementation of the usual diet with new dietary fibre sources. Three studies were carried out, one after a period of habitual diet, and two after randomized 3-week periods of supplementation with fibre extracted either from pea hulls or carrots, added to the meals as a fine powder. The 24 h motility was recorded on an unprepared colon at five levels to determine the initiation site and the number of high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) and to quantify motor activity every 30 min, particularly in the two periods following lunch and breakfast. With the habitual diet the motility pattern was an irregular alternation of quiescence and sporadic non-propagated contractions. HAPC always started from the ascending colon and occurred mainly after breakfast. With either type of fibre the 24 h motor profiles, the 24 h variations and the number of HAPC were not significantly modified but a more distal initiation of HAPC was found. The colonic postprandial motor response was more diffuse after dietary enrichment with carrot fibre than after enrichment with pea-hull fibre. In healthy volunteers the long-term addition of fibre extracted from pea hulls and carrots to the usual diet was easy and well-tolerated without clinical side-effects, but with limited colonic motor effects. However, the more distal initiation of HAPC observed could be deleterious.

  12. Study of some parameters affecting noise level in textile spinning and weaving mills.

    PubMed

    el-Dakhakhny, A A; Noweir, M H; Kamel, N R

    1975-01-01

    Noise was evaluated in six spinning and five weaving halls located in three textile mills in Egypt. Spindle speed (rpm) and loom speed (picks per minutes) were found to be important parameters affecting the noise level in these mills. Reduction of the number of spinning machines to five spindles per square meter of floor area will probably bring the noise level below the TLV. In the weaving departments, the decrease in the number of looms will not effectively reduce the noise level.

  13. Parameters affecting tooth loss during periodontal maintenance in a Greek population.

    PubMed

    Tsami, Alexandra; Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Kodovazenitis, George; Komboli, Mado

    2009-09-01

    Investigators have evaluated predictive parameters of tooth loss during the maintenance phase (MP). The authors conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the rate of tooth loss and to explore the parameters that affect tooth loss during MP in a Greek population. A periodontist administered periodontal treatment and maintenance care to 280 participants with severe periodontitis for a mean period +/- standard deviation of 10.84 +/- 2.13 years. The periodontist recorded the following parameters for each participant: oral hygiene index level, simplified gingival index level, clinical attachment level, probing depth measurements, initial tooth prognosis, smoking status, tooth loss during active periodontal treatment and MP, and compliance with suggested maintenance visits. The authors found that total tooth loss during active treatment (n = 1,427) was greater than during MP (n = 918) and was associated with the initial tooth prognosis, tooth type group, participants' compliance with suggested maintenance visits, smoking status and acceptability of the quality of tooth restorations. Most of the teeth extracted during maintenance had an initial guarded prognosis (n = 612). Participants whose compliance was erratic had a greater risk of undergoing tooth extraction than did participants whose compliance was complete. Participants' initial tooth prognosis, tooth type, compliance with suggested maintenance visits and smoking status affected tooth loss during MP. Initial guarded prognosis and erratic compliance increased the risk of undergoing tooth extraction during maintenance. Determining predictive parameters for disease progression and tooth loss provides critical information to clinicians so that they can develop and implement rational treatment planning.

  14. Working parameters affecting earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) system performance for passive cooling: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darius, D.; Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Amaludin, A.

    2017-07-01

    The study on the effect of the working parameters such as pipe material, pipe length, pipe diameter, depth of burial of the pipe, air flow rate and different types of soils on the thermal performance of earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) systems is very crucial to ensure that thermal comfort can be achieved. In the past decade, researchers have performed studies to develop numerical models for analysis of EAHE systems. Until recently, two-dimensional models replaced the numerical models in the 1990s and in recent times, more advanced analysis using three-dimensional models, specifically the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation in the analysis of EAHE system. This paper reviews previous models used to analyse the EAHE system and working parameters that affects the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) thermal performance as of February 2017. Recent findings on the parameters affecting EAHE performance are also presented and discussed. As a conclusion, with the advent of CFD methods, investigational work have geared up to modelling and simulation work as it saves time and cost. Comprehension of the EAHE working parameters and its effect on system performance is largely established. However, the study on type of soil and its characteristics on the performance of EAHEs systems are surprisingly barren. Therefore, future studies should focus on the effect of soil characteristics such as moisture content, density of soil, and type of soil on the thermal performance of EAHEs system.

  15. Influence of inorganic and organic iron compounds on parameters of cell growth and survival in human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Klenow, Stefanie; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Glei, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Increased risk for development of colon cancer is associated with red meat intake and iron toxicity is discussed for one underlying mechanism. Anyhow, for iron itself only limited evidence is found. In this study, effects of different iron compounds on proliferation of HT29 carcinoma and LT97 adenoma human colon cells were investigated. After treatment of cells with inorganic (ferrous sulfate: FeSO4 and ferric nitrilotriacetate: FeNTA) and organic (hemoglobin and hemin) iron sources (24-72 h), number of cells and metabolic activity were measured. Under normal cell culture conditions, neither iron compound elevated cell growth in either cell line with the exception of FeNTA which induced LT97 cell growth significantly. Distinct inhibition of cell proliferation was measured for organic iron. Serum-free incubation of HT29 cells revealed growth promoting properties of iron under deficiency. Even though organic iron, especially hemin, was a potent growth factor, both substances showed also dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. In conclusion, these data emphasize that not iron itself, but merely organic iron may promote carcinogenic events. Since promotion of proliferation was only detectable under deficiency, cytotoxic properties of organic iron may be of more importance in colon carcinogenesis.

  16. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  17. A hypothesis: interaction between supplemental iron intake and fermentation affecting the risk of colon cancer. The Iowa Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs Jr, David R; Folsom, Aaron R

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation in the large intestine can increase absorption of ferrous iron, which is the main form in supplements, because the solubility of ferrous iron is enhanced in the mildly acidic environments caused by fermentation. We therefore hypothesized that higher supplemental iron intake would increase the risk of colon cancer among those who consume large amounts of fermentable substrates, namely, dietary fiber and resistant starch. Among 34,708 postmenopausal women, supplemental iron was unrelated to proximal colon cancer in all women and to distal colon cancer among those consuming below the median of fermentable substrates. However, supplemental iron was positively associated with distal colon cancer among women who consumed above the median of fermentable substrates (P for interaction %lt; 0.01); the adjusted relative risks across categories of supplemental iron (0 g/day, 1-19 g/day, 20-49 g/day, and > or = 50 g/day) were 1.0, 1.24, 1.78, and 3.78 (P for trend < 0.01). This hypothesis needs confirmation in other cohort studies because, despite the significant trend, only nine cases were included in the top category of > or = 50 mg supplemental iron, and this finding could have arisen by chance.

  18. A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

    2012-03-01

    A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments.

  19. Study of design parameters affecting the motion of DNA for nanoinjection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Regis A.; Jensen, Brian D.; Black, Justin L.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the effects of various parameters on the attraction and repulsion of DNA to and from a silicon lance. An understanding of DNA motion is crucial for a new approach to insert DNA, or other foreign microscopic matter, into a living cell. The approach, called nanoinjection, uses electrical forces to attract and repel the desired substance to a micromachined lance designed to pierce the cell membranes. We have developed mathematical models to predict the trajectory of DNA. The mathematical model allows investigation of the attraction/repulsion process by varying specific parameters. We find that the ground electrode placement, lance orientation and lance penetration significantly affect attraction or repulsion efficiency, while the gap, lance direction, lance tip width, lance tip half-angle and lance tip height do not.

  20. Evaluation of the Parameters Affecting the Cohesion of Fine Grained Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kmec, Ján; Čejka, Jiří; Bartuška, Ladislav; Stopka, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Cohesion of the soils is one of the most important parameters which soil is evaluated in terms of its suitability for building foundations. Safety of construction is in fact dependent on the strength of soil, respectively shear strength. Fine-grained soil represents very specific group, in which is distinguished an effective and total cohesion of soils. The water in the soil thus drastically affects its cohesion contrary to gravel and sandy soils. The publication compares the tabular values of the effective and total cohesion and define the influence of water, grain size and consistency of her behaviour.

  1. Local network parameters can affect inter-network phase lags in central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Kopell, N

    2006-01-01

    Weakly coupled phase oscillators and strongly coupled relaxation oscillators have different mechanisms for creating stable phase lags. Many oscillations in central pattern generators combine features of each type of coupling: local networks composed of strongly coupled relaxation oscillators are weakly coupled to similar local networks. This paper analyzes the phase lags produced by this combination of mechanisms and shows how the parameters of a local network, such as the decay time of inhibition, can affect the phase lags between the local networks. The analysis is motivated by the crayfish central pattern generator used for swimming, and uses techniques from geometrical singular perturbation theory.

  2. Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

  3. Timing and number of colonizations but not diversification rates affect diversity patterns in hemosporidian lineages on a remote oceanic archipelago.

    PubMed

    Cornuault, Josselin; Warren, Ben H; Bertrand, Joris A M; Milá, Borja; Thébaud, Christophe; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Parasite diversity on remote oceanic archipelagos is determined by the number and timing of colonizations and by in situ diversification rate. In this study, we compare intra-archipelago diversity of two hemosporidian parasite genera, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon, infecting birds of the Mascarene archipelago. Despite the generally higher vagility of Plasmodium parasites, we report a diversity of Plasmodium cytochrome b haplotypes in the archipelago much lower than that of Leucocytozoon. Using phylogenetic data, we find that this difference in diversity is consistent with differences in the timing and number of colonizations, while rates of diversification do not vary significantly between the two genera. The prominence of immigration history in explaining current diversity patterns highlights the importance of historical contingencies in driving disparate biogeographic patterns in potentially harmful blood parasites infecting island birds.

  4. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  5. Soil type affects plant colonization, activity and catabolic gene expression of inoculated bacterial strains during phytoremediation of diesel.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Yousaf, Sohail; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Kuffner, Melanie; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-02-28

    The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Apart from environmental conditions the physicochemical properties of the soil are the main factors influencing the survival and activity of an inoculated strain as well as the growth of plants. This study examined the effect of different soil types (sandy, loamy sand and loam) on the survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of two inoculated strains (Pseudomonas sp. strain ITRI53 and Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere and shoot interior of Italian ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soils. High colonization, gene abundance and expression in loamy soils were observed. By contrast, low colonization, gene abundance and absence of gene expression in sandy soil were found. The highest levels of genes expression and hydrocarbon degradation were seen in loamy soil that had been inoculated with BTRH79 and were significantly higher compared to those in other soils. A positive correlation was observed between gene expression and hydrocarbon degradation indicating that catabolic gene expression is necessary for contaminant degradation. These results suggest that soil type influences the bacterial colonization and microbial activities and subsequently the efficiency of contaminant degradation.

  6. Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Claus T.; Petersen, Anne; Licht, Tine R.; Conlon, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic simulator consisting of a proximal vessel (PV) (pH 5.5) and a distal vessel (DV) (pH 6.8) inoculated with human faeces and media containing soy protein. Genotoxicity of the liquid phase and microbial population changes in the vessels were measured. Soy protein (3%) was fermented with 1% low amylose cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly increased in the PV and DV by inulin but significantly decreased by XOS in both vessels. Other bacteria examined were also significantly impacted by the carbohydrate treatments or by the vessel (i.e., pH). There was a significant overall inverse correlation between levels of damage induced by the ferments and levels of sulphate-reducing bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis, and acetate. In conclusion, dietary XOS can potentially modulate the genotoxicity of the colonic environment and specific bacterial groups and short chain fatty acids may mediate this. PMID:24064573

  7. The inoculation method affects colonization and performance of bacterial inoculant strains in the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Yousaf, Sohail; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Sessitsch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Plants in combination with microorganisms can remediate soils, which are contaminated with organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Inoculation of plants with degrading bacteria is one approach to improve remediation processes, but is often not successful due to the competition with resident microorganisms. It is therefore of high importance to address the persistence and colonization behavior of inoculant strains. The objective of this study was to determine whether the inoculation method (seed imbibement and soil inoculation) influences bacterial colonization, plant growth promotion and hydrocarbon degradation. Italian ryegrass was grown in non-sterilized soil polluted with diesel and inoculated with different alkane-degrading strains Pantoea sp. ITSI10, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Pseudomonas sp. MixRI75 individually as well as in combination. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation, however, strains inoculated in soil performed better than applied by seed imbibement. Performance correlated with the colonization efficiency of the inoculated strains. The highest hydrocarbon degradation was observed in the treatment, in which all three strains were inoculated in combination into soil. Our study revealed that besides the degradation potential and competitive ability of inoculant strains the inoculation method plays an important role in determining the success of microbial inoculation.

  8. Aboveground Epichloë coenophiala-Grass Associations Do Not Affect Belowground Fungal Symbionts or Associated Plant, Soil Parameters.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Lindsey C; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-10-01

    Cool season grasses host multiple fungal symbionts, such as aboveground Epichloë endophytes and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSEs). Asexual Epichloë endophytes can influence root colonization by AMF, but the type of interaction-whether antagonistic or beneficial-varies. In Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue), Epichloë coenophiala can negatively affect AMF, which may impact soil properties and ecosystem function. Within field plots of S. arundinaceus that were either E. coenophiala-free (E-), infected with the common, mammal-toxic E. coenophiala strain (CTE+), or infected with one of two novel, non-toxic strains (AR542 NTE+ and AR584 NTE+), we hypothesized that (1) CTE+ would decrease AMF and DSE colonization rates and reduce soil extraradical AMF hyphae compared to E- or NTE+, and (2) this would lead to E- and NTE+ plots having greater water stable soil aggregates and C than CTE+. E. coenophiala presence and strain did not significantly alter AMF or DSE colonization, nor did it affect extraradical AMF hypha length, soil aggregates, or aggregate-associated C and N. Soil extraradical AMF hypha length negatively correlated with root AMF colonization. Our results contrast with previous demonstrations that E. coenophiala symbiosis inhibits belowground AMF communities. In our mesic, relatively nutrient-rich grassland, E. coenophiala symbiosis did not antagonize belowground symbionts, regardless of strain. Manipulating E. coenophiala strains within S. arundinaceus may not significantly alter AMF communities and nutrient cycling, yet we must further explore these relationships under different soils and environmental conditions given that symbiont interactions can be important in determining ecosystem response to global change.

  9. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  10. Variation in Growth, Colonization of Maize, and Metabolic Parameters of GFP- and DsRed-Labeled Fusarium verticillioides Strains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Conner, R L; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Rongqi; Li, Hongjie

    2016-08-01

    Autofluorescent proteins are frequently applied as visual markers in the labeling of filamentous fungi. Genes gfp and DsRed were transformed into the genome of Fusarium verticillioides via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. The selected transformants displayed a bright green or red fluorescence in all the organelles of the growing fungal mycelia and spores (except for the vacuoles) both in cultures and in the maize (Zea mays) roots they colonized. The results of gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and the thermal asymmetrical interlaced (TAIL)-PCR analysis demonstrated that gfp and DsRed were integrated on different chromosomes of the fungus. Reductions in the colony growth on the plates at pH 4.0 and 5.5 was observed for the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transformant G3 and the DsRed-transformant R4, but transformants G4 and R1 grew as well as the wild-type strain at pH 4.0. The speed of growth of all the transformants was similar to the wild-type strain at pH ≥ 7. The insertion of gfp and DsRed did not alter the production of extracellular enzymes and fumonisin B by F. verticillioides. The transformants expressing GFP and DsRed proteins were able to colonize maize roots. However, the four transformants examined produced fewer CFU in the root samples than the wild-type strain during a sampling period of 7 to 28 days after inoculation.

  11. Frequency of vagınal candida colonization and relationship between metabolic parameters in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Akyürek, Nesibe; Eklioglu, Beray Selver

    2013-10-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at risk for vulvovaginal candidasis. The aim of this study was to determine the species-specific prevalence rate and risk of candidiasis in patients with type 1 DM. Children aged between 8-16 years were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory features of diabetes and evidence of genital symptoms were recorded. Vaginal swabs were taken from patients and placed on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated. Following fasting overnight for 12 hours venous blood samples were taken simultaneously for analyses of blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid profile. A simple 1-time fluconazole treatment regimen was used to treat patients with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. Candida species were isolated in 30 of 76 (39%) swabs of patients with type 1 DM. Subjects who had candida colonization and candidiasis were all acute. The predominant candida species isolated from patients with type 1 DM were C.albicans 50%, C. glabrata 36.6%, C.crusei 3.3%, C.spesies 6.6%, and C.dubliniensis 3.3%. 42 patients had symptoms.The prevalence of candidiasis in symptomatic patients was 59.2%. Subjects with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis had higher mean HbA1c when compared to those who had no such infection (P = .047). There seems to be a significant link between hyperglycemia and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis in patients with type 1 DM. Improving glucose control may reduce the risk of candidiasis and potentially symptomatic infection among children with diabetes. Because of high rate of colonization with candida species in diabetes, patients should undergo periodic screening for genital candidiasis. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of mouse eye and errors in ocular parameters affecting refractive state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawa, Gurinder

    Rodents eye are particularly used to study refractive error state of an eye and development of refractive eye. Genetic organization of rodents is similar to that of humans, which makes them interesting candidates to be researched upon. From rodents family mice models are encouraged over rats because of availability of genetically engineered models. Despite of extensive work that has been performed on mice and rat models, still no one is able to quantify an optical model, due to variability in the reported ocular parameters. In this Dissertation, we have extracted ocular parameters and generated schematics of eye from the raw data from School of Medicine, Detroit. In order to see how the rays would travel through an eye and the defects associated with an eye; ray tracing has been performed using ocular parameters. Finally we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that variation in all the ocular parameters does affect the refractive status of the eye, but depending upon the magnitude of the impact those parameters are listed as critical or non critical. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error and thus are categorized as critical ocular parameters. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state, while the radii of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the retina have no effect on the refractive error. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse

  13. Overall survival after resection for colon cancer in a national cohort study was adversely affected by TNM stage, lymph node ratio, gender, and old age.

    PubMed

    Storli, Kristian E; Søndenaa, Karl; Bukholm, Ida R K; Nesvik, Idunn; Bru, Tore; Furnes, Bjørg; Hjelmeland, Bjarte; Iversen, Knut B; Eide, Geir E

    2011-10-01

    A national surveillance program of colon cancer treatment was introduced in 2007. We examined prognostic factors for colon cancer operated in 2000 with an aim of improving survival in the new program and a special focus on the merit of lymph node yield. A cohort of 269 patients, 152 women (56.5%), with a mean age of 71 years, was operated for colon cancer in 2000 at three teaching hospitals and followed up for 7 years. Overall 5-year survival was 58.0%, and overall hospital mortality was 5.2%, with 4.5% in elective cases and 12.5% after urgent surgery. In only 41.1% of the specimens were 12 or more lymph nodes retrieved, but this did not affect survival in the combined cohort, although one of the hospitals achieved a significantly better result with a harvest of 12 or more lymph nodes. In a multivariate analysis, old age, gender, a high lymph node ratio (LNR) at stage III, and tumor-node-metastasis stage were adverse factors for survival. The operative mortality was high and should be reassessed. The lymph node count did not have a significant impact on outcome overall, whereas the LNR proved significant for stage III. A prospective protocol using overall lymph node yield as a surrogate measure for more radical surgery, nevertheless, seems warranted to improve the lymph node harvest according to international recommendations.

  14. 4D dose simulation in volumetric arc therapy: Accuracy and affecting parameters

    PubMed Central

    Werner, René

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics. Current approaches are motion phantom-based 4D QA and image-based 4D VMAT dose simulation. Whereas phantom-based 4D QA is usually restricted to a small number of measurements, the computational approaches allow simulating many motion scenarios. However, 4D VMAT dose simulation depends on various input parameters, influencing estimated doses along with mitigating simulation reliability. Thus, aiming at routine use of simulation-based 4D VMAT QA, the impact of such parameters as well as the overall accuracy of the 4D VMAT dose simulation has to be studied in detail–which is the topic of the present work. In detail, we introduce the principles of 4D VMAT dose simulation, identify influencing parameters and assess their impact on 4D dose simulation accuracy by comparison of simulated motion-affected dose distributions to corresponding dosimetric motion phantom measurements. Exploiting an ITV-based treatment planning approach, VMAT treatment plans were generated for a motion phantom and different motion scenarios (sinusoidal motion of different period/direction; regular/irregular motion). 4D VMAT dose simulation results and dose measurements were compared by local 3% / 3 mm γ-evaluation, with the measured dose distributions serving as ground truth. Overall γ-passing rates of simulations and dynamic measurements ranged from 97% to 100% (mean across all motion scenarios: 98% ± 1%); corresponding values for comparison of different day repeat measurements were

  15. 4D dose simulation in volumetric arc therapy: Accuracy and affecting parameters.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Thilo; Gauer, Tobias; Werner, René

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics. Current approaches are motion phantom-based 4D QA and image-based 4D VMAT dose simulation. Whereas phantom-based 4D QA is usually restricted to a small number of measurements, the computational approaches allow simulating many motion scenarios. However, 4D VMAT dose simulation depends on various input parameters, influencing estimated doses along with mitigating simulation reliability. Thus, aiming at routine use of simulation-based 4D VMAT QA, the impact of such parameters as well as the overall accuracy of the 4D VMAT dose simulation has to be studied in detail-which is the topic of the present work. In detail, we introduce the principles of 4D VMAT dose simulation, identify influencing parameters and assess their impact on 4D dose simulation accuracy by comparison of simulated motion-affected dose distributions to corresponding dosimetric motion phantom measurements. Exploiting an ITV-based treatment planning approach, VMAT treatment plans were generated for a motion phantom and different motion scenarios (sinusoidal motion of different period/direction; regular/irregular motion). 4D VMAT dose simulation results and dose measurements were compared by local 3% / 3 mm γ-evaluation, with the measured dose distributions serving as ground truth. Overall γ-passing rates of simulations and dynamic measurements ranged from 97% to 100% (mean across all motion scenarios: 98% ± 1%); corresponding values for comparison of different day repeat measurements were

  16. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    PubMed

    Ebisch, I M W; Pierik, F H; DE Jong, F H; Thomas, C M G; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males participated in a 26-week intervention study consisting of a daily treatment with folic acid (5 mg/day) and zinc sulphate (66 mg/day), or placebo. Pre- and post-intervention semen parameters, serum folate, zinc, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and inhibin B concentrations were measured. The results indicated that intervention treatment significantly increased sperm concentration in subfertile males. Other semen and endocrine parameters were not affected by intervention treatment. At baseline, positive correlations were found between serum zinc and sperm concentration, motility and inhibin B. Serum zinc and FSH were inversely correlated. As (already) well known from previous research, inhibin B positively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and morphology, and was inversely correlated with FSH. The latter was positively correlated with testosterone. In addition, testosterone and inhibin B were inversely correlated. After intervention, the correlations with zinc disappeared. We conclude that the increase in sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention is not the result of alterations in FSH, testosterone or inhibin B concentrations. Although zinc and folate have several effects on spermatogenesis, the underlying mechanisms involved are not clear.

  17. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Johanna M.; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L.; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C.; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M.; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U.; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Methods Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. Results The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. Conclusion VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples. PMID:26730574

  18. Selection of meteorological parameters affecting rainfall estimation using neuro-fuzzy computing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Gocic, Milan; Lee, Siew Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Rainfall is a complex atmospheric process that varies over time and space. Researchers have used various empirical and numerical methods to enhance estimation of rainfall intensity. We developed a novel prediction model in this study, with the emphasis on accuracy to identify the most significant meteorological parameters having effect on rainfall. For this, we used five input parameters: wet day frequency (dwet), vapor pressure (e̅a), and maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) as well as cloud cover (cc). The data were obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department for the Patna city, Bihar, India. Further, a type of soft-computing method, known as the adaptive-neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), was applied to the available data. In this respect, the observation data from 1901 to 2000 were employed for testing, validating, and estimating monthly rainfall via the simulated model. In addition, the ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented to detect the predominant variables affecting the rainfall prediction. Finally, the performance of the model was compared to other soft-computing approaches, including the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), extreme learning machine (ELM), and genetic programming (GP). The results revealed that ANN, ELM, ANFIS, SVM, and GP had R2 of 0.9531, 0.9572, 0.9764, 0.9525, and 0.9526, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the ANFIS is the best method among all to predict monthly rainfall. Moreover, dwet was found to be the most influential parameter for rainfall prediction, and the best predictor of accuracy. This study also identified sets of two and three meteorological parameters that show the best predictions.

  19. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong; Jung, Yoon Suk

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-1.77; p(trend)<0.001], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43; p(trend)=0.024), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.46; p(trend)=0.046), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14-1.63; p(trend)=0.004), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99-1.42; p(trend)=0.041), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of teat skin as affected by postmilking teat treatment when exposed to cold and windy conditions.

    PubMed

    Fox, L K; Norell, R J

    1994-08-01

    Study 1 was conducted to determine whether postmilking teat treatment with ointment before exposure to cold and wind resulted in better skin health than standard teat treatment. Teat treatments tested were 1% I2 and 10% glycerin, ointment with 1% chloroxylenol, ointment with .3% 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate, and no treatment (control). Teats were treated 7 d prior to chapping. A broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus was applied once to teats after chapping was established. Treatments were applied after milking and before sample collection for 11 d following S. aureus application. Milk samples were collected aseptically, teat skin swabbing solutions were collected, and teat condition was scored. Cows were exposed to ambient winter conditions, and a wind velocity of 152.4 m/min was applied to the mammary gland surface for 15 min immediately postmilking. Ointment and control teats had significantly better skin condition than teats treated with I2 solution. Colonization of S. aureus was greatest on ointment treated teats. Study 2 was conducted to determine whether teat condition of cows receiving postmilking I2 solution treatments would be improved if teats were blotted dry before exposure to wind and cold ambient conditions. Two mammary quarters of each cow received I2 solution treatment of study 1, but teats were blotted dry prior to exit from the milking parlor. No treatment was applied to the other teats. Teat condition scores were similar between treatments, but S. aureus colonization was significantly greater on control teats. Results indicate a possible disadvantage to treating teats with ointments after milking, as evidenced by increased S. aureus colonization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, A.B.; Treves, S.; O'Brien, G.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs (OsO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is elute with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither well-defined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10/sup -3/%) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-06-12

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  3. Carboxylation of osteocalcin affects its association with metabolic parameters in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Prats-Puig, Anna; Mas-Parareda, Marta; Riera-Pérez, Elena; González-Forcadell, Dolors; Mier, Concepció; Mallol-Guisset, Montserrat; Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein, was recently shown to regulate metabolic pathways in mice. Undercarboxylated OC (ucOC), but not carboxylated OC (cOC), increases adiponectin and insulin secretion. It is unclear if carboxylation of OC affects its association with metabolic parameters in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The associations between ucOC, cOC, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and insulin secretion (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]-beta) were investigated in a population-based sample of healthy prepubertal children (n = 103; 49 boys and 54 girls). RESULTS Weight-dependent associations were observed between the different forms of OC and metabolic parameters. Higher cOC was related to lower HMW adiponectin (with a stronger association in leaner children; P < 0.001). Higher ucOC-to-cOC ratio was associated with higher HOMA-beta (P < 0.01) in leaner children and associated with higher HMW adiponectin (P < 0.001) in heavier children. CONCLUSIONS In a weight-dependent manner, cOC and the proportion of ucOC are differentially related to HMW adiponectin and insulin secretion in healthy children.

  4. Carboxylation of Osteocalcin Affects Its Association With Metabolic Parameters in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Prats-Puig, Anna; Mas-Parareda, Marta; Riera-Pérez, Elena; González-Forcadell, Dolors; Mier, Concepció; Mallol-Guisset, Montserrat; Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein, was recently shown to regulate metabolic pathways in mice. Undercarboxylated OC (ucOC), but not carboxylated OC (cOC), increases adiponectin and insulin secretion. It is unclear if carboxylation of OC affects its association with metabolic parameters in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The associations between ucOC, cOC, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and insulin secretion (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]-β) were investigated in a population-based sample of healthy prepubertal children (n = 103; 49 boys and 54 girls). RESULTS Weight-dependent associations were observed between the different forms of OC and metabolic parameters. Higher cOC was related to lower HMW adiponectin (with a stronger association in leaner children; P < 0.001). Higher ucOC-to-cOC ratio was associated with higher HOMA-β (P < 0.01) in leaner children and associated with higher HMW adiponectin (P < 0.001) in heavier children. CONCLUSIONS In a weight-dependent manner, cOC and the proportion of ucOC are differentially related to HMW adiponectin and insulin secretion in healthy children. PMID:20009098

  5. Parameters affecting organization and transfection efficiency of amphiphilic copolymers/DNA carriers.

    PubMed

    Roques, Caroline; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Ponchel, Gilles; Fromes, Yves; Fattal, Elias

    2009-08-19

    Amphiphilic block copolymers are attracting increasing interest in the field of gene therapy, especially for transfection of striated muscles. However, little is known about the parameters affecting their transfection efficiency in vivo. These copolymers can self-assemble as micelles in certain conditions. Since micellization strongly depends on the temperature and ionic content of the preparation medium, the present paper aimed at investigating the influence of these parameters in the context of gene delivery. We first assessed the micellization of pluronic L64 and tetronic 304 at various temperatures in water, saline or Tyrode's salts solution. Pluronic L64 can form micelles at temperatures above 37 degrees C in water or at 37 degrees C in the Tyrode's salts solution, in the range of concentration investigated. For tetronic 304, CMC was found to be far below the concentrations used to transfer DNA. Pluronic L64 interacted with DNA only in the presence of micelles. Moreover, in vivo evaluation demonstrated that significantly improved transfection efficiency was obtained at 37 degrees C in Tyrode's salts solution for pluronic L64 based formulations, compared to 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Such differences were not recorded with tetronic 304. Finally, optimized formulations of both tetronic 304 and pluronic L64 were able to mediate efficient transfection in dystrophic muscles.

  6. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-02

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (μmax) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the μmax of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The μmax decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry.

  7. Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

    2013-10-01

    In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

  8. Effect of welding parameters on the heat-affected zone of AISI409 ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbarnodeh, Eslam; Hanke, Stefanie; Weiss, Sabine; Fischer, Alfons

    2012-10-01

    One of the main problems during the welding of ferritic stainless steels is severe grain growth within the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, the microstructural characteristics of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AISI409 ferritic stainless steel were investigated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and the effects of welding parameters on the grain size, local misorientation, and low-angle grain boundaries were studied. A 3-D finite element model (FEM) was developed to predict the effects of welding parameters on the holding time of the HAZ above the critical temperature of grain growth. It is found that the base metal is not fully recrystallized. During the welding, complete recrystallization is followed by severe grain growth. A decrease in the number of low-angle grain boundaries is observed within the HAZ. FEM results show that the final state of residual strains is caused by competition between welding plastic strains and their release by recrystallization. Still, the decisive factor for grain growth is heat input.

  9. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  10. CONTINUOSLY STIRRED TANK REACTOR PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT SLUDGE BATCH 6 SIMULANT PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-05-28

    ). Precipitated MnO{sub 2} is combined with metal nitrates and fed into the CSTR. The metals are precipitated by a caustic NaOH stream. The rates at which these streams are added allows for pH adjustment of the mixture. A graphical representation of this process is given in Figure 1. In using the CSTR method for developing simulant, there are various parameters that can be adjusted in order to effectuate a physical change in the resulting simulant: pH, temperature, mixing speed, and flow rate. How will changing these parameters affect the physical properties of the sludge simulant? The ability to determine which parameter affects a particular property could allow one to develop a simulant that would better match the physical characteristics of HLW sludge.

  11. A Modified R-Type Bacteriocin Specifically Targeting Clostridium difficile Prevents Colonization of Mice without Affecting Gut Microbiota Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gebhart, Dana; Lok, Stephen; Clare, Simon; Tomas, Myreen; Stares, Mark; Scholl, Dean; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and has become an urgent public health threat requiring immediate attention. Epidemic lineages of the BI/NAP1/027 strain type have emerged and spread through health care systems across the globe over the past decade. Limiting person-to-person transmission and eradicating C. difficile, especially the BI/NAP1/027 strain type, from health care facilities are difficult due to the abundant shedding of spores that are impervious to most interventions. Effective prophylaxis for C. difficile infection (CDI) is lacking. We have genetically modified a contractile R-type bacteriocin (“diffocin”) from C. difficile strain CD4 to kill BI/NAP1/027-type strains for this purpose. The natural receptor binding protein (RBP) responsible for diffocin targeting was replaced with a newly discovered RBP identified within a prophage of a BI/NAP1/027-type target strain by genome mining. The resulting modified diffocins (a.k.a. Avidocin-CDs), Av-CD291.1 and Av-CD291.2, were stable and killed all 16 tested BI/NAP1/027-type strains. Av-CD291.2 administered in drinking water survived passage through the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract, did not detectably alter the mouse gut microbiota or disrupt natural colonization resistance to C. difficile or the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), and prevented antibiotic-induced colonization of mice inoculated with BI/NAP1/027-type spores. Given the high incidence and virulence of the pathogen, preventing colonization by BI/NAP1/027-type strains and limiting their transmission could significantly reduce the occurrence of the most severe CDIs. This modified diffocin represents a prototype of an Avidocin-CD platform capable of producing targetable, precision anti-C. difficile agents that can prevent and potentially treat CDIs without disrupting protective indigenous microbiota. PMID:25805733

  12. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–1.77; ptrend<0.001], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04–1.43; ptrend=0.024), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02–1.46; ptrend=0.046), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14–1.63; ptrend=0.004), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99–1.42; ptrend=0.041), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. Conclusion The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas. PMID:28120565

  13. Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, Laura; de Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2008-08-01

    This paper is the result of a study which was carried out in order to verify if the traditional methods to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability or vulnerability related parameters, are able to clarify the problem of nitrate pollution in groundwater. In particular, the aim was to evaluate limitations and problems connected to aquifer vulnerability methods applied to nitrate contamination prevision in groundwater. The investigation was carried out by comparing NO3 - concentrations, measured in March and November 2004 in the shallow aquifer, and the vulnerability classes, obtained by using GOD and TOT methods. Moreover, it deals with a comparison between NO3 - concentrations and single parameters (depth to water table, land use and nitrogen input). The study area is the plain sector of Piemonte (Northern Italy), where an unconfined aquifer nitrate contamination exists. In this area the anthropogenic presence is remarkable and the input of N-fertilizers and zootechnical effluents to the soil cause a growing amount of nitrates in groundwater. This approach, used in a large area (about 10,000 km2) and in several monitoring wells (about 500), allowed to compare the efficiency of different vulnerability methods and to verify the importance of every parameter on the nitrate concentrations in the aquifer. Furthermore it allowed to obtain interesting correlations in different hydrogeological situations. Correlations between depth to water table, land use and nitrogen input to the soil with nitrate concentrations in groundwater show unclear situations: in fact these comparisons describe the phenomenon trend and highlight the maximum nitrate concentrations for each circumstance but often show wide ranges of possible nitrate concentrations. The same situation could be observed by comparing vulnerability indexes and nitrate concentrations in groundwater. These results suggest that neither single parameters nor vulnerability methods (GOD and TOT) are able to describe individually

  14. A modified R-type bacteriocin specifically targeting Clostridium difficile prevents colonization of mice without affecting gut microbiota diversity.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, Dana; Lok, Stephen; Clare, Simon; Tomas, Myreen; Stares, Mark; Scholl, Dean; Donskey, Curtis J; Lawley, Trevor D; Govoni, Gregory R

    2015-03-24

    Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and has become an urgent public health threat requiring immediate attention. Epidemic lineages of the BI/NAP1/027 strain type have emerged and spread through health care systems across the globe over the past decade. Limiting person-to-person transmission and eradicating C. difficile, especially the BI/NAP1/027 strain type, from health care facilities are difficult due to the abundant shedding of spores that are impervious to most interventions. Effective prophylaxis for C. difficile infection (CDI) is lacking. We have genetically modified a contractile R-type bacteriocin ("diffocin") from C. difficile strain CD4 to kill BI/NAP1/027-type strains for this purpose. The natural receptor binding protein (RBP) responsible for diffocin targeting was replaced with a newly discovered RBP identified within a prophage of a BI/NAP1/027-type target strain by genome mining. The resulting modified diffocins (a.k.a. Avidocin-CDs), Av-CD291.1 and Av-CD291.2, were stable and killed all 16 tested BI/NAP1/027-type strains. Av-CD291.2 administered in drinking water survived passage through the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract, did not detectably alter the mouse gut microbiota or disrupt natural colonization resistance to C. difficile or the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), and prevented antibiotic-induced colonization of mice inoculated with BI/NAP1/027-type spores. Given the high incidence and virulence of the pathogen, preventing colonization by BI/NAP1/027-type strains and limiting their transmission could significantly reduce the occurrence of the most severe CDIs. This modified diffocin represents a prototype of an Avidocin-CD platform capable of producing targetable, precision anti-C. difficile agents that can prevent and potentially treat CDIs without disrupting protective indigenous microbiota. Treatment and prevention strategies for bacterial diseases rely heavily on traditional

  15. Listeriolysin O affects barrier function and induces chloride secretion in HT-29/B6 colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan F; Gitter, Alfred H; Günzel, Dorothee; Weiss, Siegfried; Mohamed, Walid; Chakraborty, Trinad; Fromm, Michael; Schulzke, Jörg D

    2009-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen, which is able to induce diarrhea when residing in the intestine. We studied the effect of listeriolysin O (LLO), an extracellular virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, on intestinal transport and barrier function in monolayers of HT-29/B6 human colon cells using the Ussing technique to understand the pathomechanisms involved. Mucosal addition of LLO, but not a LLO mutant, induced a dose- and pH-dependent increase in short-circuit current (I(SC)). Sodium and chloride tracer flux and DIDS sensitivity studies revealed that I(SC) was mainly due to electrogenic chloride secretion. Barrier function was impaired by LLO, as assessed by transepithelial resistance (R(t)) and mannitol flux measurements. Intracellular signal transduction occurred through Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and PKC activation. In conclusion, listeriolysin induces chloride secretion and perturbs epithelial barrier function, thus potentially contributing to Listeria-induced diarrhea.

  16. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parameters of variable reward distributions that affect risk sensitivity of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Drezner-Levy, Tamar; Shafir, Sharoni

    2007-01-01

    We investigated risk sensitivity with harnessed honey bees in a proboscis-extension conditioning paradigm. We conditioned each subject to turn its head and extend its proboscis towards one of two presented odors; one odor was associated with a constant reward and the other with a variable reward that was either low or high, with probabilities P and (1-P), respectively. Reward values and probabilities were set so that the expected value of the variable alternative was equal to that of the constant one. We performed six experimental conditions in which variability was in reward volume and three conditions in which variability was in reward concentration. The experiments were designed to systematically test the effect of various parameters that describe the reward distributions on levels of risk sensitivity. Risk aversion was greatest when variability was in reward volume, and the variable distribution included zero rewards and had a high coefficient of variation (CV=s.d./mean). The variance itself did not affect risk sensitivity. Subjects were risk indifferent when the variable distribution did not include zero rewards, however these distributions were positively skewed. The independent effects of zero rewards and distribution skew remain to be tested. Subjects were risk indifferent in conditions where variability was in reward concentration, but concentration range was limited and these distributions did not include zero rewards and were skewed. We conclude that risk aversion to variability in reward amount is a robust phenomenon for some reward distributions. A systematic evaluation of the effect of various reward distribution parameters on choice behavior should complement functional and mechanistic approaches.

  18. Parameters affecting in vitro oxidation/folding of maurotoxin, a four-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxin.

    PubMed Central

    di Luccio, E; Azulay, D O; Regaya, I; Fajloun, Z; Sandoz, G; Mansuelle, P; Kharrat, R; Fathallah, M; Carrega, L; Estève, E; Rochat, H; De Waard, M; Sabatier, J M

    2001-01-01

    Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-mer scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts on various K(+) channel subtypes. MTX adopts a disulphide bridge organization of the type C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C4 and C7-C8, and folds according to the common alpha/beta scaffold reported for other known scorpion toxins. Here we have investigated the process and kinetics of the in vitro oxidation/folding of reduced synthetic L-MTX (L-sMTX, where L-MTX contains only L-amino acid residues). During the oxidation/folding of reduced L-sMTX, the oxidation intermediates were blocked by iodoacetamide alkylation of free cysteine residues, and analysed by MS. The L-sMTX intermediates appeared sequentially over time from the least (intermediates with one disulphide bridge) to the most oxidized species (native-like, four-disulphide-bridged L-sMTX). The mathematical formulation of the diffusion-collision model being inadequate to accurately describe the kinetics of oxidation/folding of L-sMTX, we have formulated a derived mathematical description that better fits the experimental data. Using this mathematical description, we have compared for the first time the oxidation/folding of L-sMTX with that of D-sMTX, its stereoisomer that contains only D-amino acid residues. Several experimental parameters, likely to affect the oxidation/folding process, were studied further; these included temperature, pH, ionic strength, redox potential and concentration of reduced toxin. We also assessed the effects of some cellular enzymes, peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), on the folding pathways of reduced L-sMTX and D-sMTX. All the parameters tested affect the oxidative folding of sMTX, and the kinetics of this process were indistinguishable for L-sMTX and D-sMTX, except when stereospecific enzymes were used. The most efficient conditions were found to be: 50 mM Tris/HCl/1.4 mM EDTA, pH 7.5, supplemented by 0.5 mM PPIase and 50 units/ml PDI for 0.1 m

  19. Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide affect drug resistant gene expression in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Ho, Heng-Chien; Yang, Jai-Sing; Ma, Chia-Yu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-05-15

    To elevate chemo-resistance of human cancer cells is a major obstacle in the treatment and management of malignant cancers. Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) are presented in the Alliaceae family particularly in garlic. Although DAS, DADS and DATS have been shown to exhibit anticancer activities, there is little information on effects of these compounds on drug resistant genes in human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we are the first to show that DAS, DADS and DATS at 25 μM for 24-h and 48-h incubations promoted expression of drug resistant genes in colo 205 human colon cancer cells. In vitro experiments indicated that DATS promoted gene expression of multidrug resistant 1 (Mdr1) (p<0.05), and DAS and DADS promoted MRP3 gene expression and DATS alone stimulated gene expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) (p<0.05) in colo 205 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that DADS and DATS induced Mdr1 and MRP1 gene expression (p<0.05). DADS promoted MRP3 gene expression (p<0.05) as well as DADS and DATS increased MRP4 and MRP6 gene expression (p<0.05) in the colo 205 xenograft mice. Based on our in vitro and in vivo results, diallyl polysulfides (DAS, DADS and DATS) affected the gene expression of the multidrug resistance in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Trace elements, anxiety and immune parameters in patients affected by cancer.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Piccinini, Lino; De Palma, Marisa; Giacobazzi, Pierluigi; Scaltriti, Stefania; Mariano, Maria; Roncaglia, Roberto; Borella, Paola

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between trace elements, immune parameters, and human cancer, taking into account some personality traits, such as anxiety, implicated in the modulation of both immune responses and pathology. Thirty patients affected by the most frequent cancer types were recruited at the onset of disease together with 30 healthy controls. Se, Zn and Cu were measured in plasma together with glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances--TBARS). Furthermore, Zn and GSH-Px activity were measured in red blood cells. A complete blood profile with the main lymphocytes subsets was obtained and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety. The only differences found between trace element levels in cases and controls were significantly higher erythrocyte Zn in cancer patients and higher plasma Cu levels in male patients. In addition, subjects affected by cancer exhibited a significant reduction in TBARS levels, were more anxious, had lower total B cells percentage and T helper/T suppressor ratio, and had a higher percentage of natural killer cells. Interestingly, in patients only, GSH-Px in plasma was positively related to trait anxiety scores (p < 0.02) and Cu to state anxiety scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we could not confirm the existence of trace element deficiency in relation to cancer and no links between trace element levels and lymphocyte subsets were documented. However, interesting associations between state anxiety and Cu, and between trait anxiety and GSH-Px were observed thus deserving further investigations.

  1. Parameters that affect parallel processing for computational electromagnetic simulation codes on high performance computing clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hongsik

    changing computer hardware platforms in order to provide fast, accurate and efficient solutions to large, complex electromagnetic problems. The research in this dissertation proves that the performance of parallel code is intimately related to the configuration of the computer hardware and can be maximized for different hardware platforms. To benchmark and optimize the performance of parallel CEM software, a variety of large, complex projects are created and executed on a variety of computer platforms. The computer platforms used in this research are detailed in this dissertation. The projects run as benchmarks are also described in detail and results are presented. The parameters that affect parallel CEM software on High Performance Computing Clusters (HPCC) are investigated. This research demonstrates methods to maximize the performance of parallel CEM software code.

  2. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P N; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon cancer cells, belonging to the same histological subtype, but with different expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes; HT-29 express both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas HCT 15 is COX-null. We also analyzed the effect of these compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Since the parent compound aspirin, inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities and also performed modeling of the interactions between the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. We observed that the three positional isomers of NOSH aspirin inhibited the growth of both colon cancer cell lines with IC50s in the nano-molar range. In particular in HT-29 cells the IC50s for growth inhibition were: o-NOSH-ASA, 0.04±0.011 µM; m-NOSH-ASA, 0.24±0.11 µM; p-NOSH-ASA, 0.46±0.17 µM; and in HCT 15 cells the IC50s for o-NOSH-ASA, m-NOSH-ASA, and p-NOSH-ASA were 0.062 ±0.006 µM, 0.092±0.004 µM, and 0.37±0.04 µM, respectively. The IC50 for aspirin in both cell lines was >5mM at 24h. The reduction of cell growth appeared to be mediated through inhibition of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. All 3 positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin preferentially inhibited COX-1 over COX-2. These results suggest that the three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin have the same biological actions, but that o-NOSH-ASA displayed the strongest anti-neoplastic potential.

  3. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling☆

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P.N.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon cancer cells, belonging to the same histological subtype, but with different expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes; HT-29 express both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas HCT 15 is COX-null. We also analyzed the effect of these compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Since the parent compound aspirin, inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities and also performed modeling of the interactions between the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. We observed that the three positional isomers of NOSH aspirin inhibited the growth of both colon cancer cell lines with IC50s in the nano-molar range. In particular in HT-29 cells the IC50s for growth inhibition were: o-NOSH-ASA, 0.04±0.011 µM; m-NOSH-ASA, 0.24±0.11 µM; p-NOSH-ASA, 0.46±0.17 µM; and in HCT 15 cells the IC50s for o-NOSH-ASA, m-NOSH-ASA, and p-NOSH-ASA were 0.062 ±0.006 µM, 0.092±0.004 µM, and 0.37±0.04 µM, respectively. The IC50 for aspirin in both cell lines was >5 mM at 24 h. The reduction of cell growth appeared to be mediated through inhibition of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. All 3 positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin preferentially inhibited COX-1 over COX-2. These results suggest that the three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin have the same biological actions, but that o-NOSH-ASA displayed the strongest anti-neoplastic potential. PMID:26319435

  4. Parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify physical parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Eighteen patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed on patients lying in a supine position. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed in synchronization with expiration and released with inspiration. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Results] The mean tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was higher than that at rest (430.6 ± 127.1 mL vs. 344.0 ± 94.3 mL). The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was correlated with weight, days of ventilator support, dynamic compliance and abdominal expansion. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that weight (β = 0.499), dynamic compliance (β = 0.387), and abdominal expansion (β = 0.365) were factors contributing to the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Conclusion] Expiratory abdominal compression increased the tidal volume in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was influenced by each of the pulmonary conditions and the physical characteristics. PMID:26311947

  5. Environmental parameters altered by climate change affect the activity of soil microorganisms involved in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Itziar; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2017-09-15

    Bioremediation, based on the use of microorganisms to break down pollutants, can be very effective at reducing soil pollution. But the climate change we are now experiencing is bound to have an impact on bioremediation performance, since the activity and degrading abilities of soil microorganisms are dependent on a series of environmental parameters which are themselves being altered by climate change, such as soil temperature, moisture, amount of root exudates, etc. Many climate-induced effects on soil microorganisms occur indirectly through changes in plant growth and physiology derived from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperatures, the alteration of precipitation patterns, etc., with a concomitant effect on rhizoremediation performance (i.e. the plant-assisted microbial degradation of pollutants in the rhizosphere). But these effects are extremely complex and mediated by processes such as acclimation and adaptation. Besides, soil microorganisms form complex networks of interactions with a myriad of organisms from many taxonomic groups which will also be affected by climate change, further complicating data interpretation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Khan Mamun; Kurny, ASW; Gulshan, Fahmida

    2015-12-01

    Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating wastewater containing textile dye have such disadvantages as high cost, high energy requirement and generation of secondary pollution during treatment process. The advanced oxidation processes technology has been attracting growing attention for the decomposition of organic dyes. Such processes are based on the light-enhanced generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize the organic matter in solution and convert it completely into water, CO2 and inorganic compounds. In this presentation, the photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution using TiO2 as photocatalyst under solar and UV irradiation has been reviewed. It is observed that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of oxidants. Reaction temperature and the intensity of light also affect the degradation of dyes. Particle size, BET-surface area and different mineral forms of TiO2 also have influence on the degradation rate.

  7. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Khan Mamun; Kurny, ASW; Gulshan, Fahmida

    2017-07-01

    Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating wastewater containing textile dye have such disadvantages as high cost, high energy requirement and generation of secondary pollution during treatment process. The advanced oxidation processes technology has been attracting growing attention for the decomposition of organic dyes. Such processes are based on the light-enhanced generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize the organic matter in solution and convert it completely into water, CO2 and inorganic compounds. In this presentation, the photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution using TiO2 as photocatalyst under solar and UV irradiation has been reviewed. It is observed that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of oxidants. Reaction temperature and the intensity of light also affect the degradation of dyes. Particle size, BET-surface area and different mineral forms of TiO2 also have influence on the degradation rate.

  8. Campylobacter colonization and proliferation in the broiler chicken upon natural field challenge is not affected by the bird growth rate or breed.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Fraser J; Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A; Koerhuis, Alfons N M

    2014-11-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Campylobacter Colonization and Proliferation in the Broiler Chicken upon Natural Field Challenge Is Not Affected by the Bird Growth Rate or Breed

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A.; Koerhuis, Alfons N. M.

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

  10. In vitro and in vivo lactose and lactulose effects on colonic fermentation and portal-systemic encephalopathy parameters.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Esquivel, M; Moran, S; Poo, J L; Muñoz, R M

    1997-01-01

    Lactose intolerance occurs in the majority of human groups, excluding people from Northern Europe. Because its effect is similar to that of lactulose, lactose seems to be an alternative treatment for patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) and lactase deficiency. The mechanism of action of lactose is similar to that of lactulose. In vivo, lactose improves PSE parameters and causes acidic diarrhea. We performed in vitro studies in a fecal incubation system to investigate the biochemical and bacteriological effects induced by different substances customarily used for the treatment of patients with PSE (lactose, lactulose and Neomycin). In vitro experiments showed that lactose and lactulose decreased aerobic flora counts and reduced the pH of fecal incubation. Both disaccharides reduced the ammonia concentration in the incubation system.

  11. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  12. Sensitivity analysis of hydrogeological parameters affecting groundwater storage change caused by sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise, which is one of the representative phenomena of climate changes caused by global warming, can affect groundwater system. The rising trend of the sea level caused by the global warming is reported to be about 3 mm/year for the most recent 10 year average (IPCC, 2007). The rate of sea level rise around the Korean peninsula is reported to be 2.30±2.22 mm/yr during the 1960-1999 period (Cho, 2002) and 2.16±1.77 mm/yr (Kim et al., 2009) during the 1968-2007 period. Both of these rates are faster than the 1.8±0.5 mm/yr global average for the similar 1961-2003 period (IPCC, 2007). In this study, we analyzed changes in the groundwater environment affected by the sea level rise by using an analytical methodology. We tried to find the most effective parameters of groundwater amount change in order to estimate the change in fresh water amount in coastal groundwater. A hypothetical island model of a cylindrical shape in considered. The groundwater storage change is bi-directional as the sea level rises according to the natural and hydrogeological conditions. Analysis of the computation results shows that topographic slope and hydraulic conductivity are the most sensitive factors. The contributions of the groundwater recharge rate and the thickness of aquifer below sea level are relatively less effective. In the island with steep seashore slopes larger than 1~2 degrees or so, the storage amount of fresh water in a coastal area increases as sea level rises. On the other hand, when sea level drops, the storage amount decreases. This is because the groundwater level also rises with the rising sea level in steep seashores. For relatively flat seashores, where the slope is smaller than around 1-2 degrees, the storage amount of coastal fresh water decreases when the sea level rises because the area flooded by the rising sea water is increased. The volume of aquifer fresh water in this circumstance is greatly reduced in proportion to the flooded area with the sea

  13. Narrow Bottlenecks Affect Pea Seedborne Mosaic Virus Populations during Vertical Seed Transmission but not during Leaf Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Elisabeth Ida; Simon, Vincent; Jacquemond, Mireille; Senoussi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The effective size of populations (Ne) determines whether selection or genetic drift is the predominant force shaping their genetic structure and evolution. Populations having high Ne adapt faster, as selection acts more intensely, than populations having low Ne, where random effects of genetic drift dominate. Estimating Ne for various steps of plant virus life cycle has been the focus of several studies in the last decade, but no estimates are available for the vertical transmission of plant viruses, although virus seed transmission is economically significant in at least 18% of plant viruses in at least one plant species. Here we study the co-dynamics of two variants of Pea seedborne mosaic virus (PSbMV) colonizing leaves of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) during the whole flowering period, and their subsequent transmission to plant progeny through seeds. Whereas classical estimators of Ne could be used for leaf infection at the systemic level, as virus variants were equally competitive, dedicated stochastic models were needed to estimate Ne during vertical transmission. Very little genetic drift was observed during the infection of apical leaves, with Ne values ranging from 59 to 216. In contrast, a very drastic genetic drift was observed during vertical transmission, with an average number of infectious virus particles contributing to the infection of a seedling from an infected mother plant close to one. A simple model of vertical transmission, assuming a cumulative action of virus infectious particles and a virus density threshold required for vertical transmission to occur fitted the experimental data very satisfactorily. This study reveals that vertically-transmitted viruses endure bottlenecks as narrow as those imposed by horizontal transmission. These bottlenecks are likely to slow down virus adaptation and could decrease virus fitness and virulence. PMID:24415934

  14. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Key Parameters Affecting the Release of Harmful Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Logue, Jennifer M; Montesinos, V Nahuel; Russell, Marion L; Litter, Marta I; Gundel, Lara A; Destaillats, Hugo

    2016-09-06

    Use of electronic cigarettes has grown exponentially over the past few years, raising concerns about harmful emissions. This study quantified potentially toxic compounds in the vapor and identified key parameters affecting emissions. Six principal constituents in three different refill "e-liquids" were propylene glycol (PG), glycerin, nicotine, ethanol, acetol, and propylene oxide. The latter, with mass concentrations of 0.4-0.6%, is a possible carcinogen and respiratory irritant. Aerosols generated with vaporizers contained up to 31 compounds, including nicotine, nicotyrine, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycidol, acrolein, acetol, and diacetyl. Glycidol is a probable carcinogen not previously identified in the vapor, and acrolein is a powerful irritant. Emission rates ranged from tens to thousands of nanograms of toxicants per milligram of e-liquid vaporized, and they were significantly higher for a single-coil vs a double-coil vaporizer (by up to an order of magnitude for aldehydes). By increasing the voltage applied to a single-coil device from 3.3 to 4.8 V, the mass of e-liquid consumed doubled from 3.7 to 7.5 mg puff(-1) and the total aldehyde emission rates tripled from 53 to 165 μg puff(-1), with acrolein rates growing by a factor of 10. Aldehyde emissions increased by more than 60% after the device was reused several times, likely due to the buildup of polymerization byproducts that degraded upon heating. These findings suggest that thermal degradation byproducts are formed during vapor generation. Glycidol and acrolein were primarily produced by glycerin degradation. Acetol and 2-propen-1-ol were produced mostly from PG, while other compounds (e.g., formaldehyde) originated from both. Because emissions originate from reaction of the most common e-liquid constituents (solvents), harmful emissions are expected to be ubiquitous when e-cigarette vapor is present.

  15. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability.

  16. Evaluation of parameters that affect the 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay for flavanols and proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C; Giusti, M Monica

    2010-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins are widely distributed in nature and represent the most abundant flavonoids consumed in the diet. Recent attention has been given to these compounds because of their health-promoting properties toward chronic diseases. Because of their large degrees of chemical variation and stereochemistry, isolation/quantification is difficult. The 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) spectrophotometric assay has become increasingly popular as a rapid technique to quantify the amount of proanthocyanidins present in foods and beverages; however, there is no current industry standard. In this study, several parameters affecting the DMAC reaction with catechin were examined. Effects of acid nature (hydrochloric acid [HCl] and sulfuric acid [H(2)SO(4)]) and concentration (2 to 10 N), temperature (5 to 45 °C), reaction time (2 to 35 min), sample water content (1 to 100%), DMAC concentration (1 to 3%), and interference of 8 different substances were evaluated. A mixture of 2% DMAC in methanol (w/v) in 6 N H(2)SO(4) (50:50 v/v) showed the highest slope in the standard curve when allowed to react for 15 to 35 min prior to analysis. For samples containing high concentrations of oligomeric proanthocyanidins, a reaction time of 20 to 35 min is recommended. The reaction of catechin with DMAC at constant room temperature (21 to 25 °C), with a sample water content of less than 1% was found to increase reproducibility and better assess the amount of catechin. Sample water contents higher than 1% showed significant bleaching effects on the color produced, when catechin concentrations were high (lower levels showed no significant differences). None of the substances examined in this study interfered with the assay; however, other compounds present in various food matrices may have an effect on color development.

  17. Parameters Affecting Spore Recovery from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Sandra M.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2011-01-01

    The need for the precise and reliable collection of potential biothreat contaminants has motivated research in developing a better understanding of the variability in biological surface sampling methods. In this context, the objective of this work was to determine parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores from commonly used wipe sampling materials and to describe performance using the interfacial energy concept. In addition, surface thermodynamics was applied to understand and predict surface sampling performance. Wipe materials were directly inoculated with known concentrations of B. anthracis spores and placed into extraction solutions, followed by sonication or vortexing. Experimental factors investigated included wipe material (polyester, cotton, and polyester-rayon), extraction solution (sterile deionized water [H2O], deionized water with 0.04% Tween 80 [H2O-T], phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and PBS with 0.04% Tween 80 [PBST]), and physical dissociation method (vortexing or sonication). The most efficient extraction from wipes was observed for solutions containing the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The increase in extraction efficiency due to surfactant addition was attributed to an attractive interfacial energy between Tween 80 and the centrifuge tube wall, which prevented spore adhesion. Extraction solution significantly impacted the extraction efficiency, as determined by statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Moreover, the extraction solution was the most important factor in extraction performance, followed by the wipe material. Polyester-rayon was the most efficient wipe material for releasing spores into solution by rank; however, no statistically significant difference between polyester-rayon and cotton was observed (P > 0.05). Vortexing provided higher spore recovery in H2O and H2O-T than sonication, when all three wipe materials and the reference control were considered (P < 0.05). PMID:21296945

  18. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by nitric oxide-donating aspirin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Borgo, Simona; Williams, Jennie L; Chen, Jie; Gao, Jianjun; Glekas, Athanasios; Benedini, Francesca; Del Soldato, Piero; Rigas, Basil

    2005-03-01

    NO-donating aspirin (NO-ASA), a novel pharmacological agent currently undergoing clinical testing, consists of ASA to which a nitrate group is covalently linked via a spacer molecule. We synthesized the three positional isomers of NO-ASA with respect to the -CH(2)ONO(2) group (ortho, meta, and para) and examined whether this isomerism affects the biological activity of NO-ASA on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The ortho- and para-isomers showed similar IC(50) values (1-5 microM) for cell growth inhibition over 72 h, whereas the IC(50) of the meta-isomer was 200 to 500 microM. The ortho- and para-isomers inhibited cell proliferation more potently than the meta-isomer. All three induced apoptosis but the ortho- and para-isomers also induced atypical cells (they maintain their shape but have diminished or absent nuclear material). Treatment for 3 weeks of Min (Apc(min)(/+)) mice, a model of intestinal cancer, with equimolar amounts of meta- and para-NO-ASA decreased the number of tumors in the small intestine by 36 and 59% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared with vehicle-treated controls, thus confirming their in vitro differences in potency. A structure-activity study of the three isomers revealed that substituting an aliphatic for the aromatic spacer or removing the -ONO(2) group profoundly diminished NO-ASA's ability to inhibit cell growth, whereas removal of the acetyl group on the ASA moiety did not affect cell growth inhibition. Thus, positional isomerism is critical for the pharmacological properties of NO-ASA against colon cancer and it should be taken into consideration in rational drug design.

  19. Initial fungal colonizer affects mass loss and fungal community development in Picea abies logs 6 yr after inoculation

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Lindner; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Ariana Kubartova; Johan Allmer; Hanna Johannesson; Mark T. Banik; Jan. Stenlid

    2011-01-01

    Picea abies logs were inoculated with Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola or left un-inoculated and placed in an old-growth boreal forest. Mass loss and fungal community data were collected after 6 yr to test whether simplification of the fungal community via inoculation affects mass loss and fungal community development. Three...

  20. Qualitative Parameters of the Colonic Flora in Patients with HNF1A-MODY Are Different from Those Observed in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mrozinska, Sandra; Radkowski, Piotr; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Szopa, Magdalena; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Ludwig-Galezowska, Agnieszka H; Morawska, Iwona; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Kapusta, Przemyslaw; Salamon, Dominika; Malecki, Maciej T; Wolkow, Pawel; Klupa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. There have been many studies on the relationship between the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, T2DM, and obesity. There are no data, however, on the gut microbiome structure in monogenic forms of the disease including Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Methods. The aim of the investigation was to compare the qualitative parameters of the colonic flora in patients with HNF1A-MODY and T2DM and healthy individuals. 16S sequencing of bacterial DNA isolated from the collected fecal samples using the MiSeq platform was performed. Results. There were significant between-group differences in the bacterial profile. At the phylum level, the amount of Proteobacteria was higher (p = 0.0006) and the amount of Bacteroidetes was lower (p = 0.0005) in T2DM group in comparison to the control group. In HNF1A-MODY group, the frequency of Bacteroidetes was lower than in the control group (p = 0.0143). At the order level, Turicibacterales was more abundant in HNF1A-MODY group than in T2DM group. Conclusions. It appears that there are differences in the gut microbiome composition between patients with HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes. Further investigation on this matter should be conducted.

  1. Qualitative Parameters of the Colonic Flora in Patients with HNF1A-MODY Are Different from Those Observed in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mrozinska, Sandra; Radkowski, Piotr; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Szopa, Magdalena; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Ludwig-Galezowska, Agnieszka H.; Morawska, Iwona; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Kapusta, Przemyslaw; Salamon, Dominika; Malecki, Maciej T.; Wolkow, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. There have been many studies on the relationship between the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, T2DM, and obesity. There are no data, however, on the gut microbiome structure in monogenic forms of the disease including Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Methods. The aim of the investigation was to compare the qualitative parameters of the colonic flora in patients with HNF1A-MODY and T2DM and healthy individuals. 16S sequencing of bacterial DNA isolated from the collected fecal samples using the MiSeq platform was performed. Results. There were significant between-group differences in the bacterial profile. At the phylum level, the amount of Proteobacteria was higher (p = 0.0006) and the amount of Bacteroidetes was lower (p = 0.0005) in T2DM group in comparison to the control group. In HNF1A-MODY group, the frequency of Bacteroidetes was lower than in the control group (p = 0.0143). At the order level, Turicibacterales was more abundant in HNF1A-MODY group than in T2DM group. Conclusions. It appears that there are differences in the gut microbiome composition between patients with HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes. Further investigation on this matter should be conducted. PMID:27807544

  2. Obesity and intestinal epithelial deletion of the insulin receptor, but not the IGF 1 receptor, affect radiation-induced apoptosis in colon

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, M. Agostina; Blue, R. Eric; Andres, Sarah F.; Mah, Amanda T.; Van Landeghem, Laurianne

    2015-01-01

    Current views suggest that apoptosis eliminates genetically damaged cells that may otherwise form tumors. Prior human studies link elevated insulin and reduced apoptosis to risk of colorectal adenomas. We hypothesized that hyperinsulinemia associated with obesity would lead to reduced colon epithelial cell (CEC) apoptosis after radiation and that this effect would be altered by deletion of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 receptor (IGF1R) or the insulin receptor (IR). Mice with villin-Cre-mediated IGF1R or IR deletion in CECs and floxed littermates were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity and hyperinsulinemia or control low-fat chow. Mice were exposed to 5-Gy abdominal radiation to induce DNA damage and euthanized 4 h later for evaluation of apoptosis by localization of cleaved caspase-3. Obese mice exhibited decreased apoptosis of genetically damaged CECs. IGF1R deletion did not affect CEC apoptosis in lean or obese animals. In contrast, IR loss increased CEC apoptosis in both diet groups but did not prevent antiapoptotic effects of obesity. Levels of p53 protein were significantly reduced in CECs of obese mice with intact IR but increased in both lean and obese mice without IR. Levels of mRNAs encoding proapoptotic Perp and the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1b/p27 were reduced in CECs of obese mice and increased in lean mice lacking IR. Together, our studies provide novel evidence for antiapoptotic roles of obesity and IR, but not IGF1R, in colonic epithelium after DNA damage. However, neither IR nor IGF1R deletion prevented a reduction in radiation-induced CEC apoptosis during obesity and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:26251471

  3. Vegetables affect the expression of genes involved in anticarcinogenic processes in the colonic mucosa of C57BL/6 female mice.

    PubMed

    van Breda, Simone G J; van Agen, Ebienus; van Sanden, Suzy; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Kienhuis, Anne S; Kleinjans, Jos C S; van Delft, Joost H M

    2005-08-01

    There is abundant epidemiological evidence that vegetable consumption decreases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the molecular targets in the genome are mostly unknown. The present study investigated the effects of vegetable consumption on gene expression in the colon mucosa of female C57Bl/6 mice using cDNA microarray technology. Mice were fed one of 8 diets: a control diet containing no vegetables (diet 1); a diet containing 100 g/kg (diet 2, 10% dose), 200 g/kg (diet 3, 20% dose), or 400 g/kg (diet 4, 40% dose) of a vegetable mixture; or a diet containing 70 g/kg of cauliflower (diet 5, 7% dose), 73 g/kg of carrots (diet 6, 7.3% dose), 226 g/kg of peas (diet 7, 22.6% dose); or 31 g/kg of onions (diet 8, 3.1% dose). The vegetable mixture used in diets 2 to 4 consisted of the 4 individual vegetables used in diets 5 to 8: cauliflower (30% wet wt), carrots (30% wet wt), peas (30% wet wt), and onions (10% wet wt). To assess gene expression changes, colonic mucosal cells were collected after the mice were killed. Total RNA was isolated and microarray technology was used to measure the expression levels of 602 genes simultaneously. For 39 genes, significant dose-dependent effects were found, although in general the relations were not linear. For 15 genes, the altered expression could indeed explain reduced cancer risk at various stages of CRC development. Eleven genes were modulated by the vegetable mixture as well as by one or more of the individual vegetables. For 7 of the genes, the modulation by the mixture was due to the effect of a particular vegetable. These genes are of particular interest because they were consistently affected and could be involved in the prevention of CRC by vegetable consumption.

  4. Modelling and validation of spectral reflectance for the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidovic-Rowe, Dzena; Claridge, Ela

    2005-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of the colon is known to be affected by malignant and pre-malignant changes in the tissue. As part of long-term research on the derivation of diagnostically important parameters characterizing colon histology, we have investigated the effects of the normal histological variability on the remitted spectra. This paper presents a detailed optical model of the normal colon comprising mucosa, submucosa and the smooth muscle layer. Each layer is characterized by five variable histological parameters: the volume fraction of blood, the haemoglobin saturation, the size of the scattering particles, including collagen, the volume fraction of the scattering particles and the layer thickness, and three optical parameters: the anisotropy factor, the refractive index of the medium and the refractive index of the scattering particles. The paper specifies the parameter ranges corresponding to normal colon tissue, including some previously unpublished ones. Diffuse reflectance spectra were modelled using the Monte Carlo method. Validation of the model-generated spectra against measured spectra demonstrated that good correspondence was achieved between the two. The analysis of the effect of the individual histological parameters on the behaviour of the spectra has shown that the spectral variability originates mainly from changes in the mucosa. However, the submucosa and the muscle layer must be included in the model as they have a significant constant effect on the spectral reflectance above 600 nm. The nature of variations in the spectra also suggests that it may be possible to carry out model inversion and to recover parameters characterizing the colon from multi-spectral images. A preliminary study, in which the mucosal blood and collagen parameters were modified to reflect histopathological changes associated with colon cancer, has shown that the spectra predicted by our model resemble measured spectral reflectance of adenocarcinomas. This suggests that

  5. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, J.D.

    2002-02-08

    The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

  7. Physical Parameters Affecting the Emanation of RADON-222 from Coal Ash.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Terence Patrick

    The Rn-222 emanation coefficients for coal ash and parameters which affected them were measured. Samples of ash from both stoker fired and pulverized coal fired boilers were obtained. The stoker ash samples were mechanically separated into size fractions. The pulverized samples were too fine for mechanical sizing and were categorized qualitatively according to origin. Bulk density of the stoker fractions was measured and ranged from .488 to .944 g-cm('-3), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Bulk density of the pulverized ash ranged from 1.254 to 1.520 g-cm('-3). Specific gravity of the stoker fractions ranged from 2.017 to 2.390 g-cm('-3), also increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Specific gravity of the pulverized ash ranged from 2.357 to 2.588 g-cm(' -3). Ra-226 content of the samples was determined by gamma spectrometric analysis of the 352-KeV gamma of Pb -214 and the 609-KeV gamma of Bi-214 from sealed samples of ash. Ra-226 concentrations in the stoker fractions ranged from 11.82 to 16.77 dpm-g('-1), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Ra-226 concentrations in the pulverized ash ranged from 6.44 to 7.59 dpm-g(' -1). Scintillation cells were constructed out of commonly available materials and a commercial preparation of ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Emanation chambers which allowed for moderately large sample masses were constructed. The procedure used to measure emanation coefficients was shown to be insensitive to ingrowth time at greater than 3 days ingrowth and relatively insensitive to variations in sample porosity. Emanation coefficients of the stoker fractions were measured at moisture contents of 0, 1.0, 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight. Within each size fraction the emanation coefficient increased as a function of moisture content, ranging from 9.58 x 10('-4) to 4.13 x 10('-2) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Emanation coefficients also increased as a function of decreasing particle size

  8. Deviations of Lambert-Beer's law affect corneal refractive parameters after refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, José R.; Rodríguez-Marín, Francisco; Anera, Rosario G.; Jiménez Del Barco, Luis

    2006-06-01

    We calculate whether deviations of Lambert-Beer’s law, which regulates depth ablation during corneal ablation, significantly influence corneal refractive parameters after refractive surgery and whether they influence visual performance. For this, we compute a point-to-point correction on the cornea while assuming a non-linear (including a quadratic term) fit for depth ablation. Post-surgical equations for refractive parameters using a non-linear fit show significant differences with respect to parameters obtained from a linear fit (Lambert-Beer’s law). Differences were also significant for corneal aberrations. These results show that corneal-ablation algorithms should include analytical information on deviations from Lambert-Beer’s law for achieving an accurate eye correction.

  9. Parameters affecting the early seedling development of four neotropical trees under oxygen deprivation stress.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Rosana Marta; Rawyler, André; Braendle, Roland

    2002-05-01

    Some of the parameters that determine flooding resistance-and consequently habitat zonation-were investigated in four neotropical trees (Schizolobium parahyba, Sebastiania commersoniana, Erythrina speciosa and Sesbania virgata). The constitutive parameters of seeds (size, nature and amount of reserves) only partly influenced resistance to flooding, mainly through a high carbohydrate : size ratio. Parameters describing metabolic efficiency under stress conditions were more important. Among them, fermentation capacity and levels of ATP and of total adenylates played a key role. The highest resistance to anoxia was associated with increased availability of free sugars, elevated alcohol dehydrogenase activity and corresponding mRNA levels, more efficient removal of ethanol and lactate, and higher adenylate levels. Finally, as a lethal consequence of energy shortage, free fatty acids were released on a massive scale in the flooding-sensitive species Schizolobium parahyba, whereas lipid hydrolysis did not occur in the most resistant species Sesbania virgata.

  10. Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…

  11. [Dynamics of hormonal parameters changes in workers affected by noise nuisance].

    PubMed

    Lizarev, A V

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of hormonal parameters changes in workers of noise dangerous occupations was studied over 5 year period. It was shown that with extension of length of service the content of hormones in peripheral blood of patients with sensorineural deafness has not changed significantly.

  12. How will mandibular third molar surgery affect mandibular second molar periodontal parameters?

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Gholami, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Several conflicting findings have been published in the previous literature regarding the effects of impacted third molar surgery on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar; some authors have shown improvement of periodontal health distal to the adjacent second molar, whilst others have demonstrated loss of attachment level (AL) and reduction of alveolar bone height. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in periodontal health parameters distal to the adjacent second molar following extraction of an impacted third molar. Out of 50 patients participated in the study, 42 patients completed the study. The mean age of the sample was 20.9 (range, 18-25) years. All teeth were mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars categorized at C1 class based on the Pell and Gregory classification. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon and the same surgeon recorded the pre-operative and post-operative measurements of probing depth (PD) and AL on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars. Data analysis were carried out with the SPSS software (version 19), using the paired-samples t-test and one sample t-test. Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar resulted in a significant increase of PD on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars, whereas AL was decreased significantly after surgery (P < 0.05). Unlike plenty of researches that have shown improvement of periodontal parameters of the second molar after extraction of impacted third molar, our study showed a significant increase in PD at the distal aspect of the second molar. Further follow-up on clinical and radiological parameters are required for more profound understanding of the long-term effects of third molar extraction on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar.

  13. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  14. Factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph parameters to glaucomatous progression in disc photographs.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Ville; Falck, Aura; Airaksinen, P Juhani; Tuulonen, Anja

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric optic nerve head (ONH) parameters of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) to glaucomatous progression in stereoscopic ONH photographs. The factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the vertical cup : disc ratio, the cup : disc area ratio, the cup volume, the rim area and a linear discriminant function to progression were analysed. These parameters were the best indicators of progression in a retrospective study of 476 eyes. The reference standard for progression was the masked evaluation of stereoscopic ONH photographs. The factors having the most significant effect on the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric ONH parameters were the reference height difference and the mean topography standard deviation (TSD), indicating image quality. Also, the change in the TSD and age showed consistent, but variably significant, influence on all parameters tested. The sensitivity and specificity improved when there was little change in the reference height, the image quality was good and stable, and the patients were younger. The sensitivity and specificity of the vertical cup : disc ratio was improved by a large disc area and high baseline cup : disc area ratio. The rim area showed a better sensitivity and specificity for progression with a small disc area and low baseline cup : disc area ratio. The factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric ONH parameters to glaucomatous progression in disc photographs are essentially the same as those affecting the measurement variability of the HRT. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2010 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P; Muir, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation.
METHODS—Twenty four pigs were fed four human type diets: a control diet, or control diet supplemented with resistant starch, wheat bran, or both. Intestinal contents and faeces were collected after two weeks.
RESULTS—Without wheat bran, resistant starch was rapidly fermented in the caecum and proximal colon. Supplementation with wheat bran inhibited the caecal fermentation of resistant starch, resulting in an almost twofold increase (from 12.9 (2.5) to 20.5 (2.1) g/day, p<0.05) in resistant starch being fermented between the proximal colon and faeces. This resulted in higher butyrate (133%, p<0.05) and lower ammonia (81%, p<0.05) concentrations in the distal colonic regions.
CONCLUSIONS—Wheat bran can shift the fermentation of resistant starch further distally, thereby improving the luminal conditions in the distal colonic regions where tumours most commonly occur. Therefore, the combined consumption of resistant starch and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides may contribute to the dietary modulation of colon cancer risk.


Keywords: resistant starch; non-starch polysaccharides; colonic fermentation; butyrate; ammonia; colon cancer risk PMID:10562582

  16. Investigation on process parameters affecting blanking of AISI 1006 low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Annibale, Antonello; El Mehtedi, Mohamad; Panaccio, Lorenzo; Di Ilio, Antoniomaria; Gabrielli, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    A blanking apparatus was designed and built in order to study the effects of the process parameters on blanking low carbon steel disks, with particular reference to the study of punch-die gap influence and Brozzo's damage criterion by keeping punch and die fillet radii constant. The goal of the shearing tests was to optimize the gap between punch and die, according to the material damage and the force curves obtained by experimental tests. By using a 2D axis-symmetry FE model, the authors studied a set of parameters in order to reduce damage. After studying the material damage by a first simulation series, a second series was carried out in order to evaluate the punch-die gap effects on force-stroke trend; good results in term of external surface finish were obtained in the geometry of the final workpiece.

  17. Experimental Parameters Affecting Stripping of Rare Earth Elements from Loaded Sorptive Media in Simulated Geothermal Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    Experimental results from several studies exploring the impact of pH and acid volume on the stripping of rare earth elements (REEs) loaded onto ligand-based media via an active column. The REEs in this experiment were loaded onto the media through exposure to a simulated geothermal brine with known mineral concentrations. The data include the experiment results, rare earth element concentrations, and the experimental parameters varied.

  18. Refining in silico simulation to study digestion parameters affecting the bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Marze, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable number of in vivo and in vitro studies on the digestive fate of lipophilic nutrients, micronutrients, and bioactives, the effects of the structure and composition of foods on the physicochemical mechanisms of luminal digestion are still poorly understood. Studying them is indeed complex because the number of parameters is high and many of them are interdependent. To solve this problem, an in silico simulation based on a multi-agent system was recently proposed to study the intestinal bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients from a single oil droplet. The roles of lipolysis and solubilization in bile salt were included. The effects of several food and digestion parameters were in line with those reported in the experimental literature. The goal of the research reported in this new article was to include more digestion parameters in the simulation in order to make it more realistic against complex cases. This was done in one specific digestion condition reflecting in vitro experiments, using droplets of tricaprylin or triolein containing vitamin A. The structure and principles of the original model were kept, with independent local modifications in order to study each factor separately. First, a gastric step was added where lipolysis took place, and only a marginal effect on the following intestinal step was found. Then, the chemical form of vitamin A, either non-hydrolyzed retinyl ester or retinyl ester instantly hydrolyzed into retinol, was investigated by considering different localizations in the droplet, resulting in a higher bioaccessibility for the retinol. The case of a mixture of tricaprylin and triolein indicated an influence of the oil phase viscosity. The consideration of mixed micelles compared to simple bile salt micelles was also investigated, and resulted in a higher vitamin A bioaccessibility, especially with triolein. Finally, a full model including the most influential parameters was tested to simulate

  19. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine differentially affects hemostatic parameters in diverse conditions in rats: an investigation via thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Cam, Betul; Sagdilek, Engin; Yildirim, Nalan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-04-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has several physiological and pharmacological effects on various bodily functions, including hemostasis. This study determined the impact of CDP-choline on hemostasis in a trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) model in rats or under in vitro conditions or after chronic treatment via thromboelastography. Trauma-hemorrhage resuscitation was induced, and either saline (1 mL/kg) or CDP-choline (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously just prior to resuscitation in the T-H group and at the same time point in the sham-control group. The effects of CDP-choline on thromboelastogram parameters, coagulation markers, and platelet aggregation were investigated under in vitro conditions (1.5 mM, 30- or 3-min incubation in blood or plasma) and after chronic use (50 mg/kg, i.p., 10 days). Acute CDP-choline treatment was shown to decrease the initial and maximum clot formation time, accelerate clotting rapidity, reduce the lysis percentage, and increase the coagulation index in the T-H resuscitation group, whereas the same treatment in the sham-control rats did not alter any of the thromboelastogram parameters. However, the incubation of whole blood with CDP-choline prolonged the initial and maximum clot formation time, and CDP-choline treatment significantly decreased the slopes of the disaggregation and aggregation curves when platelets were stimulated with ADP and collagen, respectively. Interestingly, the chronic use of this drug did not influence any of these hemostatic parameters. These data implicate that acute but not chronic CDP-choline administration may differentially alter the hemostatic parameters under diverse conditions. The drug may produce a hypercoagulable state in activated situations but cause opposite effects under normal in vitro conditions.

  20. Probiotics affect the clinical inflammatory parameters of experimental gingivitis in humans.

    PubMed

    Slawik, S; Staufenbiel, I; Schilke, R; Nicksch, S; Weinspach, K; Stiesch, M; Eberhard, J

    2011-07-01

    To determine the effects of a probiotic milk drink consumed over a period of 28 days, regarding the expression of clinical inflammatory parameters of the oral gingiva during various phases of plaque-induced gingivitis. Twenty-eight adults with healthy gingiva took part in a prospective and clinical-controlled study. The test group was advised to consume a probiotic milk drink (Yacult) daily during a period of 4 weeks; the control group did not receive any probiotic food or drink. After 2 weeks of consumption of the probiotic drink, participants were advised not to brush their teeth for 14 days. Subsequently, at baseline as well as on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14, the following clinical parameters were assessed: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume and bleeding on probing (BOP). At baseline, the PI was significantly higher in the test group compared with controls (0.44±0.50 vs 0.09±0.24 PI; P=0.0001). The termination of oral hygiene increased clinical inflammatory parameters in both groups. At day 14, the parameters PI, GI, GCF volume and BOP were significantly higher compared with baseline values (P=0.0001). At day 14, BOP levels (18.75±12.32 vs 36.88±12.54%) and GCF volume (18.78±16.7 vs 35.72±16.1 Periotron units) were significantly lower in the test group compared with the control group (P=0.005). The results of our study indicate that a daily consumption of a probiotic milk drink reduces the effects of plaque-induced gingival inflammation associated with a higher plaque score due to the high-carbohydrate content of the probiotic milk beverage.

  1. Physicochemical parameters affecting the perception of borehole water quality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Plummer, Jeanine D; Chui, Kenneth K H; Kosinski, Karen C; Adomako-Adjei, Theodora; Egorov, Andrey I; Naumova, Elena N

    2017-08-01

    Rural Ghanaian communities continue using microbiologically contaminated surface water sources due in part to undesirable organoleptic characteristics of groundwater from boreholes. Our objective was to identify thresholds of physical and chemical parameters associated with consumer complaints related to groundwater. Water samples from 94 boreholes in the dry season and 68 boreholes in the rainy season were analyzed for 18 parameters. Interviews of consumers were conducted at each borehole regarding five commonly expressed water quality problems (salty taste, presence of particles, unfavorable scent, oily sheen formation on the water surface, and staining of starchy foods during cooking). Threshold levels of water quality parameters predictive of complaints were determined using the Youden index maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity. The probability of complaints at various parameter concentrations was estimated using logistic regression. Exceedances of WHO guidelines were detected for pH, turbidity, chloride, iron, and manganese. Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) above 172mg/L were associated with salty taste complaints. Although the WHO guideline is 1000mg/L, even at half the guideline, the likelihood of salty taste complaint was 75%. Iron concentrations above 0.11, 0.14 and 0.43mg/L (WHO guideline value 0.3mg/L) were associated with complaints of unfavorable scent, oily sheen, and food staining, respectively. Iron and TDS concentrations exhibited strong spatial clustering associated with specific geological formations. Improved groundwater sources in rural African communities that technically meet WHO water quality guidelines may be underutilized in preference of unimproved sources for drinking and domestic uses, compromising human health and sustainability of improved water infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Coated or doped carbon nanotube network sensors as affected by environmental parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  3. Motion coordination affects movement parameters in a joint pick-and-place task.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Cordula; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubo, Anna

    2009-12-01

    This study examined influences of social context on movement parameters in a pick-and-place task. Participants' motion trajectories were recorded while they performed sequences of natural movements either working side-by-side with a partner or alone. It was expected that movement parameters would be specifically adapted to the joint condition to overcome the difficulties arising from the requirement to coordinate with another person. To disentangle effects based on participants' effort to coordinate their movements from effects merely due to the other's presence, a condition was included where only one person performed the task while being observed by the partner. Results indicate that participants adapted their movements temporally and spatially to the joint action situation: Overall movement duration was shorter, and mean and maximum velocity was higher when actually working together than when working alone. Pick-to-place trajectories were also shifted away from the partner in spatial coordinates. The partner's presence as such did not have an impact on movement parameters. These findings are interpreted as evidence for the use of implicit strategies to facilitate movement coordination in joint action tasks.

  4. Task parameters affecting ergonomic demands and productivity of HVAC duct installation.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Panagiotis; Hussain, Sanaa; Guarascio-Howard, Linda; Memarian, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical installation workers experience work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) at high rates. (1) Quantify the ergonomic demands during HVAC installation, (2) identify the tasks and task parameters that generated extreme ergonomic demands, and (3) propose improvements to reduce the WMSDs among mechanical workers. The study focused on installation of rectangular ductwork components using ladders, and analyzed five operations by two mechanical contractors. Using continuous time observational assessment, the videotaped operations were analyzed along two dimensions: (1) the production tasks and durations, and (2) the ergonomic demands for four body regions (neck, arms/shoulders, back, and knees). The analysis identified tasks with low portion of productive time and high portion of extreme postures, and task parameters that generated extreme postures. Duct alignment was the task with the highest portion of extreme postures. The position of the ladder (angle and distance from the duct) was a task parameter that strongly influenced the extreme postures for back, neck and shoulders. Other contributing factors included the difficulty to reach the hand tools when working on the ladder, the congestion of components in the ceiling, and the space between the duct and the ceiling. The identified tasks and factors provide directions for improvement.

  5. Environmental parameters affecting the species diversity along the Aliakmon River, North Greece.

    PubMed

    Ilias, Ilias F; Lakis, Christos; Papazafeiriou, Agapi Z

    2008-03-15

    The annual distribution of aquatic and coastal macrophytes in five selected sites along the Aliakmon River was studied from January 2005 to December 2005 in Northern Greece. Soil and water chemical parameters in these sites were also evaluated. A total of 75 taxa were recorded belonging to 37 families and 53 genera. The majority of the macrophytes belonged to coastal plants (76%), whereas the rest of the macrophytes belonged to aquatic plants (24%). Species of the family Asteraceae were dominant among coastal plants, whereas species of the family Potamogetonaceae were dominant among aquatic plants. Soil samples from the site of Dam of Veria had higher pH and electric conductivity (80-100 cm depth), whereas CaCO3 contents were significantly higher in soil samples from the area of P. Prodromos (60-80 cm depth). Most physicochemical water parameters as well as selected soil nutrients and major ionic components showed an increase during the low charge period (fall) compared to with the high charge period (spring), especially in parameters associated with agricultural activity. Furthermore, there was an increase in most examined values moving towards the delta of the river.

  6. Parameters affecting drug release from inert matrices. 1: Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Rafael; Viquez, Hugo; Hernández, Beatriz; Ganem, Adriana; Melgoza, Luz María; Young, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Monte Carlo simulation for the determination of release properties from cubic inert matrices. Specifically, the study has focused on factors including porosity, surface area and tortuosity. The release platform was formed by simulating matrices with different ratios of drug and excipient, which undergo drug release in a uni-directional (two-face) or omni-directional (six-face) process. Upon completion of each simulation the matrix 'carcass' was examined and porosity and tortuosity of the medium evaluated. The tortuosity of the medium was evaluated directly by a blind random walk algorithm. These parameters as well as the release profile were then studied with respect to common mathematical models describing drug diffusion (the square-root, power and Weibull models). It was found that, depending on their composition, the matrices systems were either homogeneous or heterogeneous in nature. Furthermore, it was found that the physical parameters could be successfully fitted to the a and b constants of the Weibull model. This approach allows the prediction of drug release from an inert matrix system with the knowledge of a few physical parameters.

  7. Dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 contents in colon, but does not affect severity or prostaglandin E2 content in murine colitis model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an essential fatty acid and a major constituent of biomembranes. It is converted into various lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). The effects of dietary ARA on colon maintenance are unclear because PGE2 has both mucosal protective and proinflammatory effects, and LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory role. Our objective is to clarify the effects of dietary ARA on an experimental murine colitis model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed three types of ARA diet (0.075%, 0.15% or 0.305% ARA in diet), DHA diet (0.315% DHA) or control diet for 6 weeks, and were then administered dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. We evaluated colitis severity, fatty acid and lipid mediator contents in colonic tissue, and the expression of genes related to lipid mediator formation. Results ARA composition of colon phospholipids was significantly elevated in an ARA dose-dependent manner. ARA, as well as DHA, did not affect colitis severity (body weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea and hemoccult phenomena) and histological features. PGE2 contents in the colon were unchanged by dietary ARA, while LXA4 contents increased in an ARA dose-dependent manner. Gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was unchanged, while that of 12/15-lipoxgenase (LOX) was significantly increased by dietary ARA. ARA composition did not correlate with neither colon length nor PGE2 contents, but significantly correlated with LXA4 content. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary ARA increases ARA and LXA4 contents in colon, but that it has no effect on severity and PGE2 content in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. PMID:24507383

  8. Selected parameters affecting characterization of nebulized aqueous solutions by inertial impaction and comparison with phase-Doppler analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, C A; Hickey, A J

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate selected parameters affecting the characterization of air-jet nebulized aqueous solutions by inertial impaction. Parameters affecting characterization of the droplet size distribution by inertial impaction were considered to be nebulizer T-piece connecting tube length, solute concentration, droplet charge accumulation, sample time and marker concentration. Parametric effects on nebulizer output characteristics were evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Response factors were defined as mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), relative span factor (Delta), fine particle mass and delivery rate of solute. Connecting tube length, grounding the impaction stages and marker concentration did not significantly affect the response factors (0.05). Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and delivery rate of solute were significantly affected by solute concentration (p<0.05). Fine particle mass was significantly affected by the interaction between solute concentration and sampling time. Droplets attained an equilibrium size with an MMAD=1.0 microm, Delta=2.12 (0.9% solute) and MMAD=1.7 microm, Delta=2.00 (9. 0% solute) before the exit of the nebulizer T-piece. The droplet size distributions obtained by inertial impaction were compared with data obtained by phase-Doppler analysis.

  9. Amylase-binding proteins A (AbpA) and B (AbpB) differentially affect colonization of rats' teeth by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, J M; Grant, L; Thompson, A; Li, L; Rogers, J D; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2003-09-01

    Streptococcus gordonii produces two alpha-amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB, that have been extensively studied in vitro. Little is known, however, about their significance in oral colonization and cariogenicity (virulence). To clarify these issues, weanling specific pathogen-free Osborne-Mendel rats, TAN : SPFOM(OM)BR, were inoculated either with wild-type strains FAS4-S or Challis-S or with strains having isogenic mutations of abpA, abpB, or both, to compare their colonization abilities and persistence on the teeth. Experiments were done with rats fed a sucrose-rich diet containing low amounts of starch or containing only starch. The mutants and wild-types were quantified in vivo and carious lesions were scored. In 11 experiments, S. gordonii was a prolific colonizer of the teeth when rats were fed the sucrose (with low starch)-supplemented diet, often dominating the flora. Sucrose-fed rats had several-fold higher recoveries of inoculants than those eating the sucrose-free, starch-supplemented diet, regardless of inoculant type. The strain defective in AbpB could not colonize teeth of starch-only-eating rats, but could colonize rats if sucrose was added to the diet. Strains defective in AbpA surprisingly colonized better than their wild-types. A double mutant deficient in both AbpA and AbpB (abpA/abpB) colonized like its wild-type. Wild-types FAS4-S and Challis-S had no more than marginal cariogenicity. Notably, in the absence of AbpA, cariogenicity was slightly augmented. Both the rescue of colonization by the AbpB- mutant and the augmentation of colonization by AbpA- mutant in the presence of dietary sucrose suggested additional amylase-binding protein interactions relevant to colonization. Glucosyltransferase activity was greater in mutants defective in abpA and modestly increased in the abpB mutant. It was concluded that AbpB is required for colonization of teeth of starch-eating rats and its deletion is partially masked if rats eat a sucrose

  10. The geological parameters affecting in-situ leaching of uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains material presented at the Uranium Leach Conference, which was held in Vail, Colo., August 25-27, 1976. The purpose of the presentation was to summarize some important geological concepts to a largely nongeological audience involved in the in situ extraction of uranium from buried uranium ore deposits. The major geological feature affecting the leaching of sandstone-type deposits is permeability. Important permeability variations may be caused by sedimentary structures, texture, structure, composition, and lithology. The effects of these features on leaching uranium are discussed. The major uranium districts of the U.S. and the various factors that would affect permeability and, consequently, uranium extraction in these districts are also discussed.

  11. How is rainfall interception in urban area affected by meteorological parameters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabret, Katarina; Rakovec, Jože; Mikoš, Matjaž; Šraj, Mojca

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall interception is part of the hydrological cycle. Precipitation, which hits vegetation, is retained on the leaves and branches, from which it eventually evaporates into the atmosphere (interception) or reaches the ground by dripping from the canopy, falling through the gaps (throughfall) and running down the stems (stemflow). The amount of rainfall reaching the ground depends on various meteorological and vegetation parameters. Rainfall, throughfall and stemflow have been measured in the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia since the beginning of 2014. Manual and automatic measurements are performed regularly under Betula pendula and Pinus nigra trees in urban area. In 2014, there were detected 178 rainfall events with total amount of 1672.1 mm. In average B. pendula intercepted 44% of rainfall and P. nigra intercepted 72% of rainfall. In 2015 we have detected 117 events with 1047.4 mm of rainfall, of which 37% was intercepted by B. pendula and 60% by P. nigra. The effect of various meteorological parameters on the rainfall interception was analysed in the study. The parameters included in the analysis were rainfall rate, rainfall duration, drop size distribution (average drop velocity and diameter), average wind speed, and average temperature. The results demonstrate decreasing rainfall interception with longer rainfall duration and higher rainfall intensity although the impact of the latter one is not statistically significant. In the case of very fast or very slow rainfall drops, the interception is higher than for the mean rain drop velocity values. In the case of P. nigra the impact of the rain drop diameter on interception is similar to the one of rain drop velocity while for B. pendula increasing of drop diameter also increases the interception. As expected, interception is higher for warmer events. This trend is more evident for P. nigra than for B. pendula. Furthermore, the amount of intercepted rainfall also increases with wind although it could be

  12. Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

    2005-08-01

    With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

  13. Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

    2004-10-01

    With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

  14. Evaluation of the parameters affecting bone temperature during drilling using a three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Zhuang, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Hsiao, Chih-Kun

    2017-03-28

    A three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model was constructed and experimentally validated and was used to investigate the parameters which influence bone temperature during drilling, including the drill speed, feeding force, drill bit diameter, and bone density. Results showed the proposed three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model can effectively simulate the temperature elevation during bone drilling. The bone temperature rise decreased with an increase in feeding force and drill speed, however, increased with the diameter of drill bit or bone density. The temperature distribution is significantly affected by the drilling duration; a lower drilling speed reduced the exposure duration, decreases the region of the thermally affected zone. The constructed model could be applied for analyzing the influence parameters during bone drilling to reduce the risk of thermal necrosis. It may provide important information for the design of drill bits and surgical drilling powers.

  15. An in-depth analysis of critical parameters affecting leading SSR countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Achilles, R.A.; Ramirez, A.R.

    1985-02-01

    Generalized transmission parameter equations are derived for the electrical damping introduced by dynamic filters applied as SSR countermeasures, in function of the unstable system negative damping. Two leading SSR remedial concepts of the active type are analyzed: the Dynamic Stabilizer for which an adaptive thyristor-firing angle, oriented to an optimum device rating, is derived and the NGH Scheme for which a linearized model, suitable for the machine-network interaction circuit representation, is developed based on the Fourier expansion of the RC discharge pulse train. A comparative parametric study is carried out.

  16. Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2013-06-01

    We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\

  17. Using fixed-parameter and random-parameter ordered regression models to identify significant factors that affect the severity of drivers' injuries in vehicle-train collisions.

    PubMed

    Dabbour, Essam; Easa, Said; Haider, Murtaza

    2017-10-01

    This study attempts to identify significant factors that affect the severity of drivers' injuries when colliding with trains at railroad-grade crossings by analyzing the individual-specific heterogeneity related to those factors over a period of 15 years. Both fixed-parameter and random-parameter ordered regression models were used to analyze records of all vehicle-train collisions that occurred in the United States from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2015. For fixed-parameter ordered models, both probit and negative log-log link functions were used. The latter function accounts for the fact that lower injury severity levels are more probable than higher ones. Separate models were developed for heavy and light-duty vehicles. Higher train and vehicle speeds, female, and young drivers (below the age of 21 years) were found to be consistently associated with higher severity of drivers' injuries for both heavy and light-duty vehicles. Furthermore, favorable weather, light-duty trucks (including pickup trucks, panel trucks, mini-vans, vans, and sports-utility vehicles), and senior drivers (above the age of 65 years) were found be consistently associated with higher severity of drivers' injuries for light-duty vehicles only. All other factors (e.g. air temperature, the type of warning devices, darkness conditions, and highway pavement type) were found to be temporally unstable, which may explain the conflicting findings of previous studies related to those factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the operational parameters affecting NDMA formation at Advanced Water Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Farré, Maria José; Döderer, Katrin; Hearn, Laurence; Poussade, Yvan; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2011-01-30

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be formed when secondary effluents are disinfected by chloramines. By means of bench scale experiments this paper investigates operational parameters than can help Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTPs) to reduce the formation of NDMA during the production of high quality recycled water. The formation of NDMA was monitored during a contact time of 24h using dimethylamine as NDMA model precursor and secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The three chloramine disinfection strategies tested were pre-formed and in-line formed monochloramine, and pre-formed dichloramine. Although the latter is not employed on purpose in full-scale applications, it has been suggested as the main contributing chemical generating NDMA during chloramination. After 24h, the NDMA formation decreased in both matrices tested in the order: pre-formed dichloramine>in-line formed monochloramine≫pre-formed monochloramine. The most important parameter to consider for the inhibition of NDMA formation was the length of contact time between disinfectant and wastewater. Formation of NDMA was initially inhibited for up to 6h with concentrations consistently <10 ng/L during these early stages of disinfection, regardless of the disinfection strategy. The reduction of the contact time was implemented in Bundamba AWTP (Queensland, Australia), where NDMA concentrations were reduced by a factor of 20 by optimizing the disinfection strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of mechanisms and parameters which affect radon entry into a room.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, A V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2013-10-01

    There are practically no direct techniques for measuring radon entry rate in the rooms. The suggested technique allows estimating such parameter under real conditions. The technique for radon diagnostic procedures including radon entry rate and air change rate assessment was proposed and tested in the field under various experimental conditions. The method consists of the continuous measurement of radon concentration, temperature and pressure difference between indoor and outdoor atmosphere. It was demonstrated that the study of dependence of radon entry rate on temperature difference ΔT between indoor and outdoor atmosphere allows to estimate the dominant radon entry mechanism - diffusion mechanism (absence of the dependence on ΔT) or convective (radon entry rate increase at ΔT increase). It was shown that simultaneous measurements of time series of radon concentration and pressure difference between building envelope and outdoor atmosphere allow assessing such room parameter as Effective Leakage Area. The approach applied in this paper to estimate the air change rate practically is not differing from tracer gas techniques when the constant gas entry rate is used. It was shown that radon could be used as kind of tracer gas to estimate the air change rate. Obtained measurement results for all buildings confirmed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations. A correlation of radon concentration and air change rate with outside temperature occurred in general.

  20. Parameters affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Jennifer L; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2005-12-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, the cause of anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot of corn. The ATMT results in higher transformation efficiencies than previously available polyethylene glycol-mediated protocols, and falcate spores can be used instead of protoplasts for transformation. Various experimental parameters were tested for their effects on transformation efficiencies. The parameters with the greatest influence were the A. tumefaciens strain used and the Ti-plasmid it carried, the ratio of bacterium to fungus during cocultivation, and the length of cocultivation. Southern analysis demonstrated that most transformants (80%) contained tandem integrations of plasmid sequences, and at least 36% had integrations at multiple sites in the genome. In a majority of cases (70%), the whole Ti-plasmid, and not just the T-DNA, had integrated as a series of tandem repeats. Tandem integrations, especially of the whole plasmid, make it difficult to rescue DNA from both flanks of the integrations with standard PCR-based approaches. Thus, ATMT may be unsuitable for insertional mutagenesis of C. graminicola without further modification.

  1. How Do the Parameter Changes in the Moist Processes Affect the Temperature and Circulation Simulations in the Lower-Troposphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the grid-point atmospheric model developed at IAP LASG (GAMIL2) is used to investigate how the altering parameters in the moist processes influence the simulations of the lower-tropospheric temperature and circulation. Two experiments were performed: the control experiment (CNTL) with the default parameter values and the sensitivity experiment (EXP) with the values obtained from a "two-step" parameter optimization method, which applied a full factor sampling scheme and the simplex downhill algorithm. Results show that parameter changes lead to variation of diabatic heating and affect the lower tropospheric temperature and circulation through the interaction and mutual responses between dynamical and physical processes. Furthermore, the interactions of dynamical and physical processes are different in the tropics and high latitudes. In the tropics, dynamical processes mainly resulted from vertical motion balance the variation of latent heating, both of which are negatively correlated to offset each other and play significant roles in the simulation of temperature. However, in the high latitudes, dynamical processes mainly due to horizontal advection dominate the total temperature tendency compared to physical processes. The variation of dynamical effects can overcompensate the diabatic heating from physical processes, thus affecting the geopetential height and wind fields. Moreover, there exists a positive feedback among the temperature, geopotential height, and meridional wind in the mid and high latitudes.

  2. Clinical Factors, Disease Parameters, and Molecular Therapies Affecting Osseointegration of Orthopedic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Lewallen, Eric A.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lewallen, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty are effective interventions for management of end-stage arthritis. Indeed, about 7 million Americans are currently living with artificial hip and knee joints. The majority of these individuals, however, will outlive their implants and require revision surgeries, mostly due to poor implant osseointegration and aseptic loosening. Revisions are potentially avoidable with better management of patient-related risk factors that affect the osseointegration of orthopedic implants. In this review, we summarize the published clinical literature on the role of demographics, biologic factors, comorbidities, medications and aseptic loosening risk. We focus on several systemic and local factors that are particularly relevant to implant osseointegration. Examples include physiological and molecular processes that are linked to hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia. We discuss how orthopedic implant osseointegration can be affected by a number of molecular therapies that are antiresorptive or bone anabolic (i.e. calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, strontium, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen-receptor modulators). PMID:28008373

  3. A systemic study on key parameters affecting nanocomposite coatings on magnesium substrates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Wang, Sebo Michelle; Silken, Christine; Liu, Huinan

    2016-05-01

    Nanocomposite coatings offer multiple functions simultaneously to improve the interfacial properties of magnesium (Mg) alloys for skeletal implant applications, e.g., controlling the degradation rate of Mg substrates, improving bone cell functions, and providing drug delivery capability. However, the effective service time of nanocomposite coatings may be limited due to their early delamination from the Mg-based substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to address the delamination issue of nanocomposite coatings, improve the coating properties for reducing the degradation of Mg-based substrates, and thus improve their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The surface conditions of the substrates, polymer component type of the nanocomposite coatings, and post-deposition processing are the key parameters that contribute to the efficacy of the nanocomposite coatings in regulating substrate degradation and bone cell responses. Specifically, the effects of metallic surface versus alkaline heat-treated hydroxide surface of the substrates on coating quality were investigated. For the nanocomposite coatings, nanophase hydroxyapatite (nHA) was dispersed in three types of biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), or poly(caprolactone) (PCL) to determine which polymer component could provide integrated properties for slowest Mg degradation. The nanocomposite coatings with or without post-deposition processing, i.e., melting, annealing, were compared to determine which processing route improved the properties of the nanocomposite coatings most significantly. The results showed that optimizing the coating processes addressed the delamination issue. The melted then annealed nHA/PCL coating on the metallic Mg substrates showed the slowest degradation and the best coating adhesion, among all the combinations of conditions studied; and, it improved the adhesion density of BMSCs

  4. Administration of thyroxine affects the morphometric parameters and VEGF expression in the uterus and placenta and the uterine vascularization but does not affect reproductive parameters in gilts during early gestation.

    PubMed

    Souza, C A; Ocarino, N M; Silva, J F; Boeloni, J N; Nascimento, E F; Silva, I J; Castro, R D; Moreira, L P; Almeida, F R C L; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Serakides, R

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyroxine administration on morphometric parameters, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascularization in the uterus and placenta and reproductive parameters in gilts at 70 days of gestation. At 150 days of age, i.e., before first heat, 20 gilts were randomly divided into two experimental groups: treated (n=10) and control (n=10). The treated group received a daily dose of 400 μg of L-thyroxine (T(4)) in their diet until slaughter and the control group received only typical meals. Before artificial insemination, blood was collected to determine plasma total T(4). The gilts were inseminated in the second oestrus and slaughtered at 70 days of gestation. The foetal thyroid follicular epithelium height, number, size and weight of foetuses; foetal myogenesis, corpora lutea number, embryonic mortality rate, uterine weight, placental weight and placental fluid volume were measured. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of uterus and placenta were determined. The averages of all variables were compared by the Student's t-test. The gilts treated with thyroxine showed significant increase of plasma total T(4). At 70 days of gestation, the heights of the trophoblastic epithelium, endometrial epithelium and endometrial gland epithelium were significantly higher in the group treated with T(4). The expression of cytoplasmatic and nuclear VEGF in trophoblastic cells and the number of blood vessels per field in endometrial stroma were significantly higher in the gilts treated with T(4). No other significant differences between groups were obtained with respect to other parameters (p>0.05). We conclude that oral administration of T(4) up to 70 days of pregnancy in gilts affects the morphometric parameters, the expression of placental VEGF and the uterine vascularization but does not affect reproductive parameters in gilts during early gestation.

  5. Use of artificial neural networks to examine parameters affecting the immobilization of streptokinase in chitosan.

    PubMed

    Modaresi, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Arash; Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Streptokinase is a potent fibrinolytic agent which is widely used in treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Major limitation of this enzyme is its short biological half-life in the blood stream. Our previous report showed that complexing streptokinase with chitosan could be a solution to overcome this limitation. The aim of this research was to establish an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for identifying main factors influencing the loading efficiency of streptokinase, as an essential parameter determining efficacy of the enzyme. Three variables, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH and enzyme concentration were considered as input values and the loading efficiency was used as output. Subsequently, the experimental data were modeled and the model was validated against a set of unseen data. The developed model indicated chitosan concentration as probably the most important factor, having reverse effect on the loading efficiency.

  6. Analysis of Operational Parameters Affecting the Sulfur Content in Hot Metal of the COREX Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengli; Wang, Laixin; Kou, Mingyin; Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Jiacong

    2017-02-01

    The COREX process, which has obvious advantages in environment protection, still has some disadvantages. It has a higher sulfur content in hot metal (HM) than the blast furnace has. In the present work, the distribution and transfer of sulfur in the COREX have been analyzed and several operational parameters related to the sulfur content in HM ([pct S]) have been obtained. Based on this, the effects of the coal rate, slag ratio, temperature of HM, melting rate, binary basicity ( R 2), the ratio of MgO/Al2O3, utilization of reducing gas, top gas consumption per ton burden solid, metallization rate, oxidation degree of reducing gas, and coal and DRI distribution index on the sulfur content in HM are investigated. What's more, a linear model has been developed and subsequently used for predicting and controlling the S content in HM of the COREX process.

  7. Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Examine Parameters Affecting the Immobilization of Streptokinase in Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Modaresi, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Arash; Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Streptokinase is a potent fibrinolytic agent which is widely used in treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Major limitation of this enzyme is its short biological half-life in the blood stream. Our previous report showed that complexing streptokinase with chitosan could be a solution to overcome this limitation. The aim of this research was to establish an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for identifying main factors influencing the loading efficiency of streptokinase, as an essential parameter determining efficacy of the enzyme. Three variables, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH and enzyme concentration were considered as input values and the loading efficiency was used as output. Subsequently, the experimental data were modeled and the model was validated against a set of unseen data. The developed model indicated chitosan concentration as probably the most important factor, having reverse effect on the loading efficiency. PMID:25587327

  8. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  9. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  10. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas.

  11. Experimental determination of the thermodynamic parameters affecting the adsorption behaviour and dispersion effectiveness of PCE superplasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, J.; Sachsenhauser, B.; Reese, J. de

    2010-05-15

    For adsorption of three different allylether-based PCE superplasticizers on CaCO{sub 3} surface, the thermodynamic parameters DELTAH, DELTAS and DELTAG were determined experimentally. The GIBBS standard free energy of adsorption DELTAG{sub 0ads}, the standard enthalpy of adsorption DELTAH{sub 0ads} and the standard entropy of adsorption DELTAS{sub 0ads} applying to an unoccupied CaCO{sub 3} surface were obtained via a linear regression of ln K (equilibrium constant) versus 1 / T (VAN'T HOFF plot). Additionally, the thermodynamic parameters characteristic for a CaCO{sub 3} surface loaded already with polymer (isosteric conditions) were determined using a modified CLAUSIUS-CLAPEYRON equation. For all PCE molecules, negative DELTAG values were found, indicating that adsorption of these polymers is energetically favourable and a spontaneous process. Adsorption of PCEs possessing short side chains is mainly instigated by electrostatic attraction and a release of enthalpy. Contrary to this, adsorption of PCEs with long side chains occurs because of a huge gain in entropy. The gain in entropy results from the release of counter ions attached to the carboxylate groups of the polymer backbone and of water molecules and ions adsorbed on the CaCO{sub 3} surface. With increased surface loading, however, DELTAG{sub isosteric} decreases and adsorption ceases when DELTAG becomes 0. The presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions in the pore solution strongly impacts PCE adsorption, due to complexation of carboxylate groups and a reduced anionic charge amount of the molecule. In the presence of Ca{sup 2+}, adsorption of allylether-based PCEs is almost exclusively driven by a gain in entropy. Consequently, PCEs should produce a strong entropic effect upon adsorption to be effective cement dispersants. Molecular architecture, anionic charge density and molecular weight as well as the type of anchor groups present in a superplasticizer determine whether enthalpy or entropy is the dominant force for

  12. Physicochemical soil parameters affecting sequestration and mycobacterial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Bill W; Sullivan, Wendy R

    2003-09-01

    Six soils, obtained from grasslands and wooded areas in Northeastern Illinois, were physicochemically characterized. Measured parameters included total organic carbon (TOC) content, contents of humic acid, fulvic acid and humin, pore volume and pore size distribution, and chemical makeup of soil organic matter (determined using solid-state 13C-NMR). Moistened, gamma-sterilized soils were spiked with 200 ppm of either phenanthrene or pyrene (including 14C label); following 0, 40, or 120 days of aging, the contaminant-spiked soils were then inoculated with Mycobacterium austroafricanum strain GTI-23, and evolution of 14CO2 was assessed over a 28-day period. Results for both phenanthrene and pyrene indicated that increased contact time led to increased sequestration and reduced biodegradation, and that TOC content was the most important parameter governing these processes. One soil, although only tested with phenanthrene, showed significantly lower-than-expected sequestration (higher-than-expected mineralization) after 40 days of aging, despite a very high TOC value (>24%). Because the level of sequestration in this soil was proportional to the others after 120 days of aging, this implies some difference in the temporal progression of sequestration in this soil, although not in its final result. The primary distinguishing feature of this soil was its considerably elevated fulvic acid content. Further experiments showed that addition of exogenous fulvic acid to a soil with very low endogenous humic acids/fulvic acids content greatly enhanced pyrene mineralization by M. austroafricanum. Extractabilities of 13 three- to six-ring coal tar PAHs in n-butanol from the six soils after 120 days of sequestration were strongly TOC-dependent; however, there was no discernible correlation between n-butanol extractability and mycobacterial PAH mineralization.

  13. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process.

  14. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  15. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  16. Consumption of guar gum and retrograded high-amylose corn resistant starch increases IL-10 abundance without affecting pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon of pigs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Lackeyram, D; Liu, Q; Mine, Y; Paliyath, G

    2012-12-01

    Increases in dietary intake of viscous and nonviscous soluble fiber are reported to improve bowel health. However, related biological mechanisms are not very clear. This study was conducted to examine if colonic inflammation would occur in a typical Western diet model and determine if consumption of soluble fiber components would attenuate potential detrimental effects by differentially affecting colonic abundances of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet supplemented, respectively, with 15% viscous soluble fiber guar gum (GG) and 15% nonviscous soluble fiber, that is, retrograded high-amylose corn (Zea mays) resistant starch (RS). A total of 24 Yorkshire growing barrows were assigned into a standard corn and soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based grower diet as a positive control (PC), an animal protein-based high-fat basal diet as the negative control (NC), and 2 NC basal diets supplemented with 15% GG and 15% RS, respectively, according to a completely randomized block design for 4 wk. Abundance of these cytokines in homogenized and extracted colonic tissue supernatant samples was measured by ELISA. Although colonic IL-10 abundance was lower (P < 0.05) in the corn and SBM-based PC group than that in the high-fat basal NC group, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in colonic abundances of TNF-α and IL-6 between NC and PC groups and among all of the treatment groups. Compared with the NC group, consumption of GG and RS at 15% increased (P < 0.05) colonic IL-10 abundance. Moreover, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in colonic IL-10 abundance between the 15% GG and the 15% RS groups. Thus, consumption of a typical high-fat Western diet did not induce colonic inflammation. Diets supplemented with 15% GG or 15% RS may protect the colon from developing inflammation by enhancing IL-10 abundance.

  17. Colonic casts: unexpected complications of colonic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Mantas, D; Damaskos, C; Bamias, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Extensive colonic ischaemia can result in passage of a colonic 'cast' (CC) through the rectum. Case Study We report a 69-year-old male who initially underwent surgery to remove a sessile polyp. On postoperative day (POD)15, he was febrile, suffering from diarrhoea, and was treated conservatively. On POD18, the patient returned to our hospital with a CC that presented after defaecation. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a CC extending from the descending colon to the anal orifice with presentation of air between the affected colonic wall and the CC. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged on POD20 without complications having passed the CC (≈80cm) completely and becoming afebrile. Conclusions In most cases, the cause of CC passage is surgery for colorectal cancer or repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. A mild-to-severe presentation is dependent upon the bowel-wall layers affected by ischaemia and which therefore are included in the CC.

  18. Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

    Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate

  19. How does vineyard management intensity affect inter-row plant diversity and associated root parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Silvia; Labuda, Thomas; Probus, Sandra; Penke, Nicole; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Loiskandl, Willibald; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Zaller, Johann G.; Kriechbaum, Monika

    2017-04-01

    Vineyard management has changed dramatically in the last 50 years. In many wine-growing regions, vineyard inter-rows are kept clean of vegetation by frequent tillage or use of herbicides to establish bare soil systems. In the last thirty years, policy-makers and several winegrowers have realized that temporary or permanent vegetation cover between the vine rows may increase ecosystem services like soil erosion mitigation, soil fertility and biodiversity conservation. The inter-row area of a vineyard can host a diverse flora providing habitat and food resources for pollinating insects and natural enemies of pests. The goal of this study was to analyze the influence of different soil management intensities on plant diversity and root parameters in the vineyard inter-rows. We investigated 15 vineyards in Romania and 14 in Austria to study the effects of three different management intensities on plant diversity, above and below-ground plant biomass, total root length and surface area of roots. Management intensity ranged from bare soil inter-rows to alternative soil tillage every second year to permanent vegetation cover for more than five years. In each vineyard inter-row, six soil samples (7 cm diameter and 10 cm height) of the upper soil layer were extracted for root analyses. Root were separated from the soil, stained and finally scanned and analyzed with the WinRHIZO software. Finally, roots were dried at 70°C to obtain dry matter of the root samples. Vegetation cover and vascular plant diversity was recorded in four 1 m2 plots within each vineyard inter-row two times a year. The most intensive bare soil management regime in Romania significantly reduced root biomass, total root length and surface area in comparison to the alternative and permanent vegetation cover management. Plant biodiversity was also reduced by intensive management, but differences were not significant. While alternative tillage every second year showed the highest values of plant species

  20. Reliability of Lagged Poincaré Plot parameters in ultra-short Heart Rate Variability series: Application on Affective Sounds.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Mimma; Greco, Alberto; Bolea, Juan; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Bailon, Raquel

    2017-04-18

    The number of studies about ultra-short cardiovascular time series is increasing because of the demand for mobile applications in telemedicine and e-health monitoring. However, the current literature still needs a proper validation of heartbeat nonlinear dynamics assessment from ultra-short time series. This paper reports on the reliability of the Lagged Poincaré Plot (LPP) parameters - calculated from ultra-short cardiovascular time series. Reliability is studied on simulated as well as on real RR series. Simulated RR series are generated and LPP parameters estimated for ultra-short time series (from 15 to 60 s) are compared to those estimated from 1 hour. All LPP parameters estimated from time series longer than 35 s presented a Spearman's correlation coefficient higher than 0.99. RR series acquired from 32 healthy subjects during 5-minutes resting state sessions are used to test the LPP approach in experimental data. The usefulness of ultra short term parameters in real data is accomplished also studying their ability to discriminate positive and negative valence of auditory stimuli taken from the International Affective Digitized Sound System (IADS) dataset. The achieved accuracies in the recognition of elicitation along the valence dimension, using only the LPP parameters, were of 77.78% for 1 minute 28 second series, and of 79.17% for 35 second series.

  1. Dietary folate suppresses DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in a rat model and affects DMH-induced expression of four DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the potential role of folate in the dimethylhydrazine (DMH) colon cancer model in male Wistar rats. For induction of colon cancer, group 1 rats were injected subcutaneously with 30 mg DMH/kg body weight weekly for 30 wk. Group 2 received DMH vehicle. Group 3 rats received DMH as in Group 1 but their diet was supplemented with 8 mg folate/kg diet. Group 4 was fed diet supplemented with 8 mg folate/kg diet. Upregulation of DNA damage repair genes Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, associated with a reduction of folic acid level was observed in colons of DMH group. Reductions of these gene upregulations and a significant increase of colonic folic acid level occurred in the DMH group supplemented with folic acid and this group also had significant inhibition of tumor incidence, normal survival rate and histologically nearly normal colonic architecture. It can be concluded that folate supplementation exerts a potent protective effect on rat colon carcinogenesis via significant modulation of DNA repair, providing a mechanism by which it plays a role in the etiology of human cancer.

  2. Does exposure to computers affect the routine parameters of semen quality?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Lian; Zhou, Wei-Jin; Wu, Jun-Qing; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2005-09-01

    To assess whether exposure to computers harms the semen quality of healthy young men. A total of 178 subjects were recruited from two maternity and children healthcare centers in Shanghai, 91 with a history of exposure to computers (i.e., exposure for 20 h or more per week in the last 2 years) and 87 persons to act as control (no or little exposure to computers). Data on the history of exposure to computers and other characteristics were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire interview. Semen samples were collected by masturbation in the place where the semen samples were analyzed. No differences in the distribution of the semen parameters (semen volume, sperm density, percentage of progressive sperm, sperm viability and percentage of normal form sperm) were found between the exposed group and the control group. Exposure to computers was not found to be a risk factor for inferior semen quality after adjusting for potential confounders, including abstinence days, testicle size, occupation, history of exposure to toxic substances. The present study did not find that healthy men exposed to computers had inferior semen quality.

  3. Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.), as affected by agronomical, genotypic and environmental parameters.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Heshmat; Tahmasebi, Zeinaldin; Naghdi Badi, Hassan Ali; Torabi, Hossein; Miransari, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. There is not any data on the effects of tillage practices on fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.). Hence, in a 2-year split plot experiment, the effects of different tillage systems (no (NT), minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT)), canola genotypes (Hyola 401 (V1) and PF (V2)) and sowing dates (including Sep. 8, 23 and Oct. 7) on the fatty acid composition of canola were evaluated. Tillage practices and the combination of canola genotypes and sowing dates were randomized to the main and sub-plots, respectively. The highest oleic acid content was the result of combining NT, V1 and Sep. 23, and the lowest was related to the combination of CT, V2 and Oct. 7. While the combination of NT, V1 and D1 resulted in the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids, this amount was the lowest for the combination of CT, V2 and Sep. 23. For the selection of an appropriate canola producing strategy, all these parameters must be taken into account. The combination of NT, V1 and Sep. 23 may be the most favorable cropping strategy for canola production under a Mediterranean climate. Copyright 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies on physico-chemical parameters affecting the solubility of phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Papanicolaou, Fanos; Antoniou, Stella; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2009-10-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is usually disposed in the environment because of its restricted use in industrial applications. Physico-chemical conditions existing in stack fluids and leachates are of major importance and determine solubility and redox stability of phosphogypsum, as well as radionuclide release from stacks to terrestrial environments. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of key parameters (e.g. ionic strength, temperature, pH) on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out at a coastal stack in Cyprus, solubility experiments were performed in simulated laboratory systems and thermodynamic calculations by means of MINTEQA2, an equilibrium speciation model. Generally, increasing ionic strength and temperature leads to increased phosphogypsum solubility, with the former being much more effective. The increased solubility of phosphogypsum in saline solutions is attributed solely to ionic strength effects on the activity of ionic species in solution and no solid phase transformations could be observed. The effect of pH on phosphogypsum solubility seems to be insignificant at least in a pH range between 4 and 8. Regarding uranium levels, there is a strong correlation between salinity and uranium concentration and linear correlation between phosphogypsum solubility and uranium levels in stack solutions, indicating the incorporation of uranium into the gypsum lattice and the formation of a solid solution.

  6. X-ray emission from O-type stars - Parameters which affect it

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chlebowski, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of previous analyses of the X-ray fluxes of O-type stars, it has been established that, surprisingly, there is no correlation between X-ray flux and such basic parameters as M, R, v(rot), T(eff), mass accretion rate v(infinity), L(w) = mass accretion rate v(infinity), and wind energy. In this paper, other factors influencing the X-ray flux of the hottest stars are sought. As a result of the present analysis, it is found that stars embedded in dense clouds are often X-ray brighter, runaway stars are fainter in X-rays, massive binaries emit more X-rays than single stars, and radio-bright stars are also more active in X-rays. All these correlations lead to the conclusion that the stellar environment and the interaction of the stellar wind with circumstellar matter (possible remnants of protostellar clouds) play a dominant role in the production of the X-ray flux.

  7. Critical parameters of a noise model that affect fault tolerant quantum computation on a single qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Pavithran; da Silva, Marcus P.; Poulin, David

    In this work, we aim to determine the parameters of a single qubit channel that can tightly bound the logical error rate of the Steane code. We do not assume any a priori structure for the quantum channel, except that it is a CPTP map and we use a concatenated Steane code to encode a single qubit. Unlike the standard Monte Carlo technique that requires many iterations to estimate the logical error rate with sufficient accuracy, we use techniques to compute the complete effect of a physical CPTP map, at the logical level. Using this, we have studied the predictive power of several physical noise metrics on the logical error rate, and show, through numerical simulations with random quantum channels, that, on their own, none of the natural physical metrics lead to accurate predictions about the logical error rate. We then show how machine learning techniques help us to explore which features of a random quantum channel are important in predicting its logical error rate.

  8. X-ray emission from O-type stars - Parameters which affect it

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chlebowski, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of previous analyses of the X-ray fluxes of O-type stars, it has been established that, surprisingly, there is no correlation between X-ray flux and such basic parameters as M, R, v(rot), T(eff), mass accretion rate v(infinity), L(w) = mass accretion rate v(infinity), and wind energy. In this paper, other factors influencing the X-ray flux of the hottest stars are sought. As a result of the present analysis, it is found that stars embedded in dense clouds are often X-ray brighter, runaway stars are fainter in X-rays, massive binaries emit more X-rays than single stars, and radio-bright stars are also more active in X-rays. All these correlations lead to the conclusion that the stellar environment and the interaction of the stellar wind with circumstellar matter (possible remnants of protostellar clouds) play a dominant role in the production of the X-ray flux.

  9. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River.

  10. Surgical procedure affects physiological parameters in rat myocardial ischemia: need for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Berg, O; Heimann, A; Darius, H; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Kempski, O; Meyer, J

    1999-02-01

    Several surgical approaches are being used to induce myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study investigated two different operative procedures in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats under sham conditions. A snare around the left coronary artery (LCA) was achieved without occlusion. Left lateral thoracotomy was performed in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats (tidal volume 8 ml/kg) with a respiratory rate of 90 strokes/min at different levels of O2 supplementation (room air and 30, 40, and 90% O2). All animals were observed for 60 min after thoracotomy. Rats operated with exteriorization of the heart through left lateral thoracotomy while breathing spontaneously developed severe hypoxia and hypercapnia despite an intrathoracic operation time of <1 min. Arterial O2 content decreased from 18.7 +/- 0.5 to 3.3 +/- 0.9 vol%. Lactate increased from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l. Significant signs of ischemia were seen in the electrocardiogram up to 60 min. Mechanically ventilated animals exhibited a spectrum ranging from hypoxia (room air) to hyperoxia (90% O2). In order not to jeopardize findings in experimental myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury models, stable physiological parameters can be achieved in mechanically ventilated rats at an O2 application of 30-40% at 90 strokes/min.

  11. Dietary vitamin E dosage and source affects meat quality parameters in light weight lambs.

    PubMed

    Leal, Leonel N; Beltrán, José A; Alonso, Verónica; Bello, José M; den Hartog, Leo A; Hendriks, Wouter H; Martín-Tereso, Javier

    2017-08-22

    Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation is a commonly used approach to delay lipid oxidation and colour deterioration in lamb and beef meat marketed under modified atmosphere packaging. However, these applications lack a precise calibration of dose for the desired effect and limited information is available regarding the use of natural vitamin E for this purpose. Three hundred and sixty Rasa Aragonesa lambs were fed diets supplemented with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg(-1) compound feed), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1) compound feed) and a basal diet without vitamin E supplementation, for 14 days before slaughter at 25.8 ± 1.67 kg BW. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on average daily weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Display time had larger effects on lipid oxidation, colour stability, myoglobin forms and meat discolouration parameters than did vitamin E supplementation. However, vitamin E source and dosage significantly extended meat shelf-life as indicated by lipid oxidation, redness, hue angle, metmyoglobin formation, deoxymyoglobin formation, A580-630 and ISO2 . Quantification of these effects demonstrated that the biological activity value of 1.36 used to distinguish both vitamin E sources is not appropriate for meat quality enhancing properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  13. Sample Size Calculation: Inaccurate A Priori Assumptions for Nuisance Parameters Can Greatly Affect the Power of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Elsa; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review). Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was < 60%, as compared with the 80% nominal power); 41%, 16% and 6%, respectively, were overpowered (i.e., with real power > 90%). Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined.

  14. A study of factors affecting intersection crash frequencies using random-parameter multivariate zero-inflated models.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunjiao; Shi, Jing; Huang, Baoshan; Chen, Xiaoming; Ma, Zhuanglin

    2017-06-01

    Recent research demonstrates the appropriateness of multivariate regression models in crash count modelling when one specific type of crash counts needs to be analysed, since they can better handle the correlated issues in multiple crash counts. In this paper, a random-parameter multivariate zero-inflated Poisson (RMZIP) regression model is proposed as an alternative multivariate methodology for jointly modelling crash counts simultaneously. Using this RMZIP model, we are able to account for the heterogeneity due to the unobserved roadway geometric design features and traffic characteristics. Our formulation also has the merit of handling excess zeros in correlated crash counts, a phenomenon that is commonly found in practice. The Bayesian method is employed to estimate the model parameters. We use the proposed modelling framework to predict crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. To investigate the model performances, three models - a fixed-parameter MZIP model, a random-parameter multivariate negative binomial (RMNB) model, and a random-parameter multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial (RMZINB) model - have been employed as the comparison methods. The comparison results show that the proposed RMZIP models provide a satisfied statistical fit with more variables producing statistically significant parameters. In other word, the RMZIP models have the potential to provide a fuller understanding of how the factors affect crash frequencies on specific roadway intersections. A variety of variables are found to significantly influence the crash frequencies by varying magnitudes. These variables result in random parameters and thereby their effects on crash frequencies are found to vary significantly across the sampled intersections.

  15. Taurine does not affect the composition, diversity, or metabolism of human colonic microbiota simulated in a single-batch fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Okai, Naoko; Tanaka, Kosei; Nomoto, Ryohei; Fukuda, Itsuko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Kondo, Akihiko; Osawa, Ro

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dietary taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in the large intestine. In this study, we investigated the possible impact of taurine on human colonic microbiota using our single-batch fermentation system (Kobe University Human Intestinal Microbiota Model; KUHIMM). Fecal samples from eight humans were individually cultivated with and without taurine in the KUHIMM. The results showed that taurine remained largely undegraded after 30 h of culturing in the absence of oxygen, although some 83% of the taurine was degraded after 30 h of culturing under aerobic conditions. Diversity in bacterial species in the cultures was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealing that taurine caused no significant change in the diversity of the microbiota; both operational taxonomic unit and Shannon-Wiener index of the cultures were comparable to those of the respective source fecal samples. In addition, principal coordinate analysis indicated that taurine did not alter the composition of bacterial species, since the 16S rRNA gene profile of bacterial species in the original fecal sample was maintained in each of the cultures with and without taurine. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis revealed that taurine did not affect the composition of short-chain fatty acids produced in the cultures. These results, under these controlled but artificial conditions, suggested that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of dietary taurine in the large intestine are independent of the intestinal microbiota. We infer that dietary taurine may act directly in the large intestine to exert anti-inflammatory effects.

  16. Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Hansen, Monica Hegstad; Nielsen, Alexander; Hendriksen, Rene S; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-01-07

    The effect of apramycin treatment on transfer and selection of an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli 912) in the intestine of pigs was analyzed through an in vivo experiment. The strain was sequenced and assigned to the sequence type ST101 and serotype O11. It carried resistance genes to apramycin/gentamicin, sulphonamide, tetracycline, hygromycin B, β-lactams and streptomycin [aac(3)-IV, sul2, tet(X), aph(4), bla TEM-1 and strA/B], with all but tet(X) located on the same conjugative plasmid. Nineteen pigs were randomly allocated into two inoculation groups, one treated with apramycin (pen 2) and one non-treated (pen 3), along with a non-inoculated control group (pen 1). Two pigs of pen 2 and 3 were inoculated intragastrically with a rifampicin resistant variant of the strain. Apramycin treatment in pen 2 was initiated immediately after inoculation. Strain colonization was assessed in the feces from all pigs. E. coli 912 was shown to spread to non-inoculated pigs in both groups. The selective effect did not persist beyond 3 days post-treatment, and the strain was not detected from this time point in pen 2. We demonstrated that E. coli 912 was able to spread between pigs in the same pen irrespective of treatment, and apramycin treatment resulted in significantly higher counts compared to the non-treated group. This represents the first demonstration of how antimicrobial treatment affects spread of resistant bacteria in pig production. The use of apramycin may lead to enhanced spread of gentamicin-resistant E. coli. Since gentamicin is a first-choice drug for human bacteremia, this is of concern.

  17. Taurine does not affect the composition, diversity, or metabolism of human colonic microbiota simulated in a single-batch fermentation system

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Okai, Naoko; Tanaka, Kosei; Nomoto, Ryohei; Fukuda, Itsuko; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kondo, Akihiko; Osawa, Ro

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dietary taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in the large intestine. In this study, we investigated the possible impact of taurine on human colonic microbiota using our single-batch fermentation system (Kobe University Human Intestinal Microbiota Model; KUHIMM). Fecal samples from eight humans were individually cultivated with and without taurine in the KUHIMM. The results showed that taurine remained largely undegraded after 30 h of culturing in the absence of oxygen, although some 83% of the taurine was degraded after 30 h of culturing under aerobic conditions. Diversity in bacterial species in the cultures was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealing that taurine caused no significant change in the diversity of the microbiota; both operational taxonomic unit and Shannon-Wiener index of the cultures were comparable to those of the respective source fecal samples. In addition, principal coordinate analysis indicated that taurine did not alter the composition of bacterial species, since the 16S rRNA gene profile of bacterial species in the original fecal sample was maintained in each of the cultures with and without taurine. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis revealed that taurine did not affect the composition of short-chain fatty acids produced in the cultures. These results, under these controlled but artificial conditions, suggested that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of dietary taurine in the large intestine are independent of the intestinal microbiota. We infer that dietary taurine may act directly in the large intestine to exert anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:28700670

  18. Plant terpenes affect intensity and temporal parameters of pheromone detection in a moth.

    PubMed

    Party, Virginie; Hanot, Christophe; Said, Imene; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel

    2009-11-01

    In moths, the components of the female pheromone blend are detected in the male antennae by pheromone olfactory receptor neurons (Ph-ORNs) expressing narrowly tuned olfactory receptors. Responses to sex pheromones have generally been thought to be independent from the odorant background. However, interactions between pheromone components and plant volatiles have been reported at behavioral and detection levels. To document the mechanisms of such interactions, we analyzed Ph-ORN responses of Spodoptera littoralis to the main pheromone component, Z9E11-14:Ac, in the presence of 4 monoterpenes. To mimic natural contexts in which plant odors and pheromone emanate from different sources, the 2 stimuli were presented with different temporal patterns and from independent sources. Linalool reversibly reduced the firing response to Z9E11-14:Ac and produced an off effect. Geraniol and geranyl and linalyl acetates reduced the responses to Z9E11-14:Ac with a longer time course. Pulses of linalool over prolonged pheromone stimulation resulted in a discontinuous firing activity. Pulses of pheromone were better separated over a background of linalool, compared with odorless air. The data confirm that plant compounds may modulate the intensity and the temporal coding by Ph-ORNs of pheromone information. This modulation might positively affect mate location at high pheromone density especially nearby a pheromone source.

  19. Parameters affecting air infiltration and air tightness in thirty-one east Tennessee homes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Hawthorne, A.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-04-03

    A major pathway for loss of conditioned air in east Tennessee homes with externally located heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is leakage in the ductwork. The effect on infiltration rates, as measured by Freon-12 tracer gas dilution, becomes marked if the central duct fan is operating; duct-fan on and duct-fan off measurements of the rate of air exchange gave mean values of 0.41 and 0.78 h/sup -1/, respectively, in a total of 31 homes. Specific leakage areas measured by the blower-door, pressurization-depressurization technique are affected to a lesser extent by inclusion of the ductwork volume within the total volume of the house that is being pressurized. A subset of 7 of the study homes were measured using this technique; the average increment in the specific leakage area was about 15%. In dealing with homes that have central HVAC systems, weatherization and energy conservation programs should be cognizant of the seriousness of air and energy losses caused by leaking ductwork. 8 references, 2 tables.

  20. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A; Hoo, E A

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  1. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  2. Electric field-mediated gene transfer into K562 cells: optimization of parameters affecting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Croaker, G M; Wass, E J; Iland, H J

    1990-07-01

    Since hemopoietic cells are refractory to transfection by conventional chemical means, we have developed a reliable and efficient gene transfer system for K562 cells which uses electric field-mediated gene transfer (EFMGT). EFMGT involves the exposure of cells in suspension to an electric field which transiently allows the entry of DNA into the cell and its subsequent integration and expression. Plasmids bearing the neo gene were used to identify and select transfected clonogenic cells manifested by geneticin resistance in semisolid medium. Transfection efficiency is significantly affected by the following variables: voltage, capacitance, time constant, number of pulses, buffer type and temperature, DNA concentration, configuration, and promoter type. Cell cycle status also appears to be critical as shown in studies employing aphidicolin synchronization. Using optimal conditions, we have consistently achieved a transfection efficiency of 0.3-0.4% of clonogenic cells per microgram DNA. Stability of neo gene expression was also demonstrated after 4 months in nonselective culture conditions. This level of efficiency compares favorably with other reports of gene transfer into human hemopoietic progenitor cells.

  3. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-07-31

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping,e valuation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings, and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. This project provides a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in older fields which have undergone primary development. The approach utilizes readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data; (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration; and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial in Pioneer Field, that produces from the Monterey Formation, a reservoir which is a candidate for thermal EOR.

  4. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  5. Parameters affecting the transscleral delivery of two positively charged proteins of comparable size.

    PubMed

    Grimaudo, Maria Aurora; Tratta, Elena; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2017-02-20

    Apart from molecular weight and net surface charge, there are other macromolecule-related factors that could, in principle, influence their diffusion across biological tissues, such as shape, conformability, water solubility and surface charge distribution. Lysozyme and cytochrome c, proteins with comparable molecular weight, isoelectric point and net surface charge in physiological conditions (approx. +7.8), are suitable model compounds for comparative studies, in particular to find out if other properties can have a role in the permeation across the sclera. The comparison between lysozyme and cytochrome c permeability was conducted by studying the permeation across the sclera and the choroid-Bruch's membrane and the diffusion across a hyaluronan gel-matrix. Melanin binding tests and the measurement of the electroosmosis flow during transscleral iontophoresis allowed for the evaluation of macromolecules affinity for the ocular tissues. Finally, anodal iontophoresis was applied to further confirm the interaction of the two proteins with the sclera. The data here collected show that two proteins with very similar MW, p Ka and charge can display very different diffusion properties across biological barriers. In particular, these differences can be attributed to a different interaction with specific components of ocular tissues: while the interaction with melanin and collagen fibers is apparently the same for the two molecules, a relevant difference was found in case of hyaluronic acid. Considering also literature evidences, the important parameters that can be responsible for this different affinity are molecular shape (spherical for cytochrome c vs prolate for lysozyme) and a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that depends on the surface charge distribution. The interactions between sclera components and lysozyme are relatively strong and were not altered by the application of electric current.

  6. Tetrazolium-based assays for cellular viability: a critical examination of selected parameters affecting formazan production.

    PubMed

    Vistica, D T; Skehan, P; Scudiero, D; Monks, A; Pittman, A; Boyd, M R

    1991-05-15

    The hydrogen acceptor 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) is commonly utilized to estimate cellular viability in drug screening protocols. The present investigation was prompted, in part, by observations that reduction of MTT to its colored reaction product, MTT formazan, varied between cell lines and with culture age. A correlation was established between the D-glucose concentration of the culture medium at the time of assay and the production of MTT formazan for cell lines representing seven tumor histologies. A decrease in the concentration of D-glucose from culture medium was accompanied by a decrease in MTT specific activity (MTT formazan/microgram cell protein) for a number of cell lines. Cells which extensively metabolized D-glucose exhibited the greatest reduction in MTT specific activity. Further evidence that the D-glucose concentration of the culture medium played an important role in MTT reduction was provided by experiments which demonstrated that transfer of cells to a glucose-free medium (L-15) was accompanied by an immediate decrease in MTT reduction which was pH independent. These studies suggested that cellular transport and constant metabolism of glucose were required for maximum MTT reduction. Decreases in the cellular concentration of the reduced pyridine nucleotides NADH and NADPH were accompanied by concomitant decreases in MTT formazan production. MTT formazan varied significantly among cell lines in both the kinetics of its formation and the degree of saturability exhibited. Apparent IC50 values for Adriamycin varied, in a cell line-specific manner, with MTT exposure time. These results indicate that MTT specific activity is significantly influenced by a number of parameters and suggest that assay conditions should be established which minimize their effects.

  7. Prediction of the area affected by earthquake-induced landsliding based on seismological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Odin; Meunier, Patrick; Hovius, Niels

    2017-07-01

    We present an analytical, seismologically consistent expression for the surface area of the region within which most landslides triggered by an earthquake are located (landslide distribution area). This expression is based on scaling laws relating seismic moment, source depth, and focal mechanism with ground shaking and fault rupture length and assumes a globally constant threshold of acceleration for onset of systematic mass wasting. The seismological assumptions are identical to those recently used to propose a seismologically consistent expression for the total volume and area of landslides triggered by an earthquake. To test the accuracy of the model we gathered geophysical information and estimates of the landslide distribution area for 83 earthquakes. To reduce uncertainties and inconsistencies in the estimation of the landslide distribution area, we propose an objective definition based on the shortest distance from the seismic wave emission line containing 95 % of the total landslide area. Without any empirical calibration the model explains 56 % of the variance in our dataset, and predicts 35 to 49 out of 83 cases within a factor of 2, depending on how we account for uncertainties on the seismic source depth. For most cases with comprehensive landslide inventories we show that our prediction compares well with the smallest region around the fault containing 95 % of the total landslide area. Aspects ignored by the model that could explain the residuals include local variations of the threshold of acceleration and processes modulating the surface ground shaking, such as the distribution of seismic energy release on the fault plane, the dynamic stress drop, and rupture directivity. Nevertheless, its simplicity and first-order accuracy suggest that the model can yield plausible and useful estimates of the landslide distribution area in near-real time, with earthquake parameters issued by standard detection routines.

  8. Parameters affecting frequency of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2015-10-01

    Frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis varies depending on Cas9 expression level and culture period of rice callus. Recent reports have demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can function as a sequence-specific nuclease in various plant species. Induction of mutation in proliferating tissue during embryogenesis or in germline cells is a practical means of generating heritable mutations. In the case of plant species in which cultured cells are used for transformation, non-chimeric plants can be obtained when regeneration occurs from mutated cells. Since plantlets are regenerated from both mutated and non-mutated cells in a random manner, any increment in the proportion of mutated cells in Cas9- and guide RNA (gRNA)-expressing cells will help increase the number of plants containing heritable mutations. In this study, we examined factors affecting mutation frequency in rice calli. Following sequential transformation of rice calli with Cas9- and gRNA- expression constructs, the mutation frequency in independent Cas9 transgenic lines was analyzed. A positive correlation between Cas9 expression level and mutation frequency was found. This positive relationship was observed regardless of whether the transgene or an endogenous gene was used as the target for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis. Furthermore, we found that extending the culture period increased the proportion of mutated cells as well as the variety of mutations obtained. Because mutated and non-mutated cells might proliferate equally, these results suggest that a prolonged tissue culture period increases the chance of inducing de novo mutations in non-mutated cells. This fundamental knowledge will help improve systems for obtaining non-chimeric regenerated plants in many plant species.

  9. α-Galactosides present in lupin flour affect several metabolic parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Palacio, María I; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Ángela; Etcheverría, Analía I; Manrique, Guillermo D

    2016-12-07

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents. The body weight was lower in the L diet than that in the control with significant differences (p < 0.05). The microbial analyses showed an increase of total lactobacilli counts and a decrease of enterobacteriaceae counts in the L diet when compared to the control, with significant differences (p < 0.05). The fermentations of α-galactosides were also confirmed by decrease in pH levels and the formation of relevant SCFA in the cecal content. The total content of SCFA (μmol per g) at the end of the assay period reached values of 13.58 and 3.64 for L and C rats, respectively. This significant increase of total SCFA in the L diet is responsible for a low pH of the cecal content that in turn prevents the growth and development of potentially pathogenic bacteria (p < 0.05). Regarding lipids, serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in the case of animals fed with lupin flour with respect to C animals (p < 0.05). Finally, the L rats showed higher values of an apparent Ca absorption percentage and bone volume percentage with respect to the C animals (p < 0.05). All these results confirm that lupin flour which contains α-galactosides could possibly be considered as a functional ingredient with health promoting

  10. Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death from cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating cancer cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are starting to understand. Infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds, and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue, are key steps for metastatic colonization. These obstacles make metastasis a highly inefficient process, but once metastases are established current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic determinants of metastatic colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  11. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... THERAPY Targeted treatment zeroes in on specific targets (molecules) in cancer cells. These targets play a role ... colon cancer. Some studies have reported that NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib) may help reduce the ...

  12. Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance. PMID:22879962

  13. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (⅓× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components.

  14. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  16. Optimization of parameters affecting signal intensity in an LTQ-orbitrap in negative ion mode: A design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos

    2016-01-15

    A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions.

  17. Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Protim; Mily, Akhirunnesa; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Jalal, Shah; Bergman, Peter; Raqib, Rubhana; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics exert several effects on host cells including regulation of immune components. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), e.g., cathelicidins and defensins display multiple functions in innate immunity. In colonic mucosa, cathelicidins are induced by butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotics on butyrate-induced expression of cathelicidins and beta-defensins in colon epithelial cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin and clindamycin reduce butyrate-induced transcription of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. Suppression of LL-37 peptide/protein by ciprofloxacin was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ciprofloxacin suppresses the rabbit cathelicidin CAP-18 in rectal epithelia of healthy and butyrate-treated Shigella-infected rabbits. Ciprofloxacin also down-regulated butyrate-induced transcription of the human beta-defensin-3 in HT-29 cells. Microarray analysis of HT-29 cells revealed upregulation by butyrate with subsequent down-regulation by ciprofloxacin of additional genes encoding immune factors. Dephosphorylation of histone H3, an epigenetic event provided a possible mechanism of the suppressive effect of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, LL-37 peptide inhibited Clostridium difficile growth in vitro. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin exert immunomodulatory function by down-regulating AMPs and other immune components in colonic epithelial cells. Suppression of AMPs may contribute to the overgrowth of C. difficile, causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. PMID:27025750

  18. A mathematical model to predict the size of the pellets formed in freeze pelletization techniques: parameters affecting pellet size.

    PubMed

    Cheboyina, Sreekhar; O'Haver, John; Wyandt, Christy M

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed based on the theory of drop formation to predict the size of the pellets formed in the freeze pelletization process. Further the model was validated by studying the effect of various parameters on the pellet size such as viscosity of the pellet forming and column liquids, surface/interfacial tension, density difference between pellet forming and column liquids; size, shape, and material of construction of the needle tips and temperatures maintained in the columns. In this study, pellets were prepared from different matrices including polyethylene glycols and waxes. The column liquids studied were silicone oils and aqueous glycerol solutions. The surface/interfacial tension, density difference between pellet forming and column liquids and needle tip size were found to be the most important factors affecting pellet size. The viscosity of the column liquid was not found to significantly affect the size of the pellets. The size of the pellets was also not affected by the pellet forming liquids of low viscosities. An increase in the initial column temperature slightly decreased the pellet size. The mathematical model developed was found to successfully predict the size of the pellets with an average error of 3.32% for different matrices that were studied.

  19. Inoculation with enterococci does not affect colon inflammation in the multi-drug resistance 1a-deficient mouse model of IBD.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Dommels, Yvonne E M; Butts, Christine A; Zhu, Shuotun; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2016-03-03

    Intestinal bacteria are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether oral inoculation with specific intestinal bacteria increased colon inflammation in the multi-drug resistance 1a-deficient (Mdr1a (-/-) ) mouse model of IBD. Five-week-old Mdr1a (-/-) mice (FVB background) and FVB mice were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (Control or Inoculation, n = 12 per group). All mice were fed AIN-76A rodent diet, and mice in the Inoculation groups also received a single oral bacterial inoculation consisting of twelve cultured Enterococcus species combined with conventional intestinal flora obtained from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy mice (EF.CIF). Body weight, food intake, and disease activity index (DAI) were assessed throughout the study, and at 21 or 24 weeks of age, inflammation was assessed post-mortem by determining colon length and histological injury score (HIS), and plasma serum amyloid A (SAA). Mdr1a (-/-) mice consumed more food than FVB mice at 13 weeks of age (P < 0.05). There was also a significant effect of genotype on body weight, with Mdr1a (-/-) mice weighing less than FVB mice throughout the study (P < 0.05) regardless of treatment, but there was no effect of inoculation on body weight (P > 0.25). Colon HIS of Mdr1a (-/-) mice was significantly higher than that of FVB mice in the Control (9.3 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) vs. 0.58 ± 0.51; P < 0.001) and Inoculation (6.7 ± 5.1 vs. 0.92 ± 0.39; P < 0.001) groups. There was no difference in colon HIS of Mdr1a (-/-) mice in the Control group compared with Mdr1a (-/-) mice in the Inoculation group (P = 0.25), nor was there any difference in within-group variation of colon HIS in these two Mdr1a (-/-) groups. DAI was higher in Mdr1a (-/-) mice than in FVB mice, but there was no effect of treatment in either strain, nor were there any differences in colon length or plasma SAA. Inoculation of Mdr1a (-/-) mice with the EF

  20. The mode of delivery affects the diversity and colonization pattern of the gut microbiota during the first year of infants' life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rutayisire, Erigene; Huang, Kun; Liu, Yehao; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-07-30

    The human gut is the habitat for diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem. The human microbiota plays a critical role in functions that sustain health and is a positive asset in host defenses. Establishment of the human intestinal microbiota during infancy may be influenced by multiple factors including delivery mode. Present review compiles existing evidences on the effect of delivery mode on the diversity and colonization pattern of infants gut microbiota. Two investigators searched for relevant scientific publications from four databases (Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science). The last search was performed on September 21, 2015, using key terms ((delivery mode OR caesarean delivery OR cesarean section OR vaginal delivery) AND (gut microbiota OR gut microbiome OR gut microflora OR intestinal microflora OR microbial diversity) AND (infants OR children)). All included studies described at least two types of gut microbiota in relation to delivery mode (caesarean section vs vaginal delivery) and used fecal samples to detect gut microbiota. Seven out of 652 retrieved studies met inclusion criteria, were included in systematic analysis. Caesarean Section (CS) was associated with both lower abundance and diversity of the phyala Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and higher abundance and diversity of the phylum Firmicute from birth to 3 months of life. At the colonization level, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides genera seems to be significantly more frequent in vaginally delivered infants compared with CS delivered. These infants were more colonized by the Clostridium, and Lactobacillus genera. From the reports, it is tempting to say that delivery mode has less effect on colonization and diversity of Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus genera from the age of 6 to 12 months of life. The diversity and colonization pattern of the gut microbiota were significantly associated to the mode of delivery during the first three months of life, however

  1. Environmentally realistic concentrations of the antibiotic Trimethoprim affect haemocyte parameters but not antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; De Notaris, Chiara; Finos, Livio; Filippini, Raffaella; Piovan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers were measured to evaluate the effects of Trimethoprim (TMP; 300, 600 and 900 ng/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days. The actual TMP concentrations were also measured in the experimental tanks. The total haemocyte count significantly increased in 7 day-exposed clams, whereas alterations in haemocyte volume were observed after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Haemocyte proliferation was increased significantly in animals exposed for 1 and 7 days, whereas haemocyte lysate lysozyme activity decreased significantly after 1 and 3 days. In addition, TMP significantly increased haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity after 3 and 7 days. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, only a significant time-dependent effect on CAT activity was recorded. This study demonstrated that environmentally realistic concentrations of TMP affect haemocyte parameters in clams, suggesting that haemocytes are a useful cellular model for the assessment of the impact of TMP on bivalves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How do alternative root water uptake models affect the inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and the prediction of evapotranspiration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Salima-Sultana, Daisy; Selle, Benny; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Soil water extraction by roots affects the dynamics and distribution of soil moisture and controls transpiration, which influences soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes. Consequently, root water uptake requires close attention when predicting water fluxes across the land surface, e.g., in agricultural crop models or in land surface schemes of weather and climate models. The key parameters for a successful simultaneous simulation of soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration in Richards equation-based models are the soil hydraulic parameters, which describe the shapes of the soil water retention curve and the soil hydraulic conductivity curve. As measurements of these parameters are expensive and their estimation from basic soil data via pedotransfer functions is rather inaccurate, the values of the soil hydraulic parameters are frequently inversely estimated by fitting the model to measured time series of soil water content and evapotranspiration. It is common to simulate root water uptake and transpiration by simple stress functions, which describe from which soil layer water is absorbed by roots and predict when total crop transpiration is decreased in case of soil water limitations. As for most of the biogeophysical processes simulated in crop and land surface models, there exist several alternative functional relationships for simulating root water uptake and there is no clear reason for preferring one process representation over another. The error associated with alternative representations of root water uptake, however, contributes to structural model uncertainty and the choice of the root water uptake model may have a significant impact on the values of the soil hydraulic parameters estimated inversely. In this study, we use the agroecosystem model system Expert-N to simulate soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration at three agricultural field sites located in two contrasting regions in Southwest Germany (Kraichgau, Swabian Alb). The Richards

  3. Dynamic Testing of a Pre-stretched Flexible Tube for Identifying the Factors Affecting Modal Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Madhusudanan; Rajan, Akash; Basanthvihar Raghunathan, Binulal; Kochupillai, Jayaraj

    2017-08-01

    Experimental modal analysis is the primary tool for obtaining the fundamental dynamic characteristics like natural frequency, mode shape and modal damping ratio that determine the behaviour of any structure under dynamic loading conditions. This paper discusses about a carefully designed experimental method for calculating the dynamic characteristics of a pre-stretched horizontal flexible tube made of polyurethane material. The factors that affect the modal parameter estimation like the application time of shaker excitation, pause time between successive excitation cycles, averaging and windowing of measured signal, as well as the precautions to be taken during the experiment are explained in detail. The modal parameter estimation is done using MEscopeVESTM software. A finite element based pre-stressed modal analysis of the flexible tube is also done using ANSYS ver.14.0 software. The experimental and analytical results agreed well. The proposed experimental methodology may be extended for carrying out the modal analysis of many flexible structures like inflatables, tires and membranes.

  4. Sub-chronic exposure to low concentration of dibutyl phthalate affects anthropometric parameters and markers of obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Khalid Abdul; Ur Rehman, Habib; Yousaf, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zaneb, Hafsa; Rabbani, Imtiaz; Tahir, Sajid Khan; Rashid, Muhammad Afzal

    2017-08-19

    Dibutyl phthalate is an important phthalate ester extensively used in various products like plastics, adhesives, inks, pharmaceuticals, lacquers, varnishes, paper coatings, safety glasses, and cosmetics. The exposure of DBP to "one's health" is therefore inevitable. The present study focuses on elucidating the effect of low doses of DBP on anthropometric parameters and markers of obesity in rats in a 13-week study. A total of 48 rats were divided into three treatment groups as mg DBP/kg body weight per day: (a) 0 mg/kg (control), (b) 10 mg/kg (DBP-10), and (c) 50 mg/kg (DBP-50). The rats in each treatment (n = 16) were further equally divided into male and female rats for studying treatment and gender interaction. Anthropometric parameters, nutritional determinants, and markers of obesity in rats were studied. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data (p < 0.05). Tukey's post hoc test was used for pairwise comparisons. DBP increased body weight gain, feed efficiency, abdominal to thoracic circumference ratio, and body mass index in rats. Serum cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase concentrations decreased with DBP treatment. Serum albumin, glucose, creatinine, and alanine transaminase increased with DBP treatments. Serum lactate dehydrogenase increased in DBP-10 but was not affected by DBP-50. Further low-dose investigations are needed to assess non-monotonic dose responses.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, A A; Banks, P; Szymczyk, B; Leszczyńska, T; Master, A; Piasna, E; Szczepański, W; Domagała, D; Kopeć, A; Piątkowska, E; Laidler, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research were to investigate the effect of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diet on Isa Brown laying hen health status and to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in blood parameters, liver morphology and selected hepatic gene expression. Hens were allocated to the control and experimental group (diet enriched with 0.75% CLA) for a total period of 4 m. At the end of the experiment half of the hens from each group were slaughtered for analyses. The remaining hens were transferred to an organic farm for the next 5 m and fed on the diet without CLA supplementation. The CLA-enriched diet resulted in significant changes in blood and serum parameters; specifically, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cells (WBC) count were decreased compared to the control. The total cholesterol (TC) was not significantly affected while the triacylglycerol's (TG) concentration was elevated. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the CLA-supplemented group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed an increasing tendency. Liver biopsies showed pathological changes classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acids synthesis (ME1, ACLY, ACC, FASN, SCD1), oxidation (CPT1α, PPARA), detoxification processes (Cytochrome P450, CYP, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO3), oxidative stress (NOX4, XbP1) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα) were elevated. Cessation of CLA supplementation for 5 m of organic farming resulted in normalisation of blood and hepatic parameters to the levels observed in control hens. The results of this study indicate that dietary CLA triggers an integrated stress response in laying hens and activates mechanisms involved in liver detoxification.

  6. Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

  7. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  8. TH-C-18A-09: Exam and Patient Parameters Affecting the DNA Damage Response Following CT Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Elgart, S; Adibi, A; Bostani, M; Ruehm, S; Enzmann, D; McNitt-Gray, M; Iwamoto, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To identify exam and patient parameters affecting the biological response to CT studies using in vivo and ex vivo blood samples. Methods: Blood samples were collected under IRB approval from 16 patients undergoing clinically-indicated CT exams. Blood was procured prior to, immediately after and 30minutes following irradiation. A sample of preexam blood was placed on the patient within the exam region for ex vivo analysis. Whole blood samples were fixed immediately following collection and stained for γH2AX to assess DNA damage response (DDR). Median fluorescence of treated samples was compared to non-irradiated control samples for each patient. Patients were characterized by observed biological kinetic response: (a) fast — phosphorylation increased by 2minutes and fell by 30minutes, (b) slow — phosphorylation continued to increase to 30minutes and (c) none — little change was observed or irradiated samples fell below controls. Total dose values were normalized to exam time for an averaged dose-rate in dose/sec for each exam. Relationships between patient biological responses and patient and exam parameters were investigated. Results: A clearer dose response at 30minutes is observed for young patients (<61yoa; R2>0.5) compared to old patients (>61yoa; R{sup 2}<0.11). Fast responding patients were significantly younger than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Unlike in vivo samples, age did not significantly affect the patient response ex vivo. Additionally, fast responding patients received exams with significantly smaller dose-rate than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age is a significant factor in the biological response suggesting that DDR may be more rapid in a younger population and slower as the population ages. Lack of an agerelated response ex vivo suggests a systemic response to radiation not present when irradiated outside the body. Dose-rate affects the biological response suggesting that patient response may be related to

  9. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  10. Practice parameters for early colon cancer management: Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (Società Italiana di Chirurgia Colo-Rettale; SICCR) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bianco, F; Arezzo, A; Agresta, F; Coco, C; Faletti, R; Krivocapic, Z; Rotondano, G; Santoro, G A; Vettoretto, N; De Franciscis, S; Belli, A; Romano, G M

    2015-10-01

    Early colon cancer (ECC) has been defined as a carcinoma with invasion limited to the submucosa regardless of lymph node status and according to the Royal College of Pathologists as TNM stage T1 NX M0. As the potential risk of lymph node metastasis ranges from 6 to 17% and the preoperative assessment of lymph node metastasis is not reliable, the management of ECC is still controversial, varying from endoscopic to radical resection. A meeting on recent advances on the management of colorectal polyps endorsed by the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) took place in April 2014, in Genoa (Italy). Based on this material the SICCR decided to issue guidelines updating the evidence and to write a position statement paper in order to define the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for ECC treatment in context of the Italian healthcare system.

  11. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium.

  12. Quality control for bone quality parameters affected by subject motion in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pauchard, Yves; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Macdonald, Heather M; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-06-01

    Subject motion during high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) causes image artifacts that affect morphological analysis of bone quality. The aim of our study was to determine effectiveness of techniques for quality control in the presence of motion in vivo including automated and manual approaches. First, repeatability of manual grading was determined within and between laboratories. Given proper training using a standardized scale and training images (provided by the manufacturer), we found that manual grading is suitable for repeatable image quality grading within and across sites (ICC>0.7). Both a new automated technique providing motion measures based on projection moments, and traditional manual grading (1=best, 5=worst) were subsequently used to assess subject data for motion in N=137 image pairs (scan/re-scan) from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) Calgary cohort. High quality image pairs were selected and measurement precision was estimated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). Consistent with previous data, density parameters (e.g. total bone mineral density) are more robust than structural (e.g. trabecular number) or finite element parameters (e.g. failure load). To obtain acceptable measurement precision, images should not exceed a manual grading of 3 (on a scale from 1 to 5) or an automatic (ε(T)) grading of 1.2. Automatic and manual grading provide comparable quality control, but the advantage of the automated technique is its ability to provide a motion value at scan time (providing a basis for real time decision regarding re-scan requirements), and the assessment is objective. Notably, automatic motion measurement can be performed retrospectively based on original scan data, and is therefore well suited for multi-center studies as well as any research where objective quality control is paramount.

  13. Which parameters affect medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures?

    PubMed

    Bahrs, Christian; Kühle, Luise; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Stöckle, Ulrich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Freude, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Very little information on medium- to long-term results is available for surgically treated proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this prospective treatment study was to present long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures and to detect which specific patient- and fracture-related parameters affect the clinical outcome. We performed a prospective clinical and radiologic evaluation of 77 patients with a displaced proximal humeral fracture (28 Neer 2-part, 38 3-part, and 11 4-part fractures; 28 AO A fractures, 30 AO B fractures, and 19 AO C fractures) treated with angular stable plate fixation after a mean follow-up period of 96 months (range, 74-133 months). We assessed outcomes with the Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores and evaluated specific patient- and fracture-related parameters including complications. The mean Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were 79, 31, and 12 points. Reasons for revisions were implant-related impingement (n = 13), screw perforation (n = 10), infection (n = 4), and secondary fracture displacement (n = 1). There was a significant association between worse score results and occurrence of secondary fracture displacement, screw perforation, residual bone deformities, and a rotator cuff defect at follow-up. Good medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fracture can be expected. A reconstruction within a range of 15° in both anteroposterior and axillary views and <5-mm tuberosity displacement should be the aim of head-preserving surgery to prevent complications, such as secondary fracture displacement and screw perforation, and a less favorable long-term result. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  15. Examination of Parameters Affecting the House Prices by Multiple Regression Analysis and its Contributions to Earthquake-Based Urban Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denli, H. H.; Durmus, B.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors which may affect the apartment prices with multiple linear regression analysis models and visualize the results by value maps. The study is focused on a county of Istanbul - Turkey. Totally 390 apartments around the county Umraniye are evaluated due to their physical and locational conditions. The identification of factors affecting the price of apartments in the county with a population of approximately 600k is expected to provide a significant contribution to the apartment market.Physical factors are selected as the age, number of rooms, size, floor numbers of the building and the floor that the apartment is positioned in. Positional factors are selected as the distances to the nearest hospital, school, park and police station. Totally ten physical and locational parameters are examined by regression analysis.After the regression analysis has been performed, value maps are composed from the parameters age, price and price per square meters. The most significant of the composed maps is the price per square meters map. Results show that the location of the apartment has the most influence to the square meter price information of the apartment. A different practice is developed from the composed maps by searching the ability of using price per square meters map in urban transformation practices. By marking the buildings older than 15 years in the price per square meters map, a different and new interpretation has been made to determine the buildings, to which should be given priority during an urban transformation in the county.This county is very close to the North Anatolian Fault zone and is under the threat of earthquakes. By marking the apartments older than 15 years on the price per square meters map, both older and expensive square meters apartments list can be gathered. By the help of this list, the priority could be given to the selected higher valued old apartments to support the economy of the country

  16. [Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the colon].

    PubMed

    Amo Trillo, Víctor; Vera García, Pilar; Pinto, Isabel; Olmedo Martín, Raúl; Romero Blasco, Bartolomé

    2007-05-01

    We report the case of a 68 year-old man in whom a tumour of the colon was identified by colonoscopy, during diagnostic studies for lower gastrointestinal bleeding as an outpatient. Histological examination showed clonal proliferation of plasma cells IgG-K. No other location was affected (including bone marrow). Diagnosis of plasmacytoma of the colon was made. We have carried out a review of the literature in relation to this unusual disorder.

  17. Treadmill walking differently affects body composition and metabolic parameters of female rats from normal or small litters.

    PubMed

    Sakakima, G M; Dos Santos, E R; Bueno, G C; Rempel, M S; Furlan, J P; da Costa, Cem; Godoi, Vaf; Pedrosa, Mmd

    2016-06-01

    This work assessed whether walking affects bodily development and metabolic parameters of female rats raised in small litters (three pups, group S) or control litters (nine pups, group C). After weaning, some of the rats had five sessions per week of a 30-min treadmill walking (CE and SE), while the others remained sedentary (CS and SS) until the age of 120 days. Exercise caused a reduction of body weight (CS/CE = 1.18), Lee index (CS/CE = 1.04), fasting blood glucose (CS/CE = 1.35), mesenteric (CS/CE = 1.23), and ovarian fat (CS/CE = 1.33) in CE, but only glucose was decreased in SE (SS/SE = 1.16). The diameter of adipocytes decreased to a half in the small-litter groups. Exercise increased subcutaneous (CS/CE = 0.88 and SS/SE = 0.71), but decreased retroperitoneal adipocytes (CS/CE = 1.2 and SS/SE = 1.3). Litter size reduction had little impact on females at the age of 120 days, but the light physical activity seemed insufficient to counteract all the effects of lactational overfeeding. On the other hand, pups from exercised mothers had a decrease in their biometric and glycemic indexes, demonstrating the transgenerational action of regular, although light, exercise.

  18. Finite elements/Taguchi method based procedure for the identification of the geometrical parameters significantly affecting the biomechanical behavior of a lumbar disc.

    PubMed

    Cappetti, N; Naddeo, A; Naddeo, F; Solitro, G F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to show a quick and simple procedure able to identify the geometrical parameters of the intervertebral disc that strongly affect the behavior of the FEM model. First, we allocated a selection criterion for the minimum number of geometrical parameters that describe, with a good degree of approximation, a healthy human vertebra. Next, we carried out a sensitivity analysis using the 'Taguchi orthogonal array' to arrive at a quick identification of the parameters that strongly affect the behavior of the Fem model.

  19. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  20. How Does a Shared Decision-Making (SDM) Intervention for Oncologists Affect Participation Style and Preference Matching in Patients with Breast and Colon Cancer?

    PubMed

    Bieber, Christiane; Nicolai, Jennifer; Gschwendtner, Kathrin; Müller, Nicole; Reuter, Katrin; Buchholz, Angela; Kallinowski, Birgit; Härter, Martin; Eich, Wolfgang

    2016-12-13

    The aims of this study are to assess patients' preferred and perceived decision-making roles and preference matching in a sample of German breast and colon cancer patients and to investigate how a shared decision-making (SDM) intervention for oncologists influences patients' preferred and perceived decision-making roles and the attainment of preference matches. This study is a post hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of an SDM intervention. The SDM intervention was a 12-h SDM training program for physicians in combination with decision board use. For this study, we analysed a subgroup of 107 breast and colon cancer patients faced with serious treatment decisions who provided data on specific questionnaires with regard to their preferred and perceived decision-making roles (passive, SDM or active). Patients filled in questionnaires immediately following a decision-relevant consultation (t1) with their oncologist. Eleven of these patients' 27 treating oncologists had received the SDM intervention within the RCT. A majority of cancer patients (60%) preferred SDM. A match between preferred and perceived decision-making roles was reached for 72% of patients. The patients treated by SDM-trained physicians perceived greater autonomy in their decision making (p < 0.05) with more patients perceiving SDM or an active role, but their preference matching was not influenced. A SDM intervention for oncologists boosted patient autonomy but did not improve preference matching. This highlights the already well-known reluctance of physicians to engage in explicit role clarification.

  1. A comprehensive study of physical and physiological parameters that affect bio-sorption of metal pollutants from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Mamba, B. B.; Marjanovic, L.; Barnard, T. G.

    An attempt was made to remove silver (I), chromium (III), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. To optimize the bio-sorption capacity of microorganisms ( Bacillus subtilis and Bacillaceae bacterium), the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature, metal load and culture age on the metal uptake was investigated. Indigenous strains of B. subtilis and Bacillaceae bacterium found in gold and copper mines in South Africa were exposed to silver (I), chromium (III), and lead (II) solutions under different physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Optimum conditions for the uptake of silver (I), chromium (III) and lead (II) by microorganisms used in this study were determined. The pH range 7-8, higher temperature (45 °C) and stationary growth phase, were observed as being suitable physical and physiological conditions for optimum removal of metals (Ag-87.2%; Cr-94% and Pb-98.5%). On the other hand very low pH (3) adversely affected the metal removal ability of bacteria. Silver (I) was the most poorly uptaken metal. It was also found that silver inhibited bacteria growth. Attempt to elute metal from the above cell biomass showed that 56.6% silver (I) and 88.3% lead (II) could effectively be desorbed at pH 5. It was additionally observed that optimum conditions for metal removal were specific to microbial bio-sorbent and the targeted metal. Design and implementation of bioremediation processes therefore require thorough study of specific interactions among metals and bio-sorbents involved.

  2. Dissecting Systemic RNA Interference in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum: Parameters Affecting the Efficiency of RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sherry C.; Miyata, Keita; Brown, Susan J.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic RNAi), has only been studied extensively in certain plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In recent years, RNAi has become a popular reverse genetic technique for gene silencing in many organisms. Although many RNAi techniques in non-traditional model organisms rely on the systemic nature of RNAi, little has been done to analyze the parameters required to obtain a robust systemic RNAi response. The data provided here show that the concentration and length of dsRNA have profound effects on the efficacy of the RNAi response both in regard to initial efficiency and duration of the effect in Tribolium castaneum. In addition, our analyses using a series of short dsRNAs and chimeric dsRNA provide evidence that dsRNA cellular uptake (and not the RNAi response itself) is the major step affected by dsRNA size in Tribolium. We also demonstrate that competitive inhibition of dsRNA can occur when multiple dsRNAs are injected together, influencing the effectiveness of RNAi. These data provide specific information essential to the design and implementation of RNAi based studies, and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the systemic RNAi response in insects. PMID:23133513

  3. Non-Contrast Computed Tomography Scan Based Parameters of Ureteric Stones Affecting the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz Khan, Mohammad; Waqas Iqbal, Muhammad; Akbar, Mian Khalid; Saqib, Imad-ud-din; Akhter, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To compare the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan-based parameters of ureteric stones affecting the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and methods We retrospectively evaluated the pre-procedure NCCT of 74 patients who had ESWL for solitary ureteric calculi of 5-20 mm in diameter. We assessed the age, sex, basal metabolic index (BMI), laterality, location, presence of double 'J' (DJ) stent, skin to stone distance (SSD), stone maximum diameter, Hounsfield unit (HU), Hounsfield density (HD), area, and volume. All those who had no stone on follow-up imaging within 30 days were declared successful while those who had residual stone were declared failures. Results The overall success rate was 78% (58/74). Sixty (81.1%) patients were male. The success of ESWL was correlated with lower SSD, Hounsfield units (HU) and Hounsfield density (HD). However, in multivariate analysis, SSD, Hounsfield unit, and stone area showed correlation with success of procedure but Hounsfield density failed to show correlation. The success rate in patients with stone HU <500, 500-1000 and >1000 were 93.9%, 69%, and 58.3%, respectively. Patients with lower BMI (<30 kg/m2) and HD (<76 HU/mm) were more prone towards success of the procedure than those with higher BMI (>30 kg/m2) and higher HD (>76 HU/mm). Conclusion BMI, SSD, stone Hounsfield units and Hounsfield unit density were strong predictors of outcome of ESWL for ureteric stone. PMID:28589076

  4. What are the stimulation parameters that affect the extent of twitch force potentiation in the adductor pollicis muscle?

    PubMed

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Muscle force potentiation affects force output during electrical stimulation. Few studies have examined stimulation train parameters that influence potentiation such as pulse number, stimulation frequency, train duration, and force-time integral and peak force produced during the train. Pulse-matched trains (100 pulses) at 7.5, 15, 25, 30, 50, and 100 Hz, and trains of varying pulse number (50, 100, and 200 pulses) at 30 and 50 Hz were delivered to the ulnar nerve of 10 (5 male, 5 female; 23.4 ± 0.9 years), healthy individuals in random order. Single twitches of the adductor pollicis muscle were elicited before and after each train with a rest interval of at least 5 min between each train. No differences in potentiation occurred across the pulse-matched trains at frequencies of 15-50 Hz (38.9 ± 5.4-44.6 ± 5.5%). Twitch force potentiation following the highest (100 Hz) and lowest (7.5 Hz) frequency trains were not significantly different and were lower than the other 100 pulse-matched trains. As pulse number increased, potentiation increased for both the 30 and 50-Hz trains. There was a significant positive correlation between force potentiation and force-time integral produced by the stimulation train, r = 0.70. The results indicate that potentiation magnitude is dependent on the force-time integral produced during the test train and the number of pulses delivered, independent of stimulation frequency.

  5. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  6. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  7. Chemical cues for surface colonization.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Peter D; De Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2002-10-01

    Colonization of surfaces in marine benthic environments is often one of the most significant moments in the life history of benthic organisms, representing, for example, a change from a planktonic to a benthic existence, a shift from a mobile to a sessile life form, or the initiation of pathogenesis. Many of the surfaces that are colonized are, in fact, other marine organisms, and in a general sense there is widespread evidence that specific chemical cues derived from marine organisms affect colonization by both marine prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, detailed information for any one system on the nature of such cues, their distribution in situ, and their effects on the demography of colonizers is rare. Here, we selectively review the literature on chemical cues for colonization in the sea, focussing on contrasts between positive (inducers) and negative (inhibitors, deterrents) cues and on prokaryote/eukaryote interactions. We also consider whether generalized life history or natural history characteristics of colonizers (i.e., the mobility of a propagule, the extent to which a species is a habitat generalist or specialist, etc.) affect their response to chemical cues, and we touch briefly on some recent highlights relevant to the critical interplay between hydrodynamics and chemistry. A number of important methodological concerns are now being addressed through the introduction of field assays and analyses for chemical cues, and through molecular techniques for the characterization of microbial biofilms. These developments are encouraging, as is the increasingly multidisciplinary and cross-taxonomic approach to research in this area.

  8. Growth media simulating ileal and colonic environments affect the intracellular proteome and carbon fluxes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933.

    PubMed

    Polzin, Sabrina; Huber, Claudia; Eylert, Eva; Elsenhans, Ines; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Herbert

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the intracellular proteome of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry after growth in simulated ileal environment media (SIEM) and simulated colonic environment media (SCEM) under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Differentially expressed intracellular proteins were identified and allocated to functional protein groups. Moreover, metabolic fluxes were analyzed by isotopologue profiling with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose as a tracer. The results of this study show that EDL933 responds with differential expression of a complex network of proteins and metabolic pathways, reflecting the high metabolic adaptability of the strain. Growth in SIEM and SCEM is obviously facilitated by the upregulation of nucleotide biosynthesis pathway proteins and could be impaired by exposition to 50 µM 6-mercaptopurine under aerobic conditions. Notably, various stress and virulence factors, including Shiga toxin, were expressed without having contact with a human host.

  9. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  10. Silencing of the Rac1 GTPase MtROP9 in Medicago truncatula stimulates early mycorrhizal and oomycete root colonizations but negatively affects rhizobial infection.

    PubMed

    Kiirika, Leonard Muriithi; Bergmann, Hannah Friederike; Schikowsky, Christine; Wimmer, Diana; Korte, Joschka; Schmitz, Udo; Niehaus, Karsten; Colditz, Frank

    2012-05-01

    RAC/ROP proteins (ρ-related GTPases of plants) are plant-specific small G proteins that function as molecular switches within elementary signal transduction pathways, including the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during early microbial infection via the activation of NADPH oxidase homologs of plants termed RBOH (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog). We investigated the role of Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17 small GTPase MtROP9, orthologous to Medicago sativa Rac1, via an RNA interference silencing approach. Composite M. truncatula plants (MtROP9i) whose roots have been transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying the RNA interference vector were generated and infected with the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus intraradices and the rhizobial bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti as well as with the pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches. MtROP9i transgenic lines showed a clear growth-reduced phenotype and revealed neither ROS generation nor MtROP9 and MtRBOH gene expression after microbial infection. Coincidently, antioxidative compounds were not induced in infected MtROP9i roots, as documented by differential proteomics (two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis). Furthermore, MtROP9 knockdown clearly promoted mycorrhizal and A. euteiches early hyphal root colonization, while rhizobial infection was clearly impaired. Infected MtROP9i roots showed, in part, extremely swollen noninfected root hairs and reduced numbers of deformed nodules. S. meliloti nodulation factor treatments of MtROP9i led to deformed root hairs showing progressed swelling of its upper regions or even of the entire root hair and spontaneous constrictions but reduced branching effects occurring only at swollen root hairs. These results suggest a key role of Rac1 GTPase MtROP9 in ROS-mediated early infection signaling.

  11. Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.

    PubMed

    Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

    2014-01-28

    The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately.

  12. Inflammatory response in serrated precursor lesions of the colon classified according to WHO entities, clinical parameters and phenotype–genotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Atreya, Raja; Aust, Daniela; Baretton, Gustavo; Eck, Matthias; Erlenbach‐Wünsch, Katharina; Hartmann, Arndt; Lugli, Alessandro; Stöhr, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Wirsing, Anna M; Zlobec, Inti; Katzenberger, Tiemo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies on traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia (SSA‐D) are rare due to the low frequency of these lesions, which are well defined by the latest WHO classification. However, introducing new morphological criteria such as intra‐epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) might facilitate colorectal polyp diagnoses. Additionally, the phenotype–genotype correlation needs to be updated as the terminology has repeatedly changed. This study analysed 516 polyps, consisting of 118 classical adenomas (CAD), 116 hyperplastic polyps (HPP), 179 SSAs, 41 SSA‐Ds, and 62 TSAs. The lesions were analysed in relation to the patients’ clinical parameters including gender, age, localisation, and size. The inflammatory background of the polyps was quantified and BRAF and KRAS mutations as well as MLH1 and CDKN2A promoter methylation were assessed. In multivariate analyses, an increase in IELs was an independent and robust new criterion for the diagnosis of SSA‐D (p < 0.001). Superficial erosions and acute neutrophil granulocytes led to reactive changes potentially resembling dysplasia. KRAS and BRAF mutations were associated with CAD/TSA and HPP/SSA, respectively. However, almost half of TSAs had a BRAF mutation and were KRAS wild type. CDKN2A seems to precede MLH1 hyper‐methylation within the serrated carcinogenesis model. The genotyping of WHO‐based entities – and especially SSA – has sharpened in comparison to previously published data. TSAs can be sub‐grouped according to their mutation status. Of note, the higher number of IELs in SSA‐D reflects their close relationship to colorectal cancers with micro‐satellite instability. Therefore, IELs might represent a new diagnostic tool for SSA‐D. PMID:27499921

  13. Inflammatory response in serrated precursor lesions of the colon classified according to WHO entities, clinical parameters and phenotype-genotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Rau, Tilman T; Atreya, Raja; Aust, Daniela; Baretton, Gustavo; Eck, Matthias; Erlenbach-Wünsch, Katharina; Hartmann, Arndt; Lugli, Alessandro; Stöhr, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Wirsing, Anna M; Zlobec, Inti; Katzenberger, Tiemo

    2016-04-01

    Studies on traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia (SSA-D) are rare due to the low frequency of these lesions, which are well defined by the latest WHO classification. However, introducing new morphological criteria such as intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) might facilitate colorectal polyp diagnoses. Additionally, the phenotype-genotype correlation needs to be updated as the terminology has repeatedly changed. This study analysed 516 polyps, consisting of 118 classical adenomas (CAD), 116 hyperplastic polyps (HPP), 179 SSAs, 41 SSA-Ds, and 62 TSAs. The lesions were analysed in relation to the patients' clinical parameters including gender, age, localisation, and size. The inflammatory background of the polyps was quantified and BRAF and KRAS mutations as well as MLH1 and CDKN2A promoter methylation were assessed. In multivariate analyses, an increase in IELs was an independent and robust new criterion for the diagnosis of SSA-D (p < 0.001). Superficial erosions and acute neutrophil granulocytes led to reactive changes potentially resembling dysplasia. KRAS and BRAF mutations were associated with CAD/TSA and HPP/SSA, respectively. However, almost half of TSAs had a BRAF mutation and were KRAS wild type. CDKN2A seems to precede MLH1 hyper-methylation within the serrated carcinogenesis model. The genotyping of WHO-based entities - and especially SSA - has sharpened in comparison to previously published data. TSAs can be sub-grouped according to their mutation status. Of note, the higher number of IELs in SSA-D reflects their close relationship to colorectal cancers with micro-satellite instability. Therefore, IELs might represent a new diagnostic tool for SSA-D.

  14. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Caroline H.; Dejea, Christine M.; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T.; Santidrian, Antonio F.; Felding, Brunhilde H.; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A.; Pardoll, Drew M.; White, James R.; Patti, Gary J.; Sears, Cynthia L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N1, N12-diacetylspermine in both biofilm positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N1, N12-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome, to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression. PMID:25959674

  15. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-02

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata from Calilegua National Park (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Zak, Marcelo R; Horton, Thomas R; Micolini, Jorge

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) colonization associated with Alnus acuminata (Andean alder), in relation to soil parameters (electrical conductivity, field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, available P, organic matter, and total N) at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in natural forests of A. acuminata situated in Calilegua National Park (Jujuy, Argentina). Nine ECM morphotypes were found on A. acuminata roots. The ECM colonization was affected by seasonality and associated positively with field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, and total N and negatively associated with organic matter. Two morphotypes (Russula alnijorullensis and Tomentella sp. 3) showed significant differences between seasons. Positive and negative correlations were found between five morphotypes (Alnirhiza silkacea, Lactarius omphaliformis, Tomentella sp. 1, Tomentella sp. 3, and Lactarius sp.) and soil parameters (total N, pH, and P). A significant negative correlation was found between field H(2)O holding capacity and organic matter with AM colonization. Results of this study provide evidence that ECM and AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil chemical edaphic parameters and indicate that some ECM morphotypes are sensitive to changes in seasonality and soil parameters.

  17. THE LATTICE PARAMETERS AND SOLUBILITY LIMITS OF ALPHA IRON AS AFFECTED BY SOME BINARY TRANSITION-ELEMENT ADDITIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The lattice parameters of alpha iron with binary additions of all the transition metals, except technetium, have been accurately determined on solid...samples. No direct correlation with solute size is observed, but an effect of electron configuration is noted. The solubility limits of alpha iron with

  18. Bioaccessibility of trace elements as affected by soil parameters in smelter-contaminated agricultural soils: a statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Waterlot, Christophe; Mazzuca, Muriel; Nisse, Catherine; Cuny, Damien; Richard, Antoine; Denys, Sébastien; Heyman, Christophe; Roussel, Hélène; Bidar, Géraldine; Douay, Francis

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to identify the most significant soil parameters that can be used to predict Cd, Pb, and Zn bioaccessibility in smelter-contaminated agricultural soils. A robust model was established from an extended database of soils by using: (i) a training set of 280 samples to select the main soil parameters, to define the best population to be taken into account for the model elaboration, and to construct multivariate regression models, and (ii) a test set of 110 samples to validate the ability of the regression models. Total carbonate, organic matter, sand, P(2)O(5), free Fe-Mn oxide, and pseudototal Al and trace element (TE) contents appeared as the main variables governing TE bioaccessibility. The statistical modeling approach was reasonably successful, indicating that the main soil factors influencing the bioaccessibility of TEs were taken into account and the predictions could be applicable for further risk evaluation in the studied area.

  19. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    PubMed

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  20. Dietary sodium propionate affects mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression: Insights from zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Safari, Roghieh; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that improves physiological and pathophysiological properties. However, there is limited information available about the effects of SCFAs on mucosal immune parameters as well as growth and appetite related genes expression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium propionate (SP) intake on the mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organism. Zebrafish fed control or diet supplemented with different levels (0.5, 1 and 2%) of SP for 8weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the expression of the key genes related to growth and appetite (GH, IGF1, MYSTN and Ghrl) was evaluated. Also, mucosal immune parameters (Total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity) were studied in skin mucus of zebrafish. The results showed that dietary administration of SP significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated the expression of GH, IGF1 and down-regulated MYSTN gene. Also, feeding zebrafish with SP supplemented diet significantly increased appetite related gene expression (P<0.05) with a more pronounced effect in higher inclusion levels. Compared with control group, the expression of appetite related gene (Ghrl) was remarkably (P<0.05) higher in SP fed zebrafish. Also, elevated mucosal immune parameters was observed in zebrafish fed SP supplemented diet. The present results revealed beneficial effects of dietary SP on mucosal immune response and growth and appetite related genes expression. These results also highlighted the potential use of SP as additive in human diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Expression Levels Epigenetically Regulate Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis by Affecting the Cancer Stem Cell Compartment via Modulating Expression of Transcriptional Factor MYBL1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huabei; Zhang, Bing; Nairn, Alison V; Nagy, Tamas; Moremen, Kelley W; Buckhaults, Phillip; Pierce, Michael

    2017-03-10

    To study the regulation of colorectal adenocarcinoma progression by O-GlcNAc, we have focused on the O-GlcNAc-mediated epigenetic regulation of human colon cancer stem cells (CCSC). Xenograft tumors from colon tumor cells with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) knockdown grew significantly slower than those formed from control cells, indicating a reduced proliferation of tumor cells due to inhibition of OGT expression. Significant reduction of the CCSC population was observed in the tumor cells after OGT knockdown, whereas tumor cells treated with the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor showed an increased CCSC population, indicating that O-GlcNAc levels regulated the CCSC compartment. When grown in suspension, tumor cells with OGT knockdown showed a reduced ability to form tumorspheres, indicating a reduced self-renewal of CCSC due to reduced levels of O-GlcNAc. ChIP-sequencing experiments using an anti-O-GlcNAc antibody revealed significant chromatin enrichment of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins at the promoter of the transcription factor MYBL1, which was also characterized by the presence of H3K27me3. RNA-sequencing analysis showed an increased expression of MYBL1 in tumor cells with OGT knockdown. Forced overexpression of MYBL1 led to a reduced population of CCSC and tumor growth in vivo, similar to the effects of OGT silencing. Moreover, two CpG islands near the transcription start site of MYBL1 were identified, and O-GlcNAc levels regulated their methylation status. These results strongly argue that O-GlcNAc epigenetically regulates MYBL1, functioning similarly to H3K27me3. The aberrant CCSC compartment observed after modulating O-GlcNAc levels is therefore likely to result, at least in part, from the epigenetic regulation of MYBL1 expression by O-GlcNAc, thereby significantly affecting tumor progression.

  2. Analysis of histological and immunological parameters of metastatic lymph nodes from colon cancer patients reveals that T-helper 1 type immune response is associated with improved overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Nizri, Eran; Greenman-Maaravi, Nofar; Bar-David, Shoshi; Ben-Yehuda, Amir; Weiner, Gilad; Lahat, Guy; Klausner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lymph node (LN) involvement in colonic carcinoma (CC) is a grave prognostic sign and mandates the addition of adjuvant treatment. However, in light of the histological variability and outcomes observed, we hypothesized that patients with LN metastases (LNM) comprise different subgroups. We retrospectively analyzed the histological sections of 82 patients with CC and LNM. We studied various histological parameters (such as tumor grade, desmoplasia, and preservation of LN architecture) as well as the prevalence of specific peritumoral immune cells (CD8+, CD20+, T-bet+, and GATA-3+). We correlated the histological and immunological data to patient outcome. Tumor grade was a significant prognostic factor even in patients with LNM. So was the number of LN involved (N1/N2 stage). From the morphological parameters tested (LN extracapsular invasion, desmoplasia in LN, LN architecture preservation, and mode of metastases distribution), none was found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS). The mean OS of CD8+ low patients was 66.6 ± 6.25 versus 71.4 ± 5.1 months for CD8+ high patients (P = 0.79). However, T-helper (Th) 1 immune response skewing (measured by Th1/Th2 ratio >1) was significantly associated with improved OS. For patients with low ratio, the median OS was 35.5 ± 5 versus 83.5 months for patients with high Th1/Th2 ratio (P = 0.001). The histological presentation of LNM does not entail specific prognostic information. However, the finding of Th1 immune response in LN signifies a protective immune response. Future studies should be carried to verify this marker and develop a strategy that augments this immune response during subsequent adjuvant treatment. PMID:27828856

  3. Parameters affecting the adhesion strength between a living cell and a colloid probe when measured by the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Cathy E; Pyo, Nayoung; Tanaka, Saaya; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Kanda, Yoichi; Higashitani, Ko

    2006-03-15

    In this study, we used the colloid probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique to investigate the adhesion force between a living cell and a silica colloid particle in a Leibovitz's L-15 medium (L-15). The L-15 liquid maintained the pharmaceutical conditions necessary to keep the cells alive in the outside environment during the AFM experiment. The force curves in such a system showed a steric repulsion in the compression force curve, due to the compression of the cells by the colloid probe, and an adhesion force in the decompression force curve, due to binding events between the cell and the probe. We also investigated for the first time how the position on the cell surface, the strength of the pushing force, and the residence time of the probe at the cell surface individually affected the adhesion force between a living cell and a 6.84 microm diameter silica colloid particle in L-15. The position of measuring the force on the cell surface was seen not to affect the value of the maximum adhesion force. The loading force was also seen not to notably affect the value of the maximum adhesion force, if it was small enough not to pierce and damage the cell. The residence time of the probe at the cell surface, however, clearly affected the adhesion force, where a longer residence time gave a larger maximum force. From these results, we could conclude that the AFM force measurements should be made using a loading force small enough not to damage the cell and a fixed residence time, when comparing results of different systems.

  4. Optimization and influence of parameter affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate: using full factorial design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Thulasirajan; Purushothaman, Revathi

    2017-07-01

    There are several parameters that influence the properties of geopolymer concrete, which contains recycled concrete aggregate as the coarse aggregate. In the present study, the vital parameters affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate are analyzedby varying four parameters with two levels using full factorial design in statistical software Minitab® 17. The objective of the present work is to gain an idea on the optimization, main parameter effects, their interactions and the predicted response of the model generated using factorial design. The parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide (8M and 12M), curing time (6hrs and 24 hrs), curing temperature (60°C and 90°C) and percentage of recycled concrete aggregate (0% and 100%) are considered. The results show that the curing time, molarity of sodium hydroxide and curing temperature were the orderly significant parameters and the percentage of Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was statistically insignificant in the production of geopolymer concrete. Thus, it may be noticeable that the RCA content had negligible effect on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The expected responses from the generated model showed a satisfactory and rational agreement to the experimental data with the R2 value of 97.70%. Thus, geopolymer concrete comprising recycled concrete aggregate can solve the major social and environmental concerns such as the depletion of the naturally available aggregate sources and disposal of construction and demolition waste into the landfill.

  5. Humic Fertilizer and Vermicompost Applied to the Soil Can Positively Affect Population Growth Parameters of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, P; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-06-29

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest of tomato worldwide. One of the control measures of T. absoluta is the use of biological control agents, such as Trichogramma wasps. Interactions between natural enemies and insect pests may be affected by application of fertilizers, because changes in plant quality through the fertilizer application may therefore affect herbivore characteristics and suitability of them to parasitism. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the life table parameters of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on T. absoluta eggs reared on tomato plants treated either with vermicompost (40%), humic fertilizer (2 g/kg soil), or control (suitable mixture of field soil and sand). Population growth parameters of T. brassicae were affected by fertilizer treatments. Significant differences were found for immature life period and total fecundity of T. brassicae on the treatments. Differences of intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R 0), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) of T. brassicae among treatments were also significant. The lowest values of r m, λ, and R 0 were recorded for T. brassicae developed on T. absoluta eggs on control treatment, whereas the highest values of these parameters were observed on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer. Furthermore, T. brassicae had the shortest T and DT values on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost treatments. Our results showed that application of humic fertilizer and vermicompost could positively affect population growth parameters of T. brassicae on eggs of T. absoluta fed on tomato plants.

  6. Nitrogen in Hydroponic Growing Medium of Tomato Affects the Demographic Parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, R S; Madadi, H; Hosseini, M; Delshad, M; Dashti, F

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of different nitrogen levels (380, 310, 240, and 174 ppm) on the life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on hydroponically cultured tomato plants. Our data show that there is a positive correlation between the nitrogen content and the demographic parameters, as the intrinsic rate of increase of T. vaporariorum was the lowest (0.059 ± 0.007 day(-1)) at 174 ppm and the highest (0.088 ± 0.005 day(-1)) at 380 ppm of nitrogen. The net reproduction rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean developmental time (T) were significantly influenced by the nitrogen levels. The mean longevity of males and females showed a positive relationship with the nitrogen level, ranging from 64.8 ± 3.96 to 76.3 ± 2.44 for males and 61.6 ± 5.35 to 71.2 ± 2.44 for females, observed in the lowest and highest nitrogen levels, respectively. The relationship between nitrogen fertilization and T. vaporariorum management on tomato crops is discussed.

  7. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with

  8. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles differently affect the secretion of fluorescent siderophores in the beneficial root colonizer, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2012-09-01

    To understand the impact of environmental deposition of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on the production of bacterial metabolites, we examined the effects of their sub-lethal levels on the production of a pyoverdine (PVD) siderophore in a plant-beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6). The NPs were characterized for size, shape, surface charge and ion release. Production of PVD by the cells was evaluated by fluorimetry and the expression of genes for PVD biosynthesis and export. The level of PVD in the presence of ZnO NPs was similar to that with Zn ions at 24 h, but the NPs maintained higher level than control at 48 h. In contrast, the reduction in PVD by CuO NPs was not duplicated by Cu ions. Expression of a gene encoding an inner membrane PVD transporter was inhibited by CuO NPs, supporting the observed low amounts of external PVD detected in those cells. These findings revealed NP-specific effect for CuO NPs on PcO6 metabolism, while for ZnO NPs, the release of ions was important. Because siderophores are part of the chemical communication between soil microbes and plants, the outcomes of plant-microbe interactions could be affected by responses to NPs.

  9. Blood parameters are little affected by time of sampling after the application of ketamine in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Rovirosa-Hernández, M J; García-Orduña, F; Caba, M; Canales-Espinosa, D; Hermida-Lagunes, J; Torres-Pelayo, V R

    2011-10-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride is an anesthetic commonly utilized to obtain biological samples in various non-human primates. Its application alters individual hematologic and biochemical values. The aim of this study was to analyze its effect on blood parameters of Alouatta pigra. We collected blood samples at 10 and 40 minutes after the application of ketamine in 12 adult female A. pigra living in free-ranging conditions. The analysis showed that 40 minutes after application of ketamine, the number of platelets, lymphocytes and concentration of phosphorus decreased; however, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, and potassium values increased. Our results suggest that ketamine appears to have little effect on the hematology and blood biochemistry of Alouatta pigra females with respect to those reported for other non-human primates. It is also important to consider the elapsed time after their application when taking blood samples for proper interpretation of the hemogram of Alouatta pigra females. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary

  11. Futsal Match-Related Fatigue Affects Running Performance and Neuromuscular Parameters but Not Finishing Kick Speed or Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Vieira, Luiz H P; Barbieri, Ricardo A; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Barbieri, Fabio A; Dos-Santos, Júlio W; Santiago, Paulo R P; Papoti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]: 50.6 ± 4.9 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)). Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored. The entire games were video recorded for subsequent automatic tracking. Before and immediately after the simulated game, neuromuscular function was measured by maximal isometric force of knee extension, voluntary activation using twitch interpolation technique, and electromyographic activity. Before, at half time, and immediately after the simulated game, the athletes also performed a set of finishing kicks for ball speed and accuracy measurements. Results: Total distance covered (1st half: 1986.6 ± 74.4 m; 2nd half: 1856.0 ± 129.7 m, P = 0.00) and distance covered per minute (1st half: 103.2 ± 4.4 m.min(-1); 2nd half: 96.4 ± 7.5 m.min(-1), P = 0.00) demonstrated significant declines during the simulated game, as well as maximal isometric force of knee extension (Before: 840.2 ± 66.2 N; After: 751.6 ± 114.3 N, P = 0.04) and voluntary activation (Before: 85.9 ± 7.5%; After: 74.1 ± 12.3%, P = 0.04), however ball speed and accuracy during the finishing kicks were not significantly affected. Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that despite the decline in running performance and neuromuscular variables presenting an important manifestation of central fatigue, this condition apparently does not affect the speed and accuracy of finishing kicks.

  12. Individual match playing time during the season affects fitness-related parameters of male professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Silva, João R; Magalhães, José F; Ascensão, António A; Oliveira, Eduardo M; Seabra, André F; Rebelo, António N

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an entire season on physical fitness parameters (PFPs) in male professional soccer players (N = 18). Performance in 5- and 30-m sprint (T5 and T30), countermovement jump (CMJ), agility (T-test), knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) isokinetic strength, hamstrings/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q) and bilateral differences (BDs), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test 2 (YYIE2) was evaluated in 4 moments (E1-E4) throughout the season. Individual match playing time was quantified. Significant improvements in CMJ and YYIE2 from E1 to E2 were observed (p < 0.05-0.01). The T30 improved from E2 to E3 (p < 0.01). The CMJ decreased from E2 to E3 and E4, and YYIE2 from E2 to E4 (p < 0.05). There were increments in the H/Q ratio and Agility from E1 and E2 to E3 and E4 (p < 0.05-0.01). Significant correlations were found in all evaluation points between different PFPs and between changes in strength parameters and agility, T5 and T30, CMJ, and YYIE2 (p < 0.05-0.001). Influence of individual match playing time was correlated to changes in T5 (E1 to E3; r = -0.705), KE nondominant leg (KEND; E2 to E3; r = 0.786), and KF (E3 to E4; r = 0.575-0.590). The interrelationship between muscle strength (e.g., KE), sprint (e.g., T5), and jump abilities (CMJ) suggests the importance of muscle strength and power training for soccer. This study suggests that the systematic participation of the players in soccer matches favors the increase and maintenance of soccer players KE and KF muscle strength and sprint ability (T5). Thus, given the unique demands of actual match play, coaches should try to incorporate a competitive friendly match in the weekly training cycle of nonstarter players.

  13. Drying parameters greatly affect the destruction of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella Typhimurium in standard buffer and milk.

    PubMed

    Lang, Emilie; Iaconelli, Cyril; Zoz, Fiona; Guyot, Stéphane; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Beney, Laurent; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii are two foodborne pathogens involved in neonatal infections from milk powder and infant formula. Their ability to survive in low-moisture food and during processing from the decontamination to the dried state is a major issue in food protection. In this work, we studied the effects of the drying process on Salmonella Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii, with the aim of identifying the drying parameters that could promote greater inactivation of these two foodborne pathogens. These two bacteria were dried under different atmospheric relative humidities in milk and phosphate-buffered saline, and the delays in growth recovery and cultivability were followed. We found that water activity was related to microorganism resistance. C. sakazakii was more resistant to drying than was S. Typhimurium, and milk increased the cultivability and recovery of these two species. High drying rates and low final water activity levels (0.11-0.58) had a strong negative effect on the growth recovery and cultivability of these species. In conclusion, we suggest that effective use of drying processes may provide a complementary tool for food decontamination and food safety during the production of low-moisture foods.

  14. Futsal Match-Related Fatigue Affects Running Performance and Neuromuscular Parameters but Not Finishing Kick Speed or Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Milioni, Fabio; Vieira, Luiz H. P.; Barbieri, Ricardo A.; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Nordsborg, Nikolai B.; Barbieri, Fabio A.; dos-Santos, Júlio W.; Santiago, Paulo R. P.; Papoti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake (V˙O2max: 50.6 ± 4.9 mL.kg−1.min−1). Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored. The entire games were video recorded for subsequent automatic tracking. Before and immediately after the simulated game, neuromuscular function was measured by maximal isometric force of knee extension, voluntary activation using twitch interpolation technique, and electromyographic activity. Before, at half time, and immediately after the simulated game, the athletes also performed a set of finishing kicks for ball speed and accuracy measurements. Results: Total distance covered (1st half: 1986.6 ± 74.4 m; 2nd half: 1856.0 ± 129.7 m, P = 0.00) and distance covered per minute (1st half: 103.2 ± 4.4 m.min−1; 2nd half: 96.4 ± 7.5 m.min−1, P = 0.00) demonstrated significant declines during the simulated game, as well as maximal isometric force of knee extension (Before: 840.2 ± 66.2 N; After: 751.6 ± 114.3 N, P = 0.04) and voluntary activation (Before: 85.9 ± 7.5%; After: 74.1 ± 12.3%, P = 0.04), however ball speed and accuracy during the finishing kicks were not significantly affected. Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that despite the decline in running performance and neuromuscular variables presenting an important manifestation of central fatigue, this condition apparently does not affect the speed and accuracy of finishing kicks. PMID:27872598

  15. Lipo-Protein Emulsion Structure in the Diet Affects Protein Digestion Kinetics, Intestinal Mucosa Parameters and Microbiota Composition.

    PubMed

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Feunteun, Steven Le; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion; Gaudichon, Claire; Blachier, François

    2017-10-10

    Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. Rats (n = 40) were fed for 3 weeks two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and micro-structure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingested a (15) N-labeled LFE or GCE test meal and were euthanized 0, 15min, 1h and 5h later. (15) N enrichment in intestinal contents and (15) N blood fate were measured. Gastric emptying, protein digestion kinetics, (15) N absorption and incorporation in blood protein and urea were faster with LFE than GCE. At 15min timepoint, LFE group showed higher increase in GIP portal levels than GCE. Three weeks of dietary adaptation led to higher expression of cationic amino acid-transporters in ileum of LFE compared to GCE. LFE diet raised cecal butyrate and isovalerate proportion relative to GCE, suggesting increased protein fermentation. LFE diet increased fecal Parabacteroides relative abundance but decreased Bifidobacterium, Sutterella, Parasutterella genera, and Clostridium cluster XIV abundance. Protein emulsion structure regulates digestion kinetics and gastrointestinal physiology, and could be targeted to improve food health value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity of tomato juice as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields critical parameters.

    PubMed

    Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Gimeno-Añó, Vicente; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2007-10-31

    The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment variables (frequency, pulse width, and pulse polarity) on the lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacities of tomato juice were evaluated using a response surface methodology. An optimization of the HIPEF treatment conditions was carried out to obtain tomato juice with the highest content of bioactive compounds possible. Samples were subjected to an electric field intensity set at 35 kV/cm for 1000 micros using squared wave pulses, frequencies from 50 to 250 Hz, and a pulse width from 1 to 7 micros, in monopolar or bipolar mode. Data significantly fit (P < 0.001) the proposed second-order response functions. Pulse frequency, width, and polarity significantly affected the lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacities of HIPEF-treated tomato juice. Maximal relative lycopene content (131.8%), vitamin C content (90.2%), and antioxidant capacity retention (89.4%) were attained with HIPEF treatments of a 1 micros pulse duration applied at 250 Hz in bipolar mode. Therefore, the application of HIPEF may be appropriate to achieve nutritious tomato juice.

  17. Willingness to Use Microbicides Is Affected by the Importance of Product Characteristics, Use Parameters, and Protective Properties

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria; Christensen, Anna L.; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Along with efficacy, a microbicide’s acceptability will be integral to its impact on the pandemic. Understanding Product Characteristics that users find most acceptable and determining who will use which type of product are key to optimizing use effectiveness. Objectives To evaluate psychometrically the Important Microbicide Characteristics (IMC) instrument and examine its relationship to willingness to use microbicides. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 2 IMC subscales (Cronbach’s coefficient α: Product Characteristics subscale (α = 0.84) and Protective Properties subscale (α = 0.89)). Significant differences on Product Characteristics subscale scores were found for history of douching (P = 0.002) and employment status (P = 0.001). Whether a woman used a method to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the last 3 months (P < 0.001) and whether she used a condom during the last vaginal sex episode (P < 0.001) were significantly related to her rating of the importance of microbicides being contraceptive. Product Characteristics (r = 0.21) and Protective Properties (r = 0.27) subscale scores and whether a microbicide had contraceptive properties (r = 0.24) were all significantly associated (P < 0.001) with willingness to use microbicides. Conclusions Formulation and use characteristics and product function(s) affect willingness to use microbicides and should continue to be addressed in product development. The IMC instrument serves as a template for future studies of candidate microbicides. PMID:17325607

  18. Host-Pathogen Interactions: II. Parameters Affecting Polysaccharide-degrading Enzyme Secretion by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Grown in Culture.

    PubMed

    English, P D; Jurale, J B; Albersheim, P

    1971-01-01

    The effect of a number of physiological variables on the secretion of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes by culture-grown Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Saccardo and Magnus) Scribner was determined. The number of spores used to inoculate cultures grown on isolated bean hypocotyl cell walls affects the time after inoculation at which enzyme secretion occurs, but has no significant effect on the maximal amount of enzyme ultimately secreted. Cell walls isolated from bean leaves, first internodes, or hypocotyls (susceptible to C. lindemuthianum infection), when used as carbon source for C. lindemuthianum growth, stimulate the fungus to secrete more alpha-galactosidase than do cell walls isolated from roots (resistant to infection). The concentration of carbon source used for fungal growth determines the final level of enzyme activity in the culture fluid. The level of enzyme secretion is not proportional to fungal growth; rather, enzyme secretion is induced. Maximal alpha-galactosidase activity in the culture medium is found when the concentration of cell walls used as carbon source is 1% or greater. A higher concentration of cell walls is necessary for maximal alpha-arabinosidase activity. Galactose, when used as the carbon source, stimulates alpha-galactosidase secretion but, at comparable concentrations, is less effective in doing so than are cell walls. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are secreted by C. lindemuthianum at different times during growth of the pathogen on isolated cell walls. Pectinase and alpha-arabinosidase are secreted first, followed by beta-xylosidase and cellulase, then beta-glucosidase, and, finally, alpha-galactosidase.

  19. Willingness to use microbicides is affected by the importance of product characteristics, use parameters, and protective properties.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Fava, Joseph L; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria; Christensen, Anna L; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence

    2007-05-01

    Along with efficacy, a microbicide's acceptability will be integral to its impact on the pandemic. Understanding Product Characteristics that users find most acceptable and determining who will use which type of product are key to optimizing use effectiveness. To evaluate psychometrically the Important Microbicide Characteristics (IMC) instrument and examine its relationship to willingness to use microbicides. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 2 IMC subscales (Cronbach's coefficient alpha: Product Characteristics subscale (alpha = 0.84) and Protective Properties subscale (alpha = 0.89)). Significant differences on Product Characteristics subscale scores were found for history of douching (P = 0.002) and employment status (P = 0.001). Whether a woman used a method to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the last 3 months (P < 0.001) and whether she used a condom during the last vaginal sex episode (P < 0.001) were significantly related to her rating of the importance of microbicides being contraceptive. Product Characteristics (r = 0.21) and Protective Properties (r = 0.27) subscale scores and whether a microbicide had contraceptive properties (r = 0.24) were all significantly associated (P < 0.001) with willingness to use microbicides. Formulation and use characteristics and product function(s) affect willingness to use microbicides and should continue to be addressed in product development. The IMC instrument serves as a template for future studies of candidate microbicides.

  20. Controlled release metformin hydrochloride microspheres of ethyl cellulose prepared by different methods and study on the polymer affected parameters.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Pratim K; Kar, Mousumi

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to prepare microspheres of the anti-diabetic drug, metformin hydrochloride, using ethyl cellulose as the polymer and evaluate the encapsulation efficiency and release characteristics in vitro and in vivo; utilizing different microencapsulation techniques. Different proportions of polymer were used to obtain varying drug-polymer ratios. Physical properties, loading efficiency and dissolution rate were dependent on the method chosen for preparation and also on the drug-to-polymer ratio. The addition of surfactant during emulsification and petroleum ether in non-solvent addition process affected release of drug and also size distribution of microspheres. To investigate the type of mechanism that occurs, dissolution data were plotted according to different kinetic models. In vitro release studies show first order and Higuchi model release characteristics being exhibited. All the results were treated statistically to validate the findings. Significant differences in percentage yield, entrapment efficiency and sustaining capacity were seen with microspheres prepared by two different methods. In vivo studies in normal and hyperglycemic mice show faster glucose reduction with microspheres prepared by the evaporation method, whereas the release sustaining effect was more pronounced with microspheres prepared by the non-solvent addition method.

  1. Physiological activities of the combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid affecting hepatic lipogenesis and parameters related to oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2017-03-20

    We studied the combined effect of fish oil and α-lipoic acid on hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation and parameters of oxidative stress in rats fed lipogenic diets high in sucrose. A control diet contained a saturated fat (palm oil) that gives high rate of hepatic lipogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid and containing 0, 20, or 100 g/kg fish oil, for 21 days. α-Lipoic acid significantly reduced food intake during 0-8 days but not the later period of the experiment. Fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and their combination further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Fish oil increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid appeared to antagonize the stimulating effects of fish oil of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid attenuated fish oil-dependent increases in serum and liver malondialdehyde levels, and this compound also reduced the serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. α-Lipoic acid affected various parameters related to the antioxidant system; fish oil also affected some of the parameters. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid effectively reduced serum lipid levels through the additive down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. α-Lipoic acid was effective in attenuating fish oil-mediated oxidative stress.

  2. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Multimedia Database Management System (MDMS) has been developed in the commercial software package Toolbook. Design and implementation, which was carried out by C. Asiala, is now essentially complete. Regional location maps of southern San Joaquin Valley oil fields, structure contour maps of the Pioneer area, core photos, core data, thin-section and SEM photomicrographs of core materials, structural cross sections through Pioneer Anticline, an atlas of photomicrographs; illustrating typical diagenetic features observed in San Joaquin Valley petroleum reservoirs, elemental and spectral data collected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) standards, and all quarterly and annual reports submitted to DOE for this project were scanned into the MDMS. All data and information are accessible through dropdown menus and hotlinks in a Table of Contents. A tutorial is presented up front to guide users through the MDMS and instruct them on the various ways in which data can be viewed and retrieved. Version 1.0 of the MDMS was written to CD ROM and distributed to participants in a Technology Transfer Workshop in Bakersfield, CA, in September, 1996. Version 1.1, which contains additional information and has been reorganized for easier use, is nearing completion. All measured and computed log curves (computed curves represent parameters such as porosity, water saturation, and clay content, which were calculated from the measured log traces using specially developed algorithms) for the 45+ project wells on Pioneer Anticline are now in the MDMS in LAS (log ASCII) format, and can be exported to any commercial log evaluation program for manipulation and analysis. All log curves were written to the CD ROM in digital format.

  3. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  4. Concentrations of total glutathione and cysteine in wheat flour as affected by sulfur deficiency and correlation to quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Reinbold, Julia; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter

    2008-08-27

    A method for the simultaneous quantitation of total glutathione and total cysteine in wheat flour by a stable isotope dilution assay using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. As internal standards, L-[(13)C3, (15)N]cysteine and L-gamma-glutamyl-L-[(13)C3, (15)N]cysteinyl-glycine were used. The method consisted of the extraction and reduction of flour with tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine after the addition of internal standards, protection of free thiol groups with iodoacetic acid, derivatization of free amino groups with dansyl chloride, and HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of detection and quantitation for glutathione were 0.75 nmol/g and 2.23 nmol/g flour, respectively. For cysteine, the limits of detection and quantitation were 0.72 nmol/g and 2.12 nmol/g flour, respectively. The developed method was found to be sensitive enough for quantitation of total glutathione and cysteine levels in wheat flour. This method was then utilized to investigate the effect of sulfur (S) deficiency on the amount of total glutathione and cysteine in flour. In S-deficient wheat, the concentrations of total glutathione and cysteine were proportional to the amount of S supplied during growth. The calculation of correlations revealed that GSH and Cys concentrations influenced the rheological dough properties and the baking performance at least as much as protein parameters. Thus, the low concentration of GSH and Cys in flour from S-deficient wheat had a similar effect on the technological properties as the altered composition of gluten proteins.

  5. Learning about Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top of page Is there a test for hereditary colon cancer? Gene testing can identify individuals who ... Top of page Current NHGRI Clinical Research on Hereditary Colon Cancer Currently, NHGRI is not conducting clinical ...

  6. Does stenting of left-sided colorectal cancer as a "bridge to surgery" adversely affect oncological outcomes? A comparison with non-obstructing elective left-sided colonic resections.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alexandra L; Trompetas, Vasileios; Saunders, Mike P; Anderson, Hugh J

    2012-11-01

    With a theoretical link between stent insertion and increased risk of tumour seeding, there is concern about long-term survival after the use of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) as a "bridge to surgery" in the treatment of left-sided obstructing colorectal cancer. This cohort study aims to determine if preoperative stenting adversely affects long-term survival by comparing a group of patients having preoperative stenting (group A) with a group of patients having elective surgery (group B) in a single centre. The study is retrospective. Survival was calculated with Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. Other group characteristics were compared with Fisher's exact test. From November 1998 to November 2008, 15 patients had preoperative SEMS and were entered in group A. This represented 11.5 % of a total of 130 patients undergoing SEMS insertion in the same period. Group B included 88 consecutive patients undergoing elective left-sided colonic resection for Dukes' B and C cancer excluding mid and low rectal tumours between January 2003 and December 2007. The 30-day mortality rate for groups A and B was 6.7 % (one patient) and 5.7 % (five patients), respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 60 % and 58 %, respectively, with a p value of 0.96. In our own practice, patients undergoing SEMS as a "bridge to surgery" have the same long-term survival with those undergoing elective surgery. This finding needs to be confirmed in larger scale studies.

  7. Differences in Corneal Parameters Between Affected and Normal Contralateral Eyes in Patients With Hemifacial Spasm Treated With Botulinum Toxin-A: Outcomes During One Complete Treatment Cycle.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Teissy; Osaki, Midori H; Osaki, Tammy H; Hirai, Flavio E; Campos, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    To investigate possible temporary differences in corneal topographic parameters between affected and normal eyes in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) treated with botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A), over the course of 1 treatment cycle. This prospective study evaluated corneal topographic differences between affected and normal contralateral eyes during a 4-month period in patients with HFS treated with BTX-A (the duration of action of BTX-A for HFS ranges from 2 to 4 months). Corneal topographic analysis was performed using a conventional topographer (Atlas; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Steep K and astigmatism measurements were evaluated before BTX-A application and after 15 days and 2, 3, and 4 months. Twenty-four patients (16 women and 8 men) were evaluated. Steep K [46.9 ± 3.6 diopters (D)] and astigmatism values (2.6 ± 2.5 D) were significantly higher in affected eyes of HFS patients than in nonaffected eyes (45.0 ± 1.4 D and 0.9 ± 0.6 D) before treatment (P = 0.001 for steep K and P = 0.0003 for astigmatism). Astigmatism values also showed significant differences between the affected eye (1.4 ± 0.8 D) and nonaffected eye (0.9 ± 0.6 D) at 4 months (P = 0.006), whereas steep K showed significant differences between both eyes at 15 days (affected eye: 45.6 ± 1.5 D, nonaffected eye: 45.0 ± 1.4 D, P = 0.008), 3 months (affected eye: 45.6 ± 1.8 D, nonaffected eye: 45.1 ± 1.3 D, P = 0.03) and 4 months (affected eye: 45.8 ± 1.2 D, nonaffected eye: 45.1 ± 1.4 D, P = 0.003) after treatment. The differences in steep K, and especially in astigmatism values, between eyes tended to reduce during the period of action of BTX-A. At 4 months, when the BTX-A effect is considered to be over or very reduced, a significant difference between eyes for both parameters was noted again.

  8. [Ulcer of the transverse colon].

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, C; Stoichiţa, S; Vasilescu, D; Strutenschi, T; Lake, D

    1979-01-01

    This very rare affection of unknown origin, achieves a macroscopic and microscopic aspect similar to that described by Cruveillhier at the level of the stomach. The authors present a case of ulcer located on the transverse colon, at the free margin, with stenosing evolution and coexisting with duodenal ulceration of chronic character. The patient also had portal hypertension in the third stage and arteriopathy that had been diagnosed previously.

  9. Treatment with D-penicillamine or zinc sulphate affects copper metabolism and improves but not normalizes antioxidant capacity parameters in Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Gromadzka, Grażyna; Grażyna, Gromadzka; Karpińska, Agata; Agata, Karpińska; Przybyłkowski, Adam; Adam, Przybyłkowski; Litwin, Tomasz; Tomasz, Litwin; Wierzchowska-Ciok, Agata; Agata, Wierzchowska-Ciok; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Karolina, Dzieżyc; Chabik, Grzegorz; Grzegorz, Chabik; Członkowska, Anna; Anna, Członkowska

    2014-02-01

    Copper accumulation in tissues due to a biallelic pathogenic mutation of the gene: ATP7B results in a clinical phenotype known as Wilson disease (WD). Aberrations in copper homeostasis can create favourable conditions for superoxide-yielding redox cycling and oxidative tissue damage. Drugs used in WD treatment aim to remove accumulated copper and normalise the free copper concentration in the blood. In the current study the effect of decoppering treatment on copper metabolism and systemic antioxidant capacity parameters was analyzed. Treatment naïve WD patients (TNWD) (n = 33), those treated with anti-copper drugs (TWD) (n = 99), and healthy controls (n = 99) were studied. Both TNWD and TWD patients characterised with decreased copper metabolism parameters, as well as decreased total antioxidant potential (AOP), glutathione (GSH) level, activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and S-transferase glutathione, compared to controls. TWD patients had significantly lower copper metabolism parameters, higher total AOP and higher levels of GSH than TWD individuals; however, no difference was observed between these two patient groups with respect to the rest of the antioxidant capacity parameters. Patients who had undergone treatment with D-penicillamine or zinc sulphate did not differ with respect to copper metabolism or antioxidant capacity parameters, with the exception of GPx that was lower in D-penicillamine treated individuals. These data suggest that anti-copper treatment affects copper metabolism as well as improves, but does not normalize, natural antioxidant capacity in patients with WD. We propose to undertake studies aimed to evaluate the usefulness of antioxidants as well as selenium as a supplemental therapy in WD.

  10. Assessment of the role of chemotaxis and biofilm formation as requirements for colonization of roots and seeds of soybean plants by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM339.

    PubMed

    Yaryura, P M; León, M; Correa, O S; Kerber, N L; Pucheu, N L; García, A F

    2008-06-01

    This article correlates colonization with parameters, such as chemotaxis, biofilm formation, and bacterial growth, that are believed to be connected. We show here, by using two varieties of soybean plants that seeds axenically produced exudates, induced a chemotactic response in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, whereas root exudates did not, even when the exudates, also collected under axenic conditions, were concentrated up to 200-fold. Root exudates did not support bacterial cell division, whereas seed exudates contain compounds that support active cell division and high cell biomass at stationary phase. Seed exudates of the two soybean varieties also induced biofilm formation. B. amyloliquefaciens colonized both seeds and roots, and plant variety significantly affected bacterial root colonization, whereas it did not affect seed colonization. Colonization of roots in B. amyloliquefaciens occurred despite the lack of chemotaxis and growth stimulation by root exudates. The data presented in this article suggest that soybean seed colonization, but not root colonization, by B. amyloliquefaciens is influenced by chemotaxis, growth, and biofilm formation and that this may be caused by qualitative changes of the composition of root exudates.

  11. Type of Renal Replacement Therapy (Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis) Does Not Affect Cytokine Gene Expression or Clinical Parameters of Renal Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Chudoba, Paweł; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Banasik, Mirosław; Żabinska, Marcelina; Boratyńska, Maria; Lepiesza, Agnieszka; Korta, Krzysztof; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Klinger, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Patients with renal failure suffer from immune disturbances, caused by uremic toxins and influenced by dialysis treatment. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether type of dialysis modality (hemodialysis, HD, versus peritoneal dialysis, PD) differentially affects the immunocompetence, particularly the expression of genes involved in the immune response. 87 renal transplant candidates (66 HD, 21 PD) were included in the study. The peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained with the PAXgene Blood system just before transplantation. The gene expression of CASP3, FAS, TP53, FOXP3, IFNG, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL17, IL18, LCN2, TGFB1, and TNF was assessed with real-time PCR on custom-designed low density arrays (TaqMan). Gene expression data were analyzed in relation to pretransplant clinical parameters. The mean expression of examined genes showed no significant differences between PD and HD with the exception of FAS, expression of which was 30% higher in PD patients compared to the HD group. There was nonsignificantly higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the PD group. The clinical inflammatory parameters (CRP, albumin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin levels) did not differ between the groups. Type of renal replacement therapy exerts no differential effect on cytokine gene expression or inflammatory clinical parameters.

  12. Colon Biopsy Findings of Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Taştepe, Firdevs Zeynep; Özgün, Gonca; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Tepeoğlu, Merih; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate colonic pathologies in renal transplant recipients. Patients with colon biopsies were selected from 1816 renal transplant recipients from January 1990 to December 2012 at Baskent University Hospital (Ankara, Turkey). Demographic and clinical findings with colon biopsies were examined. There were 84 patients who had colon biopsies after renal transplant. There were 57 male and 27 female patients (median age at renal transplant was 33 y). Chronic diarrhea was the most common clinical finding at the time of colon biopsy. The median interval from renal transplant to first colon biopsy was 48.1 ± 47.5 months. On microscopic evaluation, there were no pathologic changes in 17 patients. The remaining 67 patients had colitis (38 patients), polyps (17 patients), cytomegalovirus colitis (8 patients), and amyloidosis (4 patients). The mean interval between transplant and the diagnosis of colitis was 49.08 ± 42.6 months, amyloidosis was 47.5 ± 79.28 months, cytomegalovirus colitis was 5 ± 3.5 months, and polyps was 77.65 ± 58.8 months. There was a statistically significant difference between biopsy diagnosis and the time interval between transplant and colon biopsy (P < .01). Among 84 renal transplant recipients with colonic biopsies, 40 patients never had acute rejection episodes and 44 patients had at least 1 acute rejection episode. Seven of 8 patients with cytomegalovirus colitis, 19 of 38 with colitis, 3 of 4 with amyloidosis, and 5 of 17 with polyps had acute rejection episodes. In our report on colonic manifestations in renal transplant recipients, the most common colonic lesion was noninfectious colitis. Cytomegalovirus colitis is an important infection that affects immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients. Cytomegalovirus must be kept in mind, and thorough sectioning and immunohistochemical sta ining should be used if necessary in the presence of any clinical or histologic suspicion for infective colitis.

  13. Dehydropeptidase 1 promotes metastasis through regulation of E-cadherin expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Seon-Jin; Cho, Hee Jun; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Jae Wha; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Yeom, Young Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Younghee; Lee, Hee Gu

    2016-01-01

    Dehydropeptidase 1 (DPEP1) is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that is expressed aberrantly in several cancers. The role of DPEP1 in cancer remain controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that DPEP1 functions as a positive regulator for colon cancer cell metastasis. The expression of DPEP1 mRNA and proteins were upregulated in colon cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were used to examine the malignant phenotype of DPEP1-expressing or DPEP1-depleted cells. DPEP1 expression caused a significant increase in colon cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, DPEP1 depletion induced opposite effects. Furthermore, cilastatin, a DPEP1 inhibitor, suppressed the invasion and metastasis of DPEP1-expressing cells. DPEP1 inhibited the leukotriene D4 signaling pathway and increased the expression of E-cadherin. We also show that DPEP1 mediates TGF-β-induced EMT. TGF-β transcriptionally repressed DPEP1 expression. TGF-β treatment decreased E-cadherin expression and promoted cell invasion in DPEP1-expressing colon cancer cell lines, whereas it did not affect these parameters in DPEP1-depleted cell lines. These results suggest that DPEP1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating E-cadherin plasticity and that it might be a potential therapeutic target for preventing the progression of colon cancer. PMID:26824987

  14. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  15. Articulatory Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladefoged, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 16 parameters hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for linguistic phonetic specifications. Suggests seven parameters affecting tongue shapes, three determining the positions of the lips, one controlling the position of the velum, four varying laryngeal actions, and one controlling respiratory activity. (RL)

  16. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (<63um) of bed-sediment samples. Specifically the study compared observed elemental concentrations measured using a Rigaku NEX-CG laboratory machine versus a handheld Niton XL3t-900 XRF elemental analyser. Helium purging was used on both machines to enable measurement of lighter geochemical elements. Sediment sub-samples were taken from a larger homogenised sample from a sediment core taken from an in-channel lateral bench deposit of the Brantian river in Sabah, Borneo; the core site is being used for research into multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting as part of the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project. Some fundamental sample preparation procedures consistent with US EPA Method 6200 were applied to all sediment samples in

  17. Texture profile of tofu as affected by instron parameters and sample preparation, and correlations of instron hardness and springiness with sensory scores.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    Our objective was to characterize the variations of tofu textural profiles as affected by physical parameters and to correlate the data with that of the sensory method. The textural profiles of 13 selected tofu types were characterized using various crosshead speeds and 2 degrees of penetration using an Instron universal textural machine. Hardness (firmness) and springiness (elasticity) were also analyzed by a descriptive sensory analysis. The results showed that the degree of plunger penetration had a significant impact on textural properties. Hardness values obtained by both levels of penetration correlated significantly (r= 0.94 to 0.95) with the sensory hardness. Springiness obtained by the 50% penetration method did not correlate significantly with the sensory data, whereas 75% penetration had a significant correlation (r= 0.98). Hardness values obtained using tofu specimens without skin correlated better with sensory data than that obtained with skin, which typically results from a pressing step in traditional tofu-making process. The findings were the first in the literature to show linear correlations between instrumental and sensory tofu textural characteristics, and provided a basis for the selection of physical parameters for determining tofu textural properties using an Instron machine.

  18. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), T stage (P < 0.001), N stage (P < 0.001), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P < 0.001), metachronous liver metastasis (P < 0.001), metachronous lung metastasis (P < 0.001), and ERCCI expression (P < 0.001) between the seven groups. Both 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) exhibited significant differences (both P < 0.001) with survival gradually decreasing from cecum to sigmoid colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  20. Do organic solvents affect the catalytic properties of lipase? Intrinsic kinetic parameters of lipases in ester hydrolysis and formation in various organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tol, J.B.A. van; Stevens, R.M.M.; Veldhuizen, W.J.; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A.

    1995-07-05

    When it is assumed that organic solvents do not interfere with the binding process nor with the catalytic mechanism, the contribution of substrate-solvent interactions to enzyme kinetics can be accounted for by just replacing substrate concentrations in the equations by thermodynamic activities. It appears from the transformation that only the affinity parameters (K{sub m},k{sub sp}) are affected by this. Thus, in theory, the values of these corrected, intrinsic parameters (K{sub m}{sup int}, k{sub sp}{sup int}) and the maximal rate (V{sub 1}) should be equal for all media. This was tested for hydrolysis, transesterification, and esterification reactions catalyzed by pig pancreas lipase and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in various organic solvents. Correction was carried out via experimentally determined activity coefficients for the substrates in these solvents or, if not feasible, from values in data bases. However, although the kinetic performances of each enzyme in the solvents became much more similar after correction, differences still remained. Analysis of the enzyme suspensions revealed massive particles, which explains the low activity of enzymes in organic solvents. However, no correlation was found between estimates of the amount of catalytically available enzyme (present at the surface of suspended particles or immobilized on beads) and the maximal rates observed. Moreover, the solvents had similar effects on the intrinsic parameters of suspended and immobilized enzyme. The possible causes for the effects of the solvents on the catalytic performance of the enzymes, remaining after correction for solvent-substrate interactions and the amount of participating enzyme, are discussed with respect to the premises on which the correction method is based.

  1. Neuropilin-1 in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Alexander A.; Fan, Fan; Liu, Wen Biao; Ahmad, Syed A.; Stoeltzing, Oliver; Reinmuth, Niels; Bielenberg, Diane; Bucana, Corazon D.; Klagsbrun, Michael; Ellis, Lee M.

    2004-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a recently identified co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor, is expressed by several nongastrointestinal tumor types and enhances prostate cancer angiogenesis and growth in preclinical models. We investigated the expression and regulation of NRP-1 and the effect of NRP-1 overexpression on angiogenesis and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. NRP-1 was expressed in 20 of 20 human colon adenocarcinoma specimens but not in the adjacent nonmalignant colonic mucosa. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, NRP-1 mRNA was expressed in seven of seven colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Subcutaneous xenografts of stably transfected KM12SM/LM2 human colon cancer cells overexpressing NRP-1 led to increased tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice. In in vitro assays, conditioned medium from NRP-1-transfected cell lines led to an increase in endothelial cell migration, but did not affect endothelial cell growth. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) led to induction of NRP-1 in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and selective blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) decreased constitutive and EGF-induced NRP-1 expression. Blockade of the Erk 1/2 and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways also led to a decrease in constitutive and EGF-induced NRP-1 expression. These findings demonstrate the ubiquitous expression of NRP-1 in human colon cancer and suggest that NRP-1 may contribute to colon cancer angiogenesis and growth. This study also suggests that EGF and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways play an important role in NRP-1 regulation in colon cancer cells. PMID:15161648

  2. Ocean acidification affects parameters of immune response and extracellular pH in tropical sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra luccunter.

    PubMed

    Leite Figueiredo, Débora Alvares; Branco, Paola Cristina; Dos Santos, Douglas Amaral; Emerenciano, Andrews Krupinski; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Shimada Borges, João Carlos; Machado Cunha da Silva, José Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters. For this reason, the phagocytic capacity (PC), the phagocytic index (PI), the capacity of cell adhesion, cell spreading, cell spreading area of phagocytic amebocytes in vitro, and the coelomic fluid pH were analyzed in animals exposed to a pH of 8.0 (control group), 7.6 and 7.3. Experimental pH's were predicted by IPCC for the future of the two species. Furthermore, a recovery test was conducted to verify whether animals have the ability to restore these physiological parameters after being re-exposed to control conditions. Both species presented a significant decrease in PC, in the pH of coelomic fluid and in the cell spreading area. Besides that, Echinometra lucunter showed a significant decrease in cell spreading and significant differences in coelomocyte proportions. The recovery test showed that the PC of both species increased, also being below the control values. Even so, they were still significantly higher than those exposed to acidified seawater, indicating that with the re-establishment of the pH value the phagocytic capacity of cells tends to restore control conditions. These results demonstrate that the immune system and the coelomic fluid pH of these animals can be affected by ocean acidification. However, the effects of a short-term exposure can be reversible if the natural values ​​are re-established. Thus, the effects of

  3. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer. PMID:20191069

  4. CT findings of colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  5. Early stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-12-14

    Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent "curative" resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., "tumor budding") should lead to improved staging and clinical care.

  6. Idiopathic Neonatal Colonic Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Melek, Mehmet; Kaba, Sultan; Bulan, Keziban; Peker, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Though the perforation of the colon in neonates is rare, it is associated with more than 50% mortality in high-risk patients. We report a case of idiopathic neonatal perforation of the sigmoid colon in an 8-day-old, healthy, male neonate without any demonstrable cause. PMID:26023477

  7. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases after ...

  8. Relationship Between Maternal and Neonatal Staphylococcus aureus Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, Sara; Saye, Elizabeth J.; McKenna, Brian D.; Langdon, Weston; Wright, Jesse P.; Alsentzer, Andrew; Arnold, Sandra; Saville, Benjamin R.; Wang, Wenli; Thomsen, Isaac; Creech, C. Buddy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess whether maternal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus during pregnancy or at delivery was associated with infant staphylococcal colonization. METHODS: For this prospective cohort study, women were enrolled at 34 to 37 weeks of gestation between 2007 and 2009. Nasal and vaginal swabs for culture were obtained at enrollment; nasal swabs were obtained from women and their infants at delivery and 2- and 4-month postbirth visits. Logistic regression was used to determine whether maternal colonization affected infant colonization. RESULTS: Overall, 476 and 471 mother-infant dyads had complete data for analysis at enrollment and delivery, respectively. Maternal methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) colonization occurred in 10% to 17% of mothers, with the highest prevalence at enrollment. Infant MRSA colonization peaked at 2 months of age, with 20.9% of infants colonized. Maternal staphylococcal colonization at enrollment increased the odds of infant staphylococcal colonization at birth (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 4.8; 2.4–9.5), hospital discharge (2.6; 1.3–5.0), at 2 months of life (2.7; 1.6–4.3), and at 4 months of life (2.0; 1.1–3.5). Similar results were observed for maternal staphylococcal colonization at delivery. Fifty maternal-infant dyads had concurrent MRSA colonization: 76% shared isolates of the same pulsed-field type, and 30% shared USA300 isolates. Only 2 infants developed staphylococcal disease. CONCLUSIONS: S aureus colonization (including MRSA) was extremely common in this cohort of maternal-infant pairs. Infants born to mothers with staphylococcal colonization were more likely to be colonized, and early postnatal acquisition appeared to be the primary mechanism. PMID:22473373

  9. [Colonic gallstone ileus: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction].

    PubMed

    Marenco-de la Cuadra, Beatriz; López-Ruiz, José Antonio; Tallón-Aguilar, Luis; López-Pérez, José; Oliva-Mompeán, Fernando

    2016-07-13

    A gallstone colonic ileus is a very rare condition. The case is reported of an 87 year-old patient who came to the Emergency Department due to an intestinal obstruction of several days onset, which was caused by a gallstone affected sigmoid colon. Colonic gallstone ileus is a rare disease that usually occurs in older patients due to the passage of large gallstone directly from the gallbladder to colon, through a cholecystocolonic fistula. It has a high morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2006-01-01

    Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

  11. The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays.

    PubMed

    Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kögler, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation.

  12. Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management. PMID:25049892

  13. The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kögler, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation. PMID:23533443

  14. Using structures of the August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake affected area as seismoscopes for assessing ground motion characteristics and parameters of the main shock and its largest aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carydis, Panayotis; Lekkas, Efthymios; Mavroulis, Spyridon

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 an Mw 6.0 earthquake struck Central Apennines (Italy) resulting in 299 fatalities, 388 injuries and about 3000 homeless in Amatrice wider area. Normal faulting surface ruptures along the western slope of Mt Vettore along with provided focal mechanisms demonstrated a NW-SE striking and SE dipping causative normal fault. The dominant building types in the affected area are unreinforced masonry (URM) and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Based on our macroseismic survey in the affected area immediately after the earthquake, RC buildings suffered non-structural damage including horizontal cracking of infill and internal partition walls, detachment of infill walls from the surrounding RC frame and detachment of large plaster pieces from infill walls as well as structural damage comprising soft story failure, symmetrical buckling of rods, compression damage at midheight of columns and bursting of over-stressed columns resulting in partial or total collapse. Damage in RC buildings was due to poor quality of concrete, inadequacy of reinforcement, inappropriate foundation close to the edge of slopes leading to differential settlements, poor workmanship and the destructive effect of vertical ground motions. Damage in URM buildings ranged from cracks and detachment of large plaster pieces from load-bearing walls to destruction due to poor workmanship with randomly placed materials bound by low-strength mortars, the effect of the vertical ground motion, inadequate repair and/or strengthening after previous earthquakes as well as inadequate interventions, additions and extensions to older URM buildings. During field surveying, the authors had the opportunity to observe damage induced not only by the main shock but also by its largest aftershocks (Mw 4.5-5.3) during the first three days of the aftershock sequence (August 24-26). Bearing in mind that: (a) soil conditions in foundations of the affected villages were more or less similar, (b) building damage

  15. Congenital pouch colon: is it really a rare pathology?

    PubMed

    Atabek, Cüneyt; Demirbağ, Suzi; Sürer, Ilhami; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Ongürü, Onder; Calişkan, Bahadir; Oztürk, Haluk

    2007-12-01

    Congenital pouch colon is a condition of a shortened and pouch-like dilated colon and it is usually associated with an anorectal malformation. The pathogenesis and embryology of congenital pouch colon are not well understood, but dietary, environmental factors and familial inheritance may be contributing factors in this pathology. Most of the cases in the literature have been reported from India. This increased regional incidence may be attributed to the lack of awareness of this pathology or its mislabeling rather than regional distribution. Congenital pouch colon is classified into four types based on the length of the abnormal colon. A variable dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid is always present in anorectal malformation. However, there is no clear definition of a limit for the dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid observed in anorectal malformation. Furthermore, many surgeons do not routinely take a biopsy from a dilated rectum or sigmoid during a colostomy procedure in anorectal malformation cases. For these reasons, type IV congenital pouch colon can be easily underdiagnosed. Surgical treatment options in type IV congenital pouch colon include resection of the affected sites of the colon or excisional tapering coloplasty. In the undiagnosed cases, congenital pouch colon results in severe constipation and overflow incontinence. We herein report two additional new cases of type IV congenital pouch colon.

  16. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  17. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  18. Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in lungs from colonized COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Sheila; Sciurba, Frank C.; Lucht, Lorrie A.; Zhang, Yingze; Duncan, Steven R.; Norris, Karen A.; Morris, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii has been detected in lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with disease severity. The regional distribution of the organism in lungs is unknown, but differences in distribution of Pneumocystis could affect estimates of colonization prevalence. We examined the distribution of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with COPD who were undergoing lung transplantation. DNA was extracted from explanted lungs. We found Pneumocystis colonization in lung tissue of 42.1% of patients with advanced COPD; however, there was significant regional variation in colonization between lung segments of individual patients. Colonization was detected more commonly in the lower and middle lobes than the upper lobes. These findings suggest that single samples from an individual may underestimate the prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization and future studies may obtain a higher yield of Pneumocystis colonization detection when sampling the lower lobes. PMID:21851870

  19. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Colonic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/colonicdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  20. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  1. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P < 0.01 for linear trend). The associations with other carotenoids were unremarkable. The major dietary sources of lutein in subjects with colon cancer and in control subjects were spinach, broccoli, lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  2. Long-term treatment with Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, reduces colon carcinogenesis and reactive oxygen species in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Raimondi, Laura; Maglieri, Giulia; Lodovici, Maura; Mannucci, Edoardo; Caderni, Giovanna

    2013-11-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR) increase colon cancer risk. Antidiabetic drugs stabilizing incretin hormones, such as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity (DPP4i), may affect colon carcinogenesis; however, the data remain controversial. Therefore, the authors studied whether long-term administration of the DPP4i Sitagliptin (SITA) affects 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet promoting colon carcinogenesis and IR, were induced with DMH (100 mg/kg × 2 times). One week later, the animals were allocated to two groups: one continuing with HF diet (controls; n = 8) and one receiving SITA (n = 8) mixed in the diet (260 ppm). Body weight, food consumption and glycemia were not affected by SITA. Fifteen weeks after DMH, the number of the precancerous lesions mucin-depleted foci (MDF) was significantly lower in rats treated with SITA [MDF/colon: 9.5 ± 0.9 and 6.4 ± 0.9 in controls (n = 8) and SITA groups (n = 8), respectively; means ± SE, p < 0.05]. Reactive oxygen species in the blood were also significantly lower in the SITA group [6.75 ± 0.69 and 5.63 ± 0.75 (H2 O2 in mM) in controls (n = 5) and SITA (n = 6), respectively; means ± SE, p < 0.05]. Rats treated with SITA had a lower DPP4 activity in the intestine but not in the plasma. Intestine growth morphometric parameters and colon proliferation, as proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, were not affected by SITA. In conclusion, the results suggest a protective effect of DPP4i against colon carcinogenesis that could be exploited in chemoprevention trials.

  3. Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

  4. [Colon cancer in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, M; Fermeaux, V

    2003-09-01

    Colon cancers arise only rarely in the course of a pregnancy. Yet colon obstruction, perforation and metastatic spread seem to occur more frequently in this setting than with the average colon cancer. Perhaps this is due to the immunotolerance which accompanies pregnancy. No case of epidermoid (squamous cell) cancer of the colon has been previously described in a pregnant woman. This conjunction has a catastrophic prognosis: the diagnosis of colon tumor is delayed since symptoms are masked by the pregnancy, and epidermoid colon cancer is a particularly aggressive lesion. A major sub-diaphragmatic surgical procedure can be performed with reasonable safety to mother and fetus. Radiotherapy is contraindicated. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can be administered although the risks to the fetus are not well known. During the first trimester, a therapeutic abortion can be proposed to optimise the treatment of the mother. During the second and third trimesters, treatment of the mother exposes the fetus to the risk of malformations or premature delivery; delay in maternal treatment in hopes of prolonging the pregnancy in order to obtain a viable neonate diminish the chances of maternal survival.

  5. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  6. Microbial colonization of open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Rasilainen, Suvi Kaarina; Juhani, Mentula Panu; Kalevi, Leppäniemi Ari

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the time-course and microbiology of colonization of open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients and to study its association with morbidity, mortality and specific complications of open abdomen. A retrospective cohort analysis was done. One hundred eleven consecutive patients undergoing vacuum-assisted closure with mesh as temporary abdominal closure method for open abdomen were analyzed. Microbiological samples from the open abdomen were collected. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Mann-Whitney U test was used when comparing number of temporary abdominal closure changes between colonized and sterile patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to calculate cumulative estimates for colonization. Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze risk factors for colonization. Microbiological samples were obtained from 97 patients. Of these 76 (78 %) were positive. Sixty-one (80 %) patients were colonized with multiple micro-organisms and 27 (36 %) were cultured positive for candida species. The duration of open abdomen treatment adversely affected the colonization rate. Thirty-three (34 %) patients were colonized at the time of laparostomy. After one week of open abdomen treatment 69, and after two weeks 76 patients were colonized with cumulative colonization estimates of 74 % and 89 %, respectively. Primary fascial closure rate was 80 % (61/76) and 86 % (18/21) for the colonized and sterile patients, respectively. The rate of wound complications did not significantly differ between these groups. Microbial colonization of open abdomen is associated with the duration of open abdomen treatment. Wound complications are common after open abdomen, but colonization does not seem to have significant effect on these. The high colonization rate described herein should be taken into account when primarily sterile conditions like acute pancreatitis and aortic aneurysmal rupture

  7. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Stępka, Michał; Tomaszewska, Alicja; Ehrmann-Jóśko, Agnieszka; Chojnowska, Natalia; Muszyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm) and distal (8–10 cm) zone. Results Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain. PMID:28337232

  8. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle; Ho, Samantha; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Tran, Deanna Hoang-Yen; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Su, Bowei; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Kubota, Yuzu; Ichikawa, Ryan; Koon, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-β1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts promoted human colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation. Cathelicidin pretreatment inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation mediated by media conditioned by human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts. Cathelicidin disrupted tubulin distribution in colonic fibroblasts. Disruption of tubulin in fibroblasts reduced fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusion Cathelicidin effectively inhibits colon cancer development by interfering with EMT and fibroblast

  9. CT evaluation of the colon: inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Horton, K M; Corl, F M; Fishman, E K

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is valuable for detection and characterization of many inflammatory conditions of the colon. At CT, a dilated, thickened appendix is suggestive of appendicitis. A 1-4-cm, oval, fatty pericolic lesion with surrounding mesenteric inflammation is diagnostic of epiploic appendagitis. The key to distinguishing diverticulitis from other inflammatory conditions of the colon is the presence of diverticula in the involved segment. In typhlitis, CT demonstrates cecal distention and circumferential thickening of the cecal wall, which may have low attenuation secondary to edema. In radiation colitis, the clinical history is the key to suggesting the diagnosis because the CT findings can be nonspecific. The location of the involved segment and the extent and appearance of wall thickening may help distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. In ischemic colitis, CT typically demonstrates circumferential, symmetric wall thickening with fold enlargement. CT findings of graft-versus-host disease include small bowel and colonic wall thickening, which may result in luminal narrowing and separation of bowel loops. In infectious colitis, the site and thickness of colon affected may suggest a specific organism. The amount of wall thickening in pseudomembranous colitis is typically greater than in any other inflammatory disease of the colon except Crohn disease.

  10. Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2014-10-01

    Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between

  11. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  12. Parameter Stability of the Functional–Structural Plant Model GREENLAB as Affected by Variation within Populations, among Seasons and among Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuntao; Li, Baoguo; Zhan, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Luquet, Delphine; de Reffye, Philippe; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly accepted that crop models, if they are to simulate genotype-specific behaviour accurately, should simulate the morphogenetic process generating plant architecture. A functional–structural plant model, GREENLAB, was previously presented and validated for maize. The model is based on a recursive mathematical process, with parameters whose values cannot be measured directly and need to be optimized statistically. This study aims at evaluating the stability of GREENLAB parameters in response to three types of phenotype variability: (1) among individuals from a common population; (2) among populations subjected to different environments (seasons); and (3) among different development stages of the same plants. Methods Five field experiments were conducted in the course of 4 years on irrigated fields near Beijing, China. Detailed observations were conducted throughout the seasons on the dimensions and fresh biomass of all above-ground plant organs for each metamer. Growth stage-specific target files were assembled from the data for GREENLAB parameter optimization. Optimization was conducted for specific developmental stages or the entire growth cycle, for individual plants (replicates), and for different seasons. Parameter stability was evaluated by comparing their CV with that of phenotype observation for the different sources of variability. A reduced data set was developed for easier model parameterization using one season, and validated for the four other seasons. Key Results and Conclusions The analysis of parameter stability among plants sharing the same environment and among populations grown in different environments indicated that the model explains some of the inter-seasonal variability of phenotype (parameters varied less than the phenotype itself), but not inter-plant variability (parameter and phenotype variability were similar). Parameter variability among developmental stages was small, indicating that parameter

  13. Effect of antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) on root colonization with Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fathi; Noorian, Mojgan Sharifi; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have always been a major problem in agriculture. One of the effective methods for controlling pathogen fungi to date is the introduction of resistance genes into the genome of crops. It is interesting to find out whether the induced resistance in crops will have a negative effect on non-target organisms such as root colonization with the AM fungi.   The objective of the present research was to study the influence of producing antifungal molecules by four transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines expressing PGIP gene from raspberry, VST-stilbene synthase from vine, a hybrid of PGIP/VST and bacterial Chitinase gene (Chit30) from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis respectively on the colonization potential of Glomus intraradices. Four different experiments were done in greenhouse and climate chamber, colonization was observed in all replications. The following parameters were used for evaluation: frequency of mycorrhization, the intensity of mycorrhization, the average presence of arbuscules within the colonized areas and the presence of arbuscules in the whole root system which showed insignificant difference between transgenic and non-transgenic plants. The root/shoot ratio exhibited different values according to the experiment condition. Compared with negative non-transgenic control all transgenic lines showed the ability to establish symbiosis and the different growth parameters had insignificant effect due to mycorrhization. The results of the present study proved that the introduced pathogen resistance genes did not affect the mycorrhization allocations in pea.

  14. ARMc8 indicates aggressive colon cancers and promotes invasiveness and migration of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiupeng; Fan, Chuifeng; Wang, Liang; Xu, Hongtao; Yu, Juanhan; Wang, Enhua

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have implicated ARMc8 in promoting tumor formation in non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer; however, so far, no studies have revealed the expression pattern or cellular function of ARMc8 in colon cancer. In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining to measure ARMc8 expression in 206 cases of colon cancer and matched adjacent normal colon tissue. Clinically important behaviors of cells, including invasiveness and migration, were evaluated after upregulation of ARMc8 expression in HT29 cells through gene transfection or downregulation of expression in LoVo cells using RNAi. We found that ARMc8 was primarily located in the membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression level was significantly higher in colon cancer in comparison to that in the adjacent normal colon tissues (p < 0.001). ARMc8 expression was closely related to TNM stage (p = 0.006), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001), and poor prognosis (p = 0.002) of colon cancer. The invasiveness and migration capacity of HT29 cells transfected with ARMc8 were significantly greater than those of control cells (p < 0.001), while ARMc8 siRNA treatment significantly reduced cell invasion and migration in LoVo cells (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ARMc8 could upregulate the expression of MMP7 and snail and downregulate the expression of p120ctn and α-catenin. Therefore, ARMc8 probably enhanced invasiveness and metastatic capacity by affecting these tumor-associated factors, thereby playing a role in enhancing the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. ARMc8 is likely to become a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  15. Keep Colon Cancer At Bay

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164231.html Keep Colon Cancer at Bay Colonoscopy best way to detect disease ... 22, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer can be treated and cured if it's diagnosed ...

  16. Modeling runoff and microbial overland transport with KINEROS2/STWIR model: Accuracy and uncertainty as affected by source of infiltration parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Yakirevich, A. M.; Shelton, D. R.; Whelan, G.; Goodrich, D. C.; Unkrich, C. L.

    2014-11-01

    Infiltration is important to modeling the overland transport of microorganisms in environmental waters. In watershed- and hillslope scale-models, infiltration is commonly described by simple equations relating infiltration rate to soil saturated conductivity and by empirical parameters defining changes in infiltration rate with soil water content. For the microbial transport model KINEROS2/STWIR used in this study, infiltration in unsaturated soil is accounted for by a net capillary drive parameter, G, in the Parlange equation. Scarce experimental data and multiple approaches for estimating parameter G introduce uncertainty, reducing reliability of overland water flow and microbial transport models. Our objectives were to evaluate reliability and robustness of three methods to estimate parameter G and associated accuracy and uncertainty in predicting runoff and fecal coliform (FC) transport. These methods include (i) KINEROS2 fitting to the experimental cumulative runoff data; (ii) estimating solely on soil texture; and (iii) estimating by individual pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and an ensemble of PTFs from basic soil properties. Results show that the most accurate prediction was obtained when the G parameter was fitted to the cumulative runoff. The KINEROS2-recommended parameter slightly overestimated the calibrated value of parameter G and yielded less accurate predictions of runoff, FC concentrations and total FC. The PTFs-estimated parameters systematically deviated from calibrated G values that caused high uncertainty in the KINEROS2/STWIR predictions. Averaging PTF estimates considerably improved model accuracy, reducing the uncertainty of runoff and FC concentration predictions. Overall, ensemble-based PTF estimation of the capillary drive can be efficient for simulations of runoff and bacteria overland transport when a single effective value is used across the study area.

  17. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 6 Go to slide 2 ...

  18. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Mohamed Ali, Elouer; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome. PMID:23785565

  19. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus.

    PubMed

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Ali, Elouer Mohamed; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome.

  20. Colonic fermentation--more than meets the nose.

    PubMed

    Arasaradnam, R P; Pharaoh, M W; Williams, G J; Nwokolo, C U; Bardhan, K D; Kumar, S

    2009-11-01

    Fermentation of undigested foods in the colon by its resident bacteria affects not only colonic health (protection against inflammation and tumour formation) but also influences metabolic health. Studying fermentation directly is difficult for lack of access. We hypothesise that the anatomical structure of the colon is suited to act as a fermenting chamber with the gaseous molecules (VOCs) emitted having direct effects on the colonocytes as well as gut neural and metabolic effects. We refer to this complex system as the 'fermentome', and further hypothesise that alteration in the 'fermentome' through dietary modification will have a direct impact on colonic as well as metabolic health and disease. The VOCs emitted may play a role in bacterial chemical signalling within the colon but importantly could also function as a 'gas' biomarker. Measurement of such VOCs through non-invasive methods would have important application as a hypothesis-generating tool with subsequent clinical application.

  1. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    He, T; Venema, K; Priebe, M G; Welling, G W; Brummer, R-J M; Vonk, R J

    2008-08-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic-active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance.

  2. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Email Print What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  3. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  4. The physiology of colonic hydrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seow-Choen, F

    2009-09-01

    Colonic hydrotherapy is widely used and many of its practitioners are medically qualified. Nonetheless, the basis of many of their practices requires physiological scrutiny. The claims of colonic hydrotherapy are examined against known physiological facts. Hydrotherapy is not entirely physiological. Colonic hydrotherapy may increase the dissemination and absorption of toxins and bacteria into the body.

  5. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie

    2007-03-01

    This work utilizes a novel pipeline for the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps, assisting radiologists in locating polyps when using a virtual colonoscopy system. Our CAD pipeline automatically detects polyps while reducing the number of false positives (FPs). It integrates volume rendering and conformal colon flattening with texture and shape analysis. The colon is first digitally cleansed, segmented, and extracted from the CT dataset of the abdomen. The colon surface is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. Using this colon flattening method, the CAD problem is converted from 3D into 2D. The flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering of the 3D colon dataset with a translucent transfer function. Suspicious polyps are detected by applying a clustering method on the 2D volume rendered image. The FPs are reduced by analyzing shape and texture features of the suspicious areas detected by the clustering step. Compared with shape-based methods, ours is much faster and much more efficient as it avoids computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon wall. We tested our method with 178 datasets and found it to be 100% sensitive to adenomatous polyps with a low rate of FPs. The CAD results are seamlessly integrated into a virtual colonoscopy system, providing the radiologists with visual cues and likelihood indicators of areas likely to contain polyps, and allowing them to quickly inspect the suspicious areas and further exploit the flattened colon view for easy navigation and bookmark placement.

  6. Investigation of computer-aided colonic crypt pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Pan, Yinsheng; Sivak, Michael V., Jr.; Olowe, Kayode; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2007-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Approximately 50% of these deaths could be prevented by earlier detection through screening. Magnification chromoendoscopy is a technique which utilizes tissue stains applied to the gastrointestinal mucosa and high-magnification endoscopy to better visualize and characterize lesions. Prior studies have shown that shapes of colonic crypts change with disease and show characteristic patterns. Current methods for assessing colonic crypt patterns are somewhat subjective and not standardized. Computerized algorithms could be used to standardize colonic crypt pattern assessment. We have imaged resected colonic mucosa in vitro (N = 70) using methylene blue dye and a surgical microscope to approximately simulate in vivo imaging with magnification chromoendoscopy. We have developed a method of computerized processing to analyze the crypt patterns in the images. The quantitative image analysis consists of three steps. First, the crypts within the region of interest of colonic tissue are semi-automatically segmented using watershed morphological processing. Second, crypt size and shape parameters are extracted from the segmented crypts. Third, each sample is assigned to a category according to the Kudo criteria. The computerized classification is validated by comparison with human classification using the Kudo classification criteria. The computerized colonic crypt pattern analysis algorithm will enable a study of in vivo magnification chromoendoscopy of colonic crypt pattern correlated with risk of colorectal cancer. This study will assess the feasibility of screening and surveillance of the colon using magnification chromoendoscopy.

  7. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi; Liu, Yi-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Kun

    2013-07-01

    To study the expression of ALDH1 in colon cancer and its clinical significance. The expression of ALDH1 was examined in 98 surgical specimens of primary colonic carcinoma and 15 normal colon tissues with immunohistochemistry method. The correlations of the expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of colon cancer were analyzed. The positive rate of expression of ALDH1 was 76.5% (75/98) in the cancer tissues and 13.3% (2/15) in normal colon tissues. There were an obvious statistical difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. The ALDH1 expression was significantly correlated with the histological grade, TNM stages and lymph node metastasis in colon cancer (P<0.05). It was also related with patients' survival time, those with positive expressions had a poor prognosis (P<0.05). The results suggeste that the overexpression of ALDH1 plays important roles in proliferation and progression in colon cancer, the ALDH1 may be a valuable marker to predict the biological behavior and trend of metastasis of colon cancer. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling the dynamics of stem cells in colonic crypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirio, Orozco-Fuentes; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt organisation in the human intestine. We construct a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt behaviour, using a Voronoi tessellation to represent each cell and elastic forces between them we addressed how their dynamical disfunction can lead to tumour masses and cancer. Our results indicate that for certain parameters the crypt is in a homeostatic state, but slight changes on their values can disrupt this behaviour.

  9. Estrogen in obesity-associated colon cancer: friend or foe? Protecting postmenopausal women but promoting late-stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Iverson, Don

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is associated with the increased incidence of colon cancer. Many cancer risk factors have been identified including increased blood levels of insulin, leptin, interleukin-6, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and decreased blood levels of adiponectin. However, the role of blood levels of estrogen in obesity-associated colon cancer is controversial. Evidence showed that obesity affected men more strongly than women in the carcinogenesis of colon cancer, indicating protective effect of estrogen which is increased in obesity. However, an epidemiological study has also shown that endogenous estradiol level is an independent risk factor for colon cancer, positively associated with colon cancer after normalizing insulin, IGF-1. The controversial opinions may be caused by different effects of ER-alpha and ER-beta. ER-alpha can increase colon cancer cell proliferation and increase cancer incidence. ER-beta has the opposite effect to ER-alpha, and it causes apoptosis of colon cancer cells. The normal colonocytes mainly express ER-beta. Therefore, increased estrogen in obesity may have protective effect via ER-beta in obesity-associated colon cancer. However, with the development of colon cancer, ER-alpha is increased and ER-beta is decreased. In the late stage of colon cancer, estrogen may promote cancer development via ER-alpha. The different effects and expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta may explain the different results observed in several epidemiological studies as well as several animal experiments. Therefore, manipulation of estrogen-caused signal pathways to inhibit ER-alpha and stimulate ER-beta may have preventive and therapeutic effect for obesity-associated colon cancer.

  10. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem, but not fat, has cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects on rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sesink, A L; Termont, D S; Kleibeuker, J H; Van Der Meer, R

    2000-10-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. It has been suggested that fat from red meat is responsible, because high fat intake increases the concentration of cytotoxic lipids in the colon. Experimental studies have not unequivocally supported such a role for fat, however. Recently, we showed that dietary haem, which is abundant in red meat, increased colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial proliferation. In this study, we wanted to clarify whether dietary fat affects colon cancer risk by itself or by modulating the detrimental effects of haem on the colonic epithelium. Rats were fed control or haem-supplemented diets with 10%, 25% or 40% of the energy derived from fat for 14 days. Faeces were collected for biochemical analyses. Colonic cytotoxicity was determined from the degree of lysis of erythrocytes by faecal water. Colonic epithelial proliferation was measured in vivo using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Increasing the fat content of the control diets stimulated faecal disposal of both fatty acids and bile acids. It also increased the concentration of fatty acids, but not that of bile acids, in faecal water in control rats. The cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation were unaffected. Dietary haem increased faecal cation content and cytolytic activity of faecal water at all fat levels, suggesting that the colonic mucosa was exposed to high amounts of luminal irritants. This effect was smaller in rats on the low-fat diet. Dietary haem also increased colonic epithelial proliferation at all fat levels. The haem-induced effects were independent of fatty acids or bile acids in the faecal water. In western societies, 30-40% of ingested energy is supplied by dietary fat, so our results suggest that the association between consumption of red meat and risk of colon cancer is mainly due to its haem content, and is largely independent of dietary fat content.

  11. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host-plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of host-plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group size and host to parasitoid ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, newly introduced for biological control of the invasive eme...

  12. Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-week randomized trial favorably affects energy balance parameters in healthy men and post-menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial. Objective: To determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight change, on energy metabolism parameters and glycemic control. Design: A randomized, con...

  13. Relationship Between Microbiota of the Colonic Mucosa vs Feces and Symptoms, Colonic Transit, and Methane Production in Female Patients With Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng; Chia, Nicholas; O'Connor, Helen M.; Wolf, Patricia G.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims In fecal samples from patients with chronic constipation, the microbiota differs from that of healthy subjects. However, the profiles of fecal microbiota only partially replicate those of the mucosal microbiota. It is not clear whether these differences are caused by variations in diet or colonic transit, or are associated with methane production (measured by breath tests). We compared the colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota in patients with chronic constipation and in healthy subjects to investigate the relationships between microbiota and other parameters. Methods Sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota samples were collected from 25 healthy women (controls) and 25 women with chronic constipation and evaluated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing (average of 49,186 reads/sample). We assessed associations between microbiota (overall composition and operational taxonomic units) and demographic variables, diet, constipation status, colonic transit, and methane production (measured in breath samples after oral lactulose intake). Results Fourteen patients with chronic constipation had slow colonic transit. The profile of the colonic mucosal microbiota differed between constipated patients and controls (P<.05). The overall composition of the colonic mucosal microbiota was associated with constipation, independent of colonic transit (P<.05) and discriminated between patients with constipation and controls with 94% accuracy. Genera from Bacteroidetes were more abundant in the colonic mucosal microbiota of patients with constipation. The profile of the fecal microbiota was associated with colonic transit before adjusting for constipation, age, body mass index, and diet; genera from Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Lactococcus, and Roseburia) correlated with faster colonic transit. Methane production was associated with the composition of the fecal microbiota, but not with constipation or colonic transit. Conclusions After adjusting for diet and

  14. Relationship Between Microbiota of the Colonic Mucosa vs Feces and Symptoms, Colonic Transit, and Methane Production in Female Patients With Chronic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng; Chia, Nicholas; O'Connor, Helen M; Wolf, Patricia G; Gaskins, H Rex; Bharucha, Adil E

    2016-02-01

    In fecal samples from patients with chronic constipation, the microbiota differs from that of healthy subjects. However, the profiles of fecal microbiota only partially replicate those of the mucosal microbiota. It is not clear whether these differences are caused by variations in diet or colonic transit, or are associated with methane production (measured by breath tests). We compared the colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota in patients with chronic constipation and in healthy subjects to investigate the relationships between microbiota and other parameters. Sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota samples were collected from 25 healthy women (controls) and 25 women with chronic constipation and evaluated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing (average, 49,186 reads/sample). We assessed associations between microbiota (overall composition and operational taxonomic units) and demographic variables, diet, constipation status, colonic transit, and methane production (measured in breath samples after oral lactulose intake). Fourteen patients with chronic constipation had slow colonic transit. The profile of the colonic mucosal microbiota differed between constipated patients and controls (P < .05). The overall composition of the colonic mucosal microbiota was associated with constipation, independent of colonic transit (P < .05), and discriminated between patients with constipation and controls with 94% accuracy. Genera from Bacteroidetes were more abundant in the colonic mucosal microbiota of patients with constipation. The profile of the fecal microbiota was associated with colonic transit before adjusting for constipation, age, body mass index, and diet; genera from Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Lactococcus, and Roseburia) correlated with faster colonic transit. Methane production was associated with the composition of the fecal microbiota, but not with constipation or colonic transit. After adjusting for diet and colonic transit, the profile of the microbiota in

  15. Automatic segmentation of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Christopher L.; Ge, Yaorong; Vining, David J.

    1999-05-01

    Virtual colonoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that enables detection of colorectal polyps and cancer. Normally, a patient's bowel is prepared with colonic lavage and gas insufflation prior to computed tomography (CT) scanning. An important step for 3D analysis of the image volume is segmentation of the colon. The high-contrast gas/tissue interface that exists in the colon lumen makes segmentation of the majority of the colon relatively easy; however, two factors inhibit automatic segmentation of the entire colon. First, the colon is not the only gas-filled organ in the data volume: lungs, small bowel, and stomach also meet this criteria. User-defined seed points placed in the colon lumen have previously been required to spatially isolate only the colon. Second, portions of the colon lumen may be obstructed by peristalsis, large masses, and/or residual feces. These complicating factors require increased user interaction during the segmentation process to isolate additional colon segments. To automate the segmentation of the colon, we have developed a method to locate seed points and segment the gas-filled lumen with no user supervision. We have also developed an automated approach to improve lumen segmentation by digitally removing residual contrast-enhanced fluid resulting from a new bowel preparation that liquefies and opacifies any residual feces.

  16. Gastrointestinal Motility, Part 2: Small-Bowel and Colon Transit.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Alan H

    2016-03-01

    Because of the difficulty often encountered in deciding whether a patient's symptoms originate in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy is a uniquely suited noninvasive, quantitative, and physiologic method of determining whether there is a motility disorder affecting the stomach, small bowel, or colon. Small-bowel and colon transit studies can be performed alone or together with gastric emptying studies after oral administration of an appropriately radiolabeled meal. It is hoped that newly published standards for performing these studies and the anticipated arrival of new Current Procedural Terminology codes in the United States for small-bowel and colon transit studies will increase their availability and use.

  17. Gastrointestinal Motility, Part 2: Small-Bowel and Colon Transit.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Alan H

    2015-09-01

    Because of the difficulty often encountered in deciding whether a patient's symptoms originate in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy is a uniquely suited noninvasive, quantitative, and physiologic method of determining whether there is a motility disorder affecting the stomach, small bowel, or colon. Small-bowel and colon transit studies can be performed alone or together with gastric emptying studies after oral administration of an appropriately radiolabeled meal. It is hoped that newly published standards for performing these studies and the anticipated arrival of new Current Procedural Terminology codes in the United States for small-bowel and colon transit studies will increase their availability and use.

  18. Angiodysplasias of the colon.

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, D J; Rowland, R; Pieterse, A S; Freeman, R; Hunter, R

    1982-01-01

    We studied 14 large bowel resections from patients with a provisional clinical diagnosis of a bleeding vascular lesion of the colon. For the purpose of this study we developed a barium-gelatine vascular injection technique. Six of the 14 cases were proven to be angiodysplasias with an identifiable mucosal vascular ectasia. The pathological findings in these six cases are described. We conclude that angiodysplasia represent a significant cause of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the elderly. It is our opinion that only the mucosa vascular ectasia seen in these cases is histologically diagnostic and that sub-mucosal venous ectasia, while characteristic of angiodysplasia, is non-specific. the differential diagnostic features which will allow the histological distinction of angiodysplasia from other vascular lesions of the colon are discussed. Images PMID:6980903

  19. Film coatings for oral colon delivery.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Alessandra; Del Curto, Maria Dorly; Zema, Lucia; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-12-05

    Oral colon delivery is pursued through a number of formulation strategies with the aim of enabling effective and well-tolerated treatments for large bowel pathologies or enhancing the intestinal absorption of peptide and protein drugs. According to such strategies, coated dosage forms for colonic release may be provided with microbiota, pH, pressure or time-dependent polymeric films. Microbiota-activated coatings are mostly obtained from polysaccharides of natural origin mixed with insoluble structuring excipients. Alternatively, synthetic azo compounds have been employed, generally requiring organic solvents for use as spray-coating agents. On the other hand, pH-sensitive films show responsiveness to pH changes in the lower gut, such as the rise generally observed in the terminal ileum and distal colon or the slight acidification of caecal contents by bacterial fermentation products. Pressure-sensitive coatings are intended for rupturing because of the relatively elevated pressure that may affect solid dosage forms in the large bowel. Finally, time-dependent films are expected to undergo timed erosion, break-up or permeabilization processes irrespective of the aforementioned physiological variables. In this review, the differing films applied for colon delivery purposes are surveyed, and details on their composition, manufacturing and performance are reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Difficult colon polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vormbrock, Klaus; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the world. We now know that 90% of CRC develop from adenomatous polyps. Polypectomy of colon adenomas leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of CRC. At present most of the polyps are removed endoscopically. The vast majority of colorectal polyps identified at colonoscopy are small and do not pose a significant challenge for resection to an appropriately trained and skilled endoscopist. Advanced polypectomy techniques are intended for the removal of difficult colon polyps. We have defined a “difficult polyp” as any lesion that due to its size, shape or location represents a challenge for the colonoscopist to remove. Although many “difficult polyps” will be an easy target for the advanced endoscopist, polyps that are larger than 15 mm, have a large pedicle, are flat and extended, are difficult to see or are located in the cecum or any angulated portion of the colon should be always considered difficult. Although very successful, advanced resection techniques can potentially cause serious, even life-threatening complications. Moreover, post polypectomy complications are more common in the presence of difficult polyps. Therefore, any endoscopist attempting advanced polypectomy techniques should be adequately supervised by an expert or have an excellent training in interventional endoscopy. This review describes several useful tips and tricks to deal with difficult polyps. PMID:22816006

  1. Colonic intussusception in descending colon: An unusual presentation of colon lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagherzadeh Saba, Reza; Sadeghi, Amir; Rad, Neda; Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Barzegar, Farnoush

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas of the colon are relatively rare benign soft tissue tumors derived from mature adipocytes of mesenchymatic origin. During colonoscopy, surgery or autopsy they are generally discovered incidentally. Most cases are asymptomatic, with a small tumor size, and do not need any special treatment. However, in the cases with larger in size of tumor some symptoms such as anemia, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, bleeding, or intussusception may be presented. We reported a 47-year-old woman with colonic intussusception in the descending colon caused by colonic lipoma and diagnosed after surgical exploration for obstructive colonic mass. PMID:28224035

  2. Mangrove Crab Ucides cordatus Removal Does Not Affect Sediment Parameters and Stipule Production in a One Year Experiment in Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pülmanns, Nathalie; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth. Such positive feed-back loop was tested in North Brazil through a one year crab removal experiment simulating increased harvesting rates in a mature Rhizophora mangle forest. Investigated response parameters were sediment salinity, organic matter content, CO2 efflux rates of the surface sediment, and reduction potential. We also determined stipule fall of the mangrove tree R. mangle as a proxy for tree growth. Three treatments were applied to twelve experimental plots (13 m × 13 m each): crab removal, disturbance control and control. Within one year, the number of U. cordatus burrows inside the four removal plots decreased on average to 52% of the initial number. Despite this distinct reduction in burrow density of this large bioturbator, none of the measured parameters differed between treatments. Instead, most parameters were clearly influenced by seasonal changes in precipitation. Hence, in the studied R. mangle forest, abiotic factors seem to be more important drivers of ecosystem processes than factors mediated by U. cordatus, at least within the studied timespan of one year.

  3. Mangrove Crab Ucides cordatus Removal Does Not Affect Sediment Parameters and Stipule Production in a One Year Experiment in Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth. Such positive feed-back loop was tested in North Brazil through a one year crab removal experiment simulating increased harvesting rates in a mature Rhizophora mangle forest. Investigated response parameters were sediment salinity, organic matter content, CO2 efflux rates of the surface sediment, and reduction potential. We also determined stipule fall of the mangrove tree R. mangle as a proxy for tree growth. Three treatments were applied to twelve experimental plots (13 m × 13 m each): crab removal, disturbance control and control. Within one year, the number of U. cordatus burrows inside the four removal plots decreased on average to 52% of the initial number. Despite this distinct reduction in burrow density of this large bioturbator, none of the measured parameters differed between treatments. Instead, most parameters were clearly influenced by seasonal changes in precipitation. Hence, in the studied R. mangle forest, abiotic factors seem to be more important drivers of ecosystem processes than factors mediated by U. cordatus, at least within the studied timespan of one year. PMID:27907093

  4. Biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function do not affect hematological parameters in young infants: results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Håvard Bjørke; Torsvik, Ingrid; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Øivind; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-09-01

    Whereas iron deficiency is considered the leading cause of anemia in infants, cobalamin deficiency is foremost characterized by developmental delay, and the typical macrocytic anemia is confined to severe and longstanding cobalamin deficiency in this age group. Hematological parameters were investigated in 4-mo-old infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function who participated in a randomized controlled cobalamin intervention study at 6 wk. One hundred and seven infants were randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection with 400 μg cobalamin or no intervention at 6 wk. Hematological parameters, and cobalamin and folate status were determined at inclusion and 4 mo. Cobalamin supplementation improved all markers of impaired cobalamin function but had no effect on hematological cell counts at 4 mo (P > 0.18). Signs indicative of an iron-restricted erythropoiesis were observed at 6 wk and 4 mo. At 4 mo, the strongest predictors of low iron status were male gender and a high percentage weight increase from birth. In infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function, supplementation does not improve hematological cell counts. Variations in erythrocyte parameters seem to be foremost associated with iron status in this age group.

  5. Th22 cells control colon tumorigenesis through STAT3 and Polycomb Repression complex 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Danfeng; Lin, Yanwei; Hong, Jie; Chen, Haoyan; Nagarsheth, Nisha; Peng, Dongjun; Wei, Shuang; Huang, Emina; Fang, Jingyuan; Kryczek, Ilona; Zou, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    Th22 cells traffic to and retain in the colon cancer microenvironment, and target core stem cell genes and promote colon cancer stemness via STAT3 and H3K79me2 signaling pathway and contribute to colon carcinogenesis. However, whether Th22 cells affect colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis remains unknown. We studied the interaction between Th22 cells and colon cancer cells in the colon cancer microenvironment. Colon cancer proliferation was examined by flow cytometry analysis and H(3) thymidine incorporation. Cell cycle related genes were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting. We transfected colon cancer cells with lentiviral vector encoding specific gene shRNAs and used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to determine the genetic signaling involved in interleukin (IL)-22-mediated colon cancer cell proliferation. We showed that Th22 cells released IL-22 and stimulated colon cancer proliferation. Mechanistically, IL-22 activated STAT3, and subsequently STAT3 bound to the promoter areas of the Polycomb Repression complex 2 (PRC2) components SUZ12 and EED, and stimulated the expression of PRC2. Consequently, the activated PRC2 catalyzed the promoters of the cell cycle check-point genes p16 and p21, and inhibited their expression through H3K27me3-mediated histone methylation, and ultimately caused colon cancer cell proliferation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the levels of IL-22 expression positively correlated with the levels of genes controlling cancer proliferation and cell cycling in colon cancer. In addition to controlling colon cancer stemness, Th22 cells support colon carcinogenesis via affecting colon cancer cell proliferation through a distinct histone modification.

  6. Th22 cells control colon tumorigenesis through STAT3 and Polycomb Repression complex 2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Danfeng; Lin, Yanwei; Hong, Jie; Chen, Haoyan; Nagarsheth, Nisha; Peng, Dongjun; Wei, Shuang; Huang, Emina; Fang, Jingyuan; Kryczek, Ilona; Zou, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Th22 cells traffic to and retain in the colon cancer microenvironment, and target core stem cell genes and promote colon cancer stemness via STAT3 and H3K79me2 signaling pathway and contribute to colon carcinogenesis. However, whether Th22 cells affect colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis remains unknown. We studied the interaction between Th22 cells and colon cancer cells in the colon cancer microenvironment. Colon cancer proliferation was examined by flow cytometry analysis and H3 thymidine incorporation. Cell cycle related genes were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting. We transfected colon cancer cells with lentiviral vector encoding specific gene shRNAs and used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to determine the genetic signaling involved in interleukin (IL)-22-mediated colon cancer cell proliferation. We showed that Th22 cells released IL-22 and stimulated colon cancer proliferation. Mechanistically, IL-22 activated STAT3, and subsequently STAT3 bound to the promoter areas of the Polycomb Repression complex 2 (PRC2) components SUZ12 and EED, and stimulated the expression of PRC2. Consequently, the activated PRC2 catalyzed the promoters of the cell cycle check-point genes p16 and p21, and inhibited their expression through H3K27me3-mediated histone methylation, and ultimately caused colon cancer cell proliferation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the levels of IL-22 expression positively correlated with the levels of genes controlling cancer proliferation and cell cycling in colon cancer. In addition to controlling colon cancer stemness, Th22 cells support colon carcinogenesis via affecting colon cancer cell proliferation through a distinct histone modification. PMID:27622053

  7. High copy number of mitochondrial DNA predicts poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; He, Shuixiang; Zhu, Xingmei; Qiao, Wei; Zhang, Juan

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in colon cancer were associated with clinicopathological parameters and postsurgical outcome. By quantitative real-time PCR assay, the mtDNA copy number was detected in a cohort of colon cancer and matched adjacent colon tissues (n = 162). The majority of patients had higher mtDNA content in colon cancer tissues than matched adjacent colon tissues. Moreover, high mtDNA content in tumor tissues was associated with larger tumor size, higher serum CEA level, advanced TNM stage, vascular emboli, and liver metastases. Further survival curve analysis showed that high mtDNA content was related to the worst survival in patients with colon cancer at advanced TNM stage. High mtDNA content is a potential effective factor of poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage colon cancer.

  8. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  9. Constitutive formulations for the mechanical investigation of colonic tissues.

    PubMed

    Carniel, Emanuele Luigi; Gramigna, Vera; Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Stefanini, Cesare; Natali, Arturo N

    2014-05-01

    A constitutive framework is provided for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of colonic tissues, as a fundamental tool for the development of numerical models of the colonic structures. The constitutive analysis is performed by a multidisciplinary approach that requires the cooperation between experimental and computational competences. The preliminary investigation pertains to the review of the tissues histology. The complex structural configuration of the tissues and the specific distributions of fibrous elements entail the nonlinear mechanical behavior and the anisotropic response. The identification of the mechanical properties requires to perform mechanical tests according to different loading situations, as different loading directions. Because of the typical functionality of colon structures, the tissues mechanics is investigated by tensile tests, which are performed on taenia coli and haustra specimens from fresh pig colons. Accounting for the histological investigation and the results from the mechanical tests, a specific hyperelastic framework is provided within the theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials. Preliminary analytical formulations are defined to identify the constitutive parameters by the inverse analysis of the experimental tests. Finite element models of the specimens are developed accounting for the actual configuration of the colon structures to verify the quality of the results. The good agreement between experimental and numerical model results suggests the reliability of the constitutive formulations and parameters. Finally, the developed constitutive analysis makes it possible to identify the mechanical behavior and properties of the different colonic tissues.

  10. Valdecoxib Recovers the Lipid Composition, Order and Dynamics in Colon Cancer Cell Lines Independent of COX-2 Expression: An ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Inan Genç, Aysun; Gok, Seher; Banerjee, Sreeparna; Severcan, Feride

    2017-01-01

    Prostanoids play an important role in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including inflammation and cancer. The rate-limiting step in the prostanoid biosynthesis pathway is catalyzed by cyclooxygenases (COXs). Aberrant expression of the inducible isoform COX-2 plays a significant role in colon cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we have hypothesized that COX-2 specific inhibitors such as Valdecoxib (VLX), being highly hydrophobic, may alter biophysical properties of cellular lipids. In this study, COX-2 expressing (HT29) and COX-2 non-expressing (SW620) colon cancer cell lines were treated with VLX and examined using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that VLX treatment decreased lipid fluidity in the cells irrespective of COX-2 expression status and affected order parameters of the lipids in both cell lines. Cluster analysis also indicated that the spectral differences between the two cell lines are profound and could be successfully differentiated. Valdecoxib treatment could enhance the composition, order and dynamics of the lipids of colon cancer cells independently of its COX-2 inhibitory mechanism. Valdecoxib has therapeutic effects upon colon cancer, therefore it can be used as an adjuvant and/or chemopreventive agent for colon cancer.

  11. Low serum enterolactone concentration is associated with low colonic Lactobacillus-Enterococcus counts in men but is not affected by a synbiotic mixture in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over intervention study.

    PubMed

    Holma, Reetta; Kekkonen, Riina A; Hatakka, Katja; Poussa, Tuija; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2014-01-28

    The aims of the present study were to assess the possible differences in faecal microbiota between men with a low serum enterolactone concentration and those with a high concentration, and to investigate the impact of a synbiotic mixture on serum enterolactone concentration in men with a low concentration. We compared faecal microbiota between ten men with the lowest serum enterolactone concentration and ten men with the highest concentration at recruitment (n 84). Furthermore, we carried out a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study (6-week intervention periods and 4-week washout period) to investigate the impact of a synbiotic mixture (two Lactobacillus strains, one Bifidobacterium strain, one Propionibacterium strain and galacto-oligosaccharides (32 g/l)) on serum enterolactone concentration in fifty-two men who had a concentration < 20 nmol/l. Serum sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured at the end of the first intervention period. Men with a low serum enterolactone concentration when compared with those with a high concentration had less faecal bacteria, especially those belonging to the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group (median 8·2 (interquartile range 7·8-8·4) log10 colony-forming units/g v. median 8·8 (interquartile range 8·5-8·9) log10 colony-forming units/g, P= 0·009). The synbiotic mixture that was used did not have a significant effect on serum enterolactone (synbiotic v. placebo ratio 0·96 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·22), P= 0·724) or serum sensitive CRP (synbiotic v. placebo ratio 0·99 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·33), P= 0·954) concentration. Men with a low serum enterolactone concentration harbour less colonic bacteria, especially those belonging to the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group. A synbiotic mixture does not increase serum enterolactone concentration.

  12. Advances in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mark

    2003-06-01

    From May 29 to June 5, 2003, the American Society of Clinical Oncology held its 39th Annual Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. The meeting was devoted to the presentation of advances in clinical sciences, diagnosis, prevention and management of malignant disorders, and brings together investigators, clinicians, policy makers and other professionals interested in the science and impact of cancer worldwide. This report will be presented in two parts, the first focusing of colon cancer, and the second on breast cancer will be published in the next issue of Drug News & Perspectives.

  13. Intestinal lymphangiectasia and colonic polyps: surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Parsons, H G; Pencharz, P B

    1979-10-01

    A 36-mo-old boy with Milroy's Disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia, and an exudative enteropathy (EE), was shown to have four colonic polyps. A large adenomatous polyp was excised from the transverse colon in an effort to control his EE and hypoalbuminemia (1.95 g/dl). His clinical status then stabilized until age 50 mo when there was a marked exacerbation of his EE. Medical management resulted in a temporary stabilization of his condition. A partial resection (40 cm) of the visually worse affected jejunum was performed. There was no improvement in the EE as measured by 51Cr-tagged albumin study; however, his clinical response was dramatic. In the 10 mo since surgery, he has been well and has shown catchup in linear growth.

  14. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  15. Competition for space during bacterial colonization of a surface.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Diarmuid P; Allen, Rosalind J

    2015-09-06

    Competition for space is ubiquitous in the ecology of both microorganisms and macro-organisms. We introduce a bacterial model system in which the factors influencing competition for space during colonization of an initially empty habitat can be tracked directly. Using fluorescence microscopy, we follow the fate of individual Escherichia coli bacterial cell lineages as they undergo expansion competition (the race to be the first to colonize a previously empty territory), and as they later compete at boundaries between clonal territories. Our experiments are complemented by computer simulations of a lattice-based model. We find that both expansion competition, manifested as differences in individual cell lag times, and boundary competition, manifested as effects of neighbour cell geometry, can play a role in colonization success, particularly when lineages expand exponentially. This work provides a baseline for investigating how ecological interactions affect colonization of space by bacterial populations, and highlights the potential of bacterial model systems for the testing and development of ecological theory.

  16. Parameters affecting the separation of intact proteins in gradient-elution reversed-phase chromatography using poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Detobel, Frederik; Broeckhoven, Ken; Wellens, Joke; Wouters, Bert; Swart, Remco; Ursem, Mario; Desmet, Gert; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2010-04-30

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of column parameters and gradient conditions on the separation of intact proteins using styrene-based monolithic columns. The effect of flow rate on peak width was investigated at constant gradient steepness by normalizing the gradient time for the column hold-up time. When operating the column at a temperature of 60 degrees C a small C-term effect was observed in a flow rate range of 1-4 microL/min. However, the C-term effect on peak width is not as strong as the decrease in peak width due to increasing flow rate. The peak capacity increased according to the square root of the column length. Decreasing the macropore size of the polymer monolith while maintaining the column length constant, resulted in an increase in peak capacity. A trade-off between peak capacity and total analysis time was made for 50, 100, and 250 mm long monolithic columns and a microparticulate column packed with 5 microm porous silica particles while operating at a flow rate of 2 microL/min. The peak capacity per unit time of the 50mm long monolithic column with small pore size was superior when the total analysis time is below 120 min, yielding a maximum peak capacity of 380. For more demanding separations the 250 mm long monolith provided the highest peak capacity in the shortest possible time frame.

  17. Evaluation of experimental design and computational parameter choices affecting analyses of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data in undomesticated poplar trees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the great advantages of next generation sequencing is the ability to generate large genomic datasets for virtually all species, including non-model organisms. It should be possible, in turn, to apply advanced computational approaches to these datasets to develop models of biological processes. In a practical sense, working with non-model organisms presents unique challenges. In this paper we discuss some of these challenges for ChIP-seq and RNA-seq experiments using the undomesticated tree species of the genus Populus. Results We describe specific challenges associated with experimental design in Populus, including selection of optimal genotypes for different technical approaches and development of antibodies against Populus transcription factors. Execution of the experimental design included the generation and analysis of Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data for RNA polymerase II and transcription factors involved in wood formation. We discuss criteria for analyzing the resulting datasets, determination of appropriate control sequencing libraries, evaluation of sequencing coverage needs, and optimization of parameters. We also describe the evaluation of ChIP-seq data from Populus, and discuss the comparison between ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data and biological interpretations of these comparisons. Conclusions These and other "lessons learned" highlight the challenges but also the potential insights to be gained from extending next generation sequencing-supported network analyses to undomesticated non-model species. PMID:25081589

  18. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    PubMed

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects.

  19. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  20. Primary colonic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Quintín H; Heslin, Martin J; Dávila-Cervantes, Andrea; Alvarez-Tostado, Javier; de los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa; Shore, Gregg; Vickers, Selwyn M

    2008-03-01

    Surgical resection of primary colonic lymphoma can be an important therapeutic tool. We performed a nonrandomized retrospective descriptive study at the University hospital tertiary care center. From January 1990 to June 2002, a total of 15 patients with primary colonic lymphoma were identified from the tumor registry at University of Alabama at Birmingham and retrospectively reviewed under Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Demographic data, clinical features, treatment method (surgery and/or chemotherapy), recurrence rate, and survival were analyzed. The results are presented as mean +/- standard deviation or median and range. Differences in survival were evaluated by the log-rank test and the interval of disease-free survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Main outcome measures included surgical results, morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rate. Mean age was 51.5 years (standard deviation 16.4), 33 per cent were male and 67 per cent were female. Presenting symptoms were diarrhea (53.5%), lower gastrointestinal bleeding (13.3%), and nausea and vomiting (46.7%) secondary to low-grade obstruction. Concomitant colorectal disease was present in one patient with ulcerative colitis. Preoperative diagnosis of lymphoma was made in 13 patients (87%) with colonoscopy and biopsy. CT scan was performed in all patients; and none had radiographic evidence of systemic extension. Only one patient had a history of lymphoproliferative disease and exposure to radiation. The most common disease location was the cecum (60%), followed by the right colon (27%), and the sigmoid colon (13%). The mean lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) value was 214.9 u/L (range 129-309). Thirty-three per cent of the patients had an LDH value that was above the upper normal limit. LDH returned to normal after treatment in all patients. Operations performed consisted of right hemicolectomy (13), total proctocolectomy with ileal

  1. The transport of colonic contents in the irritable colon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, J A

    1970-08-01

    The mean distance of travel and hourly incidence of propulsive and retropulsive movements of colonic contents have been assessed by means of time-lapse cinefluorography and compared in 98 patients with the irritable colon syndrome and in 90 control subjects.Net propulsion in patients with the irritable colon syndrome was less than in the controls at rest, similar to the controls after feeding, and greater than in the controls after an injection of carbachol. In both clinical groups, food and carbachol increased the incidence of propulsive and retropulsive movements but did not alter the average distance over which they travelled.The figures suggest that at least two-thirds of all net propulsion of colonic contents in the irritable colon syndrome takes place under circumstances not reproduced in the present study.

  2. Carbohydrate Markers in Colon Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jankowska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50–65 year of age. In Europe in 2006 colorectal cancer consisted 12.9% of all cancers and caused 207 400 deaths. To laboratory detection and monitoring of colon cancer are used tumor markers. Tumor markers are substances produced by the body in response to cancer, or by cancer tissue itself. Glycoconjugate markers for colon cancer include aberrant: mucins covering the surface of the colon epithelial cells, cadherins, selectins and Ig –like adhesion molecules mediating cell-cell adhesion, integrins and integral membrane proteoglycans responsible for adhesion of colon epithelial cells to extracellular matrix, glycoconjugate components of ECM, as well as lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and exoglycosidases. Detection of colon cancer at early non malignant stage is crucial in its prevention and eradication. As colon cancer is the effect of accumulation many somatic mutations in oncogens, supressors, mismatch repair genes and many genes responsible for posttranslational modifications of proteins, multidirectional approach should be applied for its detection. A glycobiological approach to diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer should be directed to detection changes in glycosylation accompanying every step of colon cancer progression, and correlation between changes in glycosylation and tumor progression. PMID:19126967

  3. Carbohydrate markers in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jankowska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50-65 year of age. In Europe in 2006 colorectal cancer consisted 12.9% of all cancers and caused 207,400 deaths. To laboratory detection and monitoring of colon cancer are used tumor markers. Tumor markers are substances produced by the body in response to cancer, or by cancer tissue itself. Glycoconjugate markers for colon cancer include aberrant: mucins covering the surface of the colon epithelial cells, cadherins, selectins and Ig-like adhesion molecules mediating cell-cell adhesion, integrins and integral membrane proteoglycans responsible for adhesion of colon epithelial cells to extracellular matrix, glycoconjugate components of ECM, as well as lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and exoglycosidases. Detection of colon cancer at early non malignant stage is crucial in its prevention and eradication. As colon cancer is the effect of accumulation many somatic mutations in oncogens, supressors, mismatch repair genes and many genes responsible for posttranslational modifications of proteins, multidirectional approach should be applied for its detection. A glycobiological approach to diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer should be directed to detection changes in glycosylation accompanying every step of colon cancer progression, and correlation between changes in glycosylation and tumor progression.

  4. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2011-07-01

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 °C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) day(-1). Sanitization of the digestate at 65 °C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO(2) at a rate lower than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1) after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1). The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  5. Dendritic Growth, Solidification Thermal Parameters, and Mg Content Affecting the Tensile Properties of Al-Mg-1.5 Wt Pct Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Leonardo F.; Silva, Bismarck L.; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José E.

    2017-04-01

    Al-Mg-Fe alloys are appointed as favorable ones with respect to the costs and all the required properties for successful vessel service. However, the experimental inter-relations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure, and mechanical strength are still undetermined. In the present research work, the dependences of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of ternary Al-1.2 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe and Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloys are examined. Transient heat flow conditions during solidification have been achieved by the use of a directional solidification system, thus permitting a comprehensive characterization of the dendritic microstructures to be performed. Thermo-Calc computations, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses are carried out to give support to the extensive microstructural evaluation performed with both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys. Experimental growth relations of primary, λ 1, and secondary, λ 2, dendrite arm spacings with cooling rate ( {\\dot T}_{{L}} ) and of tensile properties with λ 2 are proposed. For both alloys examined, Hall-Petch type formulas show that the tensile strength increases with the decrease in λ 2. The soundest strength-ductility balance is exhibited by the Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloy specimen with refined microstructure. This is shown to be due to a more homogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles in connection with solid solution strengthening propitiated by Mg. Functional experimental inter-relations of tensile properties with growth ( V L) and cooling rates ( {\\dot T}_{{L}} ) for both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys have also been derived.

  6. Dendritic Growth, Solidification Thermal Parameters, and Mg Content Affecting the Tensile Properties of Al-Mg-1.5 Wt Pct Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Leonardo F.; Silva, Bismarck L.; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José E.

    2017-02-01

    Al-Mg-Fe alloys are appointed as favorable ones with respect to the costs and all the required properties for successful vessel service. However, the experimental inter-relations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure, and mechanical strength are still undetermined. In the present research work, the dependences of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of ternary Al-1.2 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe and Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloys are examined. Transient heat flow conditions during solidification have been achieved by the use of a directional solidification system, thus permitting a comprehensive characterization of the dendritic microstructures to be performed. Thermo-Calc computations, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses are carried out to give support to the extensive microstructural evaluation performed with both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys. Experimental growth relations of primary, λ 1, and secondary, λ 2, dendrite arm spacings with cooling rate ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) and of tensile properties with λ 2 are proposed. For both alloys examined, Hall-Petch type formulas show that the tensile strength increases with the decrease in λ 2. The soundest strength-ductility balance is exhibited by the Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloy specimen with refined microstructure. This is shown to be due to a more homogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles in connection with solid solution strengthening propitiated by Mg. Functional experimental inter-relations of tensile properties with growth (V L) and cooling rates ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) for both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys have also been derived.

  7. High concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation affects the immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Xu, Xiaodong; Su, Ge; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a high concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation on the performance, milk composition, and vital immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in sows and piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until the piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. 48 sows were divided into two groups and fed either a basal diet with 44 IU/kg of vitamin E or a basal diet supplemented with additional vitamin E, total content of 250 IU/kg. Sow milk and blood samples were obtained on day 0 (farrowing) and on day 21 of lactation. One 21-day-old piglet per litter was selected to collect plasma. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with 250 IU/kg vitamin E improved the average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight of piglets (P < 0·05), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in sow plasma, colostrum and milk. The concentrations of fat in the colostrum and milk were significantly increased by supplementation with 250 IU/kg of vitamin E (P < 0·05). The level of plasma IgG, IgA, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) were all higher (P < 0·05) in piglets from sows that were fed 250 IU/kg of vitamin E than in those from the control group. The high concentration of vitamin E supplementation to the sows enhanced the concentrations of α-tocopherol in the sow milk and plasma as well as piglet plasma (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the addition to the maternal diet of vitamin E at high concentration improved the weight of piglets at weaning, and enhanced humoral immune function and antioxidant activity in sows and piglets.

  8. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  9. Approaches that ascertain the role of dietary compounds in colonic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bordonaro, Michael; Venema, Koen; Putri, Adeline K; Lazarova, Darina

    2014-01-01

    Preventive approaches against cancer have not been fully developed and applied. For example, the incidence of some types of cancer, including colon cancer, is highly dependent upon lifestyle, and therefore, amenable to prevention. Among the lifestyle factors, diet strongly affects the incidence of colon cancer; however, there are no definitive dietary recommendations that protect against this malignancy. The association between diet-derived bioactives and development of colonic neoplasms will remain ill defined if we do not take into account: (1) the identity of the metabolites present in the colonic lumen; (2) their concentrations in the colon; and (3) the effect of the colonic contents on the function of individual bioactives. We review two approaches that address these questions: the use of fecal water and in vitro models of the human colon. Compared to treatment with individual diet-derived compounds, the exposure of colon cancer cells to samples from fecal water or human colon simulators mimics closer the in vitro conditions and allows for more reliable studies on the effects of diet on colon cancer development. The rationale and the advantages of these strategies are discussed from the perspective of a specific question on how to analyze the combined effect of two types of bioactives, butyrate and polyphenol metabolites, on colon cancer cells. PMID:24578783

  10. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at