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Sample records for affect consumer choice

  1. Does direct-to-consumer advertising affect patients' choice of pain medications?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Doucette, William R

    2008-04-01

    In the United States, direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has grown rapidly to promote prescription medications, including analgesics. Few studies in the literature directly examine the association between DTCA and patients' choice of pain medications. This article discusses how DTCA affects such choice from a behavioral perspective, because DTCA-prompted behaviors are important indicators of DTCA's influence. After DTCA exposure, patients may request prescriptions, seek further medication information, and ask about advertised conditions. Patients who suffer from pain may seek more communication with their health care providers because they are cautious about the information quality of DTCA, mainly because of the recall of rofecoxib (Vioxx; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ). However, the availability and DTCA of over-the-counter analgesics complicate their treatment choice. Patients could use DTCA as a tool to launch health communication and make an informed treatment choice with the guidance of their health care providers. PMID:18474186

  2. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    PubMed

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals.

  3. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    PubMed

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. PMID:26431685

  4. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns. PMID:26944229

  5. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns.

  6. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  7. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  8. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice. PMID:26682899

  9. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  10. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    PubMed

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care. PMID:25470326

  11. Informed Consumer Choice in Community Rehabilitation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen-Foley, Debra L.; Rosenthal, David A.; Thomas, Dale F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated consumer and staff member perceptions regarding the extent of consumer choice and participatory planning in community-based rehabilitation programs (CRPs) and the relationship between these elements, satisfaction, and outcomes. Consumers reported moderate to high levels of choice in services and employment goals, and…

  12. Consumer Choice, Consumer Control in Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenaghan, Thomas M.; Mascari, Michael

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses patterns in the delivery of social welfare services, with reference to the specific service area of mental retardation. The authors propose a model that adds two vital elements to present service delivery patterns, a benefit system and a plan for consumer organization. (Author)

  13. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer.

  14. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices.

    PubMed

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior. PMID:21300414

  15. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  16. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  17. Enhancing Consumer Choice: Are We Making Appropriate Recommendations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jinkook; Geistfeld, Loren V.

    1998-01-01

    This study used conjoint analysis to identify consumer choice models. Results suggest a need to base choice-making aids on ideal choice models if the aid is to lead consumers to decisions consistent with true preferences. (Author/JOW)

  18. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    PubMed

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  19. Emotional balances in experimental consumer choices.

    PubMed

    Mengov, George; Egbert, Henrik; Pulov, Stefan; Georgiev, Kalin

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents an experiment, which builds a bridge over the gap between neuroscience and the analysis of economic behaviour. We apply the mathematical theory of Pavlovian conditioning, known as Recurrent Associative Gated Dipole (READ), to analyse consumer choices in a computer-based experiment. Supplier reputations, consumer satisfaction, and customer reactions are operationally defined and, together with prices, related to READ's neural dynamics. We recorded our participants' decisions with their timing, and then mapped those decisions on a sequence of events generated by the READ model. To achieve this, all constants in the differential equations were determined using simulated annealing with data from 129 people. READ predicted correctly 96% of all consumer choices in a calibration sample (n=1290), and 87% in a test sample (n=903), thus outperforming logit models. The rank correlations between self-assessed and dipole-generated consumer satisfactions were 89% in the calibration sample and 78% in the test sample, surpassing by a wide margin the best linear regression model.

  20. The next big thing in health benefits: consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are the only ones who can affect all decision points that drive health care cost and quality. As a result, consumers' health and financial security depend on their taking more responsibility for their health care decisions and having the tools and information needed to do so successfully. This article explains the five key decision points that drive health care cost and quality, how technology aids marketplace innovations, and how employers can help advance consumer choice in order to push the health care system to deliver better care and keep inflation in check. PMID:11881142

  1. PEER REVIEW FOR THE CONSUMER VEHICLE CHOICE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) has recently sponsored the development of a Consumer Vehicle Choice Model (CVCM) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The specification by OTAQ to ORNL for consumer choice mod...

  2. Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

    2008-08-01

    The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice.

  3. Consumer choice in Dutch health insurance after reform.

    PubMed

    Maarse, Hans; Meulen, Ruud Ter

    2006-03-01

    This article investigates the scope and effects of enhanced consumer choice in health insurance that is presented as a cornerstone of the new health insurance legislation in the Netherlands that will come into effect in 2006. The choice for choice marks the current libertarian trend in Dutch health care policymaking. One of our conclusions is that the scope of enhanced choice should not be overstated due to many legal and non-legal restrictions to it. The consumer choice advocates have great expectations of the impact of enhanced choice. A critical analysis of its impact demonstrates that these expectations may not become true and that enhanced consumer choice should not be perceived as the 'magic bullet' for many problems in health care. PMID:17137018

  4. Choice both affects and reflects preferences.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Géraldine; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bernard, Charlène; Cekic, Sezen; Porcherot, Christelle; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2014-01-01

    The free-choice paradigm is a widely used paradigm in psychology. It has been used to show that after a choice between two similarly pleasant stimuli, the pleasantness of the chosen one tends to increase, whereas the pleasantness of the rejected one tends to decrease-a spreading of alternatives. However, the methodological validity of the free-choice paradigm to study choice-induced preference change has recently been seriously questioned [Chen, K. M., & Risen, J. L. (2010). How choice affects and reflects preferences: Revisiting the free-choice paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 573-594. doi:10.1037/a0020217]. According to this criticism, the classically reported spreading of alternatives between the first and second rating sessions cannot be unambiguously interpreted to reflect a true change in preferences and can be observed even for completely static preferences. Here, we used two measurement sequences, a classical Rating 1-choice-Rating 2 sequence and a control Rating 1-Rating 2-choice sequence, to disentangle the spreading of alternatives driven by the effect of choice from the artefactual effect highlighted by Chen and Risen. In two studies using different stimulus material (faces and odours), we find that choice has a robust modulatory impact on preferences for rejected odours, but not for chosen odours and not for faces.

  5. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice.

    PubMed

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored. PMID:25987995

  6. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice

    PubMed Central

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver—mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored. PMID:25987995

  7. Connecting consumer choice to the healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Enthoven, Alain

    2006-01-01

    American healthcare needs to be reformed into competing, efficient, comprehensive care systems. To get there from here, we need a health insurance market in which each person or household has a wide, responsible, informed, individual multiple choice of health care financing and delivery plans. The point of this is competing delivery systems, not just competing carriers. To compete, some carriers will create or contract with selective delivery systems or doctors selected for their quality and cost-effectiveness. Others will already be teamed up with large multispecialty group practices. On the other hand, high deductible plans will not help us get to a reformed delivery system. PMID:17260543

  8. Consumer directed health care: ethical limits to choice and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Axtell-Thompson, Linda M

    2005-04-01

    As health care costs continue to escalate, cost control measures will likely become unavoidable and painful. One approach is to engage external forces to allocate resources--for example, through managed care or outright rationing. Another approach is to engage consumers to make their own allocation decisions, through "self-rationing," wherein they are given greater awareness, control, and hence responsibility for their health care spending. Steadily gaining popularity in this context is the concept of "consumer directed health care" (CDHC), which is envisioned to both control cost and enhance choice, by combining financial incentives with information to help consumers make more informed health care decisions and to appreciate the economic trade-offs of those decisions. While CDHC is gaining attention in the popular press, business publications, and academic journals, it is not without controversy about its relative merits and demerits. CDHC raises questions regarding the ethical limits of consumer responsibility for their choices. While the emphasis on consumer choice implies that autonomy is the ruling ethical principle in CDHC, it must be tempered by justice and beneficence. Justice must temper autonomy to protect disadvantaged populations from further widening disparities in health care access and outcomes that could arise from health care reform efforts. Beneficence must temper autonomy to protect consumers from unintended consequences of uninformed decisions. Thoughtful paternalism suggests that CDHC plans offer choices that are comprehensible to lay consumers, limited in their range of options, and carefully structured with default rules that minimize potential error costs.

  9. Consumer directed health care: ethical limits to choice and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Axtell-Thompson, Linda M

    2005-04-01

    As health care costs continue to escalate, cost control measures will likely become unavoidable and painful. One approach is to engage external forces to allocate resources--for example, through managed care or outright rationing. Another approach is to engage consumers to make their own allocation decisions, through "self-rationing," wherein they are given greater awareness, control, and hence responsibility for their health care spending. Steadily gaining popularity in this context is the concept of "consumer directed health care" (CDHC), which is envisioned to both control cost and enhance choice, by combining financial incentives with information to help consumers make more informed health care decisions and to appreciate the economic trade-offs of those decisions. While CDHC is gaining attention in the popular press, business publications, and academic journals, it is not without controversy about its relative merits and demerits. CDHC raises questions regarding the ethical limits of consumer responsibility for their choices. While the emphasis on consumer choice implies that autonomy is the ruling ethical principle in CDHC, it must be tempered by justice and beneficence. Justice must temper autonomy to protect disadvantaged populations from further widening disparities in health care access and outcomes that could arise from health care reform efforts. Beneficence must temper autonomy to protect consumers from unintended consequences of uninformed decisions. Thoughtful paternalism suggests that CDHC plans offer choices that are comprehensible to lay consumers, limited in their range of options, and carefully structured with default rules that minimize potential error costs. PMID:16025853

  10. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables.

  11. Preferences for lamb meat: a choice experiment for Spanish consumers.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Azucena; de-Magistris, Tiziana

    2013-10-01

    This paper analyzes consumers' preferences for different lamb meat attributes using a choice experiment. In particular, preferences for the type of commercial lamb meat ("Ternasco" and "Suckling") and the origin of production (locally produced "Ojinegra from Teruel") were evaluated. Moreover, we endogenously identify consumers' segments based on consumers' preferences for the analyzed attributes. Data come from a survey administrated in Spain during 2009. A latent class model was used to estimate the effect of the attributes on consumer utility, derive the willingness to pay and determine consumers' segments. Results suggest that consumers' preferences for both attributes are heterogeneous and two homogenous consumers' segments were detected. The largest segment (79%) did not value any of the analyzed attributes while the smaller one (21%) valued both of them positively. In particular, consumers in this second segment are willing to pay an extra premium for the "Ternasco" lamb meat, around double the premium they are willing to pay for the locally produced lamb meat "Ojinegra from Teruel".

  12. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  13. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:26719101

  14. 75 FR 68813 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Informed Consumer Choice Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Choice Notice and Application for FHA Insured Mortgage AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Informed Consumer Choice Notice and Application...

  15. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  16. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  17. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat “gas money” as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series. PMID:26937053

  18. 20 CFR 663.440 - What are the requirements for consumer choice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for consumer choice... Training Accounts § 663.440 What are the requirements for consumer choice? (a) Training services, whether under ITA's or under contract, must be provided in a manner that maximizes informed consumer choice...

  19. 24 CFR 203.10 - Informed consumer choice for prospective FHA mortgagors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informed consumer choice for... Underwriting Procedures Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.10 Informed consumer choice for prospective FHA... with an informed consumer choice disclosure notice if, in the mortgagees's judgment, the...

  20. 24 CFR 203.10 - Informed consumer choice for prospective FHA mortgagors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Informed consumer choice for... Underwriting Procedures Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.10 Informed consumer choice for prospective FHA... with an informed consumer choice disclosure notice if, in the mortgagees's judgment, the...

  1. Sensory properties, consumer liking and choice determinants of Lucanian dry cured sausages.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Carlucci, Angela; Bragaglio, Andrea; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Based on a food choice questionnaire we identified as the most influential aspects affecting consumer choice of Lucanian dry cured sausages: taste, animal health and addition of preservatives. Therefore, as a second step we conducted a study to assess the effect of preservative addition on sausage sensory properties and consumer liking, with a particular emphasis on taste. The addition of preservatives did not change the perception of taste attributes by an experienced panel, whereas differences were detected in terms of odor, texture and color attributes. However, consumers did not express a preference for a particular product in terms of overall liking, taste/flavor liking and texture liking, whereas appearance liking was higher for sausages containing preservatives. Since sausage taste was unaffected by the addition of preservative, in order to prevent the potentially detrimental effect of a label indicating their presence, producers should make an effort to obtain high quality Lucanian dry cured sausages without using them. PMID:26398006

  2. Sensory properties, consumer liking and choice determinants of Lucanian dry cured sausages.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Carlucci, Angela; Bragaglio, Andrea; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Based on a food choice questionnaire we identified as the most influential aspects affecting consumer choice of Lucanian dry cured sausages: taste, animal health and addition of preservatives. Therefore, as a second step we conducted a study to assess the effect of preservative addition on sausage sensory properties and consumer liking, with a particular emphasis on taste. The addition of preservatives did not change the perception of taste attributes by an experienced panel, whereas differences were detected in terms of odor, texture and color attributes. However, consumers did not express a preference for a particular product in terms of overall liking, taste/flavor liking and texture liking, whereas appearance liking was higher for sausages containing preservatives. Since sausage taste was unaffected by the addition of preservative, in order to prevent the potentially detrimental effect of a label indicating their presence, producers should make an effort to obtain high quality Lucanian dry cured sausages without using them.

  3. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed. PMID:24051512

  4. Nudging consumers towards healthier choices: a systematic review of positional influences on food choice.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Tamara; Collins, Clare; Rollo, Megan E; McCaffrey, Tracy A; De Vlieger, Nienke; Van der Bend, Daphne; Truby, Helen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2016-06-01

    Nudging or 'choice architecture' refers to strategic changes in the environment that are anticipated to alter people's behaviour in a predictable way, without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. Nudging strategies may be used to promote healthy eating behaviour. However, to date, the scientific evidence has not been systematically reviewed to enable practitioners and policymakers to implement, or argue for the implementation of, specific measures to support nudging strategies. This systematic review investigated the effect of positional changes of food placement on food choice. In total, seven scientific databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify interventions that manipulated food position (proximity or order) to generate a change in food selection, sales or consumption, among normal-weight or overweight individuals across any age group. From 2576 identified articles, fifteen articles comprising eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. This review has identified that manipulation of food product order or proximity can influence food choice. Such approaches offer promise in terms of impacting on consumer behaviour. However, there is a need for high-quality studies that quantify the magnitude of positional effects on food choice in conjunction with measuring the impact on food intake, particularly in the longer term. Future studies should use outcome measures such as change in grams of food consumed or energy intake to quantify the impact on dietary intake and potential impacts on nutrition-related health. Research is also needed to evaluate potential compensatory behaviours secondary to such interventions. PMID:27185414

  5. Nudging consumers towards healthier choices: a systematic review of positional influences on food choice.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Tamara; Collins, Clare; Rollo, Megan E; McCaffrey, Tracy A; De Vlieger, Nienke; Van der Bend, Daphne; Truby, Helen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2016-06-01

    Nudging or 'choice architecture' refers to strategic changes in the environment that are anticipated to alter people's behaviour in a predictable way, without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. Nudging strategies may be used to promote healthy eating behaviour. However, to date, the scientific evidence has not been systematically reviewed to enable practitioners and policymakers to implement, or argue for the implementation of, specific measures to support nudging strategies. This systematic review investigated the effect of positional changes of food placement on food choice. In total, seven scientific databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify interventions that manipulated food position (proximity or order) to generate a change in food selection, sales or consumption, among normal-weight or overweight individuals across any age group. From 2576 identified articles, fifteen articles comprising eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. This review has identified that manipulation of food product order or proximity can influence food choice. Such approaches offer promise in terms of impacting on consumer behaviour. However, there is a need for high-quality studies that quantify the magnitude of positional effects on food choice in conjunction with measuring the impact on food intake, particularly in the longer term. Future studies should use outcome measures such as change in grams of food consumed or energy intake to quantify the impact on dietary intake and potential impacts on nutrition-related health. Research is also needed to evaluate potential compensatory behaviours secondary to such interventions.

  6. Consumer psychology: categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Loken, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews research on consumer psychology with emphasis on the topics of categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion. The chapter reviews theory-based empirical research during the period 1994-2004. Research on categorization includes empirical research on brand categories, goals as organizing frameworks and motivational bases for judgments, and self-based processing. Research on inferences includes numerous types of inferences that are cognitively and/or experienced based. Research on affect includes the effects of mood on processing and cognitive and noncognitive bases for attitudes and intentions. Research on persuasion focuses heavily on the moderating role of elaboration and dual-process models, and includes research on attitude strength responses, advertising responses, and negative versus positive evaluative dimensions.

  7. Choice from non-choice: Predicting consumer preferences from BOLD signals obtained during passive viewing

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ifat; Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Decision-making is often viewed as a two-stage process, where subjective values are first assigned to each option and then the option of the highest value is selected. Converging evidence suggests that these subjective values are represented in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). A separate line of evidence suggests that activation in the same areas represents the values of rewards even when choice is not required, as in classical conditioning tasks. However, it is unclear whether the same neural mechanism is engaged in both cases. To address this question we measured brain activation with fMRI while human subjects passively viewed individual consumer goods. We then sampled activation from predefined regions of interest and used it to predict subsequent choices between the same items made outside of the scanner. Our results show that activation in the striatum and MPFC in the absence of choice predicts subsequent choices, suggesting that these brain areas represent value in a similar manner whether or not choice is required. PMID:21209196

  8. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages.

  9. Do consumers who have a choice of treatment have better outcomes?

    PubMed

    Calsyn, R J; Winter, J P; Morse, G A

    2000-04-01

    This study used a non-equivalent control group design to investigate the effect of consumer choice of treatment on both process and outcome variables. All study participants suffered from severe mental illness, were homeless at baseline, and were enrolled in a modified Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) program. Consumers in the choice condition had selected the ACT program from a menu of five treatment programs; clients in the no-choice condition were simply assigned to the ACT program by an intake worker. Results found that consumers in the choice condition visited the ACT staff at their offices more than consumers in the no-choice condition, but there were no significant differences between groups on the other treatment process variables. Although consumers in the choice condition increased their income more than consumers in the no-choice condition, there were no significant differences between groups on the other outcome variables (stable housing, psychotic symptoms, depression, and substance abuse). PMID:10800864

  10. ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model

    SciTech Connect

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Ward, J.

    2015-05-04

    The Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method estimate sales. Specifically, it estimates sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced. The sales feed into the ADOPT stock model. It captures key aspects for summing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions This includes capturing the change in vehicle miles traveled by vehicle age, the creation of new model options based on the success of existing vehicles, new vehicle option introduction rate limits, and survival rates by vehicle age. ADOPT has been extensively validated with historical sales data. It matches in key dimensions including sales by fuel economy, acceleration, price, vehicle size class, and powertrain across multiple years. A graphical user interface provides easy and efficient use. It manages the inputs, simulation, and results.

  11. Agent-based modelling of consumer energy choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Henry, Adam Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to mitigate global climate change should be grounded in a rigorous understanding of energy systems, particularly the factors that drive energy demand. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a powerful tool for representing the complexities of energy demand, such as social interactions and spatial constraints. Unlike other approaches for modelling energy demand, ABM is not limited to studying perfectly rational agents or to abstracting micro details into system-level equations. Instead, ABM provides the ability to represent behaviours of energy consumers -- such as individual households -- using a range of theories, and to examine how the interaction of heterogeneous agents at the micro-level produces macro outcomes of importance to the global climate, such as the adoption of low-carbon behaviours and technologies over space and time. We provide an overview of ABM work in the area of consumer energy choices, with a focus on identifying specific ways in which ABM can improve understanding of both fundamental scientific and applied aspects of the demand side of energy to aid the design of better policies and programmes. Future research needs for improving the practice of ABM to better understand energy demand are also discussed.

  12. Affective biasing of choices in gambling task decision making.

    PubMed

    Hinson, John M; Whitney, Paul; Holben, Heather; Wirick, Aaron K

    2006-09-01

    The proponents of the somatic marker hypothesis presume that rational decision making is guided by emotional reactions that are developed from prior experience. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis comes almost exclusively from the short-term affective reactions that are learned during the course of a hypothetical decision-making task--the gambling task (GT). We examined GT performance and affective reactions to choices when those choices were biased by words that had preexisting affective value. In one experiment, affectively valued words directly signaled good and bad choices. A congruent relation between affective value of word and choice outcome improved GT performance, whereas an incongruent relation greatly interfered with performance. In another experiment, affectively valued words were maintained as a working memory (WM) load between GT choices. A WM load with affectively positive words somewhat improved GT performance, whereas affectively negative words interfered with performance. Somatic markers-indicated by differential anticipatory skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude for good and bad choices-appeared at a point in the GT session when choice performance was superior. However, differential SCR developed during the session after good choice performance was already established. These results indicate that preexisting affective biases can influence GT decision making. In addition, the somatic markers that are regular accompaniments of GT decision making appeared to be temporally lagging indicators of choice performance. PMID:17243355

  13. Affective biasing of choices in gambling task decision making.

    PubMed

    Hinson, John M; Whitney, Paul; Holben, Heather; Wirick, Aaron K

    2006-09-01

    The proponents of the somatic marker hypothesis presume that rational decision making is guided by emotional reactions that are developed from prior experience. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis comes almost exclusively from the short-term affective reactions that are learned during the course of a hypothetical decision-making task--the gambling task (GT). We examined GT performance and affective reactions to choices when those choices were biased by words that had preexisting affective value. In one experiment, affectively valued words directly signaled good and bad choices. A congruent relation between affective value of word and choice outcome improved GT performance, whereas an incongruent relation greatly interfered with performance. In another experiment, affectively valued words were maintained as a working memory (WM) load between GT choices. A WM load with affectively positive words somewhat improved GT performance, whereas affectively negative words interfered with performance. Somatic markers-indicated by differential anticipatory skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude for good and bad choices-appeared at a point in the GT session when choice performance was superior. However, differential SCR developed during the session after good choice performance was already established. These results indicate that preexisting affective biases can influence GT decision making. In addition, the somatic markers that are regular accompaniments of GT decision making appeared to be temporally lagging indicators of choice performance.

  14. Evaluation of Behavioral Demand Models of Consumer Choice in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddharthan, Kris

    1991-01-01

    Consumer choice of health provider plan and preference for a personal physician were studied for 1,438 elderly adults using a joint logit model (JL) and a nested logit model. Choice criteria used by senior citizens, and reasons the nested choice model explains choice behavior better than the JL are examined. (SLD)

  15. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  16. Does educational indebtedness affect physician specialty choice?

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, G J

    1985-03-01

    There has been much debate over the effect of educational indebtedness on the specialty choices of new physicians, especially in light of the perceived shortage of primary care physicians. This paper explores the theoretical foundations on which this debate is based. In addition, the paper estimates the effects of various types of debt on specialty choice. The results suggest that an increase in debt from subsidized loan sources (i.e., Guaranteed Student Loans, National Direct Student Loans, or Health Professions Student Loans) has mixed effects while an increase in debt from Health Education Assistance Loans reduces the likelihood of becoming a primary care physician. Though these effects are significant, they are very small in magnitude. Economic returns to certain specialties and personal background appear to play a more important role in specialty choice.

  17. Neural Correlates of Affective Influence on Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piech, Richard M.; Lewis, Jade; Parkinson, Caroline H.; Owen, Adrian M.; Roberts, Angela C.; Downing, Paul E.; Parkinson, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the right choice depends crucially on the accurate valuation of the available options in the light of current needs and goals of an individual. Thus, the valuation of identical options can vary considerably with motivational context. The present study investigated the neural structures underlying context dependent evaluation. We instructed…

  18. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality.

  19. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality. PMID:23999489

  20. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  1. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Suter, Renata S; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision to

  2. Enabling informed consumer choice in the long-term care insurance market.

    PubMed

    Lutzky, S; Alecxih, L M

    1999-01-01

    Provisions in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) may increase private long-term care insurance sales without imposing substantially more stringent consumer-protection features. The ability of consumers to make informed choices when purchasing this complex product is examined in light of these changes. Data were collected through detailed examinations of policies and interviews with industry experts, insurance companies, agents, consumer groups, and regulators. Because of the complexity of this product, the goals of expanding, consumer choice and ensuring that consumers are able to make informed decisions often work against each other. Mechanisms are discussed through which the government can facilitate informed choice and improve consumer protection. The authors contend that, because the government is providing tax incentives that encourage consumers to purchase the product, it has the responsibility to ensure that consumers understand the long-term care insurance they purchase. PMID:10537980

  3. How Resource Phenology Affects Consumer Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Sharon; Cantrell, R Stephen; Cosner, Chris; Fagan, William F

    2016-02-01

    Climate change drives uneven phenology shifts across taxa, and this can result in changes to the phenological match between interacting species. Shifts in the relative phenology of partner species are well documented, but few studies have addressed the effects of such changes on population dynamics. To explore this, we develop a phenologically explicit model describing consumer-resource interactions. Focusing on scenarios for univoltine insects, we show how changes in resource phenology can be reinterpreted as transformations in the year-to-year recursion relationships defining consumer population dynamics. This perspective provides a straightforward path for interpreting the long-term population consequences of phenology change. Specifically, by relating the outcome of phenological shifts to species traits governing recursion relationships (e.g., consumer fecundity or competitive scenario), we demonstrate how changes in relative phenology can force systems into different dynamical regimes, with major implications for resource management, conservation, and other areas of applied dynamics. PMID:26807744

  4. How Resource Phenology Affects Consumer Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Sharon; Cantrell, R Stephen; Cosner, Chris; Fagan, William F

    2016-02-01

    Climate change drives uneven phenology shifts across taxa, and this can result in changes to the phenological match between interacting species. Shifts in the relative phenology of partner species are well documented, but few studies have addressed the effects of such changes on population dynamics. To explore this, we develop a phenologically explicit model describing consumer-resource interactions. Focusing on scenarios for univoltine insects, we show how changes in resource phenology can be reinterpreted as transformations in the year-to-year recursion relationships defining consumer population dynamics. This perspective provides a straightforward path for interpreting the long-term population consequences of phenology change. Specifically, by relating the outcome of phenological shifts to species traits governing recursion relationships (e.g., consumer fecundity or competitive scenario), we demonstrate how changes in relative phenology can force systems into different dynamical regimes, with major implications for resource management, conservation, and other areas of applied dynamics.

  5. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes. PMID:24913496

  6. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes.

  7. Economic Choices. Political Decisions that Affect You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsche, Joellen M.; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to help students understand why the U.S. Government is involved in the economy, the underlying social values that government tries to promote, and how U.S. economic decisions affect the global economy. It was designed to give them the background they need to form their own opinions about the role of government in the…

  8. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  9. Generic script share and the price of brand-name drugs: the role of consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, John A; Zeckhauser, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have grown rapidly in recent decades, and now total nearly 10% of health care costs. Generic drug utilization has risen substantially alongside, from 19% of scripts in 1984 to 47% in 2001, thus tempering expenditure growth through significant direct dollar savings. However, generic drugs may lead to indirect savings as well if their use reduces the average price of those brand-name drugs that are still purchased. Prior work indicates that brand-name producers do not lower their prices in the face of generic competition, and our study confirms that finding. However, prior work is silent on how the mix of consumer choices between generic and brand-name drugs might affect the average price of those brand-name drugs that are purchased. We use a nationally representative panel of data on drug utilization and costs for the years 1996-2001 to examine how the share of an individual's prescriptions filled by generics (generic script share) affects his average out-of-pocket cost for brand-name drugs, and the net cost paid by the insurer. Our principal finding is that a higher generic script share lowers average brand-name prices to consumers, presumably because consumers are more likely to substitute generics when brand-name drugs would cost them more. This effect is substantial: a 10% increase in the consumer's generic script share is associated with a 15.6% decline in the average price paid for brand-name drugs by consumers. This implies that the potential cost savings to consumers from generic substitution are far greater than prior work suggests. In contrast, the percentage reduction in average brand costs to health plans is far smaller, and statistically insignificant. PMID:19130220

  10. How language choice can affect HCAI prevention.

    PubMed

    Cole, Mark

    The financial and human costs of healthcare-associated infections have prompted many local and national policies/guidelines aimed at controlling or preventing infection. However, the language used in the discourse of this are of practice tends to lack objectivity and may make unachievable demands of staff. This article explores how such language can negatively affect staff behaviour and drive poor practice underground. PMID:27089754

  11. Information and consumer choice: the value of publicized health plan ratings.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ginger Zhe; Sorensen, Alan T

    2006-03-01

    We use data on the enrollment decisions of federal annuitants to estimate the influence of publicized ratings on health plan choice. We focus on the impact of ratings disseminated by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), and use our estimates to calculate the value of the information. Our approach exploits a novel feature of the data-the availability of non-public plan ratings-to correct for a source of bias that is inherent in studies of consumer responsiveness to information on product quality: since publicized ratings are correlated with other quality signals known to consumers (but unobserved by researchers), the estimated influence of ratings is likely to be overstated. We control for this bias by comparing the estimated impact of publicized ratings to the estimated impact of ratings that were never disclosed. The results indicate that NCQA's plan ratings had a meaningful influence on individuals' choices, particularly for individuals choosing a plan for the first time. Although we estimate that a very small fraction of individual decisions were materially affected by the information, for those that were affected the implied utility gains are substantial. PMID:16107284

  12. Child Care Choices, Consumer Education, and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; And Others

    In 1991, the National Center for Children in Poverty undertook a study of low-income parents as child care consumers. The study involved a review of current research findings, interviews with staff of child resource and referral agencies, and an examination of child care consumer education provided in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)…

  13. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast…

  14. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  15. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  16. A likelihood-based biostatistical model for analyzing consumer movement in simultaneous choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2014-08-01

    Consumer feeding preference among resource choices has critical implications for basic ecological and evolutionary processes, and can be highly relevant to applied problems such as ecological risk assessment and invasion biology. Within consumer choice experiments, also known as feeding preference or cafeteria experiments, measures of relative consumption and measures of consumer movement can provide distinct and complementary insights into the strength, causes, and consequences of preference. Despite the distinct value of inferring preference from measures of consumer movement, rigorous and biologically relevant analytical methods are lacking. We describe a simple, likelihood-based, biostatistical model for analyzing the transient dynamics of consumer movement in a paired-choice experiment. With experimental data consisting of repeated discrete measures of consumer location, the model can be used to estimate constant consumer attraction and leaving rates for two food choices, and differences in choice-specific attraction and leaving rates can be tested using model selection. The model enables calculation of transient and equilibrial probabilities of consumer-resource association, which could be incorporated into larger scale movement models. We explore the effect of experimental design on parameter estimation through stochastic simulation and describe methods to check that data meet model assumptions. Using a dataset of modest sample size, we illustrate the use of the model to draw inferences on consumer preference as well as underlying behavioral mechanisms. Finally, we include a user's guide and computer code scripts in R to facilitate use of the model by other researchers.

  17. Consumer choice in home- and community-based long-term care: policy implications for decisionally incapacitated consumers.

    PubMed

    Kapp, M B

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong national and international movement to enhance the role of consumer choice, control, and direction regarding important aspects of publicly financed home- and community-based long-term care. The research project described in this article set out to examine, with a particular focus on Ohio, policy-relevant issues pertaining to how choices about publicly financed home- and community-based long-term care are actually made, implemented, and monitored under a consumer direction model, but when the care recipient is unable to act as an autonomous, independent consumer selecting rationally among various home- and community-based long-term care options competing for the consumer's business in the marketplace.

  18. Consumers and choice: cost containment strategies for health care provision.

    PubMed

    Allen, H M

    1984-01-01

    Consumer responses to three cost containment strategies for providing health care are examined. The data come from a random sample of 365 Los Angeles adults interviewed by telephone. It is found that aggregate sample responses are negative toward two strategies (labelled preferred provider and health planning) and positive toward the third (labelled self care). Furthermore, it is found that demographic characteristics that predict approval of one strategy predict disapproval of other strategies. These findings, coupled with models assessing how and why segments of consumers respond as they do, suggest that no one strategy is likely to appeal to all consumers. Implications for the implementation of health care delivery systems inspired by containment strategies are discussed in the context of recent events in California.

  19. State Regulators Promote Consumer Choice in Retail Gas Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Restructuring of interstate pipeline companies has created new choices and challenges for local distribution companies (LDCs), their regulators, and their customers. The process of separating interstate pipeline gas sales from transportation service has been completed and has resulted in greater gas procurement options for LDCs.

  20. Framing choice: The origins and impact of consumer rhetoric in US health care debates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy S

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the origins of consumerist discourse in health care from a communication perspective via a historical textual analysis of health writing in popular magazines from 1930 to 1949. The focus is on Consumers Union's Consumer Reports and the American Medical Association's lay health magazine, Hygeia. Findings from Consumer Reports show that the consumer movement of the 1930s-40s staunchly advocated for universal health insurance. Whereas consumer rights language nowadays tends towards individual choice and personal responsibility, consumerism in health care during that era articulated ideas about consumer citizenship, framing choice and responsibility in collectivist terms and health care as a social good. This paper also illuminates the limits and weaknesses of a central tenet in consumerism-freedom of choice-by analyzing stories in Hygeia about the doctor-patient relationship. A textual analysis finds that the AMA's justification in the 1930s-40s against socialized medicine, i.e., the freedom to choose a doctor, was in practice highly controlled by the medical profession. Findings show that long before the rhetoric of the "empowered consumer" became popular, some patients exercised some choice even in an era when physicians achieved total professional dominance. But these patients were few and tend to occupy the upper socioeconomic strata of US society. In reality choice was an illusion in a fee-for-service era when most American families could not afford the costs of medical care. PMID:26093071

  1. Framing choice: The origins and impact of consumer rhetoric in US health care debates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy S

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the origins of consumerist discourse in health care from a communication perspective via a historical textual analysis of health writing in popular magazines from 1930 to 1949. The focus is on Consumers Union's Consumer Reports and the American Medical Association's lay health magazine, Hygeia. Findings from Consumer Reports show that the consumer movement of the 1930s-40s staunchly advocated for universal health insurance. Whereas consumer rights language nowadays tends towards individual choice and personal responsibility, consumerism in health care during that era articulated ideas about consumer citizenship, framing choice and responsibility in collectivist terms and health care as a social good. This paper also illuminates the limits and weaknesses of a central tenet in consumerism-freedom of choice-by analyzing stories in Hygeia about the doctor-patient relationship. A textual analysis finds that the AMA's justification in the 1930s-40s against socialized medicine, i.e., the freedom to choose a doctor, was in practice highly controlled by the medical profession. Findings show that long before the rhetoric of the "empowered consumer" became popular, some patients exercised some choice even in an era when physicians achieved total professional dominance. But these patients were few and tend to occupy the upper socioeconomic strata of US society. In reality choice was an illusion in a fee-for-service era when most American families could not afford the costs of medical care.

  2. Consumer's Choice: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Consumer Education. Developed for Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny Intermediate Unit, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This manual suggests teaching strategies for integrating consumer education into art, language arts, mathematics, science/health, and social studies in grades K-4. The guide lists consumer education competencies, interdisciplinary structures for consumer education, and provides a chart which relates competencies to page numbers in the guide.…

  3. Implications of Motivating Operations for the Functional Analysis of Consumer Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Foxall, Gordon R.; Arntzen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The present article introduces the concept of Motivating Operation (MO) to the context of consumer choice and discusses the function of the concept of MO in the context of the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Including MO as part of the consumer behavior setting leads to a more comprehensive analysis and, as a result, improves our understanding…

  4. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice.

  5. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

  6. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills.

    PubMed

    Graffeo, Michele; Polonio, Luca; Bonini, Nicolao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers' decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field) experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001). The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as "complete decision approach" when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as "partial decision approach" when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory) experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in Experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005). Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements). In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision.

  7. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  8. Contraceptive counselling and factors affecting women's contraceptive choices: results of the CHOICE study in Austria.

    PubMed

    Egarter, Christian; Grimm, Christoph; Nouri, Kazem; Ahrendt, Hans-Joachim; Bitzer, Johannes; Cermak, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Empirical evidence of the impact of contraceptive counselling and factors affecting women's contraceptive choices are limited. CHOICE (Contraceptive Health Research Of Informed Choice Experience) was a large-scale study in 11 European countries. Women in Austria aged 15-40 years considering a short-acting, reversible form of combined hormonal contraceptive were eligible to participate. The choices included the combined daily pill, weekly transdermal patch, and monthly vaginal ring. This study assessed and compared 2478 women's original preferences with their post-counselling choices and evaluated their perceptions and criteria for their choice. Women who were 'undecided' decreased from 18.1% pre-counselling to 3.2% post-counselling; significantly more women post-counselling chose the monthly ring (8.7% to 23.8%; difference 15.1%, 95% CI 13.3-16.8%; P<0.0001) or the weekly patch (6.2% to 7.8%; difference 1.7%, 95% CI 0.5-2.9%; P=0.0014). Women's primary reasons for choosing a method included 'easy to use' (daily pill, weekly patch and monthly ring) and 'still effective if I experience vomiting, diarrhoea' (weekly patch and monthly ring). Structured and balanced counselling led to changes in the method chosen.

  9. Individual experience affects host choice in malaria vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite epidemiological importance, few studies have explored whether individual experience and learning could affect the vertebrate host choice of mosquito disease vectors. Here, we investigated whether a first successful blood meal can modulate mosquito preference during a second blood meal. Methods In no-choice situations, females of the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, one of the primary African malaria vectors, were first allowed to feed on either human, rabbit or guinea pig. Four days later in dual-choice situations, the same mosquitoes were allowed to choose between the two uncommon hosts, rabbit and guinea pig, as a source of blood. ELISA assays were then used to determine which host mosquitoes fed on. Results Our results indicate that, overall, mosquitoes preferred to feed on rabbit over guinea pig and that the nature of the first blood meal had a significant impact on the mosquito host choice during the second blood meal. Compared to mosquitoes that previously fed on guinea pigs or humans, mosquitoes that fed on rabbits were less likely to choose this host species during a second exposition. The decreased preference for rabbit was observed four days after mosquitoes were first exposed to this host, suggesting that the effect lasts at least the duration of a gonotrophic cycle. Furthermore, this effect was observed after only one successful blood meal. Fitness measurements on mosquitoes fed on the three different vertebrate hosts showed that the origin of the blood meal affected mosquito longevity but not fecundity. In particular, human-fed mosquitoes lived longer than guinea pig-fed or rabbit-fed mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that individual experience affects host choice in this mosquito species and might have strong repercussions on biting patterns in natural conditions and hence on malaria transmission. PMID:24885668

  10. Sustaining Medicare through consumer choice of health funds: lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U; Paolucci, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    The current escalation in costs of Australia's health care system does not appear to be sustainable. Sustainable financing requires direct engagement of consumers - instead of the current political process driven by special interest groups, targeted at gaining a larger share of the federal and state governments' budgets. Reforms in the Netherlands, directed at achieving universal insurance with consumer choice of health fund, provide valuable lessons for Australia on how to design sustainable financing. PMID:19580534

  11. The role of nutrition labels and advertising claims in altering consumers' evaluation and choice.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Sasse, Lena; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Despite policy efforts, consumers' well-informed healthful choice is a challenge. Due to increasing number of benefit claims advertising taste or health front of pack (FOP), consumers face the dilemma to trade taste for health. To understand the mechanisms underlying food evaluation, this study investigates the health-pleasure trade-off and its effect on consumers' choice. 240 EU consumers took part in a taste experiment, after being presented with the product FOP. Half of the products carried a nutrition label FOP, respectively, reduced fat for potato chips, reduced sugar for cereal bars. Further, one third of the products carried health benefit claim, one third taste benefit claim, and one third no additional claim FOP. Attention to information and its effect on experienced taste, health perception and the buying intention were measured. The results show that the message displayed FOP altered consumers evaluation and choice. The effectiveness of the FOP message further depended on consumers' health motivation and the healthfulness perception of carrier products. The outcomes are summarized in a framework of health-pleasure trade-off. Current findings call for the establishment of standards to avoid the use of misleading information FOP.

  12. The role of nutrition labels and advertising claims in altering consumers' evaluation and choice.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Sasse, Lena; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Despite policy efforts, consumers' well-informed healthful choice is a challenge. Due to increasing number of benefit claims advertising taste or health front of pack (FOP), consumers face the dilemma to trade taste for health. To understand the mechanisms underlying food evaluation, this study investigates the health-pleasure trade-off and its effect on consumers' choice. 240 EU consumers took part in a taste experiment, after being presented with the product FOP. Half of the products carried a nutrition label FOP, respectively, reduced fat for potato chips, reduced sugar for cereal bars. Further, one third of the products carried health benefit claim, one third taste benefit claim, and one third no additional claim FOP. Attention to information and its effect on experienced taste, health perception and the buying intention were measured. The results show that the message displayed FOP altered consumers evaluation and choice. The effectiveness of the FOP message further depended on consumers' health motivation and the healthfulness perception of carrier products. The outcomes are summarized in a framework of health-pleasure trade-off. Current findings call for the establishment of standards to avoid the use of misleading information FOP. PMID:26341955

  13. Consumer's Choice. A Manual of Supplemental Consumer Education Teaching Strategies. Developed for Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny Intermediate Unit, Pittsburgh, PA.

    Designed for grades K-4, this manual contains suggested teaching strategies for infusing consumer education into the academic areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science/health, and social studies. Each of the twenty to thirty learning activities provided for each of the academic areas is based on competencies related to one of four…

  14. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Michele; Polonio, Luca; Bonini, Nicolao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers’ decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field) experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001). The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as “complete decision approach” when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as “partial decision approach” when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory) experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in Experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005). Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements). In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision. PMID:26136721

  15. Colorado Teen Challenges and Choices Curriculum State Content Standards for Consumer & Family Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlender, Pat; Calhoun, Peggy; Goemer, Phil; Inman, Sondra; Kilgore, Cherryl; McManigal, Lori; Neergaard, Hope; Peppler, Colleen; Wateman, Linda

    This document presents materials and guidelines for evaluating Colorado high school students' attainment of the eight state standards for consumer and family studies that pertain to teen challenges and choices. The materials presented are designed to promote and evaluate students' mastery of the following competencies: (1) examine and demonstrate…

  16. Consumer Brand Choice: Money Allocation as a Function of Brand Reinforcing Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous applications of the matching law to the analysis of consumer brand choice have shown that the amount of money spent purchasing a favorite brand tends to match the quantity bought of the favorite brand divided by the quantity bought of all other brands. Although these results suggest matching between spending and purchased quantity,…

  17. Influences affecting radiologists' choices of academic or private practice careers.

    PubMed

    Hillman, B J; Fajardo, L L; Witzke, D B; Cardenas, D; Irion, M; Fulginiti, J V

    1990-02-01

    The authors surveyed 5,000 practicing radiologists and 3,000 individuals currently in radiology training to determine the aspects of their backgrounds, education, training, and attitudes that most affected their career decisions. The choice of academic radiology was associated with receiving medical school education or radiology training at an institution ranking among the 20 with the most federal grant funding, publishing research articles, and participating in a variety of interpersonal research experiences during radiology training. Academic radiologists were more likely to choose their careers because of their interests, aptitudes, and greater concern for the value of doing research. Private practitioners rated family obligations, leisure time, and level of personal income as more significant influences on their career choices. Programs interested in training more academic radiologists should reconsider how they select trainees and provide an appropriate research environment during training. PMID:2296666

  18. Medicare Advantage: options for standardizing benefits and information to improve consumer choice.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ellen; Hoadley, Jack

    2008-04-01

    The Medicare Advantage (MA) program offers beneficiaries a choice of private health plans as alternatives to the traditional fee-for-service Medicare program. MA plans potentially provide additional value, but as plan choices have proliferated, consumers contemplating their options have had difficulty understanding how they differ. Through "standardization" more consistent types of information and a limited number of dimensions along which plans vary--MA plans could reduce complexity and improve beneficiaries' ability to make informed choices. Such standardization steps would offer more meaningful variation in the health coverage options available to beneficiaries, Medicare officials and their community partners would find it far easier to educate beneficiaries about their health plan choices, and beneficiaries would better understand what they were buying. Standardization might also strengthen the ability of the market-based Medicare Advantage program to incorporate beneficiary preferences. PMID:18426037

  19. Perceptions and choices of Brazilian children as consumers of food products.

    PubMed

    Mazzonetto, A C; Fiates, G M R

    2014-07-01

    In order to identify children's perceptions about food choices and their behavior as consumers and influencers of food purchases, 16 focus groups were conducted with 71 students aged 8-10 years. Transcriptions were submitted to lexical analysis using the Alceste software. The initial contextual unit broke down into 1469 elementary contextual units, 84% of which were retained in the descending hierarchical classification. Results from the larger and more specific classes are reported here. Children were students from public schools where energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption was severely restricted, but these foods were still bought by the children themselves or requested from their parents. Television shows and advertisements motivated food consumption in general, and consumption of EDNP foods was associated with social events and eating outside the home. Situations that emphasize the pleasure and satisfaction of not eating according to food guidelines are being addressed by traditional educational strategies directed at the individual. Appealing to the senses and employing visual stimuli to get to the affective component of children's attitudes seems to be an alternative tool for promoting healthy eating, instead of the traditional approach based on recommendations and restrictions. PMID:24698989

  20. Consumer choice in health insurance exchanges: can we make it work?

    PubMed

    Nadash, Pamela; Day, Rosemarie

    2014-02-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), consumer choice plays a critical role: it drives the competitive market in health insurance plans that will operate through health insurance exchanges. As the 2014 deadline for establishing exchanges approaches, states face choices: they can either allow the federal government to manage an exchange on their behalf; take on a minimalist role by managing a state exchange or partnering with the federal exchange; or assume an activist role--by aiming to influence the price, design, and quality of the health insurance options available through exchanges and taking steps to support consumers' ability to choose among these options. This article discusses states' choices and the governance issues that they raise, first by describing the extent of discretion that states have in shaping the range of health plans on offer as well as the issues they will need to consider in choosing an exchange model. We then discuss the considerable body of evidence that addresses how people behave in individual insurance markets, concluding that it strongly supports the need for states to take an active role in shaping health insurance exchanges and ensuring that they support consumer choice. PMID:24193610

  1. The effect of report cards on consumer choice in the health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Wedig, Gerard J; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2002-11-01

    We test the effect of report cards on consumer choice in the HMO market. Federal employees were provided with report cards on a limited basis in 1995 and then on a widespread basis in 1996. Exploiting this natural experiment, we find that subjective measures of quality and coverage influence plan choices, after controlling for plan premiums, expected out of pocket expenses and service coverages. The effect is stronger within a small sample of new hires compared to a larger sample of existing federal employees. We also find evidence that report cards increase the price elasticity of demand for health insurance. PMID:12475124

  2. Medicare in a consumer-choice environment: competitor or residual program?

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L

    1996-01-01

    The Medicare provisions of the reconciliation bill and President Clinton's proposals would both allow many new health plans to compete for Medicare enrollees and structure a competitive, consumer-choice system. Medicare will enter this new environment with serious shortcomings. The logic of market competition will call for upgrading many aspects of Medicare if it is to be successful. Among Medicare's features that need to be reconsidered are benefits, consumer focus, premium financing, payment policies, provider arrangements, performance accountability, management systems, risk adjustment and market strategies, social mission responsibilities, and research and development. PMID:12856666

  3. The Influence of Different Social Roles Activation on Women’s Financial and Consumer Choices

    PubMed Central

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Trzcińska, Agata; Maison, Dominika A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, the changes occurring in the social role of women and men have been observed. Traditionally, the dominating social role of the woman was as housewife, and that of the man was focused on work and family maintenance. Nowadays, the social role of women is evolving in the direction of taking a profession, while increasingly men are taking care of the household. The main goal of the studies presented here was to verify how the activation of different social roles (traditional or non-traditional) may be reflected in women’s financial and consumer choices. Three experimental studies were conducted. In the first study (n = 195 females), three different social roles of women – professional (non-traditional), housewife (traditional) and neutral (control) – were activated. The results showed that activating women’s non-traditional social role increased their tendency to invest and decreased their propensity to save money compared to the activation of the traditional or neutral social role. The goal of the second study (n = 196 females) was to check whether, despite there being no differences in the level of consumption in the first study, can any differences be observed in the preference for the type of products chosen for consumption. The results showed that activating the non-traditional social role raised the propensity to spend funds on products and services for individual use and reduced the willingness to buy goods for collective use (shared with other members of the household). The purpose of the third study (n = 90 females) was to examine how different images of women appearing in advertisements may affect women’s judgments of the advertised product. Women who watched the ad with woman in the non-traditional social role estimated the product quality, look, color and price higher that participants exposed to the advertisement presenting the woman in traditional or neutral social role. The present studies give some evidence that the new, non

  4. The Influence of Different Social Roles Activation on Women's Financial and Consumer Choices.

    PubMed

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Trzcińska, Agata; Maison, Dominika A

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, the changes occurring in the social role of women and men have been observed. Traditionally, the dominating social role of the woman was as housewife, and that of the man was focused on work and family maintenance. Nowadays, the social role of women is evolving in the direction of taking a profession, while increasingly men are taking care of the household. The main goal of the studies presented here was to verify how the activation of different social roles (traditional or non-traditional) may be reflected in women's financial and consumer choices. Three experimental studies were conducted. In the first study (n = 195 females), three different social roles of women - professional (non-traditional), housewife (traditional) and neutral (control) - were activated. The results showed that activating women's non-traditional social role increased their tendency to invest and decreased their propensity to save money compared to the activation of the traditional or neutral social role. The goal of the second study (n = 196 females) was to check whether, despite there being no differences in the level of consumption in the first study, can any differences be observed in the preference for the type of products chosen for consumption. The results showed that activating the non-traditional social role raised the propensity to spend funds on products and services for individual use and reduced the willingness to buy goods for collective use (shared with other members of the household). The purpose of the third study (n = 90 females) was to examine how different images of women appearing in advertisements may affect women's judgments of the advertised product. Women who watched the ad with woman in the non-traditional social role estimated the product quality, look, color and price higher that participants exposed to the advertisement presenting the woman in traditional or neutral social role. The present studies give some evidence that the new, non

  5. The Influence of Different Social Roles Activation on Women's Financial and Consumer Choices.

    PubMed

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Trzcińska, Agata; Maison, Dominika A

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, the changes occurring in the social role of women and men have been observed. Traditionally, the dominating social role of the woman was as housewife, and that of the man was focused on work and family maintenance. Nowadays, the social role of women is evolving in the direction of taking a profession, while increasingly men are taking care of the household. The main goal of the studies presented here was to verify how the activation of different social roles (traditional or non-traditional) may be reflected in women's financial and consumer choices. Three experimental studies were conducted. In the first study (n = 195 females), three different social roles of women - professional (non-traditional), housewife (traditional) and neutral (control) - were activated. The results showed that activating women's non-traditional social role increased their tendency to invest and decreased their propensity to save money compared to the activation of the traditional or neutral social role. The goal of the second study (n = 196 females) was to check whether, despite there being no differences in the level of consumption in the first study, can any differences be observed in the preference for the type of products chosen for consumption. The results showed that activating the non-traditional social role raised the propensity to spend funds on products and services for individual use and reduced the willingness to buy goods for collective use (shared with other members of the household). The purpose of the third study (n = 90 females) was to examine how different images of women appearing in advertisements may affect women's judgments of the advertised product. Women who watched the ad with woman in the non-traditional social role estimated the product quality, look, color and price higher that participants exposed to the advertisement presenting the woman in traditional or neutral social role. The present studies give some evidence that the new, non

  6. Genetics affects choice of academic subjects as well as achievement.

    PubMed

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Ayorech, Ziada; Dale, Philip S; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable throughout compulsory education. After completing compulsory education at age 16, students in England can choose to continue to study for two years (A-levels) in preparation for applying to university and they can freely choose which subjects to study. Here, for the first time, we show that choosing to do A-levels and the choice of subjects show substantial genetic influence, as does performance after two years studying the chosen subjects. Using a UK-representative sample of 6584 twin pairs, heritability estimates were 44% for choosing to do A-levels and 52-80% for choice of subject. Achievement after two years was also highly heritable (35-76%). The findings that DNA differences substantially affect differences in appetites as well as aptitudes suggest a genetic way of thinking about education in which individuals actively create their own educational experiences in part based on their genetic propensities. PMID:27310577

  7. Genetics affects choice of academic subjects as well as achievement

    PubMed Central

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Ayorech, Ziada; Dale, Philip S.; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable throughout compulsory education. After completing compulsory education at age 16, students in England can choose to continue to study for two years (A-levels) in preparation for applying to university and they can freely choose which subjects to study. Here, for the first time, we show that choosing to do A-levels and the choice of subjects show substantial genetic influence, as does performance after two years studying the chosen subjects. Using a UK-representative sample of 6584 twin pairs, heritability estimates were 44% for choosing to do A-levels and 52–80% for choice of subject. Achievement after two years was also highly heritable (35–76%). The findings that DNA differences substantially affect differences in appetites as well as aptitudes suggest a genetic way of thinking about education in which individuals actively create their own educational experiences in part based on their genetic propensities. PMID:27310577

  8. Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

  9. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising <5% of their personal footprint). One of those shifts is reducing the intake of meat and dairy products that account for just under half of a Californian's blue-green water footprint and that require the most water of any food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  10. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    PubMed Central

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  11. Reprint of "Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach".

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:27561231

  12. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. PMID:27395825

  13. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings.

  14. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

  15. Consumer choice among Mutual Healthcare Purchasers: a feasible option for China?

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiwei; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2013-11-01

    In its 2009 blue print of healthcare reform, the Chinese government aimed to create a competitive health insurance market in order to increase efficiency in the health insurance sector. A major advantage of a competitive health insurance market is that insurers are stimulated to act as well-motivated prudent purchasers of healthcare on behalf of their enrolees, and that consumers can choose among these purchasers. To emphasize the insurers' role of purchasers of care we denote them, as well as other entities that can fulfil this role (e.g. fundholding community health centres), as 'Mutual Healthcare Purchasers' (MHPs). As feasible proposals for creating competition in China's health insurance sector have yet to be made, we suggest two potential approaches to create competition among MHPs: (1) separating finance and operation of social health insurance and allowing consumer choice among operators of social health insurance schemes; (2) allowing consumer choice among fund-holding community health centres. Although the benefits of competition are widely accepted in China, the problematic consequences of a free competitive health insurance market - especially in relation to affordability and accessibility - are generally neglected. To solve the problems of lack of affordability and inaccessibility that would occur in the case of unregulated competition among MHPs, at least the following regulations are proposed to the Chinese policy makers: a 'standard benefit package' for basic health insurance, a 'risk-equalization scheme', and 'open enrolment'. Potential obstacles for implementing a risk equalization scheme are examined based on theoretical arguments and international experiences. We conclude that allowing consumer choice among MHPs and implementing a risk equalization scheme in China is politically and technically complex. Therefore, the Chinese government should prepare carefully for a market-oriented reform in its healthcare sector and adopt a strategic approach

  16. Recipients Affect Prosocial and Altruistic Choices in Jackdaws, Corvus monedula

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Christine; Swoboda, Ruth; Kotrschal, Kurt; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Other-regarding preferences are a critical feature of human cooperation but to what extent non-human animals exhibit these preferences is a matter of intense discussion. We tested whether jackdaws show prosocial behaviour (providing benefits to others at no cost to themselves) and altruism (providing benefits to others while incurring costs) with both sibling and non-sibling recipients. In the prosocial condition, a box was baited on both the actor's and the recipient's side (1/1 option), whereas another box provided food only for the actor (1/0 option). In the altruistic condition, the boxes contained food for either the actor (1/0 option) or the recipient (0/1 option). The proportion of selfish (1/0 option) and cooperative (1/1 and 0/1 option, respectively) actors' choices was significantly affected by the recipients' behaviour. If recipients approached the boxes first and positioned themselves next to the box baited on their side, trying to access the food reward (recipient-first trials), actors were significantly more cooperative than when the actors approached the boxes first and made their choice prior to the recipients' arrival (actor-first trials). Further, in recipient-first trials actors were more cooperative towards recipients of the opposite sex, an effect that was even more pronounced in the altruistic condition. Hence, at no cost to the actors, all recipients could significantly influence the actors' behaviour, whereas at high costs this could be achieved even more so by recipients of different sex. Local/stimulus enhancement is discussed as the most likely cognitive mechanism to account for these effects. PMID:22511972

  17. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

  18. Risky health-related behaviours among school-aged adolescents: a rational 'consumer' choice?

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K

    2016-05-01

    Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism. PMID:25781521

  19. Consumer illness careers: an investigation of allergy sufferers and their universe of medical choices.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J; Considine, J M; Oakes, L S

    1993-01-01

    The concept of the consumer illness career with a focus on allergies is introduced and developed by the authors in terms of a trajectory of five stages over time, the related product-service unities or constellations--including health care treatments and remedies--and various situational and trait factors that influence the course of a consumer's response to his or her disease. Next, they investigate the career's holistic nature and thematic content in an in-depth study of allergy sufferers. The study indicates that allergy sufferers engage ina wide range of strategic behaviors and choices associated with coping with their allergies, much of which can be captured in terms of patterned themes. Finally, the authors offer research, managerial, and public policy implications.

  20. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed.

  1. Operationalizing Consumer Decision Making and Choice in the VR Process. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (21st, Baltimore, Maryland, March 1995). Report from the Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    This document is the product of meetings of the Prime Study Group of the Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, whose mission was to: examine consumer choice and decision making in rehabilitation; review the legislation and consumer movements leading to greater consumer choice; identify the roles and responsibilities of the consumer, the counselor,…

  2. Choice of Personal Assistance Services Providers by Medicare Beneficiaries Using a Consumer-Directed Benefit: Rural-Urban Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Hongdao; Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Van Nostrand, Joan F.; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of an experimental consumer-choice voucher benefit on the selection of independent and agency personal assistance services (PAS) providers among rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities. Methods: The Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration enrolled 1,605 Medicare beneficiaries in 19…

  3. Health and Pleasure in Consumers' Dietary Food Choices: Individual Differences in the Brain's Value System

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Olivia; Merunka, Dwight; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Spence, Charles; Cheok, Adrian David; Raccah, Denis; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account how people value the healthiness and tastiness of food at both the behavioral and brain levels may help to better understand and address overweight and obesity-related issues. Here, we investigate whether brain activity in those areas involved in self-control may increase significantly when individuals with a high body-mass index (BMI) focus their attention on the taste rather than on the health benefits related to healthy food choices. Under such conditions, BMI is positively correlated with both the neural responses to healthy food choices in those brain areas associated with gustation (insula), reward value (orbitofrontal cortex), and self-control (inferior frontal gyrus), and with the percent of healthy food choices. By contrast, when attention is directed towards health benefits, BMI is negatively correlated with neural activity in gustatory and reward-related brain areas (insula, inferior frontal operculum). Taken together, these findings suggest that those individuals with a high BMI do not necessarily have reduced capacities for self-control but that they may be facilitated by external cues that direct their attention toward the tastiness of healthy food. Thus, promoting the taste of healthy food in communication campaigns and/or food packaging may lead to more successful self-control and healthy food behaviors for consumers with a higher BMI, an issue which needs to be further researched. PMID:27428267

  4. Health and Pleasure in Consumers' Dietary Food Choices: Individual Differences in the Brain's Value System.

    PubMed

    Petit, Olivia; Merunka, Dwight; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Spence, Charles; Cheok, Adrian David; Raccah, Denis; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account how people value the healthiness and tastiness of food at both the behavioral and brain levels may help to better understand and address overweight and obesity-related issues. Here, we investigate whether brain activity in those areas involved in self-control may increase significantly when individuals with a high body-mass index (BMI) focus their attention on the taste rather than on the health benefits related to healthy food choices. Under such conditions, BMI is positively correlated with both the neural responses to healthy food choices in those brain areas associated with gustation (insula), reward value (orbitofrontal cortex), and self-control (inferior frontal gyrus), and with the percent of healthy food choices. By contrast, when attention is directed towards health benefits, BMI is negatively correlated with neural activity in gustatory and reward-related brain areas (insula, inferior frontal operculum). Taken together, these findings suggest that those individuals with a high BMI do not necessarily have reduced capacities for self-control but that they may be facilitated by external cues that direct their attention toward the tastiness of healthy food. Thus, promoting the taste of healthy food in communication campaigns and/or food packaging may lead to more successful self-control and healthy food behaviors for consumers with a higher BMI, an issue which needs to be further researched. PMID:27428267

  5. Health and Pleasure in Consumers' Dietary Food Choices: Individual Differences in the Brain's Value System.

    PubMed

    Petit, Olivia; Merunka, Dwight; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Spence, Charles; Cheok, Adrian David; Raccah, Denis; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account how people value the healthiness and tastiness of food at both the behavioral and brain levels may help to better understand and address overweight and obesity-related issues. Here, we investigate whether brain activity in those areas involved in self-control may increase significantly when individuals with a high body-mass index (BMI) focus their attention on the taste rather than on the health benefits related to healthy food choices. Under such conditions, BMI is positively correlated with both the neural responses to healthy food choices in those brain areas associated with gustation (insula), reward value (orbitofrontal cortex), and self-control (inferior frontal gyrus), and with the percent of healthy food choices. By contrast, when attention is directed towards health benefits, BMI is negatively correlated with neural activity in gustatory and reward-related brain areas (insula, inferior frontal operculum). Taken together, these findings suggest that those individuals with a high BMI do not necessarily have reduced capacities for self-control but that they may be facilitated by external cues that direct their attention toward the tastiness of healthy food. Thus, promoting the taste of healthy food in communication campaigns and/or food packaging may lead to more successful self-control and healthy food behaviors for consumers with a higher BMI, an issue which needs to be further researched.

  6. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. PMID:23816516

  7. Public policies, private choices: Consumer desire and the practice of energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deumling, Reuben Alexander

    Refrigerator energy consumption has been the subject of regulatory attention in the US for some thirty years. Federal product standards, energy labels, and a variety of programs to get consumers to discard their existing refrigerators sooner and buy new, more energy efficient ones have transformed the refrigerator landscape and changed how many of us think about refrigerators. The results of these policies are celebrated as a successful model for how to combine regulatory objectives and consumer preferences in pursuit of environmental outcomes where everyone wins. Yet per capita refrigerator energy consumption today remains (much) higher in the US than anywhere else, in part because energy efficiency overlooks the ways behavior, habit, emulation, social norms, advertising, and energy efficiency policies themselves shape energy consumption patterns. To understand these dynamics I investigate how people replacing their refrigerators through a state-sponsored energy efficiency program make sense of the choices facing them, and how various types of information designed to aid in this process (Consumer Reports tests, Energy Guide labels, rebate programs) frame the issue of responsible refrigerator consumption. Using interviews and archival research I examine how this information is used to script the choice of a refrigerator, whose priorities shape the form and content of these cues, and what the social meanings generated by and through encounters with refrigerators and energy efficiency are. I also helped build a model for estimating historic refrigerator energy consumption in the US, to measure the repercussions of refrigerator energy inefficiency. My focus in this dissertation is on the ways the pursuit of energy efficiency improvements for domestic refrigerators intersects with and sometimes reinforces escalating demand for energy. My research suggests that the practice of pursuing energy efficiency improvements in refrigerators subordinates the issue of

  8. Influence factors affecting career choice of preclinical medical technology students.

    PubMed

    Gleich, C

    1978-06-01

    Over a seven-year period, data were gathered on 249 declared medical technology majors enrolled in an Introduction to Medical Technology course at the University of Iowa. The Kendall Tau C test for significance (p = less than .05) was utilized in determining the influence of several variables or factors in the students' choice of medical technology as a career. Such factors as the type of work, demand for medical technologists, and desire to help people were found to be highly motivating factors in choice. It appeared the motivation was primarily internalized with assistance sought from various sources. The decision of medical technology as a career was predominantly made in the junior/senior year in high school or freshman/sophomore year in college. PMID:686027

  9. Can a future choice affect a past measurement's outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-01

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell's theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement's outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  10. Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute.JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11. PMID:22828271

  11. Early Experience with Employee Choice of Consumer-Directed Health Plans and Satisfaction with Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Kind, Elizabeth A; Braun, Barbara L; Bertko, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the initial impact of offering consumer-defined health plan (CDHP) options on employees. Data Sources/Study Setting A mail survey of 4,680 employees in the corporate offices of Humana Inc. in June 2001. Study Design The study was a cross-sectional mail survey of employees aged 18 and older who were eligible for health care benefits. The survey was conducted following open enrollment. The primary outcome is the choice of consumer-directed health plan or not; the secondary outcome is satisfaction with the enrollment process. Important covariates include sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, educational level, exempt or nonexempt status, type of coverage), health status, health care utilization, and plan design preferences. Data Collection Methods A six-page questionnaire was mailed to the home of each employee, followed by a reminder postcard and two subsequent mailings to nonrespondents. Principal Findings The response rate was 66.2 percent. Seven percent selected one of the two new plan options. Because there were no meaningful differences between employees choosing either of the two new options, these groups were combined in multivariate analysis. A logistic regression modeled the likelihood of choosing the novel plan options. Those selecting the new plans were less likely to be black (odds ratio [OR] 0.46), less likely to have only Humana coverage (OR 0.30), and more likely to have single coverage (OR 1.77). They were less likely to have a chronic health problem (OR 0.56) and more likely to have had no recent medical visits (OR 3.21). They were more likely to believe that lowest premiums were the most important plan attribute (OR 2.89) and to think there were big differences in the premiums of available plans (OR 5.19). Employees in fair or poor health were more likely to have a difficult time during the online enrollment process. They were more likely to find the communications very helpful (OR 0.42) and the benefits

  12. Consumer-perceived risks and choices about pharmaceuticals in the environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that pollution from pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and agriculture can be a threat to the environment. Little is known, however, if people are aware that pharmaceuticals may have a detrimental influence on the environment. The present study examines people’s risk perception and choices in regard to environmental risks of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and for agricultural purposes. Methods A representative sample of the U.S. population (N = 640) was surveyed. Respondents completed a hypothetical choice task that involved tradeoffs between human and environmental health. In addition, it was examined how much people would support an environment policy related to drug regulation. Results For agricultural pharmaceuticals, respondents reported a high level of satisfaction for a policy requiring farms to limit their use of antibiotics. In the domain of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine, we found that people were willing to consider environmental consequences when choosing a drug, but only when choices were made about treatment options for a rather harmless disease. In contrast, when decisions were made about treatment options for a severe disease, the drug’s effectiveness was the most important criterion. Conclusions It can be concluded that the environmental impact of a drug will be hardly considered in decisions about pharmaceuticals for severe diseases like cancer, and this may be due to the fact that these decisions are predominantly affective in nature. However, for less severe health risks, people are willing to balance health and environmental considerations. PMID:23734758

  13. Direct-to-consumer advertising affects provider / patient relationship.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Family planning program clients are increasingly seeking oral contraceptive pills by brand name. Direct-to-consumer ads have spurred this recent increase in brand-specific requests for prescription drugs. While print consumer pitches for prescription drugs have been around for a long time, proposed guidance issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 1997 allows pharmaceutical companies to more easily broadcast product claim commercials on television and radio. Now, half of all direct-to-consumer advertising dollars spent by pharmaceutical companies during January-February 1998 were directed to television ads, almost twice the share spent upon television last year. Last year, pharmaceutical companies spent more than $1 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising. The effects of this new policy are presenting in providers' offices. Before the FDA guidance, 41% of physicians participating in a national survey observed an increase in patients' requests for brand name drugs. However, since the change, 65% surveyed to date have observed an increase in such requests. With the increase in advertising comes a potential for violations of the US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which regulates provider and consumer prescription drug advertising. 125 companies were cited for violations in 1998, 6 specifically for violations connected with contraceptive information they disseminated. PMID:12321805

  14. Direct-to-consumer advertising affects provider / patient relationship.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Family planning program clients are increasingly seeking oral contraceptive pills by brand name. Direct-to-consumer ads have spurred this recent increase in brand-specific requests for prescription drugs. While print consumer pitches for prescription drugs have been around for a long time, proposed guidance issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 1997 allows pharmaceutical companies to more easily broadcast product claim commercials on television and radio. Now, half of all direct-to-consumer advertising dollars spent by pharmaceutical companies during January-February 1998 were directed to television ads, almost twice the share spent upon television last year. Last year, pharmaceutical companies spent more than $1 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising. The effects of this new policy are presenting in providers' offices. Before the FDA guidance, 41% of physicians participating in a national survey observed an increase in patients' requests for brand name drugs. However, since the change, 65% surveyed to date have observed an increase in such requests. With the increase in advertising comes a potential for violations of the US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which regulates provider and consumer prescription drug advertising. 125 companies were cited for violations in 1998, 6 specifically for violations connected with contraceptive information they disseminated.

  15. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  16. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment.

  17. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:18802123

  18. Patterns of Reinforcement and the Essential Value of Brands: II. Evaluation of a Model of Consumer Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ji; Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We employ a behavioral-economic equation put forward by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) to explain human consumption behavior among substitutable food brands, applying a consumer-choice model--the behavioral perspective model (BPM; Foxall, 1990/2004, 2005). In this study, we apply the behavioral-economic equation to human economic consumption data. We…

  19. Vying for Attention: How Does Advertising Affect Search and College Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucciarone, Kristy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to analyze how advertising affects search and college choice among the plethora of college choice influencers. The results of the research indicate that parents, older siblings, friends, career aspirations, personal funds, scholarships, institutional reputation, location, sports, high school counselors, and…

  20. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  1. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

  2. How reinforcer type affects choice in economic games.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Edmund; Gaitan, Santino; Kennelly, Art; Stolarz-Fantino, Stephanie

    2007-06-01

    Behavioral economists stress that experiments on judgment and decision-making using economic games should be played with real money if the results are to have generality. Behavior analysts have sometimes disputed this contention and have reported results in which hypothetical rewards and real money have produced comparable outcomes. We review studies that have compared hypothetical and real money and discuss the results of two relevant experiments. In the first, using the Sharing Game developed in our laboratory, subjects' choices differed markedly depending on whether the rewards were real or hypothetical. In the second, using the Ultimatum and Dictator Games, we again found sharp differences between real and hypothetical rewards. However, this study also showed that time off from a tedious task could serve as a reinforcer every bit as potent as money. In addition to their empirical and theoretical contributions, these studies make the methodological point that meaningful studies may be conducted with economic games without spending money: time off from a tedious task can serve as a powerful reward.

  3. Cultural dilemmas of choice: Deconstructing consumer choice in health communication between maternity-care providers and ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shujie Phoebe; Munshi, Debashish; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Simpson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This article critically analyses the discourse of consumer choice embedded in health communication interactions between maternity-care providers and migrant ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand. Findings indicate that Chinese mothers, as the customers of the New Zealand maternity and health care services, are encouraged to "fit in" with the Western discourse of choice. However, the mothers' cultural predispositions for childbirth and communication have a significant impact on the ways in which they respond to and resist this discourse. Drawing on theoretical insights from postcolonialism and Third World feminism, this article contributes to the study of intercultural health communication by examining cultural dilemmas in the discourse of choice that is often taken for granted in Western health contexts. In doing so, it builds a platform for an inclusive maternity care and health environment in multicultural societies. PMID:24446879

  4. The consumer choice model: a humane reconstruction of the U.S. health care system.

    PubMed

    Coulter, C H

    2000-01-01

    "Consumer choice," "defined contribution health programs," "voucher systems," and "health marts" are variations on a theme: employees buying their own health care. This new approach to health care purchasing, which is designed to minimize the role of employers, is being proposed by an array of economists and by both Republican and Democratic legislators as the best way to address the nation's health care ills. Although enabling national legislation is unlikely to pass soon, the debate will nevertheless change the face of health care in America. The prospect is reminiscent of the debate over "Clinton Care" in 1993--although legislation was never passed, managed care rapidly came to dominate the U.S. health care system. As this reform takes hold, beneficiaries will make their own health plan selections but will have more responsibility and may bear more cost. Providers will have to adapt to new, customer-driven requirements for performance, accountability, and communications but will also find opportunities in a marketplace that they will have a major role in shaping. Physicians, health plans, and insurers should understand how these proposals will transform their role in health care.

  5. The consumer choice model: a humane reconstruction of the U.S. health care system.

    PubMed

    Coulter, C H

    2000-01-01

    "Consumer choice," "defined contribution health programs," "voucher systems," and "health marts" are variations on a theme: employees buying their own health care. This new approach to health care purchasing, which is designed to minimize the role of employers, is being proposed by an array of economists and by both Republican and Democratic legislators as the best way to address the nation's health care ills. Although enabling national legislation is unlikely to pass soon, the debate will nevertheless change the face of health care in America. The prospect is reminiscent of the debate over "Clinton Care" in 1993--although legislation was never passed, managed care rapidly came to dominate the U.S. health care system. As this reform takes hold, beneficiaries will make their own health plan selections but will have more responsibility and may bear more cost. Providers will have to adapt to new, customer-driven requirements for performance, accountability, and communications but will also find opportunities in a marketplace that they will have a major role in shaping. Physicians, health plans, and insurers should understand how these proposals will transform their role in health care. PMID:10847942

  6. Factors affecting a student's choice of dietetics as a profession.

    PubMed

    Markley, E J; Huyck, N I

    1992-08-01

    In order to design more effective recruitment strategies, 419 junior students in 38 coordinated dietetics programs completed self-administered questionnaires to identify factors that attracted them to the profession. The majority (43.9%) first became interested in a dietetics career while in college; 24.9% became interested before or during secondary school; and 17.7% were making a career change. Factors that most frequently led to a career in dietetics were a course in nutrition (32.9%), a friend or relative other than parent (31.0%), and a dietitian (30.3%). Students rated the opportunity to help others (95.2%) and the relationship of nutrition to health (94.0%) as characteristics of the profession that had a highly positive influence on their decision. Interests in health, disease, and health care (70.5%); teaching and health promotion (42.7%); sports and fitness (40.7%); counseling and behavior change (35.6%); and food and cooking (35.4%) were most frequently cited as influencing the choice of a dietetics career. Students were most interested in practicing dietetics as a consultant or in private practice (37.5%) or as a clinical dietitian (34.8%). New and innovative recruitment strategies should target high school and college students and pay special attention to second-career students. Interests such as health, disease, and health care and health promotion and characteristics of the profession such as the opportunity to help others attracted present dietetics students and should be emphasized in recruiting. The best marketing tools may be the practicing dietitian and a course in nutrition.

  7. How microphysical choices affect simulated infrared brightness temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberg, S.; Köhler, C.; Seifert, A.; Crewell, S.

    2015-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) today relies more and more on satellite data, both for assimilation and for evaluation. However, process-based analyses of the biases between observed and simulated satellite data, which go beyond a mere identification of the biases, are rare. The present study investigates a long-known bias (Böhme et al., 2011) between brightness temperatures (BTs) simulated from the regional NWP model COSMO-DE forecasts via RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TOVS) and those observed by Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The pivotal question is whether a novel two-moment cloud ice scheme, developed by Köhler (2013) primarily to improve the representation of ice nucleation processes, exhibits an improved performance with respect to this bias and, if that is so, to provide a process-based analysis which identifies the reasons for the improved behaviour. It is shown that the new two-moment cloud ice scheme reduces the BT bias distinctly and can therefore be considered an improvement in comparison to two standard schemes, the two-category ice scheme and the three-category ice scheme. The improvement in simulated BTs is due to a vertical redistribution of cloud ice to lower model levels. Sensitivity studies identify two of the introduced changes in the two-moment cloud ice scheme to be hand-in-hand responsible for most of the improved performance: the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation scheme and the consideration of cloud ice sedimentation. Including only cloud ice sedimentation without changing the heterogeneous ice nucleation scheme has no distinct effect on cloud ice. Further sensitivity studies with varying aerosol number densities reveal a comparably small sensitivity, indicating that the use of a physically reasonable heterogeneous ice nucleation scheme is far more important than the exact knowledge of the actual aerosol number densities.

  8. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    PubMed

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process.

  9. Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Danner, Unna N; Evers, Catharine; Sternheim, Lot; van Meer, Floor; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Geerets, Tiny A M; Breteler, Leonie M T; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-15

    Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women (59 with BN or BED and 31 healthy controls) watched a sad or control film fragment and were subsequently asked to complete a choice behavior task (as measured by a variation of the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT)). Results showed that negative affect influenced choice behavior differently in healthy controls and in women with BN and BED after punishment (but not after reward). In the context of increased negative affect, punishment was associated with more disadvantageous choice behavior in both BN and BED women but not in healthy controls, while the effect was the exact opposite in both groups after a decrease in negative affect. Levels of sadness were not found to influence choice behavior after reward in either groups. These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself.

  10. Plant defences and the role of epibiosis in mediating within-plant feeding choices of seagrass consumers.

    PubMed

    Vergés, Adriana; Alcoverro, Teresa; Romero, Javier

    2011-06-01

    Within-plant variation in susceptibility to herbivory can significantly influence the ecological and evolutionary consequences of plant-herbivore interactions. Seagrasses are marine angiosperms characterised by substantial intra-individual differences in multiple traits, such as nutrients, chemical and structural defences and epibiotic load, all of which can strongly influence herbivore preferences. We quantified the within-plant feeding choices of the two main consumers of the temperate seagrass Posidonia oceanica--the fish Sarpa salpa and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus--and determined the plant traits that explained their foraging strategies. We found strong within-plant heterogeneity in both seagrass susceptibility to herbivory and chemical composition, but different consumers exhibited contrasting feeding choices. S. salpa preferred the most nutritious and chemically defended younger leaves, suggesting a full adaptation to consuming this macrophyte and a greater impact of this herbivore on the plant. In contrast, P. lividus consistently preferred the older leaves covered by epibionts, probably attenuating the relative impact of this consumer and helping to explain the weak effects usually recorded for this echinoid in undisturbed meadows. Artificial diet experiments showed that morphology and fine-scale structural defences were the primary determinant of urchin feeding choices, with nutrient content and chemical defences being of secondary importance. Epibiosis did not strongly influence fish feeding, but it did have a strong 'shared-doom' effect on urchin consumption. This effect was driven by a distinct preference towards a mixed diet that included both host tissues and their epibiotic community. PMID:21053016

  11. Informed choice in direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT) websites: a content analysis of benefits, risks, and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Amanda; Erby, Lori Hamby; Foisie, Kathryn V.; Kaphingst, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    An informed choice about health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT) requires knowledge of potential benefits, risks, and limitations. To understand the information that potential consumers of DTCGT services are exposed to on company websites, we conducted a content analysis of 23 health-related DTCGT websites. Results revealed that benefit statements outweighed risk and limitation statements 6 to 1. The most frequently described benefits were 1) disease prevention, 2) consumer education, 3) personalized medical recommendations, and 4) the ability to make health decisions. Thirty-five percent of websites also presented at least one risk of testing. Seventy-eight percent of websites mentioned at least one limitation of testing. Based on this information, potential consumers might get an inaccurate picture of genetic testing which could impact their ability to make an informed decision. Practices that enhance the presentation of balanced information on DTCGT company websites should be encouraged. PMID:22194036

  12. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Borgmeier, Ingrid; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Background Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. Methods In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1) a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2) a multiple traffic light label, (3) a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) label, (4) a coloured GDA label and (5) a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Results Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p < 0.001). In the condition "no label" subjects had least correct decisions (20.2 ± 3.2), in the traffic light condition most correct decisions were made (24.8 ± 2.4). Task II: Envisaged daily food consumption did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions. Conclusion Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will

  13. How a trend towards a stationary population affects consumer demand.

    PubMed

    Espenshade, T J

    1978-03-01

    Abstract During the great depression of the 1930seconomists in both the United States and Europe tried to analyse the economic consequences of declining rates of population growth. Not only were birth rates in many industrial countries at the lowest levels ever, but they coincided with high rates of unemployment. Of the many economists who held that demographic trends were partly responsible for the adverse economic conditions, a prominent example was John Maynard Keynes. According to his so-called stagnation thesis, population growth stimulates investment demand in two ways: more people need more goods and services and, hence, more investment in factories and machinery; and with population growing, businessmen are more likely to regard their investment misallocations as less serious than when the growth is slow or nil.(1)A minority of writers were more optimistic about the economic consequences of slower rates of population growth. For example, Thompson argued that with a lower ratio of consumers to producers the population would enjoy a higher standard of living and the education of children should improve.(2).

  14. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    PubMed

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. PMID:26471802

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  16. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  17. Citizens and/or Consumers: Mutations in the Construction of Concepts and Practices of School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on school choice highlights the tendency among some White, middle-class parents to engage with discourses of community responsibility and ethnic diversity as part of their responsibility and duty as choosers and who therefore exercise choice in ways that undercut the individualistic and self-interested character framing…

  18. Determinants affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit card: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min

    2008-12-01

    The contactless credit card is one of the most promising technological innovations in the field of electronic payments. It provides consumers with greater control of payments, convenience, and transaction speed. However, contactless credit cards have yet to gain significant rates of adoption in the marketplace. Thus, effort must be made to identify factors affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Based on the technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory, and the relevant literature, seven variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, consumer involvement, availability of infrastructure) are proposed to help predict consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Data collected from 312 respondents in Taiwan is tested against the proposed prediction model using the logistic regression approach. The results and implications of our study contribute to an expanded understanding of the factors that affect consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. PMID:19072149

  19. Determinants affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit card: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min

    2008-12-01

    The contactless credit card is one of the most promising technological innovations in the field of electronic payments. It provides consumers with greater control of payments, convenience, and transaction speed. However, contactless credit cards have yet to gain significant rates of adoption in the marketplace. Thus, effort must be made to identify factors affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Based on the technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory, and the relevant literature, seven variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, consumer involvement, availability of infrastructure) are proposed to help predict consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Data collected from 312 respondents in Taiwan is tested against the proposed prediction model using the logistic regression approach. The results and implications of our study contribute to an expanded understanding of the factors that affect consumer adoption of contactless credit cards.

  20. Evidence-based patient choice and consumer health informatics in the Internet age.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, G; Jadad, A R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we explore current access to and barriers to health information for consumers. We discuss how computers and other developments in information technology are ushering in the era of consumer health informatics, and the potential that lies ahead. It is clear that we witness a period in which the public will have unprecedented ability to access information and to participate actively in evidence-based health care. We propose that consumer health informatics be regarded as a whole new academic discipline, one that should be devoted to the exploration of the new possibilities that informatics is creating for consumers in relation to health and health care issues.

  1. Evidence-based Patient Choice and Consumer health informatics in the Internet age

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we explore current access to and barriers to health information for consumers. We discuss how computers and other developments in information technology are ushering in the era of consumer health informatics , and the potential that lies ahead. It is clear that we witness a period in which the public will have unprecedented ability to access information and to participate actively in evidence-based health care. We propose that consumer health informatics be regarded as a whole new academic discipline, one that should be devoted to the exploration of the new possibilities that informatics is creating for consumers in relation to health and health care issues. PMID:11720961

  2. Who chooses service providers? The spread of consumer choice, 1992-2004.

    PubMed

    Breihan, Ann Whitney

    2007-12-01

    Self-determination has been a dominant theme in the movement for the enhancement of the lives of adults with developmental disabilities, but who actually chooses the careproviders funded by state and federal dollars? Officials from all 50 states were interviewed to ascertain who chose the careprovider for youth transitioning from educational to adult services for each year from 1992 to 2004. The choices fell into roughly three levels: state-dictated, restricted individual choice, and unlimited individual choice. The highest level of choice offered in that state for a given year was tracked. The change in level of choice has been dramatic. In 1992, government dictated all careproviders in 42 states; by 2004, this was reduced to 9 states. PMID:17997612

  3. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    PubMed

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. PMID:22709644

  4. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  5. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  6. The Housing Graduate Assistantship: Factors that Affect Choice and Perceived Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Roger B., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed graduate housing assistants (N=147) to determine what factors affected their choice and perceived job satisfaction. Results showed most assistants were unmarried master's degree students who chose a housing assistantship for personal satisfaction and learning experiences. Most found the experience satisfying. (JAC)

  7. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  8. Fischer rats consume 20% ethanol in a long-term intermittent-access two-bottle-choice paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mill, Douglas J; Bito-Onon, Jade J; Simms, Jeffrey A; Li, Rui; Bartlett, Selena E

    2013-01-01

    The 20% ethanol intermittent-access (IAE) two-bottle-choice drinking procedure has been shown to produce high voluntary ethanol consumption in a number of rat strains. For this study, we applied this procedure to male Fischer (F344) rats, a strain previously reported to exhibit low levels of ethanol consumption. We also subjected these animals to a two-week ethanol-deprivation-period to see if they would exhibit an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) signified by a transient increase in alcohol consumption following deprivation. Our data show a separation between high and low consuming animals within this strain, with high-consumers exhibiting an escalation in consumption. In contrast, Fischer rats did not show a significant separation between high and low consumers or any significant escalation in consumption, using the 20% ethanol continuous-access two-bottle-choice drinking protocol. Following the two-week deprivation period, animals in the high (but not the low) IAE group exhibited the transient increase in ethanol consumption and preference typically associated with an ADE. Together, the data suggest that the intermittent access protocol is a useful protocol for increasing ethanol consumption.

  9. Informed Choice in Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing for Alzheimer and Other Diseases: Lessons from Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Donna A.

    2011-01-01

    Health-related direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has been a controversial practice. Especially problematic is predictive testing for Alzheimer disease (AD), since the disease is incurable, prevention is inconclusive, and testing does not definitively predict an individual’s future disease status. In this paper, I examine two contrasting cases of subjects who learn through genetic testing that they have an elevated risk of developing AD later in life. In these cases, the subject’s emotional response to the result is related to how well prepared she was for the real-life personal implications of possible test results. Analysis leads to the conclusion that when groups of health-related genetic tests are offered as packages by DTC companies, informed consumer choice is rendered impossible. Moreover, I argue, this marketing approach contravenes U.S. Federal Trade Commission policies for non-deceptive commercial communications. I conclude by suggesting ways to improve the prospects for informed consumer choice in DTC testing. PMID:21603253

  10. The role of affect in UK commuters' travel mode choices: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mann, Eleanor; Abraham, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that the choice between public transport and private car use is not solely based on utility considerations, such as time and cost. However, affective considerations tend not to be targeted in policy interventions to reduce car use. This may be due, in part, to a lack of clarity about which affective responses to car use are important and how they may affect willingness to switch to public transport. This study sought to clarify the role of affective responses in transport mode choice. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of car users' accounts was conducted to (i) explore affect associated with decisions to drive or use public transport to get to work; and (ii) describe the role of affect on such transport decisions, and its relationship to utility considerations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 car users employed at a medium-sized UK university. Four affect themes were identified: These were journey-based affect (JBA), personal space, autonomy and identity. Typical 'utility' factors such as time, cost and reliability had important affective effects, and these were considered alongside utility components (e.g. getting to work on time). However, these effects were not always additive, and the role of affect depended on participants' own assessment of their circumstances. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  11. The effect of choice on the physiology of emotion: An affective startle modulation study

    PubMed Central

    Genevsky, Alexander; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The affective startle modulation task has been an important measure in understanding physiological aspects of emotion and motivational responses. Research utilizing this method has relied primarily on a ‘passive’ viewing paradigm, which stands in contrast to everyday life where much of emotion and motivation involves some active choice or agency. The present study investigated the role of choice on the physiology of emotion. Eighty-four participants were randomized into ‘choice’ (n=44) or ‘no-choice’ (n=40) groups distinguished by the ability to choose between stimuli. EMG eye blink responses were recorded in both anticipation and stimulus viewing. Results indicated a significant attenuation of the startle magnitude in choice condition trials (relative to no-choice) across all picture categories and probe times. We interpret these findings as an indication that the act of choice may decrease one’s defensive response, or conversely, lacking choice may heighten the defensive response. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22285891

  12. College Choice and the University Brand: Exploring the Consumer Decision Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Amber L.; Heckert, Alex; Yerger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Branding in higher education has become increasingly used as a mechanism of differentiation among competitors to attract prospective students. Although branding in higher education is a common phenomenon, little work has been done assessing the college selection process using a brand choice framework. This paper aims to fill the gap by…

  13. Evidence and Ideology on Consumer Choices in Education Markets: An Alternative Analytical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Garn, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    The question of how information is used by parents in selecting schools is a central issue in school choice debates, where advocates and opponents frequently intermingle theory (often economic), ideological beliefs, and empirical evidence in constructing arguments about the potential of this reform. We employ a nomination strategy to analyze…

  14. Hospital tiers in health insurance: balancing consumer choice with financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    Variations in efficiency and market power are generating wide variations in the prices charged by hospitals to health insurance plans. Insurers are developing new network structures that expose the consumer to some of the cost differences, to encourage but not mandate differential use of the more economical facilities. The three leading designs include hospital "tiers" within a single broad network, multiple-network products, and the replacement of copayments by coinsurance in HMO as well as PPO products. This paper describes the new network designs and evaluates the challenges they face in influencing consumers' behavior, incorporating information on clinical quality, and supporting medical education and uncompensated care. PMID:14527246

  15. From Users to Choosers: Central IT and the Challenge of Consumer Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Is the era of personal computing ending, or is it only just beginning? Certainly, cyberlife seems to have become more intensely personal over the last few years, partly because it has also become so much more social. The rise of the new consumer-oriented ubiquitous computing will reshape--and reduce--users' reliance on enterprise IT. Much of the…

  16. Enrolment Choices in Portuguese Higher Education: Do Students Behave as Rational Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    As part of a progressive change occurring in the way public sector beneficiaries are conceived, higher education students started to be more and more perceived as clients or consumers. This implies assuming them as rational and conscious actors aware of what to expect from higher education attendance and of its returns. Framed by the metaphor of…

  17. Meta-Analysis Research: A Potential Choice for CTE Researchers and Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the ERIC database, Academic Search Premier, and a review of literature suggests that meta-analysis is ignored by career and technical education (CTE) researchers, a situation that is regrettable but remediable. The purpose of this paper was to provide CTE researchers and consumers with selected procedures and guidelines for conducting…

  18. Can consumers make affordable care affordable? The value of choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric J; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a "smart" default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  19. Can Consumers Make Affordable Care Affordable? The Value of Choice Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T.; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a “smart” default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  20. Neural correlates of dueling affective reactions to win–win choices

    PubMed Central

    Shenhav, Amitai; Buckner, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    Win–win choices cause anxiety, often more so than decisions lacking the opportunity for a highly desired outcome. These anxious feelings can paradoxically co-occur with positive feelings, raising important implications for individual decision styles and general well-being. Across three studies, people chose between products that varied in personal value. Participants reported feeling most positive and most anxious when choosing between similarly high-valued products. Behavioral and neural results suggested that this paradoxical experience resulted from parallel evaluations of the expected outcome (inducing positive affect) versus the cost of choosing a response (inducing anxiety). Positive feelings were reduced when there was no high-value option, and anxiety was reduced when only one option was highly valued. Dissociable regions within the striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) tracked these dueling affective reactions during choice. Ventral regions, associated with stimulus valuation, tracked positive feelings and the value of the best item. Dorsal regions, associated with response valuation, tracked anxiety. In addition to tracking anxiety, the dorsal mPFC was associated with conflict during the current choice, and activity levels across individual items predicted whether that choice would later be reversed during an unexpected reevaluation phase. By revealing how win–win decisions elicit responses in dissociable brain systems, these results help resolve the paradox of win–win choices. They also provide insight into behaviors that are associated with these two forms of affect, such as why we are pulled toward good options but may still decide to delay or avoid choosing among them. PMID:25024178

  1. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i) market exchange, (ii) emotional reward, and (iii) neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm-consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency. PMID:25071506

  2. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i) market exchange, (ii) emotional reward, and (iii) neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm—consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency. PMID:25071506

  3. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer.

  4. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer. PMID:27060830

  5. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

  6. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs. PMID:27199295

  7. Sweet Knowledge: How Declaring Added Sugars Will Help Consumers Make Informed Food Choices.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Sarah P

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority to require a declaration of "added sugars" on the nutrition label. FDA has relied on scientific evidence from well-respected sources that concluded that "added sugars" pose a public health concern for Americans; its rule is not arbitrary or capricious. At the same time, there are certain limits on the effectiveness of the "added sugars" rule, especially consumer comprehension. Therefore, FDA should consider more effective front-of-package labeling to clearly communicate the public health risks of "added sugars". PMID:26827391

  8. Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: informed choices or buyers beware?

    PubMed

    Geransar, Rose; Einsiedel, Edna

    2008-03-01

    Commercialization of genetic technologies is expanding the horizons for the marketing and sales of genetic tests direct-to-consumers (DTCs). This study assesses the information provision and access requirements that are in place for genetic tests that are being advertised DTC over the Internet. Sets of key words specific to DTC genetic testing were entered into popular Internet search engines to generate a list of 24 companies engaging in DTC advertising. Company requirements for physician mediation, genetic counseling arrangements, and information provision were coded to develop categories for quantitative analysis within each variable. Results showed that companies offering risk assessment and diagnostic testing were most likely to require that testing be mediated by a clinician, and to recommend physician-arranged counseling. Companies offering enhancement testing were less likely to require physician mediation of services and more likely to provide long-distance genetic counseling. DTC advertisements often provided information on disease etiology; this was most common in the case of multifactorial diseases. The majority of companies cited outside sources to support the validity of claims about clinical utility of the tests being advertised; companies offering risk assessment tests most frequently cited all information sources. DTC advertising for genetic tests that lack independent professional oversight raises troubling questions about appropriate use and interpretation of these tests by consumers and carries implications for the standards of patient care. These implications are discussed in the context of a public healthcare system.

  9. Creating Public Awareness of How Goats Are Reared and Milk Produced May Affect Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Musto, Mauro; Cardinale, Daniele; Lucia, Pietro; Faraone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether showing a video of the different ways of raising goats for milk affected consumer acceptability. Four combinations, 2 Videos (intensive [INT] and semiextensive [SEM] system) × 2 Milk Types (semiskimmed [S] and whole [W] milk), were evaluated by 70 habitual consumers of goat milk, who scored their liking and purchase intention during blind (B), expected (E), and informed (I) acceptability sessions. In the B session, consumers tasted both milk types without information. S samples were preferred over W samples. In the E session, SEM video created high expectations in terms of milk liking and purchase intent, whereas the opposite happened when showing INT video. In the I session, consumers showed a clear preference for combinations created using SEM video, regardless of milk type. W-SEM and S-INT were worse (negative disconfirmation) and better (positive disconfirmation) than expected, respectively. A complete assimilation toward expectations occurred only for S-INT. INT video adversely affected the acceptability of S samples. Concerning purchase intent, W-SEM and S-SEM were worse than expected, but the assimilation was complete only for S-SEM: SEM video increased purchase intent for S samples. PMID:26960178

  10. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans. PMID:15138246

  11. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (P<0.05) steaks that were cooked to various end-point temperatures. Results revealed that consumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  12. Factors Affecting Student Choice of Career in Science and Engineering: Parallel Studies in Australia, Canada, China, England, Japan and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolnough, Brian E.; Guo, Yuying; Leite, Maria Salete; Jose de Almeida, Maria; Ryu, Tae; Wang, Zhen; Young, Deidra

    1997-01-01

    Describes studies that utilized questionnaires and interviews to explore the factors affecting the career choices of students. Reveals differences between scientists and nonscientists with regard to their preferred learning styles and relates these differences to career choice and self-perception. (DDR)

  13. Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    PubMed

    Mauro, A Alexander; Jayne, C Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input.

  14. Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    PubMed

    Mauro, A Alexander; Jayne, C Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input. PMID:26723759

  15. Consumer's Choices to Funeral Planning. A Consumer Publication by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This Congressional consumer publication, done in conjunction with the Continental Association of Funeral and Memorial Societies, was written to help consumers have the type of funeral they want at a cost they can afford. Guidelines are provided which will educate the funeral consumer before and during funeral planning. Also included in this guide…

  16. Arboreal habitat structure affects locomotor speed and perch choice of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Hyams, Sara E; Jayne, Bruce C; Cameron, Guy N

    2012-11-01

    Arboreal habitats pose several challenges for locomotion resulting from narrow cylindrical surfaces, steep slopes, and secondary branches that can form obstructions. We used laboratory trials to test whether different diameters, slopes, or complexity of branches affected maximum speeds and perch choice of the semi-arboreal white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We tested locomotor performance of mice running horizontally and up and down 45° slopes for cylindrical artificial branches with five diameters ranging from 10 to 116 mm and on a subset of diameters for cylinders that were horizontal and had pegs (e.g., secondary branches) every 10 or 20 cm. Slope, diameter, and presence of pegs on top of cylinders had significant and interactive effects on locomotor performance. On horizontal cylinders the speed of mice increased with increased diameter among the three smallest diameters, but changed little with further increases in diameter, whereas for sloped surfaces the extreme diameters had lower speeds than an intermediate diameter. For a given diameter, the speeds of mice were usually faster when running horizontally rather than running uphill or downhill. The presence of pegs greatly decreased running speed compared to unobstructed surfaces, but the magnitude of this effect decreased as diameter increased. The difficulties of maintaining balance and avoiding toppling may have caused much of the decrease in speed and associated increased amounts of pausing. Only 1 of 11 choice tests detected a significant bias of mice favoring the perch that maximized locomotor performance. PMID:22927206

  17. Arboreal habitat structure affects locomotor speed and perch choice of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Hyams, Sara E; Jayne, Bruce C; Cameron, Guy N

    2012-11-01

    Arboreal habitats pose several challenges for locomotion resulting from narrow cylindrical surfaces, steep slopes, and secondary branches that can form obstructions. We used laboratory trials to test whether different diameters, slopes, or complexity of branches affected maximum speeds and perch choice of the semi-arboreal white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We tested locomotor performance of mice running horizontally and up and down 45° slopes for cylindrical artificial branches with five diameters ranging from 10 to 116 mm and on a subset of diameters for cylinders that were horizontal and had pegs (e.g., secondary branches) every 10 or 20 cm. Slope, diameter, and presence of pegs on top of cylinders had significant and interactive effects on locomotor performance. On horizontal cylinders the speed of mice increased with increased diameter among the three smallest diameters, but changed little with further increases in diameter, whereas for sloped surfaces the extreme diameters had lower speeds than an intermediate diameter. For a given diameter, the speeds of mice were usually faster when running horizontally rather than running uphill or downhill. The presence of pegs greatly decreased running speed compared to unobstructed surfaces, but the magnitude of this effect decreased as diameter increased. The difficulties of maintaining balance and avoiding toppling may have caused much of the decrease in speed and associated increased amounts of pausing. Only 1 of 11 choice tests detected a significant bias of mice favoring the perch that maximized locomotor performance.

  18. Retention practices and factors affecting retainer choice among orthodontists in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Hamidaddin, Mohammad A.; Alotaibi, Hamdan M.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.; Albarakati, Sahar F.; Alkofide, Eman A.; Al-Moammar, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the retention protocols practiced by orthodontists in Saudi Arabia, and the factors affecting retainer choice. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and March of 2015 at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A previously tested electronic survey of 34 items was sent to all 1,200 orthodontic members of the Saudi Orthodontic Society. The questionnaire elicited data on the subjects’ demographics, orthodontic treatment practices, retention, and post-retention protocols. Results: One hundred and sixty-seven (13.9%) responses were received during the study period. The results showed predominant use of Hawley in the maxillary arch (61.3%), and fixed lingual in the mandibular arch (58.5%). Approximately 90.3% recommended full-time maxillary removable retainer wear. Overall, orthodontists who performed fewer extractions tended to use fixed retainers, and those who performed more extractions used removable retainers (p=0.018). Interproximal enamel reduction was used by 28% of the respondents as an adjunct procedure to enhance retention. Approximately 64% practiced a post-retention phase of retainer wear. Participants who used removable retainers most commonly prescribed lifetime retention. Conclusion: Hawley in the maxilla, and fixed lingual in the mandible were the most common retention protocols prescribed. Lifetime retention was the most common choice for participants who used removable retainers, especially when extractions were carried out. PMID:27464868

  19. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health.

  20. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health. PMID:15276314

  1. Energy Choices for Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, William T.

    1977-01-01

    Sample problems concerning energy consumption and conservation with air conditioners, electric ranges, refrigerators and televisions are provided. The energy efficiency ratio (EER) is also discussed. (CP)

  2. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allowmore » a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.« less

  3. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allow a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.

  4. Inoculation of Transgenic Resistant Potato by Phytophthora infestans Affects Host Plant Choice of a Generalist Moth.

    PubMed

    Abreha, Kibrom B; Alexandersson, Erik; Vossen, Jack H; Anderson, Peter; Andreasson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack and the plant's response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes), the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato changes the plant-pathogen interaction dynamics completely, but little is known about the effects on non-target organisms. Thus, we examined the effect of P. infestans itself and introduction of an Rpi-gene into the crop on host plant preference of the generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In two choice bioassays, S. littoralis preferred to oviposit on P. infestans-inoculated plants of both the susceptible potato (cv. Desiree) and an isogenic resistant clone (A01-22: cv. Desiree transformed with Rpi-blb1), when compared to uninoculated plants of the same genotype. Both cv. Desiree and clone A01-22 were equally preferred for oviposition by S. littoralis when uninoculated plants were used, while cv. Desiree received more eggs compared to the resistant clone when both were inoculated with the pathogen. No significant difference in larval and pupal weight was found between S. littoralis larvae reared on leaves of the susceptible potato plants inoculated or uninoculated with P. infestans. Thus, the herbivore's host plant preference in this system was not directly associated with larval performance. The results indicate that the Rpi-blb1 based resistance in itself does not influence insect behavior, but that herbivore oviposition preference is affected by a change in the plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26053171

  5. Inoculation of Transgenic Resistant Potato by Phytophthora infestans Affects Host Plant Choice of a Generalist Moth

    PubMed Central

    Abreha, Kibrom B.; Alexandersson, Erik; Vossen, Jack H.; Anderson, Peter; Andreasson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack and the plant’s response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes), the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato changes the plant-pathogen interaction dynamics completely, but little is known about the effects on non-target organisms. Thus, we examined the effect of P. infestans itself and introduction of an Rpi-gene into the crop on host plant preference of the generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In two choice bioassays, S. littoralis preferred to oviposit on P. infestans-inoculated plants of both the susceptible potato (cv. Desiree) and an isogenic resistant clone (A01-22: cv. Desiree transformed with Rpi-blb1), when compared to uninoculated plants of the same genotype. Both cv. Desiree and clone A01-22 were equally preferred for oviposition by S. littoralis when uninoculated plants were used, while cv. Desiree received more eggs compared to the resistant clone when both were inoculated with the pathogen. No significant difference in larval and pupal weight was found between S. littoralis larvae reared on leaves of the susceptible potato plants inoculated or uninoculated with P. infestans. Thus, the herbivore’s host plant preference in this system was not directly associated with larval performance. The results indicate that the Rpi-blb1 based resistance in itself does not influence insect behavior, but that herbivore oviposition preference is affected by a change in the plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26053171

  6. Feeding behaviour of an intertidal snail: Does past environmental stress affect predator choices and prey vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Arenas, Francisco; Olabarria, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Predation is one of the most important factors in determining structure and dynamics of communities on intertidal rocky shores. Such regulatory role may be of special relevance in novel communities resulting from biological invasions. Non-indigenous species frequently escape natural predators that limit their distribution and abundance in the native range. However, biological interactions also can limit the establishment and spread of non-native populations. There is a growing concern that climate change might affect predator-prey interactions exacerbating the ecological impacts of non-indigenous species. However, mechanisms underlying such interactions are poorly understood in marine ecosystems. Here, we explored if past environmental stress, i.e., increasing temperature and decreasing pH, could affect the vulnerability of two mussel prey, the native Mytilus galloprovincialis and the non-indigenous Xenostrobus securis, to predation by the native dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. In addition, we evaluated the consequences on the feeding behaviour of N. lapillus. First, we exposed monospecific assemblages of each mussel species to combined experimental conditions of increasing temperature and decreasing pH in mesocosms for 3 weeks. Then assemblages were placed on a rocky shore and were enclosed in cages with dogwhelks where they remained for 3 weeks. Despite the lack of preference, consumption was much greater on the native than on the invasive mussels, which barely were consumed by dogwhelks. However, this trend was diverted when temperature increased. Thus, under a coastal warming scenario shifts in dogwhelks feeding behaviour may help to contain invader's populations, especially in estuarine areas where these predators are abundant.

  7. Factors Affecting the Choice of Anesthesiology by Medical Students for Specialty Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Phool; Hughes, Mark

    1984-01-01

    A study of medical students' choice of anesthesiology as a specialty and the quality of clerkships available established several factors in students' choice, including the negative effect of certified registered nurse anesthetists on the operating room floor. A study of relationships with nurse practitioners, physician's assistants, and…

  8. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  9. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  10. The choice to access outdoor areas affects the behavior of great apes.

    PubMed

    Kurtycz, Laura M; Wagner, Katherine E; Ross, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor access is often cited as a critical component of appropriate housing for great apes in captivity, and although studies have shown that offering primates choices can improve welfare, choice to access specific areas has been empirically neglected. Behavioral data were collected on chimpanzees and gorillas housed in naturalistic enclosures while (a) restricted to an indoor enclosure and (b) permitted free access to an adjacent outdoor area. To isolate the factor of choice, only the sessions in which apes remained indoors were compared. With choice, chimpanzees showed more frequent social, F(1, 5) = 20.526, p = .006, and self-directed behaviors, F(1, 5) = 13.507, p = .014, and lower inactivity levels, F(1, 5) = 9.239, p = .029. Gorillas were more frequently inactive, F(1, 8) = 22.259, p = .002, and produced lower levels of object manipulation, F(1, 8) = 8.243, p = .021, and feeding, F(1, 8) = 5.407, p = .049. Results are consistent with an association between choice and the expression of species-typical and arousal behaviors in chimpanzees. The effects are less evident in gorillas, but this outcome may be buffered by the species' lower motivation to utilize the outdoor spaces. Findings highlight species-specific reactions to access to choice that may offer insight for enclosure design, management, and nonhuman animal welfare. PMID:24673476

  11. The neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, affects Bombus impatiens (bumblebee) sonication behavior when consumed at doses below the LD50.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated changes in sonication (or buzz-pollination) behavior of Bombus impatiens bumblebees, after consumption of the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid. We measured sonication frequency, sonication length, and flight (wing beat) frequency of marked bees collecting pollen from Solanum lycopsersicum (tomato), and then randomly assigned bees to consume 0, 0.0515, 0.515, or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid. We recorded the number of bees in each treatment group that resumed sonication behavior after consuming imidacloprid, and re-measured sonication and flight behavior for these bees. We did not find evidence that consuming 0.0515 ng imidacloprid affected the sonication length, sonication frequency, or flight frequency for bees that sonicated after consuming imidacloprid; we were unable to test changes in these variables for bees that consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng because we did not observe enough of these bees sonicating after treatment. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression to determine whether consuming imidacloprid affected the probability of engaging in further sonication behavior on S. lycopersicum and found that bumblebees who consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid were significantly less likely to sonicate after treatment than bees who consumed no imidacloprid. At the end of the experiment, we classified bees as dead or alive; our data suggest a trend of increasing mortality with higher doses of imidacloprid. Our results show that even modest doses of imidacloprid can significantly affect the likelihood of bumblebees engaging in sonication, a behavior critical for the pollination of a variety of crops and other plants.

  12. The neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, affects Bombus impatiens (bumblebee) sonication behavior when consumed at doses below the LD50.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated changes in sonication (or buzz-pollination) behavior of Bombus impatiens bumblebees, after consumption of the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid. We measured sonication frequency, sonication length, and flight (wing beat) frequency of marked bees collecting pollen from Solanum lycopsersicum (tomato), and then randomly assigned bees to consume 0, 0.0515, 0.515, or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid. We recorded the number of bees in each treatment group that resumed sonication behavior after consuming imidacloprid, and re-measured sonication and flight behavior for these bees. We did not find evidence that consuming 0.0515 ng imidacloprid affected the sonication length, sonication frequency, or flight frequency for bees that sonicated after consuming imidacloprid; we were unable to test changes in these variables for bees that consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng because we did not observe enough of these bees sonicating after treatment. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression to determine whether consuming imidacloprid affected the probability of engaging in further sonication behavior on S. lycopersicum and found that bumblebees who consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid were significantly less likely to sonicate after treatment than bees who consumed no imidacloprid. At the end of the experiment, we classified bees as dead or alive; our data suggest a trend of increasing mortality with higher doses of imidacloprid. Our results show that even modest doses of imidacloprid can significantly affect the likelihood of bumblebees engaging in sonication, a behavior critical for the pollination of a variety of crops and other plants. PMID:27189613

  13. Guidelines for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield.

    Consumer Education is not intended to direct consumer choices. It does provide an awareness of alternatives and opportunities and assists the consumer in making the choice which is best for his purposes in light of his values. It is not the purpose of consumer education to indoctrinate values. Consumer education should provide the experiences that…

  14. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  15. Healthy snacks at the checkout counter: A lab and field study on the impact of shelf arrangement and assortment structure on consumer choices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The essence of nudging is to adapt the environment in which consumers make decisions to help them make better choices, without forcing certain outcomes upon them. To determine how consumers can effectively be guided to select healthier snacks, we examine the effect of manipulating the assortment structure and shelf layout of an impulse display including both healthy and unhealthy snacks near the checkout counter of a canteen. Methods Both a lab and field study applied a two-factor experimental design manipulating snack offerings both in an on-screen choice environment and a natural environment (hospital staff restaurant). Shelf arrangement (i.e. accessibility) was altered by putting healthy snacks at higher shelves versus lower shelves. Assortment structure (i.e. availability) was altered by offering an assortment that either included 25% or 75% healthy snacks. Participants in the lab study (n = 158) made a choice from a shelf display. A brief survey following snack selection asked participants to evaluate the assortment and their choice. The field experiment took place in a hospital canteen. Daily sales data were collected for a period of four weeks. On completion of the field study, employees (n = 92) filled out a questionnaire about all four displays and rated their attractiveness, healthiness and perceived freedom of choice. Results The lab study showed a higher probability of healthy snack choice when 75% of the assortment consisted of healthy snacks compared to conditions with 25% healthy snack assortments, even though choices were not rated less satisfying or more restrictive. Regarding shelf display location of healthy snacks, no significant differences were observed. There was also no significant shelf arrangement by assortment structure interactive effect. The field study replicated these findings, in that this assortment structure led to higher sales of healthy snacks. Sales of unhealthy and total snacks were not impacted by

  16. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  17. Factors affecting the choice of cooking fuel, cooking place and respiratory health in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Owusu Boadi, Kwasi; Kuitunen, Markku

    2006-05-01

    Indoor air pollution resulting from the combustion of solid fuels has been identified as a major health threat in the developing world. This study examines how the choice of cooking fuel, place of cooking and behavioural risk factors affect respiratory health infections in Accra, Ghana. About 65.3% of respondents use charcoal and 4.2% use unprocessed wood. A total of 241 (25.4%) respondents who cook had had respiratory health symptoms in the two weeks preceding the study. Household socioeconomic status and educational attainment of respondents were found to have a significant impact on respiratory health through their particular influence on the choice of cooking fuel. Households that use wood and charcoal have a high incidence of respiratory health symptoms. The poor are more affected by respiratory health problems due to their heavy dependence on solid fuels as compared with their wealthy counterparts. Households that cook in multiple purpose rooms are more affected by respiratory health problems than those that cook outdoors. There is a positive correlation between the presence of children in the kitchen during cooking and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among children (r=0.31, p<0.0001). Poverty and lack of education and awareness are the major factors affecting the choice of cooking fuel, place of cooking and respiratory health in Accra. PMID:16613624

  18. Assessment of volatile compounds, neutral and polar lipid fatty acids of four beef muscles from USDA Choice and Select graded carcasses and their relationships with consumer palatability scores and intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M R; Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Garmyn, A J; O'Quinn, T G; Corbin, C H; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FA) in neutral and polar lipids (NL and PL) and volatile compounds were determined in Gluteus medius (GM), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Serratus ventralis (SV), and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles from upper 2/3 USDA Choice and Select quality grades (QG). Concentrations of NL FA (mg/g) were influenced by intramuscular fat (IMF) content being greater in upper 2/3 Choice compared with Select. The SV contained greater concentrations of NL FA; meanwhile, the SM contained the lowest quantities of NL FA. Percentages (g/100g of total FA) of NL SFA and MUFA were increased in beef with greater IMF content. Concentrations and percentages of PL FA had muscle specific differences between QG. Volatile compounds were primarily affected by muscle. Increases in SFA and MUFA were related with consumer liking, regardless of lipid fraction. Overall the influence of QG on SFA and MUFA was muscle specific. Therefore, each muscle may require specific considerations when considering FA, volatile compounds, and ultimately consumer liking.

  19. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Viral Advertising Pass-On Behaviour of Online Consumers in Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand

  20. Instructional Media Choice: Factors Affecting the Preferences of Distance Education Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the impact of several variables on media choice among 51 distance education course coordinators at the Open University of Israel. Hypotheses were drawn from Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel, 1984), Social Influence Theory (Fulk, 1993), Media Symbolism (Trevino, Lengel & Daft, 1987), and Experience Account (King & Xia,…

  1. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  2. Age Group, Location or Pedagogue: Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Kindergartens in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teszenyi, Eleonora; Hevey, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Hungary has experienced significant political, economic, demographic and social changes since the end of Soviet domination in the 1990s. The gradual move towards liberal democracy has been accompanied by growing emphasis on individualism, choice and diversity. Universal kindergarten provision for five- to six-year-olds is a long established…

  3. Liking and Power as Factors Affecting Coalition Choices in the Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacci, Peter L.; Tedeschi, James T.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of resource capability and interpersonal attraction on coalition behavior were studied. Introductory psychology students role played across three experimental conditions. Subjects were asked to select a coalition partner, predict formation of coalition, estimate winnings distribution. Male and female choices and predictions differed.…

  4. Factors Affecting Career Choice: Comparison between Students from Computer and Other Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, P. M.; Holmner, M.; Lotriet, H. H.; Matthee, M. C.; Pieterse, H. V.; Naidoo, S.; Twinomurinzi, H.; Jordaan, D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of student enrolments in computer-related courses remains a serious concern worldwide with far reaching consequences. This paper reports on an extensive survey about career choice and associated motivational factors amongst new students, only some of whom intend to major in computer-related courses, at two South African universities.…

  5. Factors Affecting Students' Career Choice in Accounting: The Case of a Turkish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyar, Ali; Güngörmüs, Ali Haydar; Kuzey, Cemil

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the reasons that influence students' career choices in accounting. In order to determine these reasons, a questionnaire survey has been employed. The empirical findings can be divided into two categories. First, students who have a desire to work in accounting field assume that accounting field provides good job…

  6. How Does Similarity-Based Interference Affect the Choice of Referring Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumura, Kumiko; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Harley, Trevor; Pickering, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a cue-based retrieval model that predicts how similarity between discourse entities influences the speaker's choice of referring expressions. In Experiment 1, speakers produced fewer pronouns (relative to repeated noun phrases) when the competitor was in the same situation as the referent (both on a horse) rather than in a different…

  7. Filling in the Blanks: How Information Can Affect Choice in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Schneider, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Spurred on by the Obama administration, and supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation, the United States has embarked on a "college completion agenda" to increase the number of American adults with postsecondary degrees. While the push to improve consumer information in the higher education market has gained…

  8. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors.

  9. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  10. Gestational form of Selenium in Free-Choice Mineral Mixes Affects Transcriptome Profiles of the Neonatal Calf Testis, Including those of Steroidogenic and Spermatogenic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Cerny, K L; Garbacik, S; Skees, C; Burris, W R; Matthews, J C; Bridges, P J

    2016-01-01

    In areas where soils are deficient in Selenium (Se), dietary supplementation of this trace mineral directly to cattle is recommended. Because Se status affects testosterone synthesis and frequency of sperm abnormalities, and the form of Se supplemented to cows affects tissue-specific gene expression, the objective of this study was to determine whether the form of Se consumed by cows during gestation would affect the expression of mRNAs that regulate steroidogenesis and/or spermatogenesis in the neonatal calf testis. Twenty-four predominantly Angus cows were assigned randomly to have individual, ad libitum, access of a mineral mix containing 35 ppm of Se in free-choice vitamin-mineral mixes as either inorganic (ISe), organic (OSe), or a 50/50 mix of ISe and OSe (MIX), starting 4 months prior to breeding and continuing throughout gestation. Thirteen male calves were born over a 3-month period (ISe, n = 5; OSe, n = 4; MIX, n = 4), castrated within 2 days of birth, and extracted testis RNA subjected to transcriptomal analysis by microarray (Affymetrix Bovine 1.0 ST arrays) and targeted gene expression analysis by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNAs encoding proteins known to affect steroidogenesis and/or spermatogenesis. The form of dam Se affected (P < 0.05) the expression of 853 annotated genes, including 17 mRNAs putatively regulating steroidogenesis and/or spermatogenesis. Targeted RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of mRNA encoding proteins CYP2S1 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily S, polypeptide 1), HSD17B7 (hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase 7), SULT1E1 (sulfotransferase family 1E, estrogen preferring, member 1), LDHA (lactate dehydrogenase A), CDK5R1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 1), and LEP (leptin) was affected (P < 0.05) by form of Se consumed by dams of developing bull calves, while AKR1C4 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4) and CCND2 (cyclin D2) tended (P < 0.09) to be

  11. Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, M; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

    2000-11-01

    Where both sexes invest substantially in offspring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential benefits to be gained. We measured offspring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a substantial male investment in offspring results in a lower potential reproductive rate in males than in females, and access to males limits female reproductive success rather than vice versa. Thus, males are choosier than females and females compete more intensely over mates than do males. Broods from preferred matings were superior at escaping predation, when either males or females were allowed to choose a partner. However, only 'choosing' females benefited in terms of faster-growing offspring. Our results have important implications for mate-choice research: here we show that even the more competitive and less choosy sex may contribute significantly to sexual selection through mate choice. PMID:11413626

  12. Can a future choice affect a past measurement’s outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-15

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  13. Implicit affective associations predict snack choice for those with low, but not high levels of eating disorder symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The central purpose of the current study was to examine whether eating disorder symptomatology moderates the extent to which implicitly and explicitly measured affective associations with fruits, or the feelings and emotions individuals associate with them, predict food choice. METHOD Participants (N=107) completed both implicit and explicit measures of affective associations with fruits, a self-report of eating disorder symptomatology, and their cognitive beliefs about fruits. In a subsequent snack selection task, they selected either a granola bar or fruit as a measure of their food choice behavior. RESULTS Logistic regression analyses revealed that eating disorder symptomatology moderated the relation of implicit affective associations on behavior, OR=0.27, p=.024, 95% CI (0.085, 0.84). A test of the simple effects indicated that implicit affective associations predicted snack choice at or below mean symptomatology levels [OR=2.073, p=.02, 95% CI (1.12, 3.84)], but not at high levels [OR=0.56, p=.28, 95% CI (0.18, 1.74)]. The effects of explicit measures on eating behavior were not moderated by eating disorder symptomatology (ps>.05). CONCLUSION These findings advance our understanding of both the relation of implicit affective associations on behavior, as well as the ways in which eating disorder symptomatology may impact the decision-making process, thereby perpetuating disorder-related eating behavior. These findings have implications for both health decision-making theory and practice, as well as for the study and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:24630936

  14. Pre-assessment exposure to schedule-correlated stimuli affects choice responding for tasks.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Shamlian, Kenneth; Lomas, Joanna E; Pabico, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Establishing compliance with academic and daily-living-skills instructions is important for shaping and maintaining behavior. In the current study, we exposed two participants to two stimulus conditions that were correlated with different consequences (more work vs. reinforcement) subsequent to a baseline in which responding was undifferentiated. Exposure to the differential consequences produced greater cooperation with the instruction to "pick one" task and response allocation towards the stimulus that was correlated with reinforcement as a consequence for task completion. These results suggest that clarifying the consequences of choice making may facilitate cooperation with task instructions.

  15. Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life.

  16. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization. PMID:24844670

  17. Human TREX component Thoc5 affects alternative polyadenylation site choice by recruiting mammalian cleavage factor I

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Jun; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Inoue, Hitomi; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The transcription-export complex (TREX) couples mRNA transcription, processing and nuclear export. We found that CFIm68, a large subunit of a heterotetrameric protein complex mammalian cleavage factor I (CFIm), which is implicated in alternative polyadenylation site choice, co-purified with Thoc5, a component of human TREX. Immunoprecipitation using antibodies against different components of TREX indicated that most likely both complexes interact via an interaction between Thoc5 and CFIm68. Microarray analysis using human HeLa cells revealed that a subset of genes was differentially expressed on Thoc5 knockdown. Notably, the depletion of Thoc5 selectively attenuated the expression of mRNAs polyadenylated at distal, but not proximal, polyadenylation sites, which phenocopied the depletion of CFIm68. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) indicated that CFIm68 preferentially associated with the 5′ regions of genes; strikingly, the 5′ peak of CFIm68 was significantly and globally reduced on Thoc5 knockdown. We suggest a model in which human Thoc5 controls polyadenylation site choice through the co-transcriptional loading of CFIm68 onto target genes. PMID:23685434

  18. Unpreferred plants affect patch choice and spatial distribution of European brown hares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijper, D. P. J.; Bakker, J. P.

    2008-11-01

    Many herbivore species prefer to forage on patches of intermediate biomass. Plant quality and forage efficiency are predicted to decrease with increasing plant standing crop which explains the lower preference of the herbivore. However, often is ignored that on the long-term, plant species composition is predicted to change with increasing plant standing crop. The amount of low-quality, unpreferred food plants increases with increasing plant standing crop. In the present study the effects of unpreferred plants on patch choice and distribution of European brown hare in a salt-marsh system were studied. In one experiment, unpreferred plants were removed from plots. In the second experiment, plots were planted with different densities of an unpreferred artificial plant. Removal of unpreferred plants increased hare-grazing pressure more than fivefold compared to unmanipulated plots. Planting of unpreferred plants reduced hare-grazing pressure, with a significant reduction of grazing already occurring at low unpreferred plant density. Spatial distribution of hares within this salt-marsh system was related to spatial arrangement of unpreferred plants. Hare-grazing intensity decreased strongly with increasing abundance of unpreferred plants despite a high abundance of principal food plants. The results of this study indicate that plant species replacement is an important factor determining patch choice and spatial distribution of hares next to changing plant quality. Increasing abundance of unpreferred plant species can strengthen the decreasing patch quality with increasing standing crop and can decrease grazing intensity when preferred food plants are still abundantly present.

  19. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  20. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  1. The happy hen on your supermarket shelf: what choice does industrial strength free-range represent for consumers?

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine; Brunswick, Carly; Kotey, Jane

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates what "free-range" eggs are available for sale in supermarkets in Australia, what "free-range" means on product labelling, and what alternative "free-range" offers to cage production. The paper concludes that most of the "free-range" eggs currently available in supermarkets do not address animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health concerns but, rather, seek to drive down consumer expectations of what these issues mean by balancing them against commercial interests. This suits both supermarkets and egg producers because it does not challenge dominant industrial-scale egg production and the profits associated with it. A serious approach to free-range would confront these arrangements, and this means it may be impossible to truthfully label many of the "free-range" eggs currently available in the dominant supermarkets as free-range. PMID:23690245

  2. The happy hen on your supermarket shelf: what choice does industrial strength free-range represent for consumers?

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine; Brunswick, Carly; Kotey, Jane

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates what "free-range" eggs are available for sale in supermarkets in Australia, what "free-range" means on product labelling, and what alternative "free-range" offers to cage production. The paper concludes that most of the "free-range" eggs currently available in supermarkets do not address animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health concerns but, rather, seek to drive down consumer expectations of what these issues mean by balancing them against commercial interests. This suits both supermarkets and egg producers because it does not challenge dominant industrial-scale egg production and the profits associated with it. A serious approach to free-range would confront these arrangements, and this means it may be impossible to truthfully label many of the "free-range" eggs currently available in the dominant supermarkets as free-range.

  3. Protein source and choice of anticoagulant decisively affect nanoparticle protein corona and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttler, S.; Klein, Katja; Landfester, K.; Mailänder, V.

    2016-03-01

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance of the choice of protein source used for in vitro protein corona analysis is concisely investigated. Major and decisive differences in cellular uptake of a polystyrene nanoparticle incubated in fetal bovine serum, human serum, human citrate and heparin plasma are reported. Furthermore, the protein compositions are determined for coronas formed in the respective incubation media. A strong influence of heparin, which is used as an anticoagulant for plasma generation, on cell interaction is demonstrated. While heparin enhances the uptake into macrophages, it prevents internalization into HeLa cells. Taken together we can give the recommendation that human plasma anticoagulated with citrate seems to give the most relevant results for in vitro studies of nanoparticle uptake.Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Choice to Enroll at HCC: Implications for Marketing, Recruitment, and Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinley, John W.

    A study was conducted to analyze the factors which affect students' decisions to enroll at Harford Community College (HCC), Harford County, Maryland. An entrant follow-up survey was sent in spring 1984 to all students who were enrolled in a Maryland community college for the first time in fall 1982. The survey sought to evaluate the extent to…

  5. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  6. Factors Affecting Career Choice: Comparison Between Students from Computer and Other Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P. M.; Holmner, M.; Lotriet, H. H.; Matthee, M. C.; Pieterse, H. V.; Naidoo, S.; Twinomurinzi, H.; Jordaan, D.

    2011-06-01

    The number of student enrolments in computer-related courses remains a serious concern worldwide with far reaching consequences. This paper reports on an extensive survey about career choice and associated motivational factors amongst new students, only some of whom intend to major in computer-related courses, at two South African universities. The data were analyzed using some components of Social Cognitive Career Theory, namely external influences, self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. The research suggests the need for new strategies for marketing computer-related courses and the avenues through which they are marketed. This can to some extent be achieved by studying strategies used by other (non-computer) university courses, and their professional bodies. However, there are also distinct differences, related to self-efficacy and career outcomes, between the computer majors and the `other' group and these need to be explored further in order to find strategies that work well for this group. It is not entirely clear what the underlying reasons are for these differences but it is noteworthy that the perceived importance of "Interest in the career field" when choosing a career remains very high for both groups of students.

  7. The relationship between alcohol price and brand choice among underage drinkers: Are the most popular alcoholic brands consumed by youth the cheapest?

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; DeJong, William; Naimi, Tim; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the influence of price on alcohol brand choice among underage youth. Using a national sample of 1,032 youth ages 13–20, recruited from a national internet panel in 2011–2012, we compared differences in mean prices between popular and unpopular brands; examined the association of price and brand popularity using logistic regression; and rank ordered the average price of top brands. Lower brand-specific prices were significantly associated with higher levels of past 30-day consumption prevalence. However, youth did not preferentially consume the cheapest brands. These findings indicate that youth have preferences for certain brands, even if those brands cost more than competing brands. Our study highlights the need for research on the impact of brand-specific alcohol marketing on underage drinking. PMID:25183436

  8. The relationship between alcohol price and brand choice among underage drinkers: are the most popular alcoholic brands consumed by youth the cheapest?

    PubMed

    Albers, Alison B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H

    2014-11-01

    We examined the influence of price on alcohol brand choice among underage youth. Using a national sample of 1,032 youth, ages 13-20, recruited from a national Internet panel in 2011-2012, we compared differences in mean prices between popular and unpopular brands, examined the association of price and brand popularity using logistic regression, and rank ordered the average price of top brands. Lower brand-specific prices were significantly associated with higher levels of past 30-day consumption prevalence. However, youth did not preferentially consume the cheapest brands. These findings indicate that youth have preferences for certain brands, even if those brands cost more than competing brands. Our study highlights the need for research on the impact of brand-specific alcohol marketing on underage drinking.

  9. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary Female Student Teachers' Choice of Science as a Major at College Level in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlenga, Francis

    This article focuses on factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there has been an unprecedented expansion in education in the last 2 decades. This reflects the broad recognition that education contributes to national development. This expansion has not been matched with equal access and opportunity to education. The education of females still lags behind that of males in most developing countries, and in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular (Hyde, 1989). Fewer girls than boys study science at both secondary and college levels. The study took place in Zimbabwe at Mkoba Teachers' College. Two groups of elementary female student teachers participated in the study, namely science majors and nonscience majors. Ten science majors and nine nonscience majors took part in individual interviews. For focus group interviews, there were three groups of six each from science and nonscience majors. The study was conducted between May 2004 and July 2004. Out-of-school experiences, culture, and attitudes toward science emerged as factors affecting female student teachers' choice of science as a major. A number of implications have been discussed as well as suggestions for further research. Limitations of the study have been analyzed as well.

  10. A traffic light food labeling intervention increases consumer awareness of health and healthy choices at the point-of-purchase

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Gelsomin, Emily; Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We surveyed customers in a hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts before and after implementation of traffic light food labeling to determine the effect of labels on customers’ awareness and purchase of healthy foods. Methods Cafeteria items were identified as red (unhealthy), yellow (less healthy), or green (healthy). Customers were interviewed before (N = 166) and after (N = 223) labeling was implemented. Each respondent was linked to cash register data to determine the proportion of red, yellow, and green items purchased. Data were collected from February–April 2010. We compared responses to survey questions and mean proportion of red, yellow, and green items per transaction between customers interviewed during baseline and customers interviewed during the intervention. Survey response rate was 60%. Results Comparing responses during labeling intervention to baseline, more respondents identified health/ nutrition as an important factor in their purchase (61% vs. 46%, p = 0.004) and reported looking at nutrition information (33% vs. 15%, p < 0.001). Respondents who noticed labels during the intervention and reported that labels influenced their purchases were more likely to purchase healthier items than respondents who did not notice labels (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Traffic light food labels prompted individuals to consider their health and to make healthier choices at point-of-purchase. PMID:23859926

  11. How Will the Affordable Care Act's Cost-Sharing Reductions Affect Consumers' Out-of-Pocket Costs in 2016?

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Health insurers selling plans in the Affordable Care Act's market­places are required to reduce cost-sharing in silver plans for low- and moderate-income people earning between 100 percent and 250 percent of the federal pov­erty level. In 2016, as many as 7 million Americans may have plans with these cost-sharing reductions. In the largest markets in the 38 states using the federal website for marketplace enrollment, the cost-sharing reductions substantially lower projected out-of-pocket costs for people who qualify for them. However, the degree to which consumers' out-of-pocket spending will fall varies by plan and how much health care they use. This is because insurers use deductibles, out-of-pocket limits, and copayments in different combinations to lower cost-sharing for eligible enrollees. In 2017, marketplace insurers will have the option of offering standard plans, which may help simplify consumers' choices and lead to more equal cost-sharing.

  12. How Will the Affordable Care Act's Cost-Sharing Reductions Affect Consumers' Out-of-Pocket Costs in 2016?

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Health insurers selling plans in the Affordable Care Act's market­places are required to reduce cost-sharing in silver plans for low- and moderate-income people earning between 100 percent and 250 percent of the federal pov­erty level. In 2016, as many as 7 million Americans may have plans with these cost-sharing reductions. In the largest markets in the 38 states using the federal website for marketplace enrollment, the cost-sharing reductions substantially lower projected out-of-pocket costs for people who qualify for them. However, the degree to which consumers' out-of-pocket spending will fall varies by plan and how much health care they use. This is because insurers use deductibles, out-of-pocket limits, and copayments in different combinations to lower cost-sharing for eligible enrollees. In 2017, marketplace insurers will have the option of offering standard plans, which may help simplify consumers' choices and lead to more equal cost-sharing. PMID:27017638

  13. Does the choice of the forcing term affect flow statistics in DNS of turbulent channel flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Hasegawa, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    We seek possible statistical consequences of the way a forcing term is added to the Navier--Stokes equations in the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of incompressible channel flow. Simulations driven by constant flow rate, constant pressure gradient and constant power input are used to build large databases, and in particular to store the complete temporal trace of the wall-shear stress for later analysis. As these approaches correspond to different dynamical systems, it can in principle be envisaged that these differences are reflect by certain statistics of the turbulent flow field. The instantaneous realizations of the flow in the various simulations are obviously different, but, as expected, the usual one-point, one-time statistics do not show any appreciable difference. However, the PDF for the fluctuations of the streamwise component of wall friction reveals that the simulation with constant flow rate presents lower probabilities for extreme events of large positive friction. The low probability value of such events explains their negligible contribution to the commonly computed statistics; however, the very existence of a difference in the PDF demonstrates that the forcing term is not entirely uninfluential. Other statistics for wall-based quantities (the two components of friction and pressure) are examined; in particular spatio-temporal autocorrelations show small differences at large temporal separations, where unfortunately the residual statistical uncertainty is still of the same order of the observed difference. Hence we suggest that the specific choice of the forcing term does not produce important statistical consequences, unless one is interested in the strongest events of high wall friction, that are underestimated by a simulation run at constant flow rate.

  14. Consumers' choice of dentists: how and why people choose dental school faculty members as their oral health care providers.

    PubMed

    Kim, M Julie; Damiano, Peter C; Hand, Jed; Denehy, Gerald E; Cobb, Deborah S; Qian, Fang

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to better understand how and why people choose dental school faculty members as their oral health care providers. Increasing financial constraints in U.S. dental schools have led their administrators to seek alternative funding sources, one of which can be revenues from dental school faculty practice. To effectively promote faculty practice, it is necessary to understand how and why one chooses a dental school faculty member as his or her oral health care provider. A survey of 1,150 dental school faculty practice patients who recently chose their dentist was conducted, and 221 responded. The information sources these respondents said they used and rated highly were other dentists, friends, family members, clinic website, the Internet, and the insurance directory. Dentist-related attributes that were perceived to be important were quality of care, professional competence of dentist, and explanation of treatment/patient participation in the treatment decision. Dental practice-related attributes perceived to be important were the ability to get appointments at convenient times, reasonable waiting time to get appointments, and attitude/helpfulness of staff. This study found that traditionally popular (family, friends) and newly emerging information sources (the Internet, clinic website, and insurance directory) were both used and perceived to be important by patients of the dental school faculty practice. Dental schools and dentists can use this study's findings to select appropriate communication channels to promote their practices and to focus on attributes that dental consumers value the most. PMID:22659697

  15. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles-especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  16. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles—especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  17. Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models for Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  18. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

    PubMed

    Grovenburg, Troy W; Monteith, Kevin L; Jacques, Christopher N; Klaver, Robert W; DePerno, Christopher S; Brinkman, Todd J; Monteith, Kyle B; Gilbert, Sophie L; Smith, Joshua B; Bleich, Vernon C; Swanson, Christopher C; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001-2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  19. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: Does model choice affect survival estimates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  20. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

    PubMed

    Grovenburg, Troy W; Monteith, Kevin L; Jacques, Christopher N; Klaver, Robert W; DePerno, Christopher S; Brinkman, Todd J; Monteith, Kyle B; Gilbert, Sophie L; Smith, Joshua B; Bleich, Vernon C; Swanson, Christopher C; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001-2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  1. Zebra mussels affect benthic predator foraging success and habitat choice on soft sediments.

    PubMed

    Beekey, M A; McCabe, D J; Marsden, J E

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of zebra mussels ( Dreissena spp.) to North America has resulted in dramatic changes to the complexity of benthic habitats. Changes in habitat complexity may have profound effects on predator-prey interactions in aquatic communities. Increased habitat complexity may affect prey and predator dynamics by reducing encounter rates and foraging success. Zebra mussels form thick contiguous colonies on both hard and soft substrates. While the colonization of substrata by zebra mussels has generally resulted in an increase in both the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities, it is not well known how these changes affect the foraging efficiencies of predators that prey on benthic invertebrates. We examined the effect of zebra mussels on the foraging success of four benthic predators with diverse prey-detection modalities that commonly forage in soft substrates: slimy sculpin ( Cottus cognatus), brown bullhead ( Ameirus nebulosus), log perch ( Percina caprodes), and crayfish ( Orconectes propinquus). We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the impact of zebra mussels on the foraging success of predators using a variety of prey species. We also examined habitat use by each predator over different time periods. Zebra mussel colonization of soft sediments significantly reduced the foraging efficiencies of all predators. However, the effect was dependent upon prey type. All four predators spent more time in zebra mussel habitat than in either gravel or bare sand. The overall effect of zebra mussels on benthic-feeding fishes is likely to involve a trade-off between the advantages of increased density of some prey types balanced against the reduction in foraging success resulting from potential refugia offered in the complex habitat created by zebra mussels.

  2. Factors Affecting Mercury and Selenium Levels-in New Jersey Flatfish: Low Risk to Human Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Shukla, Sheila; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some fish contain high levels of mercury (Hg), which could pose a risk to fish eaters themselves or their children. In making decisions about fish consumption, people must decide whether to eat fish, how much to eat, what species to eat, and what size fish to eat, as well as suitable (or unsuitable) locations, among other factors. Yet to make sound decisions, people need to know the levels of Hg in fish as a function of species, size, and location of capture. Levels of Hg and selenium (Se) were examined in three species of flatfish (fluke or summer flounder [Paralichthys dentatus], winter flounder [Pseudopleuronectes americanus], and windowpane [Scophthalmus aquosus]) from New Jersey as a function of species, fish size, season, and location. Flatfish were postulated to have low levels of Hg because they are low on the food chain and are bottom feeders, and data were generated to provide individuals with information on a species that might be safe to eat regularly. Although there were interspecific differences in Hg levels in the 3 species, total Hg levels averaged 0.18, 0.14, and 0.06 ppm (μg/g, wet weigh) in windowpane, fluke, and winter flounder, and selenium levels averaged 0.36, 0.35, and 0.25 ppm, respectively. For windowpane, 15% had Hg levels above 0.3 ppm, but no individual fish had Hg levels over 0.5 ppm. There were no significant seasonal differences in Hg levels, although Se was significantly higher in fluke in summer compared to spring. There were few geographical differences among New Jersey locations. Correlations between Hg and Se levels were low. Data, based on 464 fish samples, indicate that Hg levels are below various advisory levels and pose little risk to typical New Jersey fish consumers. A 70-kg person eating 1 meal (8 oz or 227 g) per week would not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 μg/kg body weight/d of methylmercury (MeHg). However, high-end fish eaters consuming several such meals per week may exceed

  3. Factors affecting choice of plant species for revegetation on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, M.R.; Cox, G.R.

    1983-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate three sites with vegetative communities whose dominant perennial grass species were Siberian wheatgrass-thickspike wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum-Agropyron dasytachyum), Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii), respectively. The principal objectives of the study were to determine the following: whether soil conditions influenced the establishment of these stands; the extent of these perennial grass species as members of the vegetation community on the Hanford Site prior to human influences, e.g., animal grazing, fire, construction, and excavation; and whether these perennial grasses could be established on other sites to be stabilized. The information obtained from this study has resulted in the following conclusions and recommendations: The depth of the soil to coarse sediments, the soil texture, and the percentage of gravel in the soil appear to affect the vegetation community on a site. It is recommended that Siberian, thickspike, and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) be utilized for revegetation purposes on deep fine-textured soils of low gravel content. It is recommended that for revegetation purposes on shallow, coarse-textured or high gravel content soils, Indian ricegrass, needle and thread grass (Stipa comata), Sandberg's bluegrass, and sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus) be utilized. Greater success in stabilization/revegetation programs will be achieved if deep, fine-textured soils are utilized.

  4. How does direct to consumer advertising affect the stigma of mental illness?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Fokuo, J Konadu; Park, Jin Hee

    2014-10-01

    Stigma interferes with life goals of people with mental illness. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) may impact stigmatizing attitudes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of psychiatric medication DTCA on the stigmatizing and affirming attitudes of the general population versus individuals self-identified with mental illness. Participants (n = 272) were randomly assigned to watch a DTCA about Cymbalta, an antidepressant, embedded in two other advertisements for non-pharmaceutical products. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and affirming attitudes before and after viewing this DTCA. Results indicate that the Cymbalta DTCA worsened the attitudes of the general public. These participants were less likely to offer help, endorse recovery, and agree with self-determination attitudes towards people with mental illness following viewing the DTCA. The self-identified group reported less blame, less dangerousness, less social avoidance, more pity, and greater willingness to help after viewing the DTCA. Moreover, there was significant improvement in their endorsement of recovery. Results suggest that DTCAs about psychiatric medication may increase the public's stigma towards people with mental illness but reduce stigma among individuals who identify as having a mental illness. Findings are somewhat limited by selection biases and self-report. Implications for further development of DTCAs are considered. PMID:24488184

  5. Evaluating consumer preferences for healthy eating from Community Kitchens in low-income urban areas: A discrete choice experiment of Comedores Populares in Peru.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families.

  6. Evaluating consumer preferences for healthy eating from Community Kitchens in low-income urban areas: A discrete choice experiment of Comedores Populares in Peru.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families. PMID:26184703

  7. Consumer Choice and Dempster-Shafer Models of Threat Prioritization for Emerging Dual-Use Technologies: Their Application to Synthetic Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Fecht, Barbara A.

    2009-03-01

    Identification and prioritization of risks to international security associated with emerging dual-use technologies presents numerous challenges. First, it demands prediction of the evolving states-of-the-art in various technological fields and, second, it requires a comprehension of the motivations and prospective selection criteria that illicit users might adopt in choosing among new technologies and their means of deployment. Nevertheless, the identification and prioritization of such threats is critical in establishing the appropriate focal points for proactive, nonproliferation policy-making. This paper addresses the question of how the threats associated with alternative means of deploying an emerging technology might be prioritized. The method revolves around systematic identification of the technological barriers to an illicit user in deploying a new technology. Evaluation of the resources necessary to overcome the barriers - such acquisition of the necessary intellectual capital and laboratory assets - then provides the basis for assessing the relative likelihoods or plausibilities of various deployment scenarios. Two optional bases are outlined for quantification of the model. One is a choice model that has found application in the analysis of consumer behavior, where the illicit user is modeled essentially as a consumer of new technology. The other employs a Dempster-Shafer framework for priority characterization. The paper describes application of the methodology to emerging life science technologies; in particular, to synthetic biology - the means of engineering biological systems. The prospect of a terrorist being able to synthesize natural pathogens or, perhaps worse still, to engineer pathogens not present in nature, creates an unprecedented threat to international security. Use of the proposed methodology to identify and prioritize threats associated with the engineering of pathogens is described.

  8. Monetary and affective judgments of consumer goods: modes of evaluation matter.

    PubMed

    Seta, John J; Seta, Catherine E; McCormick, Michael; Gallagher, Ashleigh H

    2014-01-01

    Participants who evaluated 2 positively valued items separately reported more positive attraction (using affective and monetary measures) than those who evaluated the same two items as a unit. In Experiments 1-3, this separate/unitary evaluation effect was obtained when participants evaluated products that they were purchasing for a friend. Similar findings were obtained in Experiments 4 and 5 when we considered the amount participants were willing to spend to purchase insurance for items that they currently owned. The averaging/summation model was contrasted with several theoretical perspectives and implicated averaging and summation integration processes in how items are evaluated. The procedural and theoretical similarities and differences between this work and related research on unpacking, comparison processes, public goods, and price bundling are discussed. Overall, the results support the operation of integration processes and contribute to an understanding of how these processes influence the evaluation and valuation of private goods.

  9. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  10. Indirect trophic interactions with an invasive species affect phenotypic divergence in a top consumer.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, P E; Eklöv, P; Svanbäck, R

    2013-05-01

    While phenotypic responses to direct species interactions are well studied, we know little about the consequences of indirect interactions for phenotypic divergence. In this study we used lakes with and without the zebra mussel to investigate effects of indirect trophic interactions on phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic perch. We found a greater phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic individuals in lakes with zebra mussels and propose a mussel-mediated increase in pelagic and benthic resource availability as a major factor underlying this divergence. Lakes with zebra mussels contained higher densities of large plankton taxa and large invertebrates. We suggest that this augmented resource availability improved perch foraging opportunities in both the littoral and pelagic zones. Perch in both habitats could hence express a more specialized foraging morphology, leading to an increased divergence of perch forms in lakes with zebra mussels. As perch do not prey on mussels directly, we conclude that the increased divergence results from indirect interactions with the mussels. Our results hence suggest that species at lower food web levels can indirectly affect phenotypic divergence in species at the top of the food chain. PMID:23463242

  11. Indirect trophic interactions with an invasive species affect phenotypic divergence in a top consumer.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, P E; Eklöv, P; Svanbäck, R

    2013-05-01

    While phenotypic responses to direct species interactions are well studied, we know little about the consequences of indirect interactions for phenotypic divergence. In this study we used lakes with and without the zebra mussel to investigate effects of indirect trophic interactions on phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic perch. We found a greater phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic individuals in lakes with zebra mussels and propose a mussel-mediated increase in pelagic and benthic resource availability as a major factor underlying this divergence. Lakes with zebra mussels contained higher densities of large plankton taxa and large invertebrates. We suggest that this augmented resource availability improved perch foraging opportunities in both the littoral and pelagic zones. Perch in both habitats could hence express a more specialized foraging morphology, leading to an increased divergence of perch forms in lakes with zebra mussels. As perch do not prey on mussels directly, we conclude that the increased divergence results from indirect interactions with the mussels. Our results hence suggest that species at lower food web levels can indirectly affect phenotypic divergence in species at the top of the food chain.

  12. Specialty preferences of 1st year medical students in a Saudi Medical School – Factors affecting these choices and the influence of gender

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Qureshi, Habib; Al Wadani, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in medicine as it affects student learning and academic performance. Various factors influence the specialty choices of medical students. Some specialties tend to attract students more than others. One possible consequence of this would be a mismatch between health needs and specialist numbers in the region. This study investigated the career preferences of 1st year medical students in a Saudi medical school and to assess factors affecting these choices. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out on the 1st year undergraduate students in the college of medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A total of 109 students (57 female and 52 males) responded to the questionnaire which was initially administered to all the students of the 1st year – A total of 120 students (response rate was 90.8%). A mixed method approach was used and qualitative data from open-ended questions were analyzed based on thematic analysis. Results: The top choices were general surgery, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Among female students; the top specialty choices were: General surgery (23%), pediatrics (18%), and dermatology (15%). Among the male students; the top choices were: General surgery (54%) and internal medicine (23%). Of the total, 57% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that primary aptitude was the main factor affecting the choice. Only 31% felt that there was a significant influence of role model, 48% felt that the advice of others – peers and family, would be a factor influencing their choices, and 53% agreed that specialty choice would influence their future learning patterns. Males were more likely to choose a specialty based on actual aptitude for the specialty, financial rewards, and scope for research; and this gender difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Surgery was the top-choice in both genders

  13. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  14. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  15. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love.

  16. Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) absolute irradiance measurements and how they are affected by choice of reference spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Seth R.; Judge, Darrell L.; Didkovsky, Leonid V.

    2011-10-01

    The SOHO/CELIAS Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar irradiance nearly continuously over a 15 year period that includes two solar cycle minima, 22/23 (1996) and 23/24 (2008). Calibration of the SEM flight instrument and verification of the data have been maintained through measurements from a series of sounding rocket calibration underflights that have included a NIST calibrated SEM clone instrument as well as a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute detector. From the beginning of SEM data collection in 1996, the SOLERS 22 fixed reference solar spectrum has been used to calculate absolute EUV flux values from SEM raw data. Specifically, the reference spectrum provides a set of weighting factors for determining a weighted average for the wavelength dependent SEM response. The spectrum is used for calculation of the second order contamination in the first order channel signals, and for the comparison between SEM flux measurements with broader-band absolute RGIC measurements. SOHO/SEM EUV flux measurements for different levels of solar activity will be presented to show how the choice of reference spectra now available affects these SEM data. Both fixed (i.e. SOLERS 22) and non-fixed (Solar Irradiance Platform/Solar 2000 and SDO/EVE/MEGS) reference spectra have been included in this analysis.

  17. Overweight/obesity is associated with food choices related to rice and beans, colors of salads, and portion size among consumers at a restaurant serving buffet-by-weight in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Alline Gouvea Martins; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its relationship with behavioral and food choice characteristics among consumers at a restaurant serving buffet-by-weight in the city of Florianopolis, southern Brazil, during lunch time. An analytical cross-sectional survey of 675 consumers aged 16-81 years was conducted. The measures included anthropometric, socio-demographic, and behavioral characteristics, as well as portion size and a photographic record of the plate chosen by the consumer. The results indicated a prevalence of overweight/obesity in the sample of 33.8%. Overall, after an adjustment for other variables (sex, age, schooling, marital status, and food choice variables), overweight/obesity was positively associated with not choosing rice and beans (PR=1.11) and larger portion sizes (PR=1.08 for a portion size of 347-462 g and PR=1.16 for a portion size of 463 g or more). Moreover, choosing 1-2 colors of salads showed a positive association when compared with choosing 3 or more colors of salads (PR=1.06). Efforts in helping consumers make healthier food choices when eating out and thereby possibly reduce weight gain should address those aspects along with socio-demographic factors.

  18. Dialogue: should any willing provider laws become a mandate for behavioral healthcare? Consumer and payors require customization and choice of network products.

    PubMed

    Trout, D L

    1995-01-01

    To reiterate, if managed behavioral health plans or delivery systems wish to offer products that include AWP, they should be able to do so. This is typical of indemnity and POS products. Conversely, if they wish to offer products with selective networks, they should be able to exercise this option also. If the principle of market choice in selection of a product can be allowed to operate, it will tell us what products are valued. The available evidence so far indicates that consumers (patients) are as satisfied or more satisfied with their treatment when it is delivered in a selective network (e.g., HMO) as when they are in an AWP network (e.g., fee for service). There is a great deal of change (and opportunity) for providers in managed behavioral healthcare today, not unlike transitions in other professions which have undergone significant changes (e.g., manufacturing, crafts, farming). The stresses that are creating greater efficiency, accountability and innovation in mental health and substance abuse service delivery are also causing provider anxiety and altered practice styles and lifestyles. While managed behavioral health plans and delivery systems need to be sensitive to these stresses within the provider community, it is not the responsibility of any organization to assure a group of workers that they will always be paid for doing what they did in the past, in the way they did it in the past. Given the pace of our growing knowledge about behavioral healthcare, that would be an irresponsible objective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Increasing Task Engagement Using Preference or Choice-Making: Some Behavioral and Methodological Factors Affecting Their Efficacy as Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent reprimands, low expectations, and infrequent praise characterize the daily school experiences of many students who display problem behaviors. This review evaluates preference and choice-making as possible interventions for improving these school experiences. Findings from 15 studies suggest that preference and choice-making may improve…

  20. Impact of Stress and Mitigating Information on Evaluations, Attributions, Affect, Disciplinary Choices, and Expectations of Compliance in Mothers at High and Low Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; Asla, Nagore; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; De Cadiz, Barbara Torres-Gomez

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to know if high-risk mothers for child physical abuse differ in their evaluations, attributions, negative affect, disciplinary choices for children's behavior, and expectations of compliance. The effect of a stressor and the introduction of mitigating information are analyzed. Forty-seven high-risk and 48 matched low-risk mothers…

  1. Does Mental Illness Affect Consumer Direction of Community-Based Care? Lessons from the Arkansas Cash and Counseling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ce; Smyer, Michael A.; Mahoney, Kevin J.; Loughlin, Dawn M.; Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Mahoney, Ellen K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research from the Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation (CCDE) in Arkansas, New Jersey, and Florida suggests that giving consumers control over their personal care greatly increases their satisfaction and improves their outlook on life. Still, some argue that consumer-directed care may not be appropriate for consumers…

  2. Review of "Promising Start: An Empirical Analysis of How EdChoice Vouchers Affect Ohio Public Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A Friedman Foundation report attempts to find empirical support for the contention that competition from private schools, through voucher programs, improves the effectiveness of public schools. In the first year of Ohio's new EdChoice voucher program, the report claims to have found substantial academic gains at public schools exposed to the…

  3. Recall of vegetable eating affects future predicted enjoyment and choice of vegetables in British University undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    Predictions about enjoyment of future experiences are influenced by recalling similar past experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between hedonic memories of past eating episodes and future eating behavior. We investigated recall of previous experiences of eating vegetables and the effect of recall on future predicted liking for and consumption of vegetables. British University undergraduate students were asked to retrieve memories of previous occasions when they ate vegetables and were asked to rate how enjoyable those experiences were (Study 1, n=54). The effect of different types of memory recall (including vegetable eating recall) and visualization of someone else eating vegetables (to control for priming effects) on predicted likelihood of choosing vegetables and predicted enjoyment of eating vegetables was examined (Study 2, n=95). Finally, the effect of recalling vegetable eating memories on actual food choice from a buffet was assessed (Study 3, n=63). It is reported that people recall positive memories of past vegetable consumption (P<0.05) and that reminding people of these experiences results in higher predicted future liking for vegetables (P<0.05) and choice of a larger portion size of vegetables (P<0.05) compared with recall of a personal nonfood memory, a nonvegetable food memory, or visualization of someone else enjoying eating vegetables (increase of approximately 70% in vegetable portion size compared to controls). The results suggest that recall of previous eating experiences could be a potential strategy for altering food choices.

  4. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  5. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  6. Oregon's Food Pyramid Choice Menus: Do Lunches as Offered to, and Selected, and Consumed by Third Graders Meet Current USDA Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    Oregon's Food Pyramid Choice Menus (FPCM) require that participating elementary schools offer three to seven entrees, at least two types of milk, and six to ten fruits and vegetables, as well as three or more types of grain products in a variety bar daily. The study discussed in this report was designed to answer two questions: (1) do the menus,…

  7. Determinants of Coverage Decisions in Health Insurance Marketplaces: Consumers' Decision-Making Abilities and the Amount of Information in Their Choice Environment

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rice, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinants and quality of coverage decisions among uninsured choosing plans in a hypothetical health insurance marketplace. Study Setting Two samples of uninsured individuals: one from an Internet-based sample comprised largely of young, healthy, tech-savvy individuals (n = 276), and the other from low-income, rural Virginians (n = 161). Study Design We assessed whether health insurance comprehension, numeracy, choice consistency, and the number of plan choices were associated with participants' ability to choose a cost-minimizing plan, given their expected health care needs (defined as choosing a plan costing no more than $500 in excess of the total estimated annual costs of the cheapest plan available). Data Collection Primary data were collected using an online questionnaire. Principal Findings Uninsured who were more numerate showed higher health insurance comprehension; those with more health insurance comprehension made choices of health insurance plans more consistent with their stated preferences; and those who made choices more concordant with their stated preferences were less likely to choose a plan that cost more than $500 in excess of the cheapest plan available. Conclusions Increasing health insurance comprehension and designing exchanges to facilitate plan comparison will be critical to ensuring the success of health insurance marketplaces. PMID:24779769

  8. REACH-SCALE GEOMORPHOLOGY AFFECTS ORGANIC MATTER AND CONSUMER Ä 13C IN A FORESTED PIEDMONT STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated seasonal (spring, autumn) and spatial variation of stream organic matter and consumer δ 13C in a Piedmont stream. Sites were sampled along a continuum and fit into two geomorphic categories: high-gradient, rock-bed ("rock") or low-gradient, sand-bed...

  9. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    PubMed

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. PMID:26661685

  10. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    PubMed

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given.

  11. Choice--Chance--Control. That's Life. Learning about Insurance through Secondary School Courses. Insurance Basics for Everyone; Social Sciences; Mathematics; Consumer Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insurance Education Foundation, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide, which is designed for use with secondary school students, contains four units of activities that teach the fundamentals of insurance within the context of a broad range of subjects, including social sciences, history, civics, government, mathematics, consumer economics, business, economics, life skills, family management, home…

  12. Social modeling of eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.

    PubMed

    Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

    2015-03-01

    A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

  13. Consumer perceptions of pork eating quality as affected by pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S J; Miller, R K; Edwards, K K; Zerby, H N; Logan, K E; Aldredge, T L; Stahl, C A; Boggess, M; Box-Steffensmeier, J M

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the interactive and individual effects of fresh pork loin (n=679) ultimate pH (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), and four cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on consumer (n=2280) perception of eating quality (n=13,265 observations). Data were analyzed using ordered logistical regression. Predicted mean responses were consistently near or under five on the 1-8-point end-anchored scale, indicating a neutral perception of pork eating quality regardless of fresh quality or cooked temperature. Responses improved as IMF and pH increased and WBS decreased, whereas L* did not contribute significantly to variation in responses. Increasing IMF resulted in a very small incremental improvement in responses, but was of practical size only when comparing the least (1%) to the greatest (6%) levels. Loin pH and WBS were primary contributors to consumer perceptions, whereby an incremental increase in pH (0.20 unit) and decrease in WBS (4.9 N) resulted in a 4-5% reduction in the proportion of consumers rating pork as >or= 6 (favorable) on the 8-point scale. No interactions between quality and temperature effects were observed. Increased cooked temperature was negatively (P<0.05) associated with Overall-Like and Tenderness ratings, but the incremental effect was small. Juiciness-Like and Level responses decreased by 0.50 units as temperature increased across the range. Consumer responses favor pork with lower WBS, greater pH and IMF, and pork cooked to a lower temperature.

  14. Consumer perceptions of pork eating quality as affected by pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S J; Miller, R K; Edwards, K K; Zerby, H N; Logan, K E; Aldredge, T L; Stahl, C A; Boggess, M; Box-Steffensmeier, J M

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the interactive and individual effects of fresh pork loin (n=679) ultimate pH (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), and four cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on consumer (n=2280) perception of eating quality (n=13,265 observations). Data were analyzed using ordered logistical regression. Predicted mean responses were consistently near or under five on the 1-8-point end-anchored scale, indicating a neutral perception of pork eating quality regardless of fresh quality or cooked temperature. Responses improved as IMF and pH increased and WBS decreased, whereas L* did not contribute significantly to variation in responses. Increasing IMF resulted in a very small incremental improvement in responses, but was of practical size only when comparing the least (1%) to the greatest (6%) levels. Loin pH and WBS were primary contributors to consumer perceptions, whereby an incremental increase in pH (0.20 unit) and decrease in WBS (4.9 N) resulted in a 4-5% reduction in the proportion of consumers rating pork as >or= 6 (favorable) on the 8-point scale. No interactions between quality and temperature effects were observed. Increased cooked temperature was negatively (P<0.05) associated with Overall-Like and Tenderness ratings, but the incremental effect was small. Juiciness-Like and Level responses decreased by 0.50 units as temperature increased across the range. Consumer responses favor pork with lower WBS, greater pH and IMF, and pork cooked to a lower temperature. PMID:20374749

  15. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  16. Factors affecting the therapeutic choice in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. The Studio Lombardo Angiografia Multivasali (SLAM) Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    De Servi, S.; Galli, S.; Onofri, M.; Boschetti, E.; Oberti, R.; Niccoli, L.; De Biase, A. M.; Rovelli, G.; Carini, M.; Regalia, F.; Valentini, P.; Bartorelli, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess how clinical and angiographic findings are related to the decision to carry out coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary bypass grafting in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Prospective survey carried out in 14 centres in the Lombardia region of Italy. PATIENTS: 1468 consecutive patients under going coronary arteriography for known or suspected ischaemic heart disease between May and October 1994, who were found to have multivessel coronary artery disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariate analysis was undertaken using stepwise logistic regression to identify the clinical and angiographic variables correlated with revascularisation (v medical treatment) in all of patients, and with surgery (v angioplasty) in the subset of revascularised patients. RESULTS: In all patients the clinical decision after coronary arteriography was made by physicians of each participating centre on the basis of their experience and clinical judgment: 53% of patients had bypass surgery, 28% had PTCA, and 19% continued medical treatment. The choice of a revascularisation procedure was directly related to a clinical diagnosis of unstable angina (P < < 0.001), the presence of left anterior descending artery disease (P < < 0.001), and to an ejection fraction > or = 40% (P < < 0.001), and inversely related to history of previous coronary bypass surgery (P < < 0.001). In revascularised patients, bypass surgery was the preferred treatment in patients with left anterior descending artery disease (P < < 0.001), three-vessel disease (P < < 0.001), and in those with at least one occluded vessel (P = 0.008). The choice of PTCA was significantly related to history of previous PTCA (P < < 0.001) or coronary bypass surgery (P < < 0.001), to a clinical diagnosis of non-Q wave myocardial infarction (P = 0.002), and to the possibility of implanting an intracoronary stent (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Bypass surgery is still the most widely used treatment for

  17. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  18. Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

  19. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on How Vouchers Affect Public Schools. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available empirical studies on how vouchers affect academic achievement in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers hurt public schools, it finds that the empirical evidence consistently supports the conclusion that vouchers improve public schools. No empirical study has ever found that…

  20. Applying Health Locus of Control and Latent Class Modelling to food and physical activity choices affecting CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Health Locus of Control (HLC) classifies our beliefs about the connection between our actions and health outcomes (Skinner, 1996) into three categories: "internal control", corresponding to health being the result of an individual's effort and habits; "control by powerful others", whereby health depends on others, such as doctors; and "chance control", according to which health depends on fate and chance. Using Choice Experiments we investigate the relationship between HLC and willingness to change lifestyle, in terms of eating habits, physical activity and associated cardiovascular disease risk, in a 384 person sample representative of the 40-65 aged population of Northern Ireland administered between February and July 2011. Using latent class analysis we identify three discrete classes of people based on their HLC: the first class is sceptical about their capacity to control their health and certain unhealthy habits. Despite being unsatisfied with their situation, they are reluctant to accept behaviour changes. The second is a group of individuals unhappy with their current situation but willing to change through exercise and diet. Finally, a group of healthy optimists is identified, who are satisfied with their current situation but happy to take more physical activity and improve their diet. Our findings show that any policy designed to modify people's health related behaviour should consider the needs of this sceptical class which represents a considerable proportion of the population in the region.

  1. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Karl E.; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hetherington, Marion M.; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and for bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on: (1) increased use of public-private partnerships; (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered; and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  2. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies.

  3. Effects of affective arousal on choice behavior, reward prediction errors, and feedback-related negativities in human reward-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ming H; Hsu, Yung-Fong; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Emotional experience has a pervasive impact on choice behavior, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Introducing facial-expression primes into a probabilistic learning task, we investigated how affective arousal regulates reward-related choice based on behavioral, model fitting, and feedback-related negativity (FRN) data. Sixty-six paid subjects were randomly assigned to the Neutral-Neutral (NN), Angry-Neutral (AN), and Happy-Neutral (HN) groups. A total of 960 trials were conducted. Subjects in each group were randomly exposed to half trials of the pre-determined emotional faces and another half of the neutral faces before choosing between two cards drawn from two decks with different assigned reward probabilities. Trial-by-trial data were fit with a standard reinforcement learning model using the Bayesian estimation approach. The temporal dynamics of brain activity were simultaneously recorded and analyzed using event-related potentials. Our analyses revealed that subjects in the NN group gained more reward values than those in the other two groups; they also exhibited comparatively differential estimated model-parameter values for reward prediction errors. Computing the difference wave of FRNs in reward vs. non-reward trials, we found that, compared to the NN group, subjects in the AN and HN groups had larger "General" FRNs (i.e., FRNs in no-reward trials minus FRNs in reward trials) and "Expected" FRNs (i.e., FRNs in expected reward-omission trials minus FRNs in expected reward-delivery trials), indicating an interruption in predicting reward. Further, both AN and HN groups appeared to be more sensitive to negative outcomes than the NN group. Collectively, our study suggests that affective arousal negatively regulates reward-related choice, probably through overweighting with negative feedback.

  4. Effects of affective arousal on choice behavior, reward prediction errors, and feedback-related negativities in human reward-based decision making

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ming H.; Hsu, Yung-Fong; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Emotional experience has a pervasive impact on choice behavior, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Introducing facial-expression primes into a probabilistic learning task, we investigated how affective arousal regulates reward-related choice based on behavioral, model fitting, and feedback-related negativity (FRN) data. Sixty-six paid subjects were randomly assigned to the Neutral-Neutral (NN), Angry-Neutral (AN), and Happy-Neutral (HN) groups. A total of 960 trials were conducted. Subjects in each group were randomly exposed to half trials of the pre-determined emotional faces and another half of the neutral faces before choosing between two cards drawn from two decks with different assigned reward probabilities. Trial-by-trial data were fit with a standard reinforcement learning model using the Bayesian estimation approach. The temporal dynamics of brain activity were simultaneously recorded and analyzed using event-related potentials. Our analyses revealed that subjects in the NN group gained more reward values than those in the other two groups; they also exhibited comparatively differential estimated model-parameter values for reward prediction errors. Computing the difference wave of FRNs in reward vs. non-reward trials, we found that, compared to the NN group, subjects in the AN and HN groups had larger “General” FRNs (i.e., FRNs in no-reward trials minus FRNs in reward trials) and “Expected” FRNs (i.e., FRNs in expected reward-omission trials minus FRNs in expected reward-delivery trials), indicating an interruption in predicting reward. Further, both AN and HN groups appeared to be more sensitive to negative outcomes than the NN group. Collectively, our study suggests that affective arousal negatively regulates reward-related choice, probably through overweighting with negative feedback. PMID:26042057

  5. Consumer Education for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This experimental course of study for high school students was designed to prepare teenage consumers to understand the choice of products and services offered in the marketplace and to make their choices wisely. Billions of dollars annually are spent by teenagers on merchandise and services. The need for a course in consumer education is so…

  6. An analysis on how switching to a more balanced and naturally improved milk would affect consumer health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Roibás, Laura; Martínez, Ismael; Goris, Alfonso; Barreiro, Rocío; Hospido, Almudena

    2016-10-01

    This study compares a premium brand of UHT milk, Unicla, characterised by an improved nutritional composition, to conventional milk, in terms of health effects and environmental impacts. Unlike enriched milks, in which nutrients are added to the final product, Unicla is obtained naturally by improving the diet of the dairy cows. Health effects have been analysed based on literature findings, while the environmental analysis focused on those spheres of the environment where milk is expected to cause the higher impacts, and thus carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) have been determined. Five final products have been compared: 3 conventional (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole) and 2 Unicla (skimmed, semi-skimmed) milks. As a functional unit, one litre of packaged UHT milk entering the regional distribution centre has been chosen. The improved composition of Unicla milk is expected to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and to protect consumers against oxidative damage, among other health benefits. Concerning the environmental aspect, CF of Unicla products are, on average, 10% lower than their conventional equivalents, mainly due to the lower enteric emissions of caused by the Unicla diet. No significant differences were found between the WF of Unicla and conventional milk. Raw milk is the main contributor to both footprints (on average, 83.2 and 84.3% of the total CF of Unicla and conventional milk, respectively, and 99.9% of WF). The results have been compared to those found in literature, and a sensitivity analysis has been performed to verify their robustness. The study concludes that switching to healthier milk compositions can help slowing down global warming, without contributing to other environmental issues such as water scarcity. The results should encourage other milk companies to commit to the development of healthier, less environmentally damaging products, and also to stimulate consumers to bet on them. PMID:27239712

  7. An analysis on how switching to a more balanced and naturally improved milk would affect consumer health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Roibás, Laura; Martínez, Ismael; Goris, Alfonso; Barreiro, Rocío; Hospido, Almudena

    2016-10-01

    This study compares a premium brand of UHT milk, Unicla, characterised by an improved nutritional composition, to conventional milk, in terms of health effects and environmental impacts. Unlike enriched milks, in which nutrients are added to the final product, Unicla is obtained naturally by improving the diet of the dairy cows. Health effects have been analysed based on literature findings, while the environmental analysis focused on those spheres of the environment where milk is expected to cause the higher impacts, and thus carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) have been determined. Five final products have been compared: 3 conventional (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole) and 2 Unicla (skimmed, semi-skimmed) milks. As a functional unit, one litre of packaged UHT milk entering the regional distribution centre has been chosen. The improved composition of Unicla milk is expected to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and to protect consumers against oxidative damage, among other health benefits. Concerning the environmental aspect, CF of Unicla products are, on average, 10% lower than their conventional equivalents, mainly due to the lower enteric emissions of caused by the Unicla diet. No significant differences were found between the WF of Unicla and conventional milk. Raw milk is the main contributor to both footprints (on average, 83.2 and 84.3% of the total CF of Unicla and conventional milk, respectively, and 99.9% of WF). The results have been compared to those found in literature, and a sensitivity analysis has been performed to verify their robustness. The study concludes that switching to healthier milk compositions can help slowing down global warming, without contributing to other environmental issues such as water scarcity. The results should encourage other milk companies to commit to the development of healthier, less environmentally damaging products, and also to stimulate consumers to bet on them.

  8. Impact of stress and mitigating information on evaluations, attributions, affect, disciplinary choices, and expectations of compliance in mothers at high and low risk for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    De Paúl, Joaquín; Asla, Nagore; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia; de Cádiz, Bárbara Torres-Gómez

    2006-08-01

    The objective is to know if high-risk mothers for child physical abuse differ in their evaluations, attributions, negative affect, disciplinary choices for children's behavior, and expectations of compliance. The effect of a stressor and the introduction of mitigating information are analyzed. Forty-seven high-risk and 48 matched low-risk mothers participated in the study. Mothers' information processing and disciplinary choices were examined using six vignettes depicting a child engaging in different transgressions. A four-factor design with repeated measures on the last two factors was used. High-risk mothers reported more hostile intent, global and internal attributions, more use of power assertion discipline, and less induction. A risk group by child transgression interaction and a risk group by mitigating information interaction were found. Results support the social information-processing model of child physical abuse, which suggests that high-risk mothers process child-related information differently and use more power assertive and less inductive disciplinary techniques.

  9. [Peculiarity of consumer preference shaping in pharmaceutical market in azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Mansurova, L

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical market researches in terms of consumer behavior are topical in current social-economical conditions. Thereby the goal of these researches is studying of particular properties of consumer behavior on the drug market and identifying of factors affect on its formation. The method of questioning was used. The questionnaire has been completed from the point of view of possibilities and interests of common consumer. One part of questions was concerned to demographical and personal characteristics of customers. For the analysis of consumer behavior have been used parameters such as frequency of visits to definite pharmacy, attraction of pharmacy, types of purchases. The survey had been determined the basic factors of pharmacy visitors' consumer behavior. According to the consumers opinion the main criteria of choice of pharmacy were professional knowledge and experience of pharmacy's workers. Some of economical factors, such as affordability and etc. have been analyzed.

  10. [Peculiarity of consumer preference shaping in pharmaceutical market in azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Mansurova, L

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical market researches in terms of consumer behavior are topical in current social-economical conditions. Thereby the goal of these researches is studying of particular properties of consumer behavior on the drug market and identifying of factors affect on its formation. The method of questioning was used. The questionnaire has been completed from the point of view of possibilities and interests of common consumer. One part of questions was concerned to demographical and personal characteristics of customers. For the analysis of consumer behavior have been used parameters such as frequency of visits to definite pharmacy, attraction of pharmacy, types of purchases. The survey had been determined the basic factors of pharmacy visitors' consumer behavior. According to the consumers opinion the main criteria of choice of pharmacy were professional knowledge and experience of pharmacy's workers. Some of economical factors, such as affordability and etc. have been analyzed. PMID:21346269

  11. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  12. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  13. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  14. Prospects of Brand Choice Behavior Research from Cognitive Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Lin, Lin

    The article reviews relevant literature at home and abroad on consumer brand choice behavior and summarizes the study evolution of consumer brand choice behavior, and puts forward view on relevant research prospects from cognitive perspective in this field.

  15. The Choice for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  16. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  17. Inhibition of GABA synthesis in the prefrontal cortex increases locomotor activity but does not affect attention in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Asinof, Samuel K; Paine, Tracie A

    2013-02-01

    Attention deficits are a core cognitive symptom of schizophrenia; the neuropathology underlying these deficits is not known. Attention is regulated, at least in part, by the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain area in which pathology of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons has been consistently observed in post-mortem analysis of the brains of people with schizophrenia. Specifically, expression of the 67-kD isoform of the GABA synthesis enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is reduced in parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking GABA interneurons. Thus it is hypothesized that reduced cortical GABA synthesis and release may contribute to the attention deficits in schizophrenia. Here the effect of reducing cortical GABA synthesis with l-allylglycine (LAG) on attention was tested using three different versions of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). Because 5CSRTT performance can be affected by locomotor activity, we also measured this behavior in an open field. Finally, the expression of Fos protein was used as an indirect measure of reduced GABA synthesis. Intra-cortical LAG (10 μg/0.5 μl/side) infusions increased Fos expression and resulted in hyperactivity in the open field. Intra-cortical LAG infusions did not affect attention in any version of the 5CSRTT. These results suggest that a general decrease in GABA synthesis is not sufficient to cause attention deficits. It remains to be tested whether a selective decrease in GABA synthesis in parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons could cause attention deficits. Decreased cortical GABA synthesis did increase locomotor activity; this may reflect the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

  18. How does direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) affect prescribing? A survey in primary care environments with and without legal DTCA

    PubMed Central

    Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris L.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Bassett, Ken; Lexchin, Joel; Kazanjian, Arminée; Evans, Robert G.; Pan, Richard; Marion, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has increased rapidly in the United States during the last decade, yet little is known about its effects on prescribing decisions in primary care. We compared prescribing decisions in a US setting with legal DTCA and a Canadian setting where DTCA of prescription drugs is illegal, but some cross-border exposure occurs. Methods We recruited primary care physicians working in Sacramento, California, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and their group practice partners to participate in the study. On pre- selected days, patients aged 18 years or more completed a questionnaire before seeing their physician. We asked these patients' physicians to complete a brief questionnaire immediately following the selected patient visit. By pairing individual patient and physician responses, we determined how many patients had been exposed to some form of DTCA, the frequency of patients' requests for prescriptions for advertised medicines and the frequency of prescriptions that were stimulated by the patients' requests. We measured physicians' confidence in treatment choice for each new prescription by asking them whether they would prescribe this drug to a patient with the same condition. Results Seventy-eight physicians (Sacramento n = 38, Vancouver n = 40) and 1431 adult patients (Sacramento n = 683, Vancouver n = 748), or 61% of patients who consulted participating physicians on pre-set days, participated in the survey. Exposure to DTCA was higher in Sacramento, although 87.4% of Vancouver patients had seen prescription drug advertisements. Of the Sacramento patients, 7.2% requested advertised drugs as opposed to 3.3% in Vancouver (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.1). Patients with higher self- reported exposure to advertising, conditions that were potentially treatable by advertised drugs, and/or greater reliance on advertising requested more advertised medicines. Physicians fulfilled

  19. Factors Affecting Consumers' Green Commuting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai, Chen; Haokai, Liang

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese air pollution and other environmental problems were paid much attention by the public, appeals about reducing private car use and adopting public transport had come into being. In view of this context, the current study extended the theory of planned behavior by including environmental concerns to explore the effect of subjective…

  20. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-08-01

    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles. PMID:26585634

  1. Consumer Choice in Online Video Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2013-11-12

    11/12/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S7954-7961) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2013-03-13

    02/26/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.517, which became Public Law 113-144 on 8/1/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Consumer Education Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I.

    This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the process of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or…

  4. School Choice as a Bounded Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Sigal R.

    2009-01-01

    School choice is most often viewed through the lens of provision: most of the debate on the issue searches for desirable ways to offer vouchers, scholarships or other tools that provides choice as a way to achieve equality and/or freedom. This paper focuses on the consumer side of school choice, and utilises behavioural economics as well as…

  5. "When I Grow up I Would Like to Be …": Factors Affecting Career Choice of Community Disability Workers in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Sarah; Kahonde, Callista; Lorenzo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of community based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes depends on the calibre of staff recruited and employed. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the life experiences of community disability workers (CDWs) in Malawi, Botswana and South Africa influenced their choice of career. A life history approach was used to gather…

  6. Alternative-Specific and Case-Specific Factors Involved in the Decisions of Islamic School Teachers Affecting Teacher Retention: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Hafez, Alaa Karem

    2015-01-01

    Teacher retention is a concern in all educational sectors in America. It is of special importance to Islamic schools, which tend to lack the resources necessary in recruiting and training new teachers. This dissertation addressed this problem in full-time Islamic schools in New York State by conducting a discrete choice experiment, which reflects…

  7. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  8. Consumer Education: A Teaching-Learning Unit on the Rights and Responsibilities of all Consumers and Special Problems of Elderly Consumers, Poor Consumers, Handicapped Consumers, Non-English Speaking Consumers and Nonreaders, Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville.

    To help high school students understand the role of consumers in the everyday world, the teaching guide presents objectives and activities related to seven consumer topics. Topics are rights and responsibilities of all consumers, common transportation concerns of consumers with special problems, and problems which particularly affect consumers who…

  9. Consumer acceptance of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, A; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2009-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a new and promising development in nutritional science which aims to understand the fundamental molecular processes affected by foods. Despite general agreement on its promise for better understanding diet-health relationships, less consensus exists among experts on the potential of spin-offs aimed at the consumer such as personalised nutrition. Research into consumer acceptance of such applications is scarce. The present study develops a set of key hypotheses on public acceptance of personalised nutrition and tests these in a representative sample of Dutch consumers. An innovative consumer research methodology is used in which consumers evaluate short films which are systematically varied scenarios for the future of personalised nutrition. Consumer evaluations of these films, which are pre-tested in a pilot study, allow a formal test of how consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition drive consumer acceptance and through which fundamental psychological processes these effects are mediated. Public acceptance is enhanced if consumers can make their genetic profile available free at their own choice, if the actual spin-off products provide a clearly recognisable advantage to the consumer, and are easy to implement into the daily routine. Consumers prefer communication on nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition by expert stakeholders to be univocal and aimed at building support with consumers and their direct environments for this intriguing new development. Additionally, an exploratory segmentation analysis indicated that people have different focal points in their preferences for alternative scenarios of personalised nutrition. The insights obtained from the present study provide guidance for the successful further development of nutrigenomics and its applications.

  10. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  11. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies. PMID:19447521

  12. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk.

  13. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. PMID:23706490

  14. Potential Economic Benefits of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Allen R.; And Others

    A study explored the potential economic impacts of a large and successful national program of consumer education. Following a literature review, a qualitative analysis was performed on a wide range of topics. The topics pertained to information and the process of consumer choice, the role of advertising, consumer sovereignty and the supply system,…

  15. Impact of Advertising: Implications for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Zena; And Others

    This report reviews and analyzes the effects advertising has on consumer choice, national values, and life styles. It is intended to aid consumer educators and others in related fields. The report's focus is on two central issues: consumer sovereignty and patterns of personal, industrial, and national resource allocation. The first of four…

  16. Choice Plans: A Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heleen, Owen

    1992-01-01

    Choice plans include private schools (voucher plans, tax credits and deductions, and contract services and charter plans) and public schools (intradistrict choice, interdistrict choice, and statewide choice). Issues spanning both areas are those of curricular choice and residential choice. (SLD)

  17. Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program. Final Report 1: How Consumer Characteristics Affect Access to, Receipt of, and Outcomes of VR Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Becky J.; Schmidt-Davis, Holly

    This report is the first in a series of four final reports that present the findings of the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Services Program. Initiated in fall 1992, the study has tracked VR participation and post-VR experiences of applicants to and consumers of VR services (n=8,500) for up to 3 years following exit from…

  18. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  19. The perception of food quality. Profiling Italian consumers.

    PubMed

    Mascarello, Giulia; Pinto, Anna; Parise, Nicoletta; Crovato, Stefania; Ravarotto, Licia

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to analyse the elements which, according to Italian consumers, contribute most to defining the quality of a food product. A sample of 1000 consumers, in charge of purchases for the household, was interviewed by telephone. The data analysis has made it possible to categorise Italian consumers into two main groups: on the one hand those who mainly use criteria associated with organoleptic elements, and, on the other, those who make their choice based on place and methods of production. Both categories were studied with a view to identifying their distinctive socio-demographic and behavioural features. Geographical provenance, age, propensity to read the label on products, scientific knowledge and self-assessment of knowledge on food safety-related issues emerged as the main differences between the two groups. The perception of quality appears to affect purchase decisions and dietary patterns. The description of the consumer groups who use the same elements to define quality provided a useful insight into consumer choices and potential risk-exposure behaviours. The study of these aspects is therefore relevant for the purpose of designing effective and targeted communication actions, not only for companies but also for public institutions in charge of safeguarding public health. PMID:25681654

  20. The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanning; Wu, Junqing; Li, Yuyan; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Honglei; Li, Yi-Ran; Han, Ying; Tong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells) of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230) among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001). Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year), purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions. PMID:27783059

  1. What influences seniors’ choice of medications for osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Kelly Nicol; Frail, Dawn; Twohig, Peter L.; Putnam, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore with seniors what influences their choice of medication for osteoarthritis. DESIGN Qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING Interviews were conducted in patients’ homes in two cities in Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS Seniors with a physician-confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis. METHOD Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach was used. Key words and phrases were identified independently by all members of the research team who then collectively grouped the data into conceptual categories. MAIN FINDINGS Four themes emerged from discussions about medication choices: the role of family physicians in influencing use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, the effect of fear of making medication choices, the reasons for discontinuing cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and views on other information sources. Distribution of free samples, family physicians’ recommendations, and fear of side effects influenced seniors’ choices of osteoarthritis medications. They claimed not to be influenced by direct-to-consumer advertising or the fact that cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are more expensive than other classes of drugs for osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION Because seniors’ choice of medications for osteoarthritis is often influenced by physicians’ recommendations and distribution of free samples, further research into how distribution of free samples affects medication choices in family practice is needed. PMID:16926961

  2. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population's beverage choices?

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest.

  3. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population's beverage choices?

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest. PMID:24431477

  4. Choice Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Darcy

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author allows the children to make choices about their art and writing, enabling them to make connections between their own lives and work. Suggests that educators need to provide doorways to the things that give students ideas: books, music, objects, pictures, smells, sounds, and textures. (SG)

  5. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of (210)Po and (210)Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant.

    PubMed

    Aoun, M; El Samad, O; Bou Khozam, R; Lobinski, R

    2015-02-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to (210)Po and (210)Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of (210)Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while (210)Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to (210)Po and (210)Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated.

  6. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of (210)Po and (210)Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant.

    PubMed

    Aoun, M; El Samad, O; Bou Khozam, R; Lobinski, R

    2015-02-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to (210)Po and (210)Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of (210)Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while (210)Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to (210)Po and (210)Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated. PMID:25461512

  7. Exploring the effects of the atherosclerosis progression and the choice of affected arteries in the design of experiments with Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Riera-Borrull, Marta; Sabench, Fàtima; del Castillo, Daniel; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the longitudinal progression of atherosclerosis and the correlation between methods to measure the lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Atherosclerosis progression was assessed by measurements of foam cell-rich depositions in their proximal aortas, and/or in surgically excised arteries, to assess the histological luminal narrowing. A longitudinal study was performed by comparing the values for carotid, aorta, and femoral and iliac arteries using common histological techniques. There were no significant differences in progression between different arteries, but correlation with the classical measurement of atherosclerosis in the aortic root was poor. Each laboratory requires specific standardization. Carotid arteries were sensitive to atherosclerosis in these mice, and progression was exponential. In conclusion, morphometric data show the importance of the choice of the duration of treatment, the appropriate controls, and the age at which to begin the experiments. PMID:26899621

  8. Exploring the effects of the atherosclerosis progression and the choice of affected arteries in the design of experiments with Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Riera-Borrull, Marta; Sabench, Fàtima; del Castillo, Daniel; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the longitudinal progression of atherosclerosis and the correlation between methods to measure the lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Atherosclerosis progression was assessed by measurements of foam cell-rich depositions in their proximal aortas, and/or in surgically excised arteries, to assess the histological luminal narrowing. A longitudinal study was performed by comparing the values for carotid, aorta, and femoral and iliac arteries using common histological techniques. There were no significant differences in progression between different arteries, but correlation with the classical measurement of atherosclerosis in the aortic root was poor. Each laboratory requires specific standardization. Carotid arteries were sensitive to atherosclerosis in these mice, and progression was exponential. In conclusion, morphometric data show the importance of the choice of the duration of treatment, the appropriate controls, and the age at which to begin the experiments.

  9. Marriage Enrichment through Choice Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Friest, Wendell P.

    1980-01-01

    Choice Awareness is a cognitive-affective-behavioral system that goes beyond both communication training and behavioral bartering approaches to marriage enrichment. Couples explore thoughts, feelings, and actions in their relationships and develop personal power in making choices and in taking responsibility for their own lives. (Author)

  10. Consumables data base workbook: Formulation of consumables management models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamora, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Activity consumables data specifications and data applications are presented. The data are structured in a series of "Consumable Data Worksheets" for each activity that includes a profile of its operations and the rate of each consumable required to support the given activity. The data worksheets provide for the uniform specification of consumables data, allows for the ready identification of the consumables affected by a given activity, and facilitates the updating process. An activity is defined and the data that must be included in the data worksheets are specified. An example of its use and application is given, i.e. consumables data requirements for the performance of the EVA. The consumables data for the activities currently identified for the shuttle spacecraft are included. The consumables data sources are identified and information to facilitate the maintenance process is detailed.

  11. The role of consumers.

    PubMed

    Raats, Monique M

    2010-01-01

    It is particularly important that in areas of strategic public health significance, e.g. infant feeding, the processes used to extract robust scientific findings are timely, rigorous and transparent. Low rates of breastfeeding, poor weaning practices and variability within and between countries have been reported by many authors and resulted in a call for more consistency of recommendations across regions. The adoption of consumer behaviors in line with recommendations is of course not guaranteed. The consumers in this instance are both the infant and their mother or other carers. As infants completely depend on their carers to make food choices for them, it is important that they understand nutrition, and the importance of food choices for health of the baby and in future life. Parents obtain information from a variety of sources, the quality of which may vary, and is not necessarily evidence-based. Although carers decide what is offered or withheld, the infant may contribute to this decision by expressing dissatisfaction or refusing food. At the heart of all feeding choices lies this interplay between carer and child, influenced by the environment at household, community and societal level.

  12. The interpretation of long-term trials of biologic treatments for psoriasis: trial designs and the choices of statistical analyses affect ability to compare outcomes across trials.

    PubMed

    Langley, R G; Reich, K

    2013-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease requiring long-term therapy, which makes finding treatments with favourable long-term safety and efficacy profiles crucial. The goal of this review is to provide the background needed to evaluate properly long-term studies of biologic treatments for psoriasis. Firstly, important elements of design and analysis strategies are described. Secondly, data from published trials of biologic therapies for psoriasis are reviewed in light of the design and analysis choices implemented in the studies. Published reports of clinical trials of biologic treatments (adalimumab, alefacept, etanercept, infliximab or ustekinumab) that lasted 33 weeks or longer and included efficacy results and statistical analysis were reviewed. Study designs and statistical analyses were evaluated and summarized, emphasizing patient follow-up methods and handling of missing data. Various trial designs and data handling methods are used in long-term studies of biologic psoriasis treatments. Responder analyses in long-term trials can be conducted in responder enrichment, re-treated nonresponder or intent-to-treat trials. Missing data can be handled in four ways, including, from most to least conservative, nonresponder imputation, last-observation-carried-forward, as-observed analysis and anytime analysis. Long-term clinical trials have shown that adalimumab, alefacept, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab are efficacious for psoriasis treatment; however, without common standards for these trials, direct comparisons of these agents are difficult. Understanding differences in trial design and data handling is essential to make informed treatment decisions.

  13. The interpretation of long-term trials of biologic treatments for psoriasis: trial designs and the choices of statistical analyses affect ability to compare outcomes across trials.

    PubMed

    Langley, R G; Reich, K

    2013-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease requiring long-term therapy, which makes finding treatments with favourable long-term safety and efficacy profiles crucial. The goal of this review is to provide the background needed to evaluate properly long-term studies of biologic treatments for psoriasis. Firstly, important elements of design and analysis strategies are described. Secondly, data from published trials of biologic therapies for psoriasis are reviewed in light of the design and analysis choices implemented in the studies. Published reports of clinical trials of biologic treatments (adalimumab, alefacept, etanercept, infliximab or ustekinumab) that lasted 33 weeks or longer and included efficacy results and statistical analysis were reviewed. Study designs and statistical analyses were evaluated and summarized, emphasizing patient follow-up methods and handling of missing data. Various trial designs and data handling methods are used in long-term studies of biologic psoriasis treatments. Responder analyses in long-term trials can be conducted in responder enrichment, re-treated nonresponder or intent-to-treat trials. Missing data can be handled in four ways, including, from most to least conservative, nonresponder imputation, last-observation-carried-forward, as-observed analysis and anytime analysis. Long-term clinical trials have shown that adalimumab, alefacept, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab are efficacious for psoriasis treatment; however, without common standards for these trials, direct comparisons of these agents are difficult. Understanding differences in trial design and data handling is essential to make informed treatment decisions. PMID:23937204

  14. Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods.

  15. Do consumers know how their health plan works?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, P J; Denk, C; Sinclair, M

    2001-01-01

    Expanding consumer choice of plans is beneficial only to the extent that consumers make informed choices. Using data from the 1996-97 Community Tracking Study (CTS), this study compares consumers' responses on four key attributes of their health plan with information provided directly by the plan. Plan attributes relate to choice of providers and access to specialists. Although the accuracy of reporting some individual attributes was fairly high, fewer than one-third of consumers accurately reported all four health plan attributes. In general, consumers tended to overreport plan restrictions, especially the need for approval to see specialists. PMID:11260939

  16. Consumer Controlled Housing. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarnulis, Edward, Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" reports on consumer-controlled housing for persons with developmental disabilities, and explores housing and service options that empower individuals with disabilities to live their lives with independence, privacy, and freedom of choice. It includes an excerpt from the Association for Retarded Citizens position statement on…

  17. Industry Characteristics and Consumer Dissatisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jagdip

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 1,000 households provided 155 responses regarding dissatisfaction with automobile repair service, 166 for medical care, and 176 for grocery shopping. Analysis supported Hirschman's theory of the impact of "loose monopoly" conditions on consumers' choice of responses to marketplace dissatisfactions. (SK)

  18. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Nunes, Eric J; Yohn, Samantha E; Nowak, Victoria; Khan, Bilal; Shah, Priya; Pandit, Saagar; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA). Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1) and eticlopride (D2), but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a rodent model of

  19. Understanding the Child Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  20. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  1. Consumer Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The module deals mainly with some of the service problems experienced by consumers, examines the causes of some problems, and suggests some solutions, attempting to present the standpoint of the producer as well as the buyer and user. The module may be presented as a semester or part semester course. Organized by expected student understandings,…

  2. Consuming Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfield, Brett

    2007-01-01

    While librarians and users have been inundated with advice on how to produce content for MySpace, blogs, and other Web 2.0 services, there's been much less discussion about using newer technologies to consume all this new content efficiently. These technologies are new to everyone, and the flood is hitting all people at the same time. People must…

  3. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how to…

  4. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at...

  5. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at...

  6. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at...

  7. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at...

  8. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at...

  9. Understanding Predisposition in College Choice: Toward an Integrated Model of College Choice and Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Paul E.; Johnson, Todd E.; Pitre, Charisse Cowan

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to improve traditional models of college choice that draw from recruitment and enrollment management paradigms. In adopting a consumer approach to college choice, this article seeks to build upon consumer-related research, which centers on behavior and reasoning. More specifically, this article seeks to move inquiry beyond the…

  10. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  11. 'I'm a consumer, I'm not a scientist': Cultivating Student Domain Identification, Agency, and Affect through Engagement in Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalone, Giovanna

    using appraisal analysis to show how students talking about their images of science yield different ways of knowing and dispositions in science. Thirdly, by tracing the inclination and obligation of doing science, I illustrate how subjectivity versus materiality/objectivity in science impact how students perceive science. Fourth, student images of science, ways of identifying with science and having agency in science are analyzed using a thematic analysis to identify patterns and emerging themes. Next, I assess students' developing understanding of scientific inquiry using HLM to determine whether the Agency units versus the Inquiry units predicted students' learning outcomes based on the inquiry assessment. Finally, I discuss the implications of these analyses. This study accounts for how youth develop practice-linked identities in science entails the fleeting identity performances and language choices made for and by youth in the science classroom. Central to this notion of identity is agency where positionality as well as material and symbolic, interactional and situational resources constrain or enable identity development. In a learning context, these choices and values inherent in language use are relational to learner agency outside of language, but ensouled in performative curating where solidarity, intention, creativity, emotion, accountability, anticipation, cognition, and rewards enable the capacity to transform the self, others, and communities. This dissertation demonstrates how design features embedded in curriculum related to personal relevance and the societal context for science affords teachers to engage youth in agentic science learning in the classroom in ways that become more meaningful and supportive of science identification than traditional inquiry approaches to teaching science.

  12. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment.

  13. CO2 emissions from land-use change affected more by nitrogen cycle, than by the choice of land-cover data.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul K; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Song, Yang; House, Joanna I

    2013-09-01

    The high uncertainty in land-based CO2 fluxes estimates is thought to be mainly due to uncertainty in not only quantifying historical changes among forests, croplands, and grassland, but also due to different processes included in calculation methods. Inclusion of a nitrogen (N) cycle in models is fairly recent and strongly affects carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, for the first time, we use a model with C and N dynamics with three distinct historical reconstructions of land-use and land-use change (LULUC) to quantify LULUC emissions and uncertainty that includes the integrated effects of not only climate and CO2 but also N. The modeled global average emissions including N dynamics for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000-2005 were 1.8 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr(-1) , respectively, (mean and range across LULUC data sets). The emissions from tropics were 0.8 ± 0.2, 0.8 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.3 GtC yr(-1) , and the non tropics were 1.1 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr(-1) . Compared to previous studies that did not include N dynamics, modeled net LULUC emissions were higher, particularly in the non tropics. In the model, N limitation reduces regrowth rates of vegetation in temperate areas resulting in higher net emissions. Our results indicate that exclusion of N dynamics leads to an underestimation of LULUC emissions by around 70% in the non tropics, 10% in the tropics, and 40% globally in the 1990s. The differences due to inclusion/exclusion of the N cycle of 0.1 GtC yr(-1) in the tropics, 0.6 GtC yr(-1) in the non tropics, and 0.7 GtC yr(-1) globally (mean across land-cover data sets) in the 1990s were greater than differences due to the land-cover data in the non tropics and globally (0.2 GtC yr(-1) ). While land-cover information is improving with satellite and inventory data, this study indicates the importance of accounting for different processes, in particular the N cycle.

  14. Long-term psychosocial outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 testing: Differences across affected status and risk-reducing surgery choice

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Vegella, Patti; Poggi, Elizabeth A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Tong, Angie; Isaacs, Claudine; Finch, Clinton; Kelly, Scott; Taylor, Kathryn L.; Luta, George; Schwartz, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented the short-term impact of BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) testing; however, little research has examined the long-term impact of testing. We conducted the first long-term prospective study of psychosocial outcomes in a U.S. sample of women who had BRCA1/2 testing. Methods Participants were 464 women who underwent genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. Prior to testing, we measured sociodemographics, clinical variables, and cancer specific and general distress. At long-term follow-up (Median=5.0 years; Range=3.4 to 9.1 years), we assessed cancer specific and genetic testing distress, perceived stress and perceived cancer risk. We evaluated the impact of BRCA1/2 test result and risk reducing surgery on long-term psychosocial outcomes. Results Among participants who had been affected with breast or ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 carriers reported higher genetic testing distress (β=0.41, P<0.0001), uncertainty (β=0.18, P<0.0001) and perceived stress (β=0.17, P=0.005) compared to women who received negative (i.e., uninformative) results. Among women unaffected with breast/ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 carriers reported higher genetic testing distress (β=0.39, P<0.0001) and lower positive testing experiences (β=0.25, P=0.008) than women with negative results. Receipt of risk-reducing surgery was associated with lower perceived cancer risk (P<0.0001). Conclusions In this first prospective long-term study in a U.S. sample, we found modestly increased distress in BRCA1/2 carriers compared to women who received uninformative or negative test results. Despite this modest increase in distress, we found no evidence of clinically significant dysfunction. Impact While a positive BRCA1/2 result remains salient among carriers years after testing, testing does not appear to impact long-term psychological dysfunction. PMID:22328347

  15. Beef customer satisfaction: role of cut, USDA quality grade, and city on in-home consumer ratings.

    PubMed

    Neely, T R; Lorenzen, C L; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O; Savell, J W

    1998-04-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings from moderate-to-heavy beef users as influenced by cut (top loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks), USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), and city (Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales (23 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor; 1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and no flavor at all). A USDA grade x cut interaction existed for OLIKE (P < .05). Consumers rated top loin steaks highest (P < .05) in OLIKE and ranked Top Choice highest of all steaks (P < .05). Within the top loin, consumers were not (P > .05) able to distinguish OLIKE differences between Low Choice and High Select or between High Select and Low Select. For OLIKE, top sirloin was rated intermediate (P < .05) of the three cuts, and consumers were not able to detect (P > .05) USDA quality grade differences. For OLIKE, top round was the lowest-rated (P < .05) cut. However, consumers preferred (OLIKE, P < .05) Top Choice to the other USDA grades offered. Grade and city interacted to affect TEND, JUIC, DFLAV, and IFLAV. The cut x city interaction was significant for all palatability attributes. Cut and city affected customer satisfaction more than USDA quality grade. Tenderness and flavor were important and equal contributors to OLIKE, r = .85 and r = .86, respectively.

  16. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Results Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). Conclusions In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats. PMID:25266643

  17. Consumer Energy Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  18. Swedish consumers' cognitive approaches to nutrition claims and health claims

    PubMed Central

    Svederberg, Eva; Wendin, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aim Studies show frequent use of nutrition claims and health claims in consumers' choice of food products. The aim of the present study was to investigate how consumers' thoughts about these claims and food products are affected by various types of food-related experiences. Material and Methods The data collection comprised 30 individual interviews among Swedish consumers aged 25 to 64 years. Results The results indicated that participants who expressed special concern for their own and their families' health were eager to find out the meaning of concepts and statements made. A lack of understanding and lack of credibility of concepts and expressions often caused suspicion of the product. However, in some cases this was counterbalanced by confidence in manufacturers, retailers, and/or the Swedish food legislation. Discussion and Conclusion To achieve effective written communication of food products' health-conducive properties on food labels, there is a need to consider the importance many consumers attach to understanding the meaning of concepts and expressions used and the importance of credibility in certain expressions. Consumers' varying cognitive approaches are suggested as a basis for pre-tests of nutrition claims and health claims. PMID:21448438

  19. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  20. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  1. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  2. Classification of Concepts in Consumer Education. Consumer Education Development Program: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Rosella; Monsma, Charles

    This guide for program planners and curriculum developers identifies and describes the basic concepts in consumer education. Consumer education is defined as the process of gaining the knowledge and skills needed in managing consumer resources and taking actions to influence the factors which affect consumer decisions. The primary focus of…

  3. Providing Choice Making in Employment Programs: The Beginning or End of Self-Determination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Krupp, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Choice making represents the central element of self-determination, and efforts are being made across all service programs to promote choice making for consumers with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Although choice making appears to be a relatively simple response for a consumer to perform (selecting one stimulus over another), it is…

  4. "It's Our Best Choice Right Now": Exploring How Charter School Parents Choose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villavicencio, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying premises of the charter school movement is that quality drives consumer choice. As educational consumers, parents are viewed as rational actors who, if given the choice, will select better performing school. In examining the choice processes of charter school parents, however, this study calls into question the extent to…

  5. Should lifestyle choices affect access to transplant?

    PubMed

    Bedford, Simone; Jones, Elaine

    With new health and safety laws and better emergency response times, the availability of transplantable organs has diminished. This is not just an issue of finite resources--it is also an issue for all healthcare workers who care for transplanted patients and those on the waiting list. This article presents a debate that covers some of the ethical issues surrounding organ transplantation. PMID:25174132

  6. The effect of traffic lights and regulatory statements on the choice between complementary and conventional medicines in Australia: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that complementary medicines are currently 'under-regulated' in some countries due to their potential for harm as a direct result from side-effects or interactions; from delaying more effective care; or from the economic cost of purchasing an ineffective or inappropriate treatment. The requirement of additional labelling on complementary medicine products has been suggested in Australia and may provide additional information to consumers at the point of purchase. This paper details a unique way of testing the potential effects on consumer behaviour of including either a traffic light logo or regulatory statement on labels. Using a discrete choice experiment, data were collected in 2012 in a sample of 521 Australians with either type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We find that additional labelling can affect consumer behaviour, but in unpredictable ways. The results of this experiment are informative to further the dialogue concerning possible regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25483723

  7. The effect of traffic lights and regulatory statements on the choice between complementary and conventional medicines in Australia: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that complementary medicines are currently 'under-regulated' in some countries due to their potential for harm as a direct result from side-effects or interactions; from delaying more effective care; or from the economic cost of purchasing an ineffective or inappropriate treatment. The requirement of additional labelling on complementary medicine products has been suggested in Australia and may provide additional information to consumers at the point of purchase. This paper details a unique way of testing the potential effects on consumer behaviour of including either a traffic light logo or regulatory statement on labels. Using a discrete choice experiment, data were collected in 2012 in a sample of 521 Australians with either type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We find that additional labelling can affect consumer behaviour, but in unpredictable ways. The results of this experiment are informative to further the dialogue concerning possible regulatory mechanisms.

  8. Who speaks for the health consumer?

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael H

    2008-08-01

    Although consumer-directed health care has become a fashionable concept in recent years, stories abound asking whether the so-called free market in health care can provide adequate access to quality health care at an affordable price. In spite of these concerns, consumer-directed health care continues as the face of legitimacy behind an industry-driven campaign to limit regulatory protections of the consumer in the market and encourage the growth of health insurance products that place spending options closer to the consumer, whether or not these options are available, affordable, or easily understood. Understanding whether this empowerment is real begins with first asking what it now means to be a health consumer. This commentary offers perspective on the dilemma faced by millions of Americans in navigating our health care system under the assumption that market-driven choices foster consumer empowerment in health care, and suggests approaches for expanding the true consumer voice.

  9. The World Wise Consumer: Consumer Strategies in an Age of Scarcity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Farren

    This curriculum guide is based on the notion that consumers can no longer afford to buy goods without thinking of the consequences. The unit presents students with criteria for making wise consumer choices. Twenty-six lessons offer data for examination and encourage students to calculate the consequences of various courses of action. Lessons look…

  10. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    PubMed

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation.

  11. How do stereotypes influence choice?

    PubMed

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice. PMID:25749702

  12. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended... association relies substantially upon other factors, such as the general credit standing of the...

  13. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended... association relies substantially upon other factors, such as the general credit standing of the...

  14. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended... association relies substantially upon other factors, such as the general credit standing of the...

  15. 12 CFR 161.12 - Consumer credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer credit. 161.12 Section 161.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended... association relies substantially upon other factors, such as the general credit standing of the...

  16. 12 CFR 161.12 - Consumer credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer credit. 161.12 Section 161.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended... association relies substantially upon other factors, such as the general credit standing of the...

  17. 12 CFR 161.12 - Consumer credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer credit. 161.12 Section 161.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended... association relies substantially upon other factors, such as the general credit standing of the...

  18. Mode of oral iron administration and the amount of iron habitually consumed do not affect iron absorption, systemic iron utilisation or zinc absorption in iron-sufficient infants: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle; Hurrell, Richard F; Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Zeder, Christophe; Egli, Ines M

    2016-09-01

    Different metabolic pathways of supplemental and fortification Fe, or inhibition of Zn absorption by Fe, may explain adverse effects of supplemental Fe in Fe-sufficient infants. We determined whether the mode of oral Fe administration or the amount habitually consumed affects Fe absorption and systemic Fe utilisation in infants, and assessed the effects of these interventions on Zn absorption, Fe and Zn status, and growth. Fe-sufficient 6-month-old infants (n 72) were randomly assigned to receive 6·6 mg Fe/d from a high-Fe formula, 1·3 mg Fe/d from a low-Fe formula or 6·6 mg Fe/d from Fe drops and a formula with no added Fe for 45 d. Fractional Fe absorption, Fe utilisation and fractional Zn absorption were measured with oral (57Fe and 67Zn) and intravenous (58Fe and 70Zn) isotopes. Fe and Zn status, infection and growth were measured. At 45 d, Hb was 6·3 g/l higher in the high-Fe formula group compared with the Fe drops group, whereas serum ferritin was 34 and 35 % higher, respectively, and serum transferrin 0·1 g/l lower in the high-Fe formula and Fe drops groups compared with the low-Fe formula group (all P<0·05). No intervention effects were observed on Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, other Fe status indices, plasma Zn or growth. We concluded that neither supplemental or fortification Fe nor the amount of Fe habitually consumed altered Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, Zn status or growth in Fe-sufficient infants. Consumption of low-Fe formula as the only source of Fe was insufficient to maintain Fe stores.

  19. Mode of oral iron administration and the amount of iron habitually consumed do not affect iron absorption, systemic iron utilisation or zinc absorption in iron-sufficient infants: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle; Hurrell, Richard F; Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Zeder, Christophe; Egli, Ines M

    2016-09-01

    Different metabolic pathways of supplemental and fortification Fe, or inhibition of Zn absorption by Fe, may explain adverse effects of supplemental Fe in Fe-sufficient infants. We determined whether the mode of oral Fe administration or the amount habitually consumed affects Fe absorption and systemic Fe utilisation in infants, and assessed the effects of these interventions on Zn absorption, Fe and Zn status, and growth. Fe-sufficient 6-month-old infants (n 72) were randomly assigned to receive 6·6 mg Fe/d from a high-Fe formula, 1·3 mg Fe/d from a low-Fe formula or 6·6 mg Fe/d from Fe drops and a formula with no added Fe for 45 d. Fractional Fe absorption, Fe utilisation and fractional Zn absorption were measured with oral (57Fe and 67Zn) and intravenous (58Fe and 70Zn) isotopes. Fe and Zn status, infection and growth were measured. At 45 d, Hb was 6·3 g/l higher in the high-Fe formula group compared with the Fe drops group, whereas serum ferritin was 34 and 35 % higher, respectively, and serum transferrin 0·1 g/l lower in the high-Fe formula and Fe drops groups compared with the low-Fe formula group (all P<0·05). No intervention effects were observed on Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, other Fe status indices, plasma Zn or growth. We concluded that neither supplemental or fortification Fe nor the amount of Fe habitually consumed altered Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, Zn status or growth in Fe-sufficient infants. Consumption of low-Fe formula as the only source of Fe was insufficient to maintain Fe stores. PMID:27546308

  20. Consumer palatability scores and volatile beef flavor compounds of five USDA quality grades and four muscles.

    PubMed

    Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; O'Quinn, T G; Hagan, T D J; Polkinghorne, R; Farmer, L J; Miller, M F

    2015-02-01

    Proximate data, consumer palatability scores and volatile compounds were investigated for four beef muscles (Longissimus lumborum, Psoas major, Semimembranosus and Gluteus medius) and five USDA quality grades(Prime, Upper 2/3 Choice, Low Choice, Select, and Standard). Quality grade did not directly affect consumer scores or volatiles but interactions (P < 0.05) between muscle and grade were determined. Consumer scores and volatiles differed (P < 0.05) between muscles. Consumers scored Psoas major highest for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking and overall liking, followed by Longissimus lumborum, Gluteus medius, and Semimembranosus (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis revealed clustering of compound classes, formed by related mechanisms. Volatile n-aldehydes were inversely related to percent fat. Increases in lipid oxidation compounds were associated with Gluteus medius and Semimembranosus, while greater quantities of sulfur-containing compounds were associated with Psoas major. Relationships between palatability scores and volatile compound classes suggest that differences in the pattern of volatile compounds may play a valuable role in explaining consumer liking.

  1. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines.

  2. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. PMID:22044643

  3. Choice in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Timothy W.; Clinchy, Evans

    There has been much recent debate in both educational and political circles about the utility of choice as a means of improving the educational system. This book argues that any discussion of choice must address choice in public schools. The book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of choice in public education,…

  4. Call me antipsychiatry activist--not "consumer".

    PubMed

    Weitz, Don

    2003-01-01

    The author, a long-time human rights activist, explains why he calls himself an anti-psychiatry activist rather than a "mental health consumer." He believes that the latter term is nonsensical in the current mental health system, characterized by lack of consumer choice and an explosion of involuntary interventions. He is a member of People Against Coercive Treatment and the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty.

  5. The Role of Nostalgia in School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Examines factors influencing choice of a new school, using data from a large-scale study in Wales. The "domino effect" sometimes covers three generations; decisions made today reflect, but are not identical to, past decisions. Simple reproduction cannot explain this diversity. Consumer nostalgia may lead schools to conservatism and restorationism.…

  6. Integrating Activity Patterns into Destination Choice Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesenmaier, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Factors affecting decision-making on where to go for recreation, specifically state park choice, were analyzed in a study based on data, collected via a telephone survey, from 452 Oklahoma households. The relative accuracy of various models for predicting individual destination choices were also examined. (IAH)

  7. Student Diversity, Choice, and School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V.; Edwards, Ralph; Alves, Michael J.

    This book examines research about trends affecting public school diversity, improvement, and choice. It finds that schools with socioeconomically and racially diversified student bodies are more effective learning communities than schools that are poverty-concentrated and racially homogenous; public school choice implemented via the controlled…

  8. The Affective Imaginary: Students as Affective Consumers of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lolich, Luciana; Lynch, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the purpose of higher education (HE) for students in Ireland in the context of the dominant narrative of the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It argues that the KBE is one of the most recent of economic imaginaries devised by governments to manage the population [Hay, S., & Kaptizke, C. (2009). "Smart" state for a…

  9. Menu labeling: the unintended consequences to the consumer.

    PubMed

    Black, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires certain restaurants to provide nutritional information on their menus and menu boards, which is referred to as menu labeling. Menu labeling presupposes that providing consumers with the nutritional information about their food will cause them to reconsider their food choices by picking healthier food options over less healthy options, thereby reducing the nation's high obesity rate. However, several studies have shown that consumers do not make healthier food choices even when armed with menu labeling. The issue then becomes whether menu labeling provides a correlative benefit to consumers or whether there are unintended consequences that ultimately harm consumers. PMID:25654941

  10. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling’s differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge. PMID:26784700

  11. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge. PMID:26784700

  12. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  13. Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. PMID:24231427

  14. Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework.

  15. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

  16. School Choice in an English Village: Living, Loyalty and Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In late modernity, the marketisation of public services has become a global policy phenomenon. In the case of schooling, this has resulted in parents discursively positioned as consumers of education making a choice between providers of education. To date the majority of research on parental choice has focused on the urban; this paper is concerned…

  17. Personal Finance--Consumer Education at All Educational Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjala, Jeanette A.; Pagel, Larry G.

    1998-01-01

    All students, regardless of their career choices, need a basic understanding of economic principles. Personal finance and consumer education are essential for becoming effective citizens and developing personal lifetime values. (SK)

  18. Consumer preferences for electric vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.L.; Calfee, J.E.; Bruck, H.W.

    1986-06-01

    A small-sample survey of consumer preferences for a second car - featuring both conventional and electric vehicle choices - indicates a proelectric bias. The potential of electric cars in the utility market largely depends on dramatic improvements in battery technology and the right mix of electricity and gasoline prices.

  19. Family and Consumer Studies 13: Fashion Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleo, A. Susan

    A description is provided of Family and Consumer Studies 13: Fashion Analysis, an introductory course on the basic principles of fashion and clothing, giving special consideration to the impact of societal, cultural, religious, and psychological factors on clothing choices. First, general information is provided on the course, its place in the…

  20. School Choice and the Branding of Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivitt, Julie R.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    How useful are "corporate brands" in markets? In theory, brands convey reliable information, providing consumers with shortcuts to time-consuming provider searches. We examine the usefulness of a corporate brand when parental school choice is expanded through K-12 tuition scholarships. Specifically, we evaluate whether Catholic schools carry an…

  1. Consumer-driven health care: promise and performance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C; Ginsburg, Paul B

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of consumer-driven health care in terms of its original vision, its subsequent implementation, and the transformations it has endured as it moves into its second decade. The market is generating product designs that combine elements of consumerism with elements of managed care, but the trend is always toward a stronger role for consumer choice and a weaker role for management of those choices by physicians, insurers, employers, and regulators. PMID:19174389

  2. Myths of Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith

    This book presents concerns and raises questions about the choice programs being proposed and implemented around the United States. It argues that poorly conceived, hastily enacted choice programs may do more harm than good. The demand for educational choice may result in lost opportunities for students (some groups more than others), weakened…

  3. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains: the case of the Greek meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanassios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork at supermarkets should not be ignored. PMID:16965836

  4. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains: the case of the Greek meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanassios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork at supermarkets should not be ignored.

  5. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  6. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  7. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities. PMID:19042526

  8. Anticipatory Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Anticipatory consumer socialization is the learning of consumer roles and perceptions, which will be assumed at a later time, such as those that children acquire before they become adult consumers. A survey of 784 adolescents was conducted in a southern state to examine the anticipatory consumer socialization effects of such factors as the mass…

  9. Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

  10. In-Store Experimental Approach to Pricing and Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Foxall, Gordon; Saevarsson, Hugi

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed how, and to what extent, it is possible to use behavioral experimentation and relative sales analysis to study the effects of price on consumers' brand choices in the store environment. An in-store experiment was performed in four stores to investigate the effects of different prices of a target brand on consumers' relative…

  11. Surveys suck: Consumer preferences when purchasing genetically engineered foods.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life. PMID:24281042

  12. Surveys suck: Consumer preferences when purchasing genetically engineered foods.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life.

  13. A Case Study of Technology Choices by High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens-Hartman, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine student technology choices when given the freedom to choose technology devices to complete a project-based learning activity in a content area of study. The study also analyzed factors affecting technology choice as well as how technology proficiency scores aligned to technology choices. Patterns and…

  14. Role of Information in Consumer Selection of Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Sainfort, François; Booske, Bridget C.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable efforts are underway in the public and private sectors to increase the amount of information available to consumers when making health plan choices. The objective of this study was to examine the role of information in consumer health plan decisionmaking. A computer system was developed which provides different plan descriptions with the option of accessing varying types and levels of information. The system tracked the information search processes and recorded the hypothetical plan choices of 202 subjects. Results are reported showing the relationship between information and problem perception, preference structure, choice of plan, and attitude towards the decision. PMID:10165036

  15. Consumers as four-faced creatures. Looking at food consumption from the perspective of contemporary consumers.

    PubMed

    Dagevos, Hans

    2005-08-01

    One would believe that with the increasing importance attached to consumers in contemporary affluent societies, the difficulty to understand today's 'butterfly' or 'unmanageable' consumers seems to double simultaneously. Modern consumers defy traditional segmentation by age, gender or income. Classical criteria to distinguish different homogeneous groups of consumers with corresponding behavioral intentions and patterns, have lost much of their explanatory power. Hence, the behaviour of the inhabitants of modern consumer society can no longer be understood by 'straight' and measurable segmentation criteria only. In order to meet the complexities of modern consumer behaviour, it is suggested that we need to improve our understanding of socio-cultural and socio-psychological influences on consumer choices. Such are awarded to be supplementary to socio-demographic (e.g. age, gender) or socio-economic (e.g. income, occupation) criteria, which are traditionally used in consumer studies. Our contribution to this quest for new perspectives, in which consumption is both seen as an economic/materialistic and a socio-cultural/attitudinal phenomenon, is called the consumer images approach. The underpinnings of this approach are the dimensions materialism/nonmaterialism and individualism/collectivism. Based on these two dimensions, four consumer images are distinguished in a four-quadrantic continuum. This implies that consumer images are not another set of taxonomies to 'box in' consumers. The consumer images approach is in tune with lines of thought in the recent renaissance of the sociology of consumption. To illustrate this, a presentation of the multifaceted consumer will be given that is interlarded with quotations from several new studies on contemporary consumerism which give evidence of the current vitality of scholarly interest in consumption.

  16. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications. PMID:26432955

  17. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications.

  18. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  19. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. PMID:25913683

  20. Interest, Not Preference: Dewey and Reframing the Conceptual Vocabulary of School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2016-01-01

    School choice positions parents as consumers who select schools that maximize their preferences. This account has been shaped by rational choice theory. In this essay, Terri Wilson contrasts a rational choice framework of "preferences" with John Dewey's understanding of "interest." To illustrate this contrast, she draws on an…

  1. The Dependent Poisson Race Model and Modeling Dependence in Conjoint Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Shiling; MacEachern, Steven N.; Otter, Thomas; Dean, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    Conjoint choice experiments are used widely in marketing to study consumer preferences amongst alternative products. We develop a class of choice models, belonging to the class of Poisson race models, that describe a "random utility" which lends itself to a process-based description of choice. The models incorporate a dependence structure which…

  2. Consumers' preferences for Iberian dry-cured ham and the influence of mast feeding: An application of conjoint analysis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Francisco J; Gaspar, Paula; Pulido, Angel F; Escribano, Miguel; Pulido, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyzes consumers' preferences for Iberian dry-cured ham, one of the most typical and highly prized meat products in Spain. The data were obtained by a survey carried out between April and May 2006 with a sample of 417 consumers in Extremadura (SW Spain). Conjoint Analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes affecting preferences for Iberian ham and to create consumer segments with similar preference profiles. Results have shown that Price and Type of ham are the most important attributes for the choice of ham. Simulation analyses determined the surcharge that consumers are willing to pay for an Iberian mast-fed ham instead of an Iberian ham, thus identifying an ideal cluster for Iberian mast-fed ham.

  3. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    PubMed Central

    Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    than the choice of a hotel, participants found choosing a physician much easier than selecting an appropriate accommodation. Four main themes emerged from the analysis of our interview data that can explain the differences in search time and choice confidence: (1) trial and error, (2) trust, (3) competence assessment, and (4) affect and likeability. Conclusions Our results suggest that, despite congruent website designs, individuals only trust review information to choose a hotel, but refuse to fully rely on it for selecting a physician. The design and content of Web-based PRWs need to be adjusted to better address the differing information needs of health consumers. PMID:27311623

  4. Making School Choice Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael; Jochim, Ashley; Lake, Robin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is increasingly the new normal in urban education. But in cities with multiple public school options, how can civic leaders create a choice system that works for all families, whether they choose a charter or district public school? To answer this question, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) researchers surveyed 4,000…

  5. More Choice, Less Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dills, Angela K.; Hernandez-Julian, Rey

    2011-01-01

    Previous research debates whether public school choice improves students' academic outcomes, but there is little examination of its effects on their nonacademic outcomes. We use data from a nationally representative sample of high school students, a previously developed Tiebout choice measure, and metropolitan-level data on teenage arrest rates to…

  6. Latinos and School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…

  7. The Illusion of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Both New Labour and the Conservatives are keen to emphasise choice and diversity in crucial areas of public provision--and particularly with regard to education and health. In this article, "FORUM" co-Editor Clyde Chitty concentrates on recent proposals by the two main parties for promoting greater choice in secondary schooling in England. This…

  8. Your Genes, Your Choices

    MedlinePlus

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  9. School Choice Marches forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted programs. Yet education…

  10. Choice: The Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Jennings L., Jr.

    The issue of choice in U.S. education is traced historically. Consideration is given to the purposes of publicly supported education and reasons underlying the historic distinction between public and private education. It is suggested that the issue of choice concerns the rights and obligations of the individual and the state. The relationship…

  11. Haptic choice blindness

    PubMed Central

    Steenfeldt-Kristensen, Catherine; Thornton, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Choice blindness is the failure to notice a mismatch between intention and outcome when making decisions. It is unknown whether choice blindness occurs when participants have extended interaction with real objects. Here, we examined the case when objects could be touched but not seen. Participants examined pairs of common, everyday objects inside a specially constructed box where a silent turntable was used to switch objects between initial choice and later justification. For similar pairs of objects, we found detection rates of around 22%, consistent with previous studies of choice blindness. For pairs consisting of more distinctive exemplars, the detection rate rose to 70%. Our results indicate that choice blindness does occur after haptic interaction with real objects, but is strongly modulated by similarity. PMID:23799197

  12. The Impact of Tiered Physician Networks on Patient Choices

    PubMed Central

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether patient choice of physician or health plan was affected by physician tier-rankings. Data Sources Administrative claims and enrollment data on 171,581 nonelderly beneficiaries enrolled in Massachusetts Group Insurance Commission health plans that include a tiered physician network and who had an office visit with a tiered physician. Study Design We estimate the impact of tier-rankings on physician market share within a plan of new patients and on the percent of a physician's patients who switch to other physicians with fixed effects regression models. The effect of tiering on consumer plan choice is estimated using logistic regression and a pre–post study design. Principal Findings Physicians in the bottom (least-preferred) tier, particularly certain specialist physicians, had lower market share of new patient visits than physicians with higher tier-rankings. Patients whose physician was in the bottom tier were more likely to switch health plans. There was no effect of tier-ranking on patients switching away from physicians whom they have seen previously. Conclusions The effect of tiering appears to be among patients who choose new physicians and at the lower end of the distribution of tiered physicians, rather than moving patients to the “best” performers. These findings suggest strong loyalty of patients to physicians more likely to be considered their personal doctor. PMID:24611599

  13. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

  14. Law and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  15. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  16. Michigan Consumer Education Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Consumers Council, Lansing.

    The booklet identifies consumer skills which a committee of the Michigan Consumers Council believes are essential for students to master prior to graduation from high school. The purpose of the document is to give direction to school districts and teachers on which consumer education skills are needed. The booklet does not contain teaching methods…

  17. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  18. Be a Smart Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Elizabeth Ann

    This book was prepared especially for the students of the Marie Katzenbach School for the Deaf as a one-year course in consumer education. The purpose of the book is to provide students with necessary information and skills to make wise decisions as consumers in the areas of realizing consumer values and goals; evaluating advertising; managing…

  19. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  20. The Returns to School Quality: College Choice and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of high school quality on earnings, suggesting that school quality affects the student's choice of college, and college choice then affects the individual's post-school earnings, and that additional skills accumulated via a higher quality school directly influence wages. High school quality influences earnings by affecting…

  1. The Effect of Animacy on the Choice of Referring Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumura, Kumiko; van Gompel, Roger P. G.

    2011-01-01

    Theories of reference assume that the referent's salience in the discourse context affects the choice between pronouns and definite noun phrases or names. We examined whether and how the referent's inherent properties affect the choice of expressions by investigating animacy. Experiment 1 showed that pronouns were more frequent for animates than…

  2. "Choice" in health care: what do people really want?

    PubMed

    Lambrew, Jeanne M

    2005-09-01

    Proposals to expand the individual health insurance market and promote health savings accounts are intended to provide consumers with more "choice." The types of choices people prefer, however, are not well understood. This analysis of survey data finds that having a choice of health care providers matters more to people than having a choice of health plans. Dissatisfaction among adults with no choice of providers was more than twice as high as among those with no choice of plan. Moreover, a large majority of Americans who have had experience with employer-based health insurance believe that employers do a good job of selecting quality plans. Two of three preferred an employer-selected set of plans over an employer-funded account that they would use to find coverage on their own. Thus, policymakers should be cautious about embracing the individual market and health savings accounts as a way to improve satisfaction in the system. PMID:16180283

  3. The effects of switching behavior on the evolutionary diversification of generalist consumers.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Peter A

    2006-11-01

    Mathematical models of consumer-resource systems explore the evolution of a morphological trait that determines two resource acquisition rates in a generalist consumer. The consumer also has the ability to adjust its relative consumption of the two resources via behavioral (or developmental) plasticity subject to a trade-off. The analysis examines both stable systems and those with sustained fluctuations in abundance. In both cases, it seeks to determine how the behavioral choice affects the evolution of the morphological characters. The presence of adaptive switching behavior transforms the shape of the relationship between the morphological character and fitness in a manner that usually leads to evolution of two or more morphological types. As in models without switching, the presence of sustained cycles in resource densities often allows the evolution of a generalist as well as two specialists. However, switching expands and shifts the parameter regions yielding this outcome and in some cases allows the evolution and coexistence of at least two generalists as well as the two specialists. This level of diversity supported by only two resources is not seen in the absence of behavioral choice and resource cycles. The results suggest major roles for both behavior and environmental variation in adaptive radiation. PMID:17080363

  4. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes.

  5. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes. PMID:26892010

  6. No Effects of Psychosocial Stress on Intertemporal Choice

    PubMed Central

    Seinstra, Maayke; Fehr, Ernst; Joëls, Marian; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Intertemporal choices - involving decisions which trade off instant and delayed outcomes - are often made under stress. It remains unknown, however, whether and how stress affects intertemporal choice. We subjected 142 healthy male subjects to a laboratory stress or control protocol, and asked them to make a series of intertemporal choices either directly after stress, or 20 minutes later (resulting in four experimental groups). Based on theory and evidence from behavioral economics and cellular neuroscience, we predicted a bidirectional effect of stress on intertemporal choice, with increases in impatience or present bias immediately after stress, but decreases in present bias or impatience when subjects are tested 20 minutes later. However, our results show no effects of stress on intertemporal choice at either time point, and individual differences in stress reactivity (changes in stress hormone levels over time) are not related to individual differences in intertemporal choice. Together, we did not find support for the hypothesis that psychosocial laboratory stressors affect intertemporal choice. PMID:24250800

  7. Money Management and the Consumer, Basic Economic Skills: "Baffled, Bothered, Bewildered".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    This document, one in a series of six Project SCAT (Skills for Consumers Applied Today) units for senior high school students, provides an overview of basic economic skills and consumer practices. Project SCAT is designed to help students develop basic skills, solve problems, and apply consumer knowledge necessary for making wise choices in the…

  8. Increasing market share through consumer marketing: a case study in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, V H

    1986-05-01

    Consumers are becoming ever more selective in their choice of health care providers. Hospitals that are aware of local preferences and how to reach and influence consumers will gain a competitive advantage. Outlined in this article are consumer marketing techniques that can be utilized for all product lines. The concept is applied here as a case study in obstetrics.

  9. School choice and the search for an educational market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Donald

    1995-05-01

    This article looks at attempts to create markets in schooling by increasing school choice, making particular reference to a study by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) of the impact of choice policies in six countries: Australia, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. The main policies examined are subsidies to private schools and enhancement of choice between schools within the public sector. The article identifies five kinds of imperfection in school markets in practice: the failure of clear alternatives to present themselves to consumers; the arbitrariness of criteria for choosing; limits to capacity at popular schools; the failure of supply to diversify in response to consumer pressures and the existence of negative externalities. It is argued that these imperfections make it necessary to intervene to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks of school choice.

  10. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  11. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

  12. Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. PMID:23891558

  13. Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices.

  14. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  15. Fitting observed and theoretical choices - women's choices about prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seror, Valerie

    2008-05-01

    Choices regarding prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome - the most frequent chromosomal defect - are particularly relevant to decision analysis, since women's decisions are based on the assessment of their risk of carrying a child with Down syndrome, and involve tradeoffs (giving birth to an affected child vs procedure-related miscarriage). The aim of this study, based on face-to-face interviews with 78 women aged 25-35 with prior experience of pregnancy, was to compare the women' expressed choices towards prenatal diagnosis with those derived from theoretical models of choice (expected utility theory, rank-dependent theory, and cumulative prospect theory). The main finding obtained in this study was that the cumulative prospect model fitted the observed choices best: both subjective transformation of probabilities and loss aversion, which are basic features of the cumulative prospect model, have to be taken into account to make the observed choices consistent with the theoretical ones. PMID:17806133

  16. Effects of Time between Trials on Rats' and Pigeons' Choices with Probabilistic Delayed Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.; Biondi, Dawn R.

    2011-01-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined reasons for previous findings that in choices with probabilistic delayed reinforcers, rats' choices were affected by the time between trials whereas pigeons' choices were not. In both experiments, the animals chose between a standard alternative and an adjusting alternative. A choice of the…

  17. Examining the Relationship between Choice, Therapeutic Alliance and Outcomes in Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, Victoria; Barrenger, Stacey L.; Salzer, Mark S.; Marcus, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-determination within mental health services is increasingly recognized as an ethical imperative, but we still know little about the impact of choice on outcomes among people with severe mental illnesses. This study examines whether choice predicts outcomes and whether this relationship is mediated by therapeutic alliance. Method: The study sample of 396 participants completed a survey measuring choice, therapeutic alliance, recovery, quality of life and functioning. Multivariate analyses examined choice as a predictor of outcomes, and Sobel tests assessed alliance as a mediator. Results: Choice variables predicted recovery, quality of life and perceived outcomes. Sobel tests indicated that the relationship between choice and outcome variables was mediated by therapeutic alliance. Implications: The study demonstrates that providing more choice and opportunities for collaboration within services does improve consumer outcomes. The results also show that collaboration is dependent on the quality of the relationship between the provider and consumer. PMID:25562652

  18. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R A; Williams, W A

    1991-03-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice.

  19. Consumers + Questions = Confusion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the rise of the “Google generation”, consumers can easily access information with a simple click. Unfortunately, this information is not always accurate or honest. This can pose many problems if consumer perception of your product is swayed by erroneous information. Being able to factually a...

  20. Starting Smart Consumers Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Myrtle

    1980-01-01

    The Saint Louis Urban Consumers' Education Project involves community resource persons in the preparation and teaching of consumerism in fifth-grade classrooms. A demonstration program supported by the Office of Consumer Education, the project has improved attendance, math and reading scores, and school-community relations. (SK)

  1. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways. It shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; it is a self-help manual for resolving individual consumer complaints; and it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two sections. Part…

  2. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook was designed to help persons avoid consumer problems, handle their own complaints if they occur, and guide them to additional sources of help if necessary. The book can also be helpful to complaint handlers when they attempt to direct consumers to the appropriate source of assistance. The guide contains three general sections. The…

  3. Working for the Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabecoff, Alice

    1976-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the consumer movement, the Department of Labor (DOL) is instituting new procedures and improving existing ones to draw its clients more fully into the policy-setting and decision-making process. The Department is also adding the viewpoint of the consumer to its plans. (WL)

  4. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  5. Consumer Economics Education Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Muriel; And Others

    These guidelines are designed to assist school districts in the development and implementation of new programs or in strengthening existing programs in consumer economics education at all levels. A variety of resources are included. The need for consumer economics education is discussed and a definition is provided. Goals are listed. Objectives,…

  6. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  7. Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This guide for high school consumer mathematics (one in a set of curriculum guides developed by Louisiana statewide mathematics curriculum committees) contains a course outline, performance objectives, and coordinated activities designed to teach skills that students will need as citizens and consumers. Background on the development,…

  8. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  9. Information for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Credit Union National Association, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This revised pamphlet was developed by a national association of credit unions for the purpose of directing consumer complaints to appropriate agencies or heads of agencies for action. Suggestions to aid the consumer are included, such as trying to solve problems at the local level before complaining to top officials. Addresses and phone numbers…

  10. Measuring improved patient choice.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Rovner, M; Rovner, D R

    2000-08-01

    Patient decision support (PDS) tools or decision aids have been developed as adjuncts to the clinical encounter. Their aim is to support evidence-based patient choice. Clinical trials of PDS tools have used an array of outcome measures to determine efficacy, including knowledge, satisfaction, health status and consistency between patient choice and values. This paper proposes that the correlation between 'subjective expected utility' (SEU) and decision may be the best primary endpoint for trials. SEU is a measure usually used in behavioural decision theory. The paper first describes how decision support tools may use decision analysis to structure the presentation of evidence and guide patient decision-making. Uses of expected utility (EU) are suggested for evaluating PDS tools when improving population health status is the objective. SEU is the theoretically better measure when internal consistency of patient choices is the objective. PMID:11083037

  11. The problem of choice

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Hassan R; Mathur, Shawn; Covarrubias, David; Curcio, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Convictions are a driving force for actions. Considering that every individual has a different set of convictions and larger groups act once a consensus decision is reached, one can see that debate is an inherent exercise in decision-making. This requires a sustainably generated surplus to allow time for intellectual exchange, gathering of information and dissemination of findings. It is essential that the full spectrum of options remain treated equally. At the end of this process, a choice has to be made. Looking back at a later time point, a retrospective analysis sometimes reveals that the choice was neither completely free nor a truly conscious one. Leaving the issue of consequences of a once made decision aside, we wish to contribute to the debate of the problem of choice. PMID:19025607

  12. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    PubMed

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  13. Does the amount of school choice matter for student engagement?

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    School choice may increase student engagement by enabling students to attend schools that more closely match their needs and preferences. But this effect on engagement may depend on the characteristics of the choices available. Therefore, we consider how the amount of educational choice of different types in a local educational marketplace affects student engagement using a large, national population of 8th grade students. We find that more choice of regular public schools in the elementary and middle school years is associated with a lower likelihood that students will be severely disengaged in eighth grade, and more choices of public schools of choice has a similar effect but only in urban areas. In contrast, more private sector choice does not have such a general beneficial effect. PMID:23682202

  14. Perseveration by NK1R-/- (‘knockout’) mice is blunted by doses of methylphenidate that affect neither other aspects of their cognitive performance nor the behaviour of wild-type mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test

    PubMed Central

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Young, Jared W; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-01-01

    The underlying cause(s) of abnormalities expressed by patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have yet to be delineated. One factor that has been associated with increased vulnerability to ADHD is polymorphism(s) of TACR1, which is the human equivalent of the rodent NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptor gene (Nk1r). We have reported previously that genetically altered mice, lacking functional NK1R (NK1R–/–), express locomotor hyperactivity, which was blunted by the first-line treatment for ADHD, methylphenidate. Here, we compared the effects of this psychostimulant (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on the behaviour of NK1R-/- mice and their wild types in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test, which emulates procedures used to study attention and response control in ADHD patients. Methylphenidate increased total trials (a measure of ‘productivity’) completed by wild types, but not by NK1R-/- mice. Conversely, this drug reduced perseveration by NK1R-/- mice, but not by wild types. Other drug-induced changes in key behaviours were not genotype dependent, especially at the highest dose: for example, % omissions (an index of inattentiveness) was increased, whereas % false alarms and % premature responses (measures of impulsivity) declined in both genotypes, indicating reduced overall response. These findings are discussed in the context of the efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD. Moreover, they lead to several testable proposals. First, methylphenidate does not improve attention in a subgroup of ADHD patients with a functional deficit of TACR1. Second, these patients do not express excessive false alarms when compared with other groups of subjects, but they do express excessive perseveration, which would be ameliorated by methylphenidate. PMID:27097734

  15. Special Issue Topic: School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogan, Bernard R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "The Choice Movement" (Brogan); "Choice in American Education" (Witte); "Role of Parents in Education" (Mawdsley); "As Arrows in the Hand" (Coons); "Vouchers in Wisconsin" (Underwood); "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP)" (Grover); "Civil Liberties and the MPCP" (Bolick); "Comments on School Choice" (Jauch); "Two Classes of…

  16. MAKING THE PATIENT-CONSUMER IN MARGARET THATCHER'S BRITAIN

    PubMed Central

    MOLD, ALEX

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role played by patient organizations in the making of the patient as consumer during Margaret Thatcher's term as prime minster. It details a crucial moment in the reconstitution of the relationship between state and citizen, as universal entitlements to welfare gave way to individualistic rights to, and choice of, services. Though patients had been regarded as consumers prior to this period, it was during the 1980s that the patient-consumer moved from the margins to centre-stage. By examining the activities of patient groups around three key themes – the provision of information, the development of patients' rights, and the notion of patient choice – this article shows that ideas about what it meant to be a patient-consumer came initially from patient groups. Through their work in these areas, patient groups built up a kind of patient consumerism that was concerned with the needs of the wider population, as well as representing demands made by individual patient-consumers. By the end of the 1980s, however, the patient-consumer was reconfigured by the Conservative government, and emphasis moved from the collective needs of patient-consumers to the rights of individuals within increasingly marketized services. This development thus raises questions not only about who speaks for the consumer, but also about the relationship between citizenship and consumption in contemporary Britain. PMID:22826610

  17. Individual intake of free-choice mineral mix by grazing beef cows may be less than typical formulation assumptions and form of selenium in mineral mix affects blood Se concentrations of cows and their suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer D; Burris, Walter R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the individual ad libitum intake of mineral mix by beef cows managed under a year-long, fall-calving, forage-based production regimen and (2) if Se form in the mineral mix affected the blood Se concentrations of cows and suckling calves. Twenty-four late-gestation (6 to 8 months) Angus-cross cows (2.7 ± 0.8 years; body weight [BW] = 585 ± 58 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned (n = 8) to a mineral supplement treatment (TRT) containing 35 ppm Se as either inorganic (ISe; sodium selenite), organic (OSe; Sel-Plex®), or a 1:1 combination of ISe/OSe (MIX). Cows commonly grazed a 10.1-ha predominately tall fescue pasture and had individual ad libitum access to TRT using in-pasture Calan gates. Cows calved from August to November and calves had common ad libitum access to creep feed and a mineral supplement that lacked Se. Cow jugular blood was taken at 28-day intervals (13 periods) and calf blood was taken with cows from birth through weaning. Individual cow mineral mix (mean = 54.0 ± 7.0 g/day, range = 97.3 to 27.9 ± 7.4 g/day) and Se (mean = 1.82 ± 0.25 mg/day, range = 3.31 to 0.95 ± 0.25 mg/day) intakes were affected by period (P < 0.0001), but not by cow Se TRT (P > 0.30). Cow blood Se (0.109 to 0.229 ± 0.01 μg/mL) was affected (P < 0.002) by period, Se form, and their interaction, with ISe < MIX for periods 8 and 11, ISe < OSe for all periods except period 1, and MIX < OSe for periods 2 to 4, 7, 8, 10, and 12. Calf blood Se (in micrograms Se per milliliter) was correlated with cow blood Se and affected (P < 0.0001) by cow Se TRT, with ISe (0.07 to 0.11) < MIX (0.10 to 0.15) = OSe (0.16 to 0.19). These data reveal that (1) mean supplemental ad libitum cow mineral intake was 36% less than the typical formulation intake expectations (85 g/day) and, correspondingly, mean supplemental Se intake was 33% less than that allowed by the FDA and (2) cow Se TRT differentially affected both cow and calf blood

  18. Consumer Experiences in a Consumer-Driven Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Data Sources/Study Setting Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Study Design Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. Principal Findings There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Conclusions Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs. PMID:15230916

  19. Investigating intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

    PubMed

    Paglieri, Fabio; Parisi, Domenico; Patacchiola, Massimiliano; Petrosino, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    In intertemporal choices, subjects face a trade-off between value and delay: achieving the most valuable outcome requires a longer time, whereas the immediately available option is objectively poorer. Intertemporal choices are ubiquitous, and comparative studies reveal commonalities and differences across species: all species devalue future rewards as a function of delay (delay aversion), yet there is a lot of inter-specific variance in how rapidly such devaluation occurs. These differences are often interpreted in terms of ecological rationality, as depending on environmental factors (e.g., feeding ecology) and the physiological and morphological constraints of different species (e.g., metabolic rate). Evolutionary hypotheses, however, are hard to verify in vivo, since it is difficult to observe precisely enough real environments, not to mention ancestral ones. In this paper, we discuss the viability of an approach based on evolutionary robotics: in Study 1, we evolve robots without a metabolism in five different ecologies; in Study 2, we evolve metabolic robots (i.e., robots that consume energy over time) in three different ecologies. The intertemporal choices of the robots are analyzed both in their ecology and under laboratory conditions. Results confirm the generality of delay aversion and the usefulness of studying intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

  20. Learning from School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Hassel, Bryan C., Ed.

    This volume contains revised versions of 16 essays presented at a conference, "Rethinking School Governance," hosted by Harvard's Program on Education Policy and Governance in June 1997. Part 1, "Introduction," contains two chapters: (1) "School Choice: A Report Card" (Paul E. Peterson); and (2) "The Case for Charter Schools" (Bryan C. Hassel).…