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Sample records for affect control theory

  1. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  2. Affective Dynamics of Leadership: An Experimental Test of Affect Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Tobias; Scholl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Affect Control Theory (ACT; Heise 1979, 2007) states that people control social interactions by striving to maintain culturally shared feelings about the situation. The theory is based on mathematical models of language-based impression formation. In a laboratory experiment, we tested the predictive power of a new German-language ACT model with…

  3. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological “hub,” linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people’s behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research. PMID:25866559

  4. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia. PMID:27197903

  5. Redefining a Bizarre Situation: Relative Concept Stability in Affect Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    I analyze the process by which we react cognitively to information that contradicts our culturally held sentiments in the context of affect control theory. When bizarre, unanticipated events come to our attention and we have no opportunity to act so as to alter them, we must reidentify at least one event component: the actor, the behavior, or the…

  6. Control Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  7. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  8. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791

  9. Splines and control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.

  10. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. PMID:26160501

  11. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  12. Do scientific theories affect men's evaluations of sex crimes?

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J; Cheung, Benjamin Y; Schaller, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology accounts of gender differences in sexual behaviors in general and men's sexual aggression, in particular, has been criticized for legitimizing males' sexual misconduct. To empirically assess such critiques, two studies examined how men's judgments of male sex crimes (solicitation of sex from a prostitute; rape) are influenced by exposure to (a) evolutionary psychological theories and (b) social-constructivist theories. Across two studies, a consistent pattern emerged compared with a control condition (a) exposure to evolutionary psychology theories had no observable impact on male judgments of men's criminal sexual behavior, whereas (b) exposure to social-constructivist theories did affect judgments, leading men to evaluate sex crimes more harshly. Additional results (from Study 2) indicate that this effect is mediated by perceptions of male control over sexual urges. These results have implications for journalists, educators, and scientists. Aggr. Behav. 37:440-449, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21678431

  13. Control Theory and Statistical Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, William T.

    1990-01-01

    Contrasts modeling methods in control theory to the methods of statistical generalizations in empirical studies of human or animal behavior. Presents a computer simulation that predicts behavior based on variables (effort and rewards) determined by the invariable (desired reward). Argues that control theory methods better reflect relationships to…

  14. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  15. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time. PMID:22745675

  16. Cortical Control of Affective Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J.; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T.; DeMaio, Kristine D.; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M.; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E.; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1–Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1–Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1–Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders. PMID:23325249

  17. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  18. Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

  19. Cognitive and Affective Control in Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ralph E.; Harvey, Allison G.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent disabling chronic disorder. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (a) to review evidence suggesting that dysfunctional forms of cognitive control, such as thought suppression, worry, rumination, and imagery control, are associated with sleep disturbance; (b) to review a new budding field of scientific investigation – the role of dysfunctional affect control in sleep disturbance, such as problems with down-regulating negative and positive affective states; (c) to review evidence that sleep disturbance can impair next-day affect control; and (d) to outline, on the basis of the reviewed evidence, how the repetitive-thought literature and the affective science literature can be combined to further understanding of, and intervention for, insomnia. PMID:22162971

  20. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12–14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19–25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  1. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  2. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  3. Self-control, negative affect, and young driver aggression: an assessment of competing theoretical claims.

    PubMed

    Ellwanger, Steven J; Pratt, Travis C

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research reveals support for Agnew's general strain theory (GST) and Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory, yet the two perspectives make decidedly different predictions concerning the relationships between self-control, negative affect (e.g., anger), and criminal/deviant behavior. Where GST specifies indirect and conditioning effects of self-control and negative affect on criminal/deviant behavior, self-control theory states that the independent effect of indicators of anger would be spurious and should disappear on controlling for self-control. We test these propositions using survey data from a probability sample of young adults. The structural equation models indicate that, although anger is largely the consequence of self-control, self-control and negative affect exert significant direct effects on driving aggression. These results highlight the need to integrate GST and self-control theories to better explain this form of deviant behavior. PMID:23109495

  4. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  5. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  6. Applications of robust control theory - Educational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorato, P.; Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is made of applications of robust control theory to problems of flight control, control of flexible space structures, and engine control which have appeared in recent conferences and journals. An analysis is made of which theoretical techniques are most commonly used and what implications this has for graduate and undergraduate education in aerospace engineering.

  7. Do scientific theories affect men’s evaluations of sex crimes?

    PubMed Central

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN; HEINE, STEVEN J.; CHEUNG, BENJAMIN Y.; SCHALLER, MARK

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology accounts of gender differences in sexual behaviors in general and men’s sexual aggression in particular, have been criticized for legitimizing males’ sexual misconduct. To empirically assess such critiques, two studies examined how men’s judgments of male sex crimes (solicitation of sex from a prostitute; rape) are influenced by exposure to (a) evolutionary psychological theories, and (b) social-constructivist theories. Across two studies a consistent pattern emerged: compared to a control condition, (a) exposure to evolutionary psychology theories had no observable impact on male judgments of men’s criminal sexual behavior, whereas (b) exposure to social-constructivist theories did affect judgments, leading men to evaluate sex crimes more harshly. Additional results (from Study 2) indicate that this effect is mediated by perceptions of male control over sexual urges. These results have implications, for journalists, educators, and scientists. PMID:21678431

  8. Control theory for random systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current knowledge available for designing and predicting the effectiveness of controllers for dynamic systems which can be modeled by ordinary differential equations. A short discussion of feedback control is followed by a description of deterministic controller design and the concept of system state. The need for more realistic disturbance models led to the use of stochastic process concepts, in particular the Gauss-Markov process. A compensator controlled system, with random forcing functions, random errors in the measurements, and random initial conditions, is treated as constituting a Gauss-Markov random process; hence the mean-square behavior of the controlled system is readily predicted. As an example, a compensator is designed for a helicopter to maintain it in hover in a gusty wind over a point on the ground.

  9. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  10. Control theory meets synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  11. Geometrically constrained observability. [control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with observed processes in situations in which observations are available only when the state vector lies in certain regions. For linear autonomous observed processes, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for half-space observation regions. These results are shown to contain a theorem dual to a controllability result proved by the author for a linear autonomous control system whose control restraint set does not contain the origin as an interior point. Observability results relating to continuous observation systems and sampled data systems are presented, and an example of observing the state of an electrical network is given.

  12. An information theory account of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to efficiently process information and generate appropriate responses depends on the processes collectively called cognitive control. Despite a considerable focus in the literature on the cognitive control of information processing, neural mechanisms underlying control are still unclear, and have not been characterized by considering the quantity of information to be processed. A novel and comprehensive account of cognitive control is proposed using concepts from information theory, which is concerned with communication system analysis and the quantification of information. This account treats the brain as an information-processing entity where cognitive control and its underlying brain networks play a pivotal role in dealing with conditions of uncertainty. This hypothesis and theory article justifies the validity and properties of such an account and relates experimental findings to the frontoparietal network under the framework of information theory. PMID:25228875

  13. Optimal control and Galois theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikin, M I; Kiselev, D D; Lokutsievskiy, L V

    2013-11-30

    An important role is played in the solution of a class of optimal control problems by a certain special polynomial of degree 2(n−1) with integer coefficients. The linear independence of a family of k roots of this polynomial over the field Q implies the existence of a solution of the original problem with optimal control in the form of an irrational winding of a k-dimensional Clifford torus, which is passed in finite time. In the paper, we prove that for n≤15 one can take an arbitrary positive integer not exceeding [n/2] for k. The apparatus developed in the paper is applied to the systems of Chebyshev-Hermite polynomials and generalized Chebyshev-Laguerre polynomials. It is proved that for such polynomials of degree 2m every subsystem of [(m+1)/2] roots with pairwise distinct squares is linearly independent over the field Q. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  14. Dissociable prefrontal networks for cognitive and affective theory of mind: a lesion study.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2007-10-01

    The underlying mechanisms and neuroanatomical correlates of theory of mind (ToM), the ability to make inferences on others' mental states, remain largely unknown. While numerous studies have implicated the ventromedial (VM) frontal lobes in ToM, recent findings have questioned the role of the prefrontal cortex. We designed two novel tasks that examined the hypothesis that affective ToM processing is distinct from that related to cognitive ToM and depends in part on separate anatomical substrates. The performance of patients with localized lesions in the VM was compared to responses of patients with dorsolateral lesions, mixed prefrontal lesions, and posterior lesions and with healthy control subjects. While controls made fewer errors on affective as compared to cognitive ToM conditions in both tasks, patients with VM damage showed a different trend. Furthermore, while affective ToM was mostly impaired by VM damage, cognitive ToM was mostly impaired by extensive prefrontal damage, suggesting that cognitive and affective mentalizing abilities are partly dissociable. By introducing the concept of 'affective ToM' to the study of social cognition, these results offer new insights into the mediating role of the VM in the affective facets of social behavior that may underlie the behavioral disturbances observed in these patients. PMID:17640690

  15. Would Controlled Substance Status Affect Steroid Trafficking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1987-01-01

    Loss of control over the use of anabolic steriods had prompted the federal government to take steps to stem the black market manufacture and distribution of these drugs. However, these steps are likely to stop short of bestowing controlled substance status on steriods. (Author/CB)

  16. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation. PMID:24778957

  17. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation. PMID:24778957

  18. Use of modern control theory in military command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Timothy E.

    2001-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern control theoretic approaches in military command and control. The military enterprise is a highly dynamic and nonlinear environment. The desire on the part of military commanders to operate at faster operational tempos while still maintaining a stable and robust system, naturally leads to the consideration of a control theoretic approach to providing decision aids. I will present a brief history of the science of command and control of military forces and discuss how modern control theory might be applied to air operations.

  19. Aspects of social cognition in anorexia nervosa: affective and cognitive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Russell, Tamara Anne; Schmidt, Ulrike; Doherty, Liz; Young, Vicky; Tchanturia, Kate

    2009-08-15

    Although social functioning is clearly impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been limited empirical assessment of this domain in this illness. This study assesses social cognition in AN by examining performance on two 'theory of mind' (ToM) tasks; Baron-Cohen's "Reading the mind in the Eyes" task (RME) and Happé's cartoon task. These tasks probe affective and cognitive ToM, respectively. Forty-four female participants were recruited (AN N=22; healthy controls N=22) and completed both tasks, with concurrent clinical and intellectual functioning assessment. Compared with healthy controls, AN performed significantly worse on both the RME and the Cartoon task (both conditions). The mental state condition did not facilitate performance in the AN group, as it did in the healthy controls. The findings broadly replicate limited previous work [Tchanturia, K., Happé, F., Godley, J., Bara-Carill, N., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., 2004. Theory of mind in AN. European Eating Disorders Review 12, 361-366] but in addition demonstrate abnormalities on a task requiring affective ToM interpretation. More detailed information about the components of ToM and the ToM difficulties demonstrated in AN sufferers may inform our understanding of the disorder as well as future social-cognitive based treatments. PMID:19467562

  20. Cognitive load affects postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Lopez, Luisa; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-05-01

    Inferring relations between cognitive processes and postural control is a relatively topical challenge in developmental neurology. This study investigated the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in a sample of 50 nine-year-old children. Each subject completed two balance trials of 60 s, one with a concurrent cognitive task (cognitive load) and another with no cognitive load. The concurrent cognitive task consisted of mentally counting backwards in steps of 2. Twelve posturographic parameters (PPs) were extracted from the centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory obtained through a load cell force plate. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the majority of the extracted PPs. CoP was found to travel faster, farther, and with substantially different features demonstrating an overall broadening of the spectrum in the frequency domain. Nonlinear stability factors revealed significant differences when exposed to a concurrent cognitive task, showing an increase of instability in the intervention rate of the postural control system. By grouping children through selected items from Teachers Ratings and PANESS assessment, specific significant differences were also found both in time and frequency domain PPs, thus confirming the hypothesis of an interaction between cognitive processes (and their development), and postural control. PMID:17136524

  1. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing. PMID:21467048

  2. Complexity Theory: Inclusion of the Affective Domain in an Interactive Learning Model for Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.; Nielsen, Milt

    1998-01-01

    Proposes an interactive learning model to serve as a psychological foundation for the field of instructional design theory. Topics include complexity theory, cognitive models of learning, cognitive and affective domains, sensory receptors component (memory) and the effects of external stimuli, affects component, cognitive strategies, and knowledge…

  3. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Jorge M.; Dall'Asén, Analía G.; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback. PMID:21113000

  4. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM. PMID:26803059

  5. Pheromonal control: reconciling physiological mechanism with signalling theory.

    PubMed

    Peso, Marianne; Elgar, Mark A; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals. They can have profound effects on the behaviour and/or physiology of the receiver, and it is still common to hear pheromones described as controlling of the behaviour of the receiver. The discussion of pheromonal control arose initially from a close association between hormones and pheromones in the comparative physiological literature, but the concept of a controlling pheromone is at odds with contemporary signal evolution theory, which predicts that a manipulative pheromonal signal negatively affecting the receiver's fitness should not be stable over evolutionary time. Here we discuss the meaning of pheromonal control, and the ecological circumstances by which it might be supported. We argue that in discussing pheromonal control it is important to differentiate between control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's physiology (proximate control), and control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's fitness (ultimate control). Critically, a pheromone signal affecting change in the receiver's behaviour or physiology need not necessarily manipulate the fitness of a receiver. In cases where pheromonal signalling does lead to a reduction in the fitness of the receiver, the signalling system would be stable if the pheromone were an honest signal of a social environment that disadvantages the receiver, and the physiological and behavioural changes observed in the receiver were an adaptive response to the new social circumstances communicated by the pheromone. PMID:24925630

  6. Affective Relationship, Locus of Control, and Imitative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, A. J., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the affective relationship between a model and observer and locus of control on imitative behavior were investigated using a simple imitative task with 28 boys as subjects. Results indicated the need to control the affective relationship between model and observer and support Bandura's position that imitative behavior is primarily…

  7. Perspectives in Theory: Anthology of Theorists affecting the Educational World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicking, Misty M., Ed.; Collins, Brian, Ed.; Fernett, Laura, Ed.; Taylor, Barbara, Ed.; Sutton, Kathleen, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of research papers on theorists that affect the educational world are collected in this anthology. Twenty-one students, through the course of their education class, Social and Psychological Conditions of Learning--EDUC 320, researched and applied their knowledge in the elementary and secondary school environments. The contributing…

  8. Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.

  9. On a disturbance of affectivity in schizophrenic adolescents: implications for affect theory.

    PubMed

    Siomopoulos, G

    1980-01-01

    As recently as 1969 Loeb stated, "Not only has adolescent schizophrenia been largely ignored by the clinician and research worker but until recent years the entire subject of adolescence had received scant attention" (p. 462). Since that time, a number of investigators have attended to similarities and differences between the schizophrenic syndrome, as a whole, and schizophrenia as it appears in adolescence. One of the findings that has been alluded to by some authors concerns the notion that affect is less severely disturbed, especially in the dimension of affective responsiveness, in adolescent schizophrenics (Sands, 1956). Observations by the author and others suggest that greater attention be paid to the variety of affectivity to delineate this area of symptomatology, which both Kraepelin and Bleuler considered so fundamental and typical in their designations of dementia praecox and schizophrenia. Indeed the purpose of this study concerns the description and dynamic understanding of a typical disturbance of affectivity in adolescent schizophrenics. This disturbance is characterized by a quality of affective communication in which the patient relates to the people around him in a superficial, socially acceptable, receptionist-like manner which induces in the observer the impression that the individual's genuine feelings are not prominent. For want of a better term, we may designate this affective state "airline-hostess affectivity" (A.H.A.). The disturbance is not exclusive to adolescent schizophrenics but can also be observed in young adults too before a phase of chronic adaptation to the schizophrenic process. PMID:7369002

  10. Einstein's Math Errors Profoundly Affects Mathematical and Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David

    2007-05-01

    Einstein treats time as a vector, however time is a scalar. Vectors possess both magnitude and direction. To mathematically equate time with direction is a Fallacy of Ambiguity. It is physically impossible to have space with more than three directions. Any theory where time is represented as a forth direction does not represent reality, i.e., (x, y, z, t). The entire math used in the Special and General Theories of Relativity is meaningless, unreasonable and ambiguous. Second. Einstein defines the speed of light as a constant, in the equation c = d (distance)/t (time). In this direct proportion, c being the constant, change one factor and the other must change as well. Einstein changes the time factor in this formula when time slows down but he does not change the distance factor. In reality, time slows down when space contracts in all three directions or in the system of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z,) being length, width, and height. The author defines this contraction as C-Space. Pressler's Law of C-Space: The speed of light will always be measured as a constant, c, in all three directions, in ones own inertial reference frame and the speed of light will always be measured to be different in all other inertial reference frames which are at a different gravity or kinetic energy levels. Time is defined as the rate of physical process; how fast things take place. Gravity is the distortion of space in all three directions, c-space. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.D2.2

  11. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  12. How positive affect modulates cognitive control: the costs and benefits of reduced maintenance capability.

    PubMed

    Dreisbach, Gesine

    2006-02-01

    Adaptive action in a constantly changing environment requires the ability to maintain intentions and goals over time and to flexibly switch between these goals in response to significant changes. argued that positive affect modulates these antagonistic control demands in favor of a more flexible but also more distractible behavior. In the present paper, the author will present further evidence for the affective modulation of cognitive control: mild positive affect reduced maintenance capability in a simple cuing paradigm (the AX Continuous Performance Task) as compared to negative and neutral affect. This reduced maintenance capability results in costs when a to be maintained goal has to be executed and conversely results in benefits when a to be maintained goal unexpectedly changes. The data will be discussed with respect to existing theories on positive affect, cognitive control, and dopamine. PMID:16216400

  13. The differential influences of positive affect, random reward, and performance-contingent reward on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive affect and reward have differential effects on cognitive control. So far, however, these effects have never been studied together. Here, the authors present one behavioral study investigating the influences of positive affect and reward (contingent and noncontingent) on proactive control. A modified version of the AX-continuous performance task, which has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to reward and affect manipulations, was used. In a first phase, two experimental groups received either neutral or positive affective pictures before every trial. In a second phase, the two halves of a given affect group additionally received, respectively, performance-contingent or random rewards. The results replicated the typical affect effect, in terms of reduced proactive control under positive as compared to neutral affect. Also, the typical reward effects associated with increased proactive control were replicated. Most interestingly, performance-contingent reward counteracted the positive affect effect, whereas random reward mirrored that effect. In sum, this study provides first evidence that performance-contingent reward, on the one hand, and positive affect and performance-noncontingent reward, on the other hand, have oppositional effects on cognitive control: Only performance-contingent reward showed a motivational effect in terms of a strategy shift toward increased proactive control, whereas positive affect alone and performance-noncontingent reward reduced proactive control. Moreover, the integrative design of this study revealed the vulnerability of positive affect effects to motivational manipulations. The results are discussed with respect to current neuroscientific theories of the effects of dopamine on affect, reward, and cognitive control. PMID:24659000

  14. Einstein's Math Errors Profoundly Affect Mathematical and Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David

    2008-04-01

    Einstein treats time as a vector, however, time has no direction associated with it; it is a scalar, it only has magnitude and is specified completely by giving it a number or units. Vectors possess both magnitude and direction. To mathematically equate time with direction is ambiguous and commits a Fallacy of Ambiguity. It is physically impossible to have space with more than three directions. Any theory where time is represented as a forth direction does not represent reality, i.e., (x, y, z, t). Einstein defines the speed of light as a constant, in the equation c = d (distance)/t (time). In this direct proportion Einstein changes the time factor (denominator), when time slows down due to motion but he does not change the distance factor (numerator). This is an error. In reality, time slows down when space contracts in all three directions, in the system of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z,); or C-Space. Pressler's Law of C-Space: The speed of light will always be measured as a constant, c, in all three directions, in ones own inertial reference frame and the speed of light will always be measured to be different in all other inertial reference frames which are at a different gravity or kinetic energy level. Time is exactly defined as the rate of physical process; how fast things take place. This new paradigm shift redefines the Michelson-Morley where both mirrors move inward toward the center of the interferometer.

  15. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  16. Positive Affect Increases Cognitive Control in the Antisaccade Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Imants, Puck; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    To delineate the modulatory effects of induced positive affect on cognitive control, the current study investigated whether positive affect increases the ability to suppress a reflexive saccade in the antisaccade task. Results of the antisaccade task showed that participants made fewer erroneous prosaccades in the condition in which a positive…

  17. Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

  18. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  19. Application of control theory to dynamic systems simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Young, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The application of control theory is applied to dynamic systems simulation. Theory and methodology applicable to controlled ecological life support systems are considered. Spatial effects on system stability, design of control systems with uncertain parameters, and an interactive computing language (PARASOL-II) designed for dynamic system simulation, report quality graphics, data acquisition, and simple real time control are discussed.

  20. Robust control systems design by H-infinity optimization theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, B. C.; Li, X. P.; Banda, S. S.; Yeh, H. H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, step-by-step procedures of applying the H-infinity theory to robust control systems design are given. The objective of the paper is to eliminate the possible difficulties a control engineer may encounter in applying H-infinity control theory and to clear up some misconceptions about H-infinity theory like high-gain controller and numerical obstacles, etc. An efficient algorithm is used to compute the optimal H-infinity norm. The Glover and Doyle (1988) controller formulas are slightly modified and used to construct an optimal controller without any numerical difficulties.

  1. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.

    2014-03-01

    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  2. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  3. Theory of automatic control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Herbert K

    1939-01-01

    Methods of automatically controlling the airplane are reviewed. Equations for the controlled motion including inertia effects of the control are developed and methods of investigating the stability of the resulting fifth and higher order equations are presented. The equations for longitudinal and lateral motion with both ideal and non-ideal controls are developed in dimensionless form in terms of control parameters based on simple dynamic tests of the isolated control unit.

  4. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research directions in the fields of digital signal processing and modern control and estimation theory are discussed. Stability theory, linear prediction and parameter identification, system synthesis and implementation, two-dimensional filtering, decentralized control and estimation, and image processing are considered in order to uncover some of the basic similarities and differences in the goals, techniques, and philosophy of the disciplines.

  5. Shared and nonshared neural networks of cognitive and affective theory-of-mind: a neuroimaging study using cartoon picture stories.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Lissek, Silke; Lenz, Melanie; Juckel, Georg; Schultz, Thomas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to represent one's own and others' cognitive and affective mental states. Recent imaging studies have aimed to disentangle the neural networks involved in cognitive as opposed to affective ToM, based on clinical observations that the two can functionally dissociate. Due to large differences in stimulus material and task complexity findings are, however, inconclusive. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in psychologically healthy male participants (n = 39) using functional brain imaging, whereby the same set of stimuli was presented for all conditions (affective, cognitive and control), but associated with different questions prompting either a cognitive or affective ToM inference. Direct contrasts of cognitive versus affective ToM showed that cognitive ToM recruited the precuneus and cuneus, as well as regions in the temporal lobes bilaterally. Affective ToM, in contrast, involved a neural network comprising prefrontal cortical structures, as well as smaller regions in the posterior cingulate cortex and the basal ganglia. Notably, these results were complemented by a multivariate pattern analysis (leave one study subject out), yielding a classifier with an accuracy rate of more than 85% in distinguishing between the two ToM-conditions. The regions contributing most to successful classification corresponded to those found in the univariate analyses. The study contributes to the differentiation of neural patterns involved in the representation of cognitive and affective mental states of others. PMID:25131828

  6. Developmental regulation with progressive vision loss: Use of control strategies and affective well-being.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P; Cimarolli, Verena R; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being, in a sample of 364 older adults diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration. Using longitudinal data from 5 occasions at 6-month intervals, we examined intraindividual change in control strategies, and how it was related to change in affective well-being, in terms of self-rated happiness and depressive symptoms. Mixed model analyses confirmed our hypotheses that (a) intraindividual change, particularly in selective primary control and in compensatory secondary control (CSC), predict change toward higher happiness ratings and lower depression; and (b) as functional abilities (instrumental activities of daily living) declined, CSC became increasingly predictive of better affective well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that CSC strategies are essential for maintaining affective well-being when physical functioning declines. Intensified selective primary control striving may be effective to achieve goals that have become difficult to reach but are not associated with affective well-being, possibly because struggling with difficulties undermines the experience of enjoyable mastery. In contrast, goal adjustments and self-protective thinking may help to find pleasure even from restricted daily activities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845507

  7. Investigating Friendship Quality: An Exploration of Self-Control and Social Control Theories' Friendship Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.

    2012-01-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…

  8. Interrelations in Cognition and Affect in Infancy: A Comparison of Piagetian, Psychoanalytic, and Eriksonian Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of Piagetian and psychoanalytic theories of infancy to establish the developmental relationships between cognition and affect. Theoretical points of similarity and dissimilarity are cited. Relevant reasearch studies (Bell, Gouin-Decarie, Fraiberg) are reviewed in an attempt to resolve…

  9. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naive Impetus Theory Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…

  10. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  11. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable management of the human and natural systems, taking into account their interactions, has become paramount. To achieve this complex multidisciplinary objective, systems theory based techniques prove useful. The proposed work is a step in that direction. Taking a food w...

  12. Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. The OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated, and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.

  13. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  14. Propulsion control and control theory: A new research focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Technological developments necessary for the implementation of advanced digital control concepts for aircraft propulsion are identified and discussed. Developments associated with the replacement analog controllers with digital control systems, sensors and actuators, and control modes and software are reported.

  15. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information. PMID:26114543

  16. Utilizing Control Theory in Business Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Pamela Porter

    1988-01-01

    In the formal school setting, the control of learning has typically been placed with the wrong person--the teacher. By modifying the control mechanism in the educational process and elevating the student to a position of "determining individual destiny," a catalyst for motivated learning may evolve. (JOW)

  17. Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Lauren D.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56% female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:25870113

  18. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  19. Design of flight control systems via robust decoupled servomechanism theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Davison, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Decoupling theory and robust servomechanism theory are applied to the design of linear multivariable systems with large parameter variations. In addition to being approximately decoupled in the transient period, the over-all system achieves tracking and disturbance rejection robustly in the steady state. An example in flight control system is given.

  20. Client-Controlled Case Information: A General System Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Dale

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of…

  1. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research areas associated with digital signal processing and control and estimation theory are identified. Particular attention is given to image processing, system identification problems (parameter identification, linear prediction, least squares, Kalman filtering), stability analyses (the use of the Liapunov theory, frequency domain criteria, passivity), and multiparameter systems, distributed processes, and random fields.

  2. Intermittent control: a computational theory of human control.

    PubMed

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Lakie, Martin; Gollee, Henrik

    2011-02-01

    The paradigm of continuous control using internal models has advanced understanding of human motor control. However, this paradigm ignores some aspects of human control, including intermittent feedback, serial ballistic control, triggered responses and refractory periods. It is shown that event-driven intermittent control provides a framework to explain the behaviour of the human operator under a wider range of conditions than continuous control. Continuous control is included as a special case, but sampling, system matched hold, an intermittent predictor and an event trigger allow serial open-loop trajectories using intermittent feedback. The implementation here may be described as "continuous observation, intermittent action". Beyond explaining unimodal regulation distributions in common with continuous control, these features naturally explain refractoriness and bimodal stabilisation distributions observed in double stimulus tracking experiments and quiet standing, respectively. Moreover, given that human control systems contain significant time delays, a biological-cybernetic rationale favours intermittent over continuous control: intermittent predictive control is computationally less demanding than continuous predictive control. A standard continuous-time predictive control model of the human operator is used as the underlying design method for an event-driven intermittent controller. It is shown that when event thresholds are small and sampling is regular, the intermittent controller can masquerade as the underlying continuous-time controller and thus, under these conditions, the continuous-time and intermittent controller cannot be distinguished. This explains why the intermittent control hypothesis is consistent with the continuous control hypothesis for certain experimental conditions. PMID:21327829

  3. Links Among Cognitive Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Affective Perspective Taking by Young Children.

    PubMed

    Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking. PMID:26508454

  4. Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy ratio are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust system comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy ratio, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).

  5. Some Contributions of General Systems Theory, Cybernetics Theory and Management Control Theory to Evaluation Theory and Practice. Research on Evaluation Program Paper and Report Series. Interim Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Desmond L.

    This document, one of a series of reports examining the possible contribution of other disciplines to evaluation methodology, describes the major elements of general systems theory (GST), cybernetics theory (CT) and management control theory (MCT). The author suggests that MCT encapsulates major concerns of evaluation since it reveals that…

  6. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  7. Application of stability theory to laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art for application of stability theory to laminar flow control using suction, wall temperature and/or favorable pressure gradient ('natural laminar flow'). Discussions include current LFC problem areas requiring stability analyses, methods of relating stability theory to transition with results from data and theory comparisons available thus far, and a summary of low disturbance data available for theory calibration on swept wings. Critical issues highlighted are problems peculiar to suction LFC on high performance transonic wings and application of the e-to-the-n-power method to both low and high speed flight data.

  8. Mastoid Vibration Affects Dynamic Postural Control During Gait.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate how manipulating sensory input through mastoid vibration (MV) could affect dynamic postural control during walking, with and without simultaneous manipulation of the visual and the somatosensory systems. We used three levels of MV (none, unilateral, and bilateral) via vibrating elements placed on the mastoid processes. We combined this with the six conditions of the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT) paradigm to challenge the visual and somatosensory systems. We hypothesized that MV would affect both amount and temporal structure measures of sway variability during walking and that, in combination with manipulations of the visual and the somatosensory inputs, MV would augment the effects previously observed. The results confirmed that MV produced a significant increase in the amount of sway variability in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Significant changes in the temporal structure of sway variability were only observed in the anterior-posterior direction. Bilateral MV produced larger effects than unilateral stimulation. We concluded that sensory input while walking could be affected using MV. Combining MV with manipulations of visual and somatosensory input could allow us to better understand the contributions of the sensory systems during locomotion. PMID:26833038

  9. Lie theory and control systems defined on spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that in constructing a theory for the most elementary class of control problems defined on spheres, some results from the Lie theory play a natural role. To understand controllability, optimal control, and certain properties of stochastic equations, Lie theoretic ideas are needed. The framework considered here is the most natural departure from the usual linear system/vector space problems which have dominated control systems literature. For this reason results are compared with those previously available for the finite dimensional vector space case.

  10. Motor control theories and their applications.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L; Levin, Mindy F; Scholz, John P; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the idea of synergies based on the principle of motor abundance. The equilibrium-point hypothesis is based on the idea of control with thresholds for activation of neuronal pools; it provides a framework for analysis of both voluntary and involuntary movements. In particular, control of a single muscle can be adequately described with changes in the threshold of motor unit recruitment during slow muscle stretch (threshold of the tonic stretch reflex). Unlike the ideas of internal models, the equilibrium-point hypothesis does not assume neural computations of mechanical variables. The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is based on the dynamic system approach to movements; it offers a toolbox to analyze synergic changes within redundant sets of elements related to stabilization of potentially important performance variables. The referent configuration hypothesis and the principle of abundance can be naturally combined into a single coherent scheme of control of multi-element systems. A body of experimental data on healthy persons and patients with movement disorders are reviewed in support of the mentioned hypotheses. In particular, movement disorders associated with spasticity are considered as consequences of an impaired ability to shift threshold of the tonic stretch reflex within the whole normal range. Technical details and applications of the mentioned hypo-theses to studies of motor learning are described. We view the mentioned hypotheses as the most promising ones in the field of motor control, based on a solid physical and neurophysiological foundation. PMID:20944446

  11. Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. This LQR design was obtained as part of the F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis (MVCS) program. In the MVCS program the LQR feedback control was designed in a reduced dimension state space and then applied to the original system. However, the OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the MVCS program LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.

  12. Lagrange duality theory for convex control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lagrange dual to a control problem is studied. The principal result based on the Hahn-Banach theorem proves that the dual problem has an optimal solution if there exists an interior point for the constraint set. A complementary slackness condition holds, if the primal problem has an optimal solution. A necessary and sufficient condition for the optimality of solutions to the primal and the dual problem is also presented.

  13. Damage to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex impacts affective theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Anne; dal Monte, Olga; Pardini, Matteo; Pulaski, Sarah J.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating theory of mind (ToM) abilities (i.e. ability to understand and predict others’ mental states) have revealed that affective and cognitive functions play a significant role and that each of those functions are associated with distinct neural networks. Cognitive facets of ToM have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction and the anterior paracingulate cortex, whereas affective facets have implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Although the vmPFC has repeatedly shown to be critical for affective functions, knowledge regarding the exact role of the left and right vmPFC in affective ToM is still obscure. Here, we compared performances of 30 patients with left, right and bilateral vmPFC lesions to two comparison groups (one without and one with brain injuries) on the Faux Pas Recognition task measuring the facets of ToM. We also investigated whether any deficits may be associated with other emotional measures, namely emotional empathy and emotional intelligence. Our results extend earlier findings by showing that the vmPFC is associated with abilities in affective ToM. More importantly, our results revealed that the left, and not the right vmPFC as indicated previously, is involved in affective ToM and that this deficit is associated with emotional intelligence. PMID:22021651

  14. Sound as Affective Design Feature in Multimedia Learning--Benefits and Drawbacks from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Königschulte, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates the potential effects of including non-speech audio such as sound effects into multimedia-based instruction taking into account Sweller's cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005) and applied frameworks such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive affective theory of…

  15. Theory of mind, inhibitory control, and preschool-age children's suggestibility in different interviewing contexts.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Matthew H; Bonner, Karri

    2006-02-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of mind aided in the prediction of suggestibility about the live event, and inhibitory control was a moderator variable affecting the consistency of children's sensitivity to social pressure across situations. The findings indicate that theory of mind and inhibitory control predict children's suggestibility about a live event above and beyond yield, shift, and age and that the construct validity of shift may improve as children's inhibitory control develops. PMID:16236306

  16. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  17. Kalman meets neuron - the intersection of control theory and neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models which provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I will show recent examples of the use of nonlinear control theory for the assimilation and control of single neuron dynamics, a novel framework for dynamic clamp, the modulation of oscillatory wave dynamics in brain cortex, a control framework for Parkinsonian dynamics and seizures, and the use of optimized parameter model networks to assimilate complex network data.

  18. Hierarchical control of ride height system for electronically controlled air suspension based on variable structure and fuzzy control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Kongkang; Zou, Nannan; Jiang, Hong; Cui, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    The current research of air suspension mainly focuses on the characteristics and design of the air spring. In fact, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) has excellent performance in flexible height adjustment during different driving conditions. However, the nonlinearity of the ride height adjusting system and the uneven distribution of payload affect the control accuracy of ride height and the body attitude. Firstly, the three-point measurement system of three height sensors is used to establish the mathematical model of the ride height adjusting system. The decentralized control of ride height and the centralized control of body attitude are presented to design the ride height control system for ECAS. The exact feedback linearization method is adopted for the nonlinear mathematical model of the ride height system. Secondly, according to the hierarchical control theory, the variable structure control (VSC) technique is used to design a controller that is able to adjust the ride height for the quarter-vehicle anywhere, and each quarter-vehicle height control system is independent. Meanwhile, the three-point height signals obtained by three height sensors are tracked to calculate the body pitch and roll attitude over time, and then by calculating the deviation of pitch and roll and its rates, the height control correction is reassigned based on the fuzzy algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed combined control strategy, a validating test of ride height control system with and without road disturbance is carried out. Testing results show that the height adjusting time of both lifting and lowering is over 5 s, and the pitch angle and the roll angle of body attitude are less than 0.15°. This research proposes a hierarchical control method that can guarantee the attitude stability, as well as satisfy the ride height tracking system.

  19. Engagement & Disengagement in Mutual-Help Addiction Recovery Housing: A Test of Affective Events Theory

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Christopher R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement and disengagement in addiction recovery settings are important for these communities and their members. This study tested an Affective Events Theory (AET) model of these constructs in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents’ congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents—citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and how intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  20. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  1. Modern control theory for Army missile guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, R. H.; Levari, H.; Gupta, N. K.

    1982-11-01

    A Singular perturbation guidance law has been developed for medium-range surface-to-air missiles. This guidance law is a significant extension of a previously developed guidance law for short-range missiles; in medium-range intercepts, the problem of energy management should be addressed in addition to homing guidance. The mathematical formulation has been simplified by introducing separation of time scales. Target Trajectory Estimation: A recursive algorithm for estimation of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model parameters from noisy samples has been developed. Application of this algorithm to parameter estimation problems has exhibited its fast convergence and unbiasedness in the presence of noise, even with short data records. The algorithm has two versions, a Recursive Maximum Likelihood (RML) form and a Recursive Prediction Error (RPE) form, both of which possess a parallel structure that makes them highly suitable for parallel-processing implementation. Adaptive autopilots: Lattice-form algorithms have been developed for fast, recursive identification and control of time-varying systems. These algorithms have excellent numerical properties and a modular structure that makes them suitable for on-board real-time implementation.

  2. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the activities and research results obtained under a grant (NAG3-998) from the NASA Lewis Research Center. The focus of the research was the investigation of dynamic interactions between airframe and engines for advanced ASTOVL aircraft configurations, and the analysis of the implications of these interactions on the stability and performance of the airframe and engine control systems. In addition, the need for integrated flight and propulsion control for such aircraft was addressed. The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multi variable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important non-linear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multi variable techniques, included model-following formulations of LQG and/or H (infinity) methods showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods.

  3. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    of the system. The behavior of a system, as captured in the system modeling, when properly done will aid in accurately predicting future system performance. The Feedback Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and uses feedback to adjust control inputs into the system. The feedback, which is the right arm of the Control system, allows change to be affected in the overall system; it therefore is important to not only correctly identify the system feedback inputs, but also the system response to the feedback inputs. The Navigation system takes multiple data inputs and based on a priori knowledge of the inputs, develops a statistically based weighting of the inputs and measurements to determine the system's state. Guidance and Planning Logic of the system, complete with an understanding of where the system is (provided by the Navigation system), will in turn determine where the system needs to be and how to get it there. With any system/project, it is critical that the objective of the system/project be clearly defined -- not only to plan but to measure performance and to aid in guiding the system or the project. The system principles discussed above, which can be and have been applied to the current CxP space suit development project, can also be mapped to real-world constituents, thus allowing project managers to apply systems theories that are well defined in engineering and mathematics to a discipline (i.e., Project Management) that historically has been based in personal experience and intuition. This mapping of GN&C theory to Project Management will, in turn, permit a direct, methodical approach to Project Management, planning and control providing a tool to help predict (and guide) performance and an understanding of the project constraints, how the project can be controlled, and the impacts to external influences and inputs. This approach, to a project manager, flows down to the three bottom-line variables of cost, schedule, and scope

  4. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  5. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multivariable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. In these example evaluations, the significance of these interactions was underscored. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important nonlinear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multivariable techniques, including model-following formulations of LQG and/or H infinity methods, showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods. The major contributions of the second phase of the grant was the development of conditions under which no decentralized controller could achieve closed loop system requirements on stability and/or performance. Sought were conditions that depended only on properties of the plant and the requirement, and independent of any particular control law or synthesis approach. Therefore, they could be applied a priori, before synthesis of a candidate control law. Under this grant, such conditions were found regarding stability, and encouraging initial results were obtained regarding performance.

  6. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in affective theory of mind deficits in criminal offenders with psychopathic tendencies.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Harari, Hagai; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with psychopathy show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as lack of emotional responsiveness to others and deficient empathy. However, there are controversies regarding these individuals theory of mind (ToM) abilities and the neuroanatomical basis of their aberrant social behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that impairment in the emotional aspects of ToM (affective ToM) rather than general ToM abilities may account for the impaired social behavior observed in psychopathy and that this pattern of performance may be associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. To assess the emotional and cognitive aspects of ToM we used a task that examines affective versus cognitive ToM processing in separate conditions. ToM abilities of criminal offender diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder with high psychopathy features were compared to that of participants with localized lesions in the OFC or dorsolateral, participants with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Individuals with psychopathy and those with OFC lesions were impaired on the 'affective ToM' conditions but not in cognitive ToM conditions, compared to the control groups. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in psychopathy resembles remarkably that seen in participants with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with OFC damage, providing support for the notion of amygdala-OFC dysfunction in psychopathy. PMID:19501818

  7. Flexible control in processing affective and non-affective material predicts individual differences in trait resilience.

    PubMed

    Genet, Jessica J; Siemer, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Trait resilience is a stable personality characteristic that involves the self-reported ability to flexibly adapt to emotional events and situations. The present study examined cognitive processes that may explain individual differences in trait resilience. Participants completed self-report measures of trait resilience, cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity tasks, and a novel affective task-switching paradigm that assesses the ability to flexibly switch between processing the affective versus non-affective qualities of affective stimuli (i.e., flexible affective processing). As hypothesised, cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were unique predictors of trait resilience. Working memory capacity was not predictive of trait resilience, indicating that trait resilience is tied to specific cognitive processes rather than overall better cognitive functioning. Cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were not associated with other trait measures, suggesting that these flexibility processes are unique to trait resilience. This study was among the first to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying trait resilience. PMID:21432680

  8. Ideology, affect, semiotics: towards a non-personal theory of personality.

    PubMed

    Larocco, Steve

    2014-06-01

    Personality theories, as Giordano (2014) argues, often treat Western versions of the self as having universal import. Eastern notions of self, however, offer a dramatically different basis for thinking about what personality might be. This paper, nonetheless, seeks to offer a general framework for theorizing about the epiphenomenon of personality in any culture, asserting that it is an effect of specific histories of ideological practices, semiotic networks and systems, and affect, which engage each other in dialogic and dialectical ways. The interactions of these factors, guided by ideology, regularize behavior and affective dynamics, largely in non-personal ways. Subjects are produced and reproduced from these complex interactions, which are situationally specific and simultaneously transpersonal. The subjects formed through these interactions are the basis for the folk psychology of personality, which treats the transient, varying effects of these interactions as more or less reified qualities that form a basis for the construction of selfhood, however conceived. PMID:24532354

  9. Theory and applications survey of decentralized control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nonmathematical overview is presented of trends in the general area of decentralized control strategies which are suitable for hierarchical systems. Advances in decentralized system theory are closely related to advances in the so-called stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools pertaining to the classical stochastic control problem are outlined. Particular attention is devoted to pitfalls in the mathematical problem formulation for decentralized control. Major conclusions are that any purely deterministic approach to multilevel hierarchical dynamic systems is unlikely to lead to realistic theories or designs, that the flow of measurements and decisions in a decentralized system should not be instantaneous and error-free, and that delays in information exchange in a decentralized system lead to reasonable approaches to decentralized control. A mathematically precise notion of aggregating information is not yet available.

  10. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD. PMID:27173657

  11. Glancing and Then Looking: On the Role of Body, Affect, and Meaning in Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li; Bowman, Howard; Barnard, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, there is a trade-off between the need to respond optimally to the salient environmental stimuli and the need to meet our long-term goals. This implies that a system of salience sensitive control exists, which trades task-directed processing off against monitoring and responding to potentially high salience stimuli that are irrelevant to the current task. Much cognitive control research has attempted to understand these mechanisms using non-affective stimuli. However, recent research has emphasized the importance of emotions, which are a major factor in the prioritization of competing stimuli and in directing attention. While relatively mature theories of cognitive control exist for non-affective settings, exactly how emotions modulate cognitive processes is less well understood. The attentional blink (AB) task is a useful experimental paradigm to reveal the dynamics of both cognitive and affective control in humans. Hence, we have developed the glance–look model, which has replicated a broad profile of data on the semantic AB task and characterized how attentional deployment is modulated by emotion. Taking inspiration from Barnard’s Interacting Cognitive Subsystems, the model relies on a distinction between two levels of meaning: implicational and propositional, which are supported by two corresponding mental subsystems: the glance and the look respectively. In our model, these two subsystems reflect the central engine of cognitive control and executive function. In particular, the interaction within the central engine dynamically establishes a task filter for salient stimuli using a neurobiologically inspired learning mechanism. In addition, the somatic contribution of emotional effects is modeled by a body-state subsystem. We argue that stimulus-driven interaction among these three subsystems governs the movement of control between them. The model also predicts attenuation effects and fringe awareness during the AB. PMID:22194729

  12. Theory of the control of structures by low authority controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The novel idea presented is based on the observation that if a structure is controlled by distributed systems of sensors and actuators with limited authority, i.e., if the controller is allowed to modify only moderately the natural modes and frequencies of the structure, then it should be possible to apply root perturbation techniques to predict analytically the behavior of the total system. Attention is given to the root perturbation formula first derived by Jacobi for infinitesimal perturbations which neglect the induced eigenvector perturbation, a more general form of Jacobi's formula, first-order structural equations and modal state vectors, state-space equations for damper-augmented structures, and modal damping prediction formulas.

  13. The impact of maternal control on children's anxious cognitions, behaviours and affect: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy

    2010-10-01

    Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety. PMID:20594546

  14. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  15. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition.

    PubMed

    Clore, Gerald L; Palmer, Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  16. How to fly an aircraft with control theory and splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Anders

    1994-01-01

    When trying to fly an aircraft as smoothly as possible it is a good idea to use the derivatives of the pilot command instead of using the actual control. This idea was implemented with splines and control theory, in a system that tries to model an aircraft. Computer calculations in Matlab show that it is impossible to receive enough smooth control signals by this way. This is due to the fact that the splines not only try to approximate the test function, but also its derivatives. A perfect traction is received but we have to pay in very peaky control signals and accelerations.

  17. Approximation in control of flexible structures, theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The sense in which the feedback control law based on an approximate finite dimensional model of a continuous structure approximates a control law which is optimal for the distributed, or infinite dimensional, model of the structure is studied. From the analysis of the various control and stability issues associated with this basis question, useful information for designing finite dimensional compensators which produce near-optimal performance in infinite dimensional systems is gained. Some of the important predictions that can be made about large-order finite dimensional control laws, using the theory of infinite dimensional Riccati equations are indicated.

  18. Local control theory in trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we extend the implementation of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory in an external field described in Tavernelli et al.[Phys. Rev. A 81, 052508 (2010)] by calculating on-the-fly pulses to control the population transfer between electronic states using local control theory. Using Tully's fewest switches trajectory surface hopping method, we perform MD to control the photoexcitation of LiF and compare the results to quantum dynamics (QD) calculations performed within the Heidelberg multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree package. We show that this approach is able to calculate a field that controls the population transfer between electronic states. The calculated field is in good agreement with that obtained from QD, and the differences that arise are discussed in detail.

  19. Control theory and splines, applied to signature storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enqvist, Per

    1994-01-01

    In this report the problem we are going to study is the interpolation of a set of points in the plane with the use of control theory. We will discover how different systems generate different kinds of splines, cubic and exponential, and investigate the effect that the different systems have on the tracking problems. Actually we will see that the important parameters will be the two eigenvalues of the control matrix.

  20. Integrated control-system design via generalized LQG (GLQG) theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Hyland, David C.; Richter, Stephen; Haddad, Wassim M.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty years of control systems research has produced an enormous body of theoretical results in feedback synthesis. Yet such results see relatively little practical application, and there remains an unsettling gap between classical single-loop techniques (Nyquist, Bode, root locus, pole placement) and modern multivariable approaches (LQG and H infinity theory). Large scale, complex systems, such as high performance aircraft and flexible space structures, now demand efficient, reliable design of multivariable feedback controllers which optimally tradeoff performance against modeling accuracy, bandwidth, sensor noise, actuator power, and control law complexity. A methodology is described which encompasses numerous practical design constraints within a single unified formulation. The approach, which is based upon coupled systems or modified Riccati and Lyapunov equations, encompasses time-domain linear-quadratic-Gaussian theory and frequency-domain H theory, as well as classical objectives such as gain and phase margin via the Nyquist circle criterion. In addition, this approach encompasses the optimal projection approach to reduced-order controller design. The current status of the overall theory will be reviewed including both continuous-time and discrete-time (sampled-data) formulations.

  1. Schoenfeld's Problem Solving Theory in a Student Controlled Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes of solving problems. Crucial episodes are:…

  2. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54) of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III) in this microorganism. PMID:20167112

  3. Unilateral Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy: Chromatic Pupillometry in Affected, Fellow Non-Affected and Healthy Control Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Wegener, Marianne; Hannibal, Jens; Milea, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin, which is sensitive to blue light. Previous chromatic pupillometry studies have shown that the post-illumination response is considered an indicator of the melanopsin activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20 s blue (470 nm) or red (660 nm) light of high intensity (300 cd/m2) were recorded in each eye for 10 patients. Comparisons were performed both intra-individually (affected versus non-affected eyes) and inter-individually (compared with healthy controls). The pupil response was calculated both during the illumination and during the post-illumination phase. The pupil responses to blue and red colors were significantly reduced in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the fellow non-affected eyes. When comparing the affected eyes with the healthy control eyes, the post-illumination responses were not significantly different. In addition, the post-illumination pupil responses after blue light exposure were increased in the fellow non-affected patients’ eyes, compared with the healthy controls. However, significance was only reached for the late post-illumination response. In conclusion, chromatic pupillometry disclosed reduced post-illumination pupil responses in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the non-affected fellow eyes, suggesting dysfunction of the ipRGCs. Compared with the responses of the healthy controls, the blue light post-illumination pupil responses were similar in the affected eyes and increased in the fellow non-affected eyes. This suggests a possible adaptive phenomenon, involving the ipRGCs of both eyes after unilateral NAION. PMID:23717301

  4. Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.

  5. Control theory based airfoil design using the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony; Reuther, James

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using the potential flow equation with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. The goal of our present work is to extend the development to treat the Euler equations in two-dimensions by procedures that can readily be generalized to treat complex shapes in three-dimensions. Therefore, we have developed methods which can address airfoil design through either an analytic mapping or an arbitrary grid perturbation method applied to a finite volume discretization of the Euler equations. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented for both the inverse problem and drag minimization problem.

  6. An application of artificial intelligence theory to reconfigurable flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handelman, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques were used along with statistical hpyothesis testing and modern control theory, to help the pilot cope with the issues of information, knowledge, and capability in the event of a failure. An intelligent flight control system is being developed which utilizes knowledge of cause and effect relationships between all aircraft components. It will screen the information available to the pilots, supplement his knowledge, and most importantly, utilize the remaining flight capability of the aircraft following a failure. The list of failure types the control system will accommodate includes sensor failures, actuator failures, and structural failures.

  7. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health. PMID:15276314

  8. Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

    2006-09-01

    Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. PMID:16782230

  9. Internal Models in Sensorimotor Integration: Perspectives from Adaptive Control Theory

    PubMed Central

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2007-01-01

    Internal model and adaptive control are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of Luenberger observer and extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal model in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future. PMID:16135881

  10. Toward a Theory and Practice for Whole-Person Learning: Reconceptualizing Experience and the Role of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Kasl, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A pragmatic perspective favors reflective discourse over affect. Heron's theory of personhood takes a phenomenological approach to affective learning. Strategies from this approach can be applied to the phenomenon of learning-within-relationship, in which individuals engage their own whole-person learning and that of others. (Contains 36…

  11. Intelligent control based on fuzzy logic and neural net theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    In the conception and design of intelligent systems, one promising direction involves the use of fuzzy logic and neural network theory to enhance such systems' capability to learn from experience and adapt to changes in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. Here, an intelligent control scheme is explored by integrating these multidisciplinary techniques. A self-learning system is proposed as an intelligent controller for dynamical processes, employing a control policy which evolves and improves automatically. One key component of the intelligent system is a fuzzy logic-based system which emulates human decision making behavior. It is shown that the system can solve a fairly difficult control learning problem. Simulation results demonstrate that improved learning performance can be achieved in relation to previously described systems employing bang-bang control. The proposed system is relatively insensitive to variations in the parameters of the system environment.

  12. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  13. A Simplified Theory of Coupled Oscillator Array Phase Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; York, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Linear and planar arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of achieving high power rf sources through coherent spatial power combining. In such - applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Notable among these are linear phase distributions resulting in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the operation of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. This has made it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the impact of oscillator tuning on phase control and has thus impeded practical application. In this work a simpl!fied theory is developed which facilitates intuitive understanding by establishing an analog of the phase control problem in terms of electrostatics.

  14. EDITORIAL: Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David

    2011-08-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance

  15. Stochastic resonance-a nonlinear control theory interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repperger, D. W.; Farris, K. A.

    2010-07-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is an effect that has been known (Benzi, R., Sutera, A., and Vulpiani, A. (1981), 'The Mechanism of Stochastic Resonance', Journal of Physics, A14, L453-L457) for almost three decades and has been extensively studied in biology, statistics, signal processing and in numerous other eclectic areas (Wiesenfeld, K., and Moss, F. (1995), 'Stochastic Resonance and the Benefits of Noise: From Ice Ages to Crayfish and Squids', Nature, 373, 33-36). Herein, a nonlinear control theory analysis is conducted on how to better understand the class of systems that may exhibit the SR effect. Using nonlinear control theory methods, equilibrium points are manipulated to create the SR response (similar to shaping dynamical response in a phase plane). From this approach, a means of synthesising and designing the appropriate class of nonlinear systems is introduced. New types of nonlinear dynamics that demonstrate the SR effects are discovered, which may have utility in control theory as well as in many diverse applications. A numerical simulation illustrates some powerful attributes of these systems.

  16. A Theory of Cheap Control in Embodied Systems

    PubMed Central

    Montúfar, Guido; Ghazi-Zahedi, Keyan; Ay, Nihat

    2015-01-01

    We present a framework for designing cheap control architectures of embodied agents. Our derivation is guided by the classical problem of universal approximation, whereby we explore the possibility of exploiting the agent’s embodiment for a new and more efficient universal approximation of behaviors generated by sensorimotor control. This embodied universal approximation is compared with the classical non-embodied universal approximation. To exemplify our approach, we present a detailed quantitative case study for policy models defined in terms of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines. In contrast to non-embodied universal approximation, which requires an exponential number of parameters, in the embodied setting we are able to generate all possible behaviors with a drastically smaller model, thus obtaining cheap universal approximation. We test and corroborate the theory experimentally with a six-legged walking machine. The experiments indicate that the controller complexity predicted by our theory is close to the minimal sufficient value, which means that the theory has direct practical implications. PMID:26325254

  17. Theory of optical spin control in quantum dot microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, D. S.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Lanco, L.

    2015-09-01

    We present a microscopic theory of optical initialization, control, and detection for a single electron spin in a quantum dot embedded into a zero-dimensional microcavity. The strong coupling regime of the trion and the cavity mode is addressed. We demonstrate that efficient spin orientation by a single circularly polarized pulse is possible in relatively weak transverse magnetic fields. The possibilities for spin control by additional circularly polarized pulse are analyzed. Under optimal conditions the Kerr and Faraday rotation angles induced by the spin polarized electron may reach tens of degrees.

  18. Adaptive dynamic programming as a theory of sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Many characteristics of sensorimotor control can be explained by models based on optimization and optimal control theories. However, most of the previous models assume that the central nervous system has access to the precise knowledge of the sensorimotor system and its interacting environment. This viewpoint is difficult to be justified theoretically and has not been convincingly validated by experiments. To address this problem, this paper presents a new computational mechanism for sensorimotor control from a perspective of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP), which shares some features of reinforcement learning. The ADP-based model for sensorimotor control suggests that a command signal for the human movement is derived directly from the real-time sensory data, without the need to identify the system dynamics. An iterative learning scheme based on the proposed ADP theory is developed, along with rigorous convergence analysis. Interestingly, the computational model as advocated here is able to reproduce the motor learning behavior observed in experiments where a divergent force field or velocity-dependent force field was present. In addition, this modeling strategy provides a clear way to perform stability analysis of the overall system. Hence, we conjecture that human sensorimotor systems use an ADP-type mechanism to control movements and to achieve successful adaptation to uncertainties present in the environment. PMID:24962078

  19. Climate Change: Potential Affect on Pesticide Application for Vector Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global climate change has and will in the future contribute to the global burden of vector-borne disease by affecting the spatial and tempral distribution of disease. These changes in disease distributions are a direct result of altering the ecology of immature and adult habitats of insect vectors....

  20. Preemergence herbicides affect critical period of weed control in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective weed control systems must eliminate emerged weeds as well as account for subsequent weed emergence. Two common questions associated with herbicide control are: 1) how long can weeds compete with a crop for resources before yield is reduced and 2) when do weeds that emerge late in the seaso...

  1. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are now taking any kind of birth control pill or are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose ... of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health ...

  2. Factors That Affect Patient Attitudes toward Infection Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated patient attitudes toward different disease control measures taken in dental school clinics (n=272 patients) and private practices (n=107 patients). Variables examined included sex, age, educational background, and knowledge of infectious diseases. Patients tended to accept the control measures being used in each context. (MSE)

  3. Using item response theory to investigate the structure of anticipated affect: do self-reports about future affective reactions conform to typical or maximal models?

    PubMed Central

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Lerakis, Manolis; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we used item response theory (IRT) to examine whether effective predictions (anticipated affect) conforms to a typical (i.e., what people usually do) or a maximal behavior process (i.e., what people can do). The former, correspond to non-monotonic ideal point IRT models, whereas the latter correspond to monotonic dominance IRT models. A convenience, cross-sectional student sample (N = 1624) was used. Participants were asked to report on anticipated positive and negative affect around a hypothetical event (emotions surrounding the start of a new business). We carried out analysis comparing graded response model (GRM), a dominance IRT model, against generalized graded unfolding model, an unfolding IRT model. We found that the GRM provided a better fit to the data. Findings suggest that the self-report responses to anticipated affect conform to dominance response process (i.e., maximal behavior). The paper also discusses implications for a growing literature on anticipated affect. PMID:26441806

  4. Serotonin affects movement gain control in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kunlin; Glaser, Joshua I; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K; Stevenson, Ian H; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J; Kording, Konrad P

    2014-09-17

    A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input-output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

  5. Serotonin Affects Movement Gain Control in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K.; Stevenson, Ian H.; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input–output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

  6. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  7. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings. PMID:21728437

  8. A Theory and Model of Conflict Detection in Air Traffic Control: Incorporating Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S.; Neal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a model that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to…

  9. Theory of Optimal Phase-Unlocked Pump-Dump Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yijing

    1997-04-01

    A novel theory of optimal control via a pair of phase-unlocked pump-dump fields is developed. We first derive a pair of coupled nonlinear control equations for mixed or dissipative quantum systems in the strong response regime. These equations should be solved iteratively, resulting in a locally optimal pair of fields that are however usually too complicated to be realizable. To facilitate this problem, we further develop a hierarchy of reduction and arrive at a variety of simplified control equation pairs. In the weak response regime, we obtain a pair of coupled semi-linear control equations in which the globally optimal pump field at any given pump field, or vice verse, can be evaluated in a non-iterative manor. However, it still requires an iterative solution to the semi-globally optimal pair of pump-dump fields. Further reduction is then devised to consider the pure state control system in the weak response regime. In this case, we derive a generalized eigenequation for the non-iterative solution to the complete set of optimal control field pairs, and further identify the globally optimal one unambiguously. The existence of certain symmetry relation between the pump and dump fields in any optimal pair is also analyzed in the stimulate Raman pumping control configuration and demonstrated numerically.

  10. Applying Motor-Control Theory to Physical Therapy Practice: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Mary T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This case report describes the application of an integrated, systems-based theory of motor control to physical therapy practice. Client Description: The patient was a 5-year-old boy with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy who was entering kindergarten. Parent concerns related to the child's safety in playground activities such as playing on the slide. Interventions: Motor-control theory, including factors related to the task, the environment, and the individual, was used to guide and direct physical therapy management related to the patient goal of safely and effectively climbing the ladder to the playground slide. Patient Outcomes: When the child entered kindergarten, he was able to safely ascend the ladder to the playground slide, using a modified movement pattern, when distractions were minimized. However, attentional issues continued to affect task execution when other children were present. Implications: This case report demonstrates a means by which current knowledge and theory can be integrated into clinical practice. Future Directions: Applying motor-control theory to this case led to the development of clinical questions for future research. PMID:22654241

  11. Theory of nonlinear phononics for coherent light control of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Alaska; Cavalleri, Andrea; Georges, Antoine

    2014-06-01

    We present a microscopic theory for ultrafast control of solids with high-intensity terahertz frequency optical pulses. When resonant with selected infrared-active vibrations, these pulses transiently modify the crystal structure and lead to new collective electronic properties. The theory predicts the dynamical path taken by the crystal lattice using first-principles calculations of the energy surface and classical equations of motion, as well as symmetry considerations. Two classes of dynamics are identified. In the perturbative regime, displacements along the normal mode coordinate of symmetry-preserving Raman active modes can be achieved by cubic anharmonicities. This explains the light-induced insulator-to-metal transition reported experimentally in manganites. We predict a regime in which ultrafast instabilities that break crystal symmetry can be induced. This nonperturbative effect involves a quartic anharmonic coupling and occurs above a critical threshold, below which the nonlinear dynamics of the driven mode displays softening and dynamical stabilization.

  12. Control of resistance plug welding using quantitative feedback theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, A.E.; Horowitz, I. ||; Chait, Y.; Rodrigues, J.

    1996-12-01

    Resistance welding is used extensively throughout the manufacturing industry. Variations in weld quality often result in costly post-weld inspections. Applications of feed-back control to such processes have been limited by the lack of accurate models describing the nonlinear dynamics of this process. A new system based on electrode displacement feedback is developed that greatly improves quality control of the resistance plug welding process. The system is capable of producing repeatable welds of consistent displacement (and thus consistent quality), with wide variations in weld parameters. This paper describes the feedback design of a robust controller using Quantitative Feedback Theory for this highly complex process, and the experimental results of the applied system.

  13. Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but controversial assumptions regarding…

  14. Application of H[infinity] control theory to power control of a nonlinear reactor model

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Shimazaki, Junya; Shinohara, Yoshikuni . Dept. of Reactor Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The H[infinity] control theory is applied to the compensator design of a nonlinear nuclear reactor model, and the results are compared with standard linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control. The reactor model is assumed to be provided with a control rod drive system having the compensation of rod position feedback. The nonlinearity of the reactor model exerts a great influence on the stability of the control system, and hence, it is desirable for a power control system of a nuclear reactor to achieve robust stability and to improve the sensitivity of the feedback control system. A computer simulation based on a power control system synthesized by LQG control was performed revealing that the control system has some stationary offset and less stability. Therefore, here, attention is given to the development of a methodology for robust control that can withstand exogenous disturbances and nonlinearity in view of system parameter changes. The developed methodology adopts H[infinity] control theory in the feedback system and shows interesting features of robustness. The results of the computer simulation indicate that the feedback control system constructed by the developed H[infinity] compensator possesses sufficient robustness of control on the stability and disturbance attenuation, which are essential for the safe operation of a nuclear reactor.

  15. Optimization of microstructure during deformation processing using control theory principles

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopal, S.; Medina, E.A.; Malas, J.C. III; Medeiros, S.; Frazier, W.G.; Mullins, W.M.; Srinivasan, R.

    1997-02-01

    The development of optimal design and control methods for manufacturing processes is needed for effectively reducing part cost, improving part delivery schedules and producing specified part quality on a repeatable basis. A new strategy for systematically calculating near optimal control parameters for hot deformation processes for microstructural control is presented in this communication. This approach is based on modern control theory and involves developing state-space models from available material behavior and hot deformation process models. The control system design consists of two basic stages and analysis and optimization are critical in both stages. In the first stage, the kinetics of certain dynamic microstructural behavior and the intrinsic hot workability of the material are used, along with an appropriately chosen optimality criterion, to calculate optimum strain, strain-rate, and temperature trajectories for processing. A suitable process simulation model is then used in the second stage to calculate process control parameters, such as ram velocity, die profiles and billet temperature, which approximately achieve the strain, strain-rate, and temperate trajectories calculated in the first stage at selected areas of the workpiece. The validity of this approach has been demonstrated with an example on hot extrusion of steel.

  16. Application of nonlinear feedback control theory to supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.

    1991-01-01

    Controlled flight at extremely high angles of attack, far exceeding the stall angle, and/or at high angular rates is sometimes referred to as supermaneuvering flight. The objective was to examine methods for design of control laws for aircraft performing supermaneuvers. Since the equations which govern the motion of aircraft during supermaneuvers are nonlinear, this study concentrated on nonlinear control law design procedures. The two nonlinear techniques considered were Nonlinear Quadratic Regulator (NLQR) theory and nonlinear dynamic inversion. A conventional gain scheduled proportional plus integral (P + I) controller was also developed to serve as a baseline design typical of current control laws used in aircraft. A mathematical model of a generic supermaneuverable aircraft was developed from data obtained from the literature. A detailed computer simulation of the aircraft was also developed. This simulation allowed the flying of proposed supermaneuvers and was used to evaluate the performance of the control law designs and to generate linearized models of the aircraft at different flight conditions.

  17. Combining Optimal Control Theory and Molecular Dynamics for Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Arkun, Yaman; Gur, Mert

    2012-01-01

    A new method to develop low-energy folding routes for proteins is presented. The novel aspect of the proposed approach is the synergistic use of optimal control theory with Molecular Dynamics (MD). In the first step of the method, optimal control theory is employed to compute the force field and the optimal folding trajectory for the atoms of a Coarse-Grained (CG) protein model. The solution of this CG optimization provides an harmonic approximation of the true potential energy surface around the native state. In the next step CG optimization guides the MD simulation by specifying the optimal target positions for the atoms. In turn, MD simulation provides an all-atom conformation whose positions match closely the reference target positions determined by CG optimization. This is accomplished by Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD) which uses a bias potential or harmonic restraint in addition to the usual MD potential. Folding is a dynamical process and as such residues make different contacts during the course of folding. Therefore CG optimization has to be reinitialized and repeated over time to accomodate these important changes. At each sampled folding time, the active contacts among the residues are recalculated based on the all-atom conformation obtained from MD. Using the new set of contacts, the CG potential is updated and the CG optimal trajectory for the atoms is recomputed. This is followed by MD. Implementation of this repetitive CG optimization - MD simulation cycle generates the folding trajectory. Simulations on a model protein Villin demonstrate the utility of the method. Since the method is founded on the general tools of optimal control theory and MD without any restrictions, it is widely applicable to other systems. It can be easily implemented with available MD software packages. PMID:22238629

  18. Not that Different in Theory: Discussing the Control-Value Theory of Emotions in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary investigates the extent to which the control-value theory of emotions (Pekrun, 2006) is applicable in online learning environments. Four empirical studies in this special issue of "The Internet and Higher Education" explicitly used the control-value theory as their theoretical framework and several others have components of the…

  19. Beneficial Microbes Affect Endogenous Mechanisms Controlling Root Development.

    PubMed

    Verbon, Eline H; Liberman, Louisa M

    2016-03-01

    Plants have incredible developmental plasticity, enabling them to respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. Among these conditions is the presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the soil. Recent studies show that PGPR affect Arabidopsis thaliana root growth and development by modulating cell division and differentiation in the primary root and influencing lateral root development. These effects lead to dramatic changes in root system architecture that significantly impact aboveground plant growth. Thus, PGPR may promote shoot growth via their effect on root developmental programs. This review focuses on contextualizing root developmental changes elicited by PGPR in light of our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and root developmental biology. PMID:26875056

  20. Processes Controlling Temporal Changes in Agriculturally-Affected Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, K. R.; Belitz, K.; Jurgens, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey includes assessment of groundwater-quality changes with time. To better understand changes at a national scale, NAWQA has implemented smaller scale flow-path studies to evaluate the processes affecting these changes. Flow path studies are designed to sample groundwater of different ages. Wells are sampled for a suite of constituents, including tracers of groundwater age. In the 1990s, a 4.6 km transect of monitoring wells was installed near Fresno in the southern Central Valley of California. The region is dominated by intensive agriculture. The wells were sampled in 1994-95, 2003, and 2013 to provide data on changes in water quality and groundwater age. In 2013, the flow path was extended to a regional scale (30 km) by using existing production wells. Preliminary interpretation of the local-scale flow path indicates that nitrate concentrations in the upper 25 m of the aquifer are higher than the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water and variably increase or decrease with time. At intermediate depths (25-40 m), nitrate concentrations are lower and show small to moderate increases. The legacy pesticide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) is degrading at a half-life of about 4-6 years. DBCP is present above the MCL at intermediate depths even though it is has been banned from use for more than 30 years. Both nitrate and DBCP appear to be moving vertically downward through the aquifer. Whereas uranium concentrations are generally below the MCL in the local-scale flow path, concentrations increase along the regional transect, with concentrations nearly an order of magnitude above the MCL in some wells. Further evaluation of processes affecting these constituents (such as source, redox, and mobilization factors) will provide important insight that can be applied to other regions and will assist local water managers.

  1. Control of AUVs using differential flatness theory and the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Raffo, Guilerme

    2015-12-01

    The paper proposes nonlinear control and filtering for Autonomous Underwater Vessels (AUVs) based on differential flatness theory and on the use of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. First, it is shown that the 6-DOF dynamic model of the AUV is a differentially flat one. This enables its transformation into the linear canonical (Brunovsky) form and facilitates the design of a state feedback controller. A problem that has to be dealt with is the uncertainty about the parameters of the AUV's dynamic model, as well the external perturbations which affect its motion. To cope with this, it is proposed to use a disturbance observer which is based on the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. The considered filtering method consists of the standard Kalman Filter recursion applied on the linearized model of the vessel and of an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory, which enables to obtain estimates of the state variables of the initial nonlinear model of the vessel. The Kalman Filter-based disturbance observer performs simultaneous estimation of the non-measurable state variables of the AUV and of the perturbation terms that affect its dynamics. By estimating such disturbances, their compensation is also succeeded through suitable modification of the feedback control input. The efficiency of the proposed AUV control and estimation scheme is confirmed through simulation experiments.

  2. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  3. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  4. Investigating friendship quality: an exploration of self-control and social control theories' friendship hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Boman, John H; Krohn, Marvin D; Gibson, Chris L; Stogner, John M

    2012-11-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control theories both premise that delinquents will have largely fractured, weak, and "cold and brittle" friendships. This study investigates how variations in perceptions of friendship quality are related to the delinquency, maternal attachment, school attachment, and self-control levels of both a participant and his/her close friend. To explore these relationships, we use a diverse (14% black; 18% Hispanic; 9% Asian) sample of 2,154 emerging adults within 1,077 friendship pairs (66% female). In each dyad, both members perceived the friendship's quality and reported personal markers of delinquency, social bonds, and self-control. Several series of multilevel models are estimated that regress each participant's friendship quality perception onto the participant's and their friend's delinquency, attachments, self-control, and demographic characteristics. Results show that delinquents have as intense, or more intense, friendships as non-delinquents. However, low levels of both actor and partner attachments and self-control are independently related to low friendship quality, and this is especially true for self-control. Supplemental analyses demonstrate that the effect of self-control on friendship quality may be reduced when individuals in dyads are delinquent. In conclusion, studies that address friendship quality without including characteristics of multiple members of the friendship are only capturing part of one's estimate of friendship quality. PMID:22367018

  5. TDDFT-based local control theory for chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernelli, Ivano; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Penfold, Thomas J.

    In this talk I will describe the implementation of local control theory for laser pulse shaping within the framework of TDDFT-based nonadiabatic dynamics. The method is based on a set of modified Tully's surface hopping equations and provides an efficient way to control the population of a selected reactive state of interest through the coupling with an external time-dependent electric field generated on-the-fly during the dynamics. This approach is applied to the investigation of the photoinduced intramolecular proton transfer reaction in 4-hydroxyacridine in gas phase and in solution. The generated pulses reveal important information about the underlying excited-state nuclear dynamics highlighting the involvement of collective vibrational modes that would be neglected in studies performed on model systems. Finally, this approach can help to shed new light on the photophysics and photochemistry of complex molecular systems and guide the design of novel reaction paths.

  6. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control.

    PubMed

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant, free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine's contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  7. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  8. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  9. Decision theory applied to image quality control in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, Patrícia S; Caous, Cristofer A; Arantes, Paula R; Amaro, Edson; de Souza, Fernando M Campello

    2008-01-01

    Background The present work aims at the application of the decision theory to radiological image quality control (QC) in diagnostic routine. The main problem addressed in the framework of decision theory is to accept or reject a film lot of a radiology service. The probability of each decision of a determined set of variables was obtained from the selected films. Methods Based on a radiology service routine a decision probability function was determined for each considered group of combination characteristics. These characteristics were related to the film quality control. These parameters were also framed in a set of 8 possibilities, resulting in 256 possible decision rules. In order to determine a general utility application function to access the decision risk, we have used a simple unique parameter called r. The payoffs chosen were: diagnostic's result (correct/incorrect), cost (high/low), and patient satisfaction (yes/no) resulting in eight possible combinations. Results Depending on the value of r, more or less risk will occur related to the decision-making. The utility function was evaluated in order to determine the probability of a decision. The decision was made with patients or administrators' opinions from a radiology service center. Conclusion The model is a formal quantitative approach to make a decision related to the medical imaging quality, providing an instrument to discriminate what is really necessary to accept or reject a film or a film lot. The method presented herein can help to access the risk level of an incorrect radiological diagnosis decision. PMID:19014545

  10. Sustainable ecosystem management using optimal control theory: part 1 (deterministic systems).

    PubMed

    Shastri, Y; Diwekar, U

    2006-08-01

    The concept of sustainability, an abstract one by its nature, has been given a mathematical representation through the use of Fisher information as a measure. It is used to propose the sustainability hypotheses for dynamical systems, which has paved the way to achieve sustainable development through externally enforced control schemes. For natural systems, this refers to the task of ecosystem management, which is complicated due the lack of clear objectives. This work attempts to incorporate the idea of sustainability in ecosystem management. The natural regulation of ecosystems suggests two possible control options, top-down control and bottom-up control. A comparison of these two control philosophies is made on generic food chain models using the objectives derived from the sustainability hypotheses. Optimal control theory is used to derive the control profiles to handle the complex nature of the models and the objectives. The results indicate a strong relationship between the hypotheses and the dynamic behavior of the models, supporting the use of Fisher information as a measure. As regards to ecosystem management, it has been observed that top-down control is more aggressive but can result in instability, while bottom-up control is guaranteed to give a stable and improved dynamic response. The results also indicate that bottom-up control is a better option to affect shifts in the dynamic regimes of a system, which may be required to recover the system from a natural disaster like the hurricane Katrina. PMID:16438988

  11. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion. PMID:20876879

  12. Controller design approaches for large space structures using LQG control theory. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents several approaches for the design of reduced order controllers for large space structures. These approaches are shown to be based on LQG control theory and include truncation, modified truncation regulators and estimators, use of higher order estimators, selective modal suppression, and use of polynomial estimators. Further, the use of direct sensor feedback, as opposed to a state estimator, is investigated for some of these approaches. Finally, numerical results are given for a long free beam.

  13. Stability theory applications to laminar-flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to design Laminar Flow Control (LFC) configurations, reliable methods are needed for boundary-layer transition predictions. Among the available methods, there are correlations based upon R sub e, shape factors, Goertler number and crossflow Reynolds number. The most advanced transition prediction method is based upon linear stability theory in the form of the e sup N method which has proven to be successful in predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional boundary layers. When transition occurs in a low disturbance environment, the e sup N method provides a viable design tool for transition prediction and LFC in both 2-D and 3-D subsonic/supersonic flows. This is true for transition dominated by either TS, crossflow, or Goertler instability. If Goertler/TS or crossflow/TS interaction is present, the e sup N will fail to predict transition. However, there is no evidence of such interaction at low amplitudes of Goertler and crossflow vortices.

  14. A Biomimetic Propulsor for Active Noise Control. Part 2: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaswamy Krol, A., Jr.; Bandyopadhyay, P. R.

    2000-11-01

    The alteration of radiated noise in underwater propulsors using biomimetic active control is considered. Wake momentum filling is carried out by introducing artificial muscles at the trailing edge of a stator blade of an upstream stator propulsor, and articulating them like a fish tail (see companion abstract Part 1). Using a systems framework, we derive a methodology for the articulation of the muscles with active control. The unsteady force produced on the rotor because of velocity perturbations due to actuator displacements, wake deficits caused by stator boundary layers, and blade rotation is modeled. Linear and adaptive nonlinear control strategies are described for articulating the tail using unsteady force measurements. This active control procedure can be viewed as the realization of “virtual” blades with different sweep and noise characteristics and can affect the noise spectrum due to direct radiation significantly. The work provides an understanding of the effect of nonuniform wakes on radiated noise and can lead to a general approach by which wakes can be altered.

  15. The role of modern control theory in the design of controls for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    The development, applications, and current research in modern control theory (MCT) are reviewed, noting the importance for fuel-efficient operation of turbines with variable inlet guide vanes, compressor stators, and exhaust nozzle area. The evolution of multivariable propulsion control design is examined, noting a basis in a matrix formulation of the differential equations defining the process, leading to state space formulations. Reports and papers which appeared from 1970-1982 which dealt with problems in MCT applications to turbine engine control design are outlined, including works on linear quadratic regulator methods, frequency domain methods, identification, estimation, and model reduction, detection, isolation, and accommodation, and state space control, adaptive control, and optimization approaches. Finally, NASA programs in frequency domain design, sensor failure detection, computer-aided control design, and plant modeling are explored

  16. Application of modern control theory to the design of optimum aircraft controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is described for synthesis of optimal aircraft control systems by application of the concepts of optimal control theory to time-invariant linear systems with quadratic performance criteria. Essential in this synthesis procedure is the solution of the Riccati matrix equation which results in a constant linear feedback control law for an output regulator which maintains a plant in an equilibrium in the presence of impulse disturbances. An algorithm is derived for designing maneuverable output regulators with selected state variables for feedback.

  17. Optimal control of ICU patient discharge: from theory to implementation.

    PubMed

    Mallor, Fermín; Azcárate, Cristina; Barado, Julio

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with the management of scarce health care resources. We consider a control problem in which the objective is to minimize the rate of patient rejection due to service saturation. The scope of decisions is limited, in terms both of the amount of resources to be used, which are supposed to be fixed, and of the patient arrival pattern, which is assumed to be uncontrollable. This means that the only potential areas of control are speed or completeness of service. By means of queuing theory and optimization techniques, we provide a theoretical solution expressed in terms of service rates. In order to make this theoretical analysis useful for the effective control of the healthcare system, however, further steps in the analysis of the solution are required: physicians need flexible and medically-meaningful operative rules for shortening patient length of service to the degree needed to give the service rates dictated by the theoretical analysis. The main contribution of this paper is to discuss how the theoretical solutions can be transformed into effective management rules to guide doctors' decisions. The study examines three types of rules based on intuitive interpretations of the theoretical solution. Rules are evaluated through implementation in a simulation model. We compare the service rates provided by the different policies with those dictated by the theoretical solution. Probabilistic analysis is also included to support rule validity. An Intensive Care Unit is used to illustrate this control problem. The study focuses on the Markovian case before moving on to consider more realistic LoS distributions (Weibull, Lognormal and Phase-type distribution). PMID:25763761

  18. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  19. SimSup's Loop: A Control Theory Approach to Spacecraft Operator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Brandon Dewain; Crocker, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive simulation is a staple of training for many complex system operators, including astronauts and ground operators of spacecraft. However, while much has been written about simulators, simulation facilities, and operator certification programs, the topic of how one develops simulation scenarios to train a spacecraft operator is relatively understated in the literature. In this paper, an approach is presented for using control theory as the basis for developing the immersive simulation scenarios for a spacecraft operator training program. The operator is effectively modeled as a high level controller of lower level hardware and software control loops that affect a select set of system state variables. Simulation scenarios are derived from a STAMP-based hazard analysis of the operator's high and low level control loops. The immersive simulation aspect of the overall training program is characterized by selecting a set of scenarios that expose the operator to the various inadequate control actions that stem from control flaws and inadequate control executions in the different sections of the typical control loop. Results from the application of this approach to the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are provided through an analysis of the simulation scenarios used for operator training and the actual anomalies that occurred during the mission. The simulation scenarios and inflight anomalies are mapped to specific control flaws and inadequate control executions in the different sections of the typical control loop to illustrate the characteristics of anomalies arising from the different sections of the typical control loop (and why it is important for operators to have exposure to these characteristics). Additionally, similarities between the simulation scenarios and inflight anomalies are highlighted to make the case that the simulation scenarios prepared the operators for the mission.

  20. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    PubMed

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. PMID:25556211

  1. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  2. Control of quadrotors using differential flatness theory and the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi

    2013-10-01

    Using differential flatness theory it is shown that the model of a quadropter can be transformed to linear canonical form. For the linearized equivalent of the quadropter it is shown that a state feedback controller can be designed. Since certain elements of the state vector of the linearized system can not be measured directly, it is proposed to estimate them with the use of a novel filtering method, the so-called Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. Moreover, by redesigning the Kalman Filter as a disturbance observer, it is is shown that one can estimate simultaneously external disturbances terms that affect the quadropter or disturbance terms which are associated with parametric uncertainty. The efficiency of the proposed control scheme is checked through simulation experiments.

  3. Affective Qualities of Sibling Disputes, Mothers' Conflict Attitudes, and Children's Theory of Mind Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Angela C.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2009-01-01

    Preschoolers' theory of mind (ToM) was examined in relation to emotional features of their conflicts with siblings, using mothers as privileged informants. Fifty-four children aged 3 to 5 years and their 54 mothers took part. Children were given 10 standard false belief tasks and a standardized language test. Mothers completed questionnaires,…

  4. Adults' Expectancies about Children's Emotional Responsiveness: Implications for the Development of Implicit Theories of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelco, Frank A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Preschool, third-grade and sixth-grade children, and adults were shown vignettes depicting eight types of experiences and asked for their own (for children) or the children's (for adults) expected emotional reactions. Overall, adults showed an absence of developmental considerations in their implicit theories of children's emotional…

  5. Maternal affection moderates the impact of psychological control on a child's mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the extent to which mothers' psychological control predicts their children's mathematical performance during the children's transition from preschool to primary school over and above the impact of maternal affection and behavioral control. Also investigated was the extent to which maternal affection and behavioral control moderate the impact of mothers' psychological control. Children 5-6 years old at baseline (N=196) were followed up 6 times to measure their performance in mathematics over a 3-year period from preschool to 2nd grade. Mothers were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring their parenting styles once every year over the 3-year period. A high level of psychological control exercised by mothers predicted their children's slow progress in mathematics. However, this impact was particularly evident among those children whose mothers reported a high level of affection. No evidence was found that children's mathematical performance had any effect on their mothers' parenting styles. PMID:15535751

  6. Some remarks on the current status of the control theory of single space dimension hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Various aspects of the control theory of hyperbolic systems, including controllability, stabilization, control canonical form theory, etc., are reviewed. To allow a unified and not excessively technical treatment, attention is restricted to the case of a single space variable. A newly developed procedure of canonical augmentation is discussed.

  7. The theory of "truth": how counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens.

    PubMed

    Hershey, James C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Evans, W Douglas; Nonnemaker, James; Blahut, Steven; Holden, Debra; Messeri, Peter; Haviland, M Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a theory-based model of the pathways by which exposure to the "truth" counterindustry media campaign influenced beliefs, attitudes, and smoking behavior in national random-digit-dial telephone surveys of 16,000 12- to 17-year-olds before, 8 months after, and 15 months after campaign launch. Consistent with concepts from the theory of reasoned action, youth in markets with higher levels of campaign exposure had more negative beliefs about tobacco industry practices and more negative attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Models also provided support for a social inoculation effect, because negative industry attitudes were associated with lower receptivity to protobacco advertising and with less progression along a continuum of smoking intentions and behavior. PMID:15631559

  8. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the importation of highly specific inse...

  9. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. PMID:26075793

  10. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. PMID:25634909

  11. O the Use of Modern Control Theory for Active Structural Acoustic Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, William Richard

    A modern control theory formulation of Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) of simple structures radiating acoustic energy into light or heavy fluid mediums is discussed in this dissertation. ASAC of a baffled, simply-supported plate subject to mechanical disturbances is investigated. For the case of light fluid loading, a finite element modelling approach is used to extend previous ASAC design methods. Vibration and acoustic controllers are designed for the plate. Comparison of the controller performance shows distinct advantages of the ASAC method for minimizing radiated acoustic power. A novel approach to the modelling of the heavy fluid-loaded plate is developed here. Augmenting structural and acoustic dynamics using state vector formalism allows the design of both vibration and ASAC controllers for the fluid-loaded plate. This modern control approach to active structural acoustic control is unique in its ability to suppress both persistent and transient disturbances on a plate in a heavy fluid. Numerical simulations of the open-loop and closed-loop plate response are provided to support the theoretical developments.

  12. Toddler Inhibitory Control, Bold Response to Novelty, and Positive Affect Predict Externalizing Symptoms in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Kristin A.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Morales, Santiago; Robinson, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Poor inhibitory control and bold-approach have been found to predict the development of externalizing behavior problems in young children. Less research has examined how positive affect may influence the development of externalizing behavior in the context of low inhibitory control and high approach. We used a multimethod approach to examine how observed toddler inhibitory control, bold-approach, and positive affect predicted externalizing outcomes (observed, adult- and self-reported) in additive and interactive ways at the beginning of kindergarten. 24-month-olds (N = 110) participated in a laboratory visit and 84 were followed up in kindergarten for externalizing behaviors. Overall, children who were low in inhibitory control, high in bold-approach, and low in positive affect at 24-months of age were at greater risk for externalizing behaviors during kindergarten. PMID:25018589

  13. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states. PMID:27107154

  14. Affective state and locus of control modulate the neural response to threat.

    PubMed

    Harnett, Nathaniel G; Wheelock, Muriah D; Wood, Kimberly H; Ladnier, Jordan C; Mrug, Sylvie; Knight, David C

    2015-11-01

    The ability to regulate the emotional response to threat is critical to healthy emotional function. However, the response to threat varies considerably from person-to-person. This variability may be partially explained by differences in emotional processes, such as locus of control and affective state, which vary across individuals. Although the basic neural circuitry that mediates the response to threat has been described, the impact individual differences in affective state and locus of control have on that response is not well characterized. Understanding how these factors influence the neural response to threat would provide new insight into processes that mediate emotional function. Therefore, the present study used a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to investigate the influence individual differences in locus of control, positive affect, and negative affect have on the brain and behavioral responses to predictable and unpredictable threats. Thirty-two healthy volunteers participated in a fear conditioning study in which predictable and unpredictable threats (i.e., unconditioned stimulus) were presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Locus of control showed a linear relationship with learning-related ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity such that the more external an individual's locus of control, the greater their differential response to predictable versus unpredictable threat. In addition, positive and negative affectivity showed a curvilinear relationship with dorsolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and insula activity, such that those with high or low affectivity showed reduced regional activity compared to those with an intermediate level of affectivity. Further, activity within the PFC, as well as other regions including the amygdala, were linked with the peripheral emotional response as indexed by skin conductance and electromyography. The current findings demonstrate that the neural response to threat within brain regions

  15. Pediatric anogenital exam: a theory-driven exploration of anticipatory appraisals and affects.

    PubMed

    Waibel-Duncan, M K; Sandler, H M

    2001-02-01

    Smith and Lazarus's 1990 and 1993 theory of cognition-emotion associations guided this exploration of individuals' pre-exam experiences. The study also tested the model's integrity during a stressful event and examined its downward extension to children. A total of 47 girls ages 8 to 14 (M = 11.57, SD = 2.14) and 109 adult guardians of female patients (all ages) completed a brief questionnaire about their pre-exam thoughts and feelings. The majority of participants viewed the impending exam as important and desirable, reported optimism and confidence in their ability to cope or adjust, and described mild-moderate anxiety as well as moderate-high hope/gladness. The majority of adults also reported relatively high levels of sadness. Data supported the model's cognition-emotion associations. This theory-driven research offers a richer understanding of children who may have been sexually abused and their supportive adult guardians and encourages more positive and realistic expectations for these individuals. PMID:11217170

  16. Application of a locally optimized control theory to pump dump laser-driven chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Y.; Yahata, Y.; Kono, H.; Fujimura, Y.

    1998-05-01

    A locally optimized control theory is developed. This theory is applied to pump-dump laser-driven chemical reactions via an electronically excited state. The results show that the theory can design the pulse shapes for chemical reactions with high quantum yields in strong laser intensity regimes in which perturbative treatments break down.

  17. Neuroathesetics and growing interest in "positive affect" in psychiatry: new evidence and prospects for the theory of informational needs.

    PubMed

    Branković, Saša

    2013-06-01

    What are the necessary and sufficient conditions to experience pleasure in interpersonal communication and dealing with art, science, and philosophy - this is what the theory of informational needs (TIN) suggested eleven years ago is about. At the same time, at the beginning of this century, several lines of research have emerged. Neuroaesthetics has been established; the discovery of the mirror neuron system and theories about its function have appeared; a growing interest in positive affect and pleasure has developed in psychiatry and medicine. The purpose of the present paper is to reconsider the TIN (Branković 2001) in the context of the advance in neuroscience during the last decade and to show how much conceptual clarity is gained when the recent empirical and theoretical findings are viewed from the standpoint of the TIN. A computational model of the aesthetic response based on the TIN's two-factor model of hedonic value of stimuli is delineated. PMID:23793272

  18. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  19. Mortality salience and positive affect influence adolescents' attitudes toward peers with physical disabilities: terror management and broaden and build theories.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown either a picture depicting an adolescent sitting on a regular chair or in a wheelchair and were asked to assess the characteristics of the person in the picture and their willingness to be in his or her company. The findings suggest that both types of manipulations enhanced the personality assessment and social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities and compared to the control condition. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward another adolescent than boys did. The study indicates that seemingly contradictory manipulations may lead to social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:24501847

  20. A Test of Positive Affect Induction for Countering Self-Control Depletion in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The self-control strength model posits that exerting self-control on one task, such as resisting temptations, will deplete self-control and impair subsequent self-regulatory performance, such as controlling smoking. The current study examined interventions designed to replenish depleted self-control strength to prevent tobacco use by inducing positive affect. DESIGN In a 2×2 design, 200 participants were randomized to either (1) resist eating from a plate of desserts (high temptation) or from a plate of raw vegetables (low temptation) and then (2) undergo a positive or neutral affect induction. Two inductions were compared (video vs. writing technique). Participants were then given a 10-minute recess. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Whether or not participants smoked during the recess, assessed by self-report and biochemical verification, served as the primary dependent variable. RESULTS The interaction between depletion and exposure group was significant, Wald’s X2 = 9.66, df = 3, p <.05. Among those assigned to resist desserts, 65.5% to 85% smoked if they were in the neutral video or writing conditions versus 10.5% in the positive affect video group. CONCLUSION Positive affect elicited with a video was able to counteract the detrimental effects of self-control depletion on smoking behavior, while writing exercises were associated with smoking. Implications for tobacco cessation intervention are discussed. PMID:21553949

  1. An introduction to stochastic control theory, path integrals and reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2007-02-01

    Control theory is a mathematical description of how to act optimally to gain future rewards. In this paper I give an introduction to deterministic and stochastic control theory and I give an overview of the possible application of control theory to the modeling of animal behavior and learning. I discuss a class of non-linear stochastic control problems that can be efficiently solved using a path integral or by MC sampling. In this control formalism the central concept of cost-to-go becomes a free energy and methods and concepts from statistical physics can be readily applied.

  2. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  3. Neural responses to affective and cognitive theory of mind in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Park, Bumhee; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Song, Dong-Ho

    2016-05-16

    Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by an impaired Theory of Mind (ToM). Recent evidence suggested that two aspects of ToM (cognitive ToM versus affective ToM) are differentially impaired in individuals with ASD. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in children and adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing children (TDCs). Twelve children and adolescents with ASD and 12 age, IQ matched TDCs participated in this functional MRI study. The ToM task involved the attribution of cognitive and affective mental states to a cartoon character based on verbal and eye-gaze cues. In cognitive ToM tasks, ASD participants recruited the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG) to a greater extent than did TDCs. In affective ToM tasks, both ASD and TDC participants showed more activation in the insula and other subcortical regions than in cognitive ToM tasks. Correlational analysis revealed that greater activation of the mPFC/ACC regions was associated with less symptom severity in ASD patients. In sum, our study suggests that the recruitment of additional prefrontal resources can compensate for the successful behavioral performance in the ToM task in ASD participants. PMID:27084690

  4. Exploring the Utility of Social Control Theory for Youth Development: Issues of Attachment, Involvement, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Betts, Sherry C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the utility of social control theory's attachment and involvement bonds as protective factors to examine gender differences in reports of delinquency and academic achievement. Surveys of 7th-12th graders indicated that although several of the involvement bond variables of social control theory were predictive of both delinquency and…

  5. Modeling transonic aerodynamic response using nonlinear systems theory for use with modern control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.

  6. Reduced state feedback gain computation. [optimization and control theory for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    Because application of conventional optimal linear regulator theory to flight controller design requires the capability of measuring and/or estimating the entire state vector, it is of interest to consider procedures for computing controls which are restricted to be linear feedback functions of a lower dimensional output vector and which take into account the presence of measurement noise and process uncertainty. Therefore, a stochastic linear model that was developed is presented which accounts for aircraft parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, turbulence, pilot command and a restricted number of measurable outputs. Optimization with respect to the corresponding output feedback gains was performed for both finite and infinite time performance indices without gradient computation by using Zangwill's modification of a procedure originally proposed by Powell. Results using a seventh order process show the proposed procedures to be very effective.

  7. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  8. Application of modern control theory to the design of optimum aircraft controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis procedure presented is based on the solution of the output regulator problem of linear optimal control theory for time-invariant systems. By this technique, solution of the matrix Riccati equation leads to a constant linear feedback control law for an output regulator which will maintain a plant in a particular equilibrium condition in the presence of impulse disturbances. Two simple algorithms are presented that can be used in an automatic synthesis procedure for the design of maneuverable output regulators requiring only selected state variables for feedback. The first algorithm is for the construction of optimal feedforward control laws that can be superimposed upon a Kalman output regulator and that will drive the output of a plant to a desired constant value on command. The second algorithm is for the construction of optimal Luenberger observers that can be used to obtain feedback control laws for the output regulator requiring measurement of only part of the state vector. This algorithm constructs observers which have minimum response time under the constraint that the magnitude of the gains in the observer filter be less than some arbitrary limit.

  9. Multivariable control theory applied to hierarchial attitude control for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III; Russell, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Multivariable control theory is applied to the design of a hierarchial attitude control system for the CARD space vehicle. The system selected uses reaction control jets (RCJ) and control moment gyros (CMG). The RCJ system uses linear signal mixing and a no-fire region similar to that used on the Skylab program; the y-axis and z-axis systems which are coupled use a sum and difference feedback scheme. The CMG system uses the optimum steering law and the same feedback signals as the RCJ system. When both systems are active the design is such that the torques from each system are never in opposition. A state-space analysis was made of the CMG system to determine the general structure of the input matrices (steering law) and feedback matrices that will decouple the axes. It is shown that the optimum steering law and proportional-plus-rate feedback are special cases. A derivation of the disturbing torques on the space vehicle due to the motion of the on-board television camera is presented. A procedure for computing an upper bound on these torques (given the system parameters) is included.

  10. Prehension Kinematics, Grasping Forces, and Independent Finger Control in Mildly Affected Patients with Essential Tremor.

    PubMed

    Solbach, Kasja; Mumm, Mareike; Brandauer, Barbara; Kronenbürger, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Timmann, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Although the pathophysiology of essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders, is not fully understood, evidence increasingly points to cerebellar involvement. To confirm this connection, we assessed the everyday hand and finger movements of patients with ET, as these movements are known to be affected in cerebellar diseases. In 26 mildly affected patients with ET (compared to age- and gender-matched controls), kinematic and finger force parameters were assessed in a precision grip. In a second task, independent finger movements were recorded. The active finger had to press and release against a force-sensitive keypad while the other fingers stayed inactive. Finally, control of grip force to movement-induced, self-generated load changes was studied. Transport and shaping components during prehension were significantly impaired in patients with ET compared to controls. No significant group differences were observed in independent finger movements and grip force adjustments to self-generated load force changes. However, in the latter two tasks, more severely affected ET patients performed worse than less affected. Although observed deficits in hand and finger movement tasks were small, they are consistent with cerebellar dysfunction in ET. Findings need to be confirmed in future studies examining more severely affected ET patients. PMID:26310449

  11. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic control module being developed in the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperative Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at the Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is described. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to the strategic controller. Experimental results for a dual two-link arm robotic system are presented to verify the controllers performance, for both free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  12. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic control module of the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperating Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to higher level strategic control modules. Experimental results from a dual two-link-arm robotic system are used to compare the object impedance controller with other strategies, both for free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  13. Decentralized adaptive control of manipulators - Theory, simulation, and experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive-control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The control objective is to achieve accurate tracking of desired joint trajectories. The proposed control scheme does not use the complex manipulator dynamic model, and each joint is controlled simply by a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. Simulation results are given for a two-link direct-drive manipulator under adaptive independent joint control. The results illustrate trajectory tracking under coupled dynamics and varying payload. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the three major joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite coupled nonlinear joint dynamics.

  14. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  15. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wyatt I; Friedman, Jonathan M; Gaskin, John F; Norton, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others. PMID:24665340

  16. Cognitive control and the anterior cingulate cortex: how conflicting stimuli affect attentional control in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; Creer, David J.; McGaughy, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex is critical for cognitive control. One prefrontal subregion, the anterior cingulate cortex, is hypothesized to be necessary to resolve response conflicts, disregard salient distractors and alter behavior in response to the generation of an error. These situations all involve goal-oriented monitoring of performance in order to effectively adjust cognitive processes. Several neuropsychological disorders, e.g., schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive compulsive disorder, are accompanied by morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments on tasks that require cognitive control found in these subjects. A novel conflict monitoring task was used to assess the effects on cognitive control of excitotoxic lesions to anterior cingulate cortex in rats. Prior to surgery all subjects showed improved accuracy on the second of two consecutive, incongruent trials. Lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex abolished this. Lesioned animals had difficulty in adjusting cognitive control on a trial-by-trial basis regardless of whether cognitive changes were increased or decreased. These results support a role for the anterior cingulate cortex in adjustments in cognitive control. PMID:25051488

  17. Cognitive control and the anterior cingulate cortex: how conflicting stimuli affect attentional control in the rat.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori A; Creer, David J; McGaughy, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex is critical for cognitive control. One prefrontal subregion, the anterior cingulate cortex, is hypothesized to be necessary to resolve response conflicts, disregard salient distractors and alter behavior in response to the generation of an error. These situations all involve goal-oriented monitoring of performance in order to effectively adjust cognitive processes. Several neuropsychological disorders, e.g., schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive compulsive disorder, are accompanied by morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments on tasks that require cognitive control found in these subjects. A novel conflict monitoring task was used to assess the effects on cognitive control of excitotoxic lesions to anterior cingulate cortex in rats. Prior to surgery all subjects showed improved accuracy on the second of two consecutive, incongruent trials. Lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex abolished this. Lesioned animals had difficulty in adjusting cognitive control on a trial-by-trial basis regardless of whether cognitive changes were increased or decreased. These results support a role for the anterior cingulate cortex in adjustments in cognitive control. PMID:25051488

  18. Control, Motivation, Affect, and Strategic Self-Regulation in the College Classroom: A Multidimensional Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Duane F.; Husman, Jenefer

    2008-01-01

    This study of 397 undergraduate students examined relations between self-reported control, goal orientation, future time perspective, affect, and strategic self-regulation. Five patterns were found in three canonical dimensions. The high end of bipolar Dimension 1 linked high self-regulated strategy use and study effort to high self-efficacy,…

  19. Further Analysis of Variables That Affect Self-Control with Aversive Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Christopher J.; Neef, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variables that affect self-control in the context of academic task completion by elementary school children with autism. In the baseline assessment of Study 1, mathematics problem completion was shown to be an aversive event, and sensitivity to task magnitude, task difficulty, and delay to task completion…

  20. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  1. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  2. How Positive Affect Modulates Cognitive Control: The Costs and Benefits of Reduced Maintenance Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive action in a constantly changing environment requires the ability to maintain intentions and goals over time and to flexibly switch between these goals in response to significant changes. Dreisbach and Goschke (2004) argued that positive affect modulates these antagonistic control demands in favor of a more flexible but also more…

  3. Control system design for spacecraft formation flying: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew Dunbar

    Spacecraft formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space science missions, such as separated spacecraft interferometers (SSI). However the sensing, control and coordination of such instruments pose many new design challenges. SSI missions will require precise relative sensing and control, fuel-efficient, fuel-balanced operation to maximize mission life and group-level autonomy to reduce operations costs. Enabling these new formation flying capabilities requires precise relative sensing and estimation, enhanced control capabilities such as cooperative control (multiple independent spacecraft acting together), group-level formation management and informed design of a system architecture to manage distributed sensing and control-system resources. This research defines an end-to-end control system, including the key elements unique to the formation flying problem: cooperative control, relative sensing, coordination, and the control-system architecture. A new control-system design optimizes performance under typical spacecraft constraints (e.g., on-off actuators, finite fuel, limited computation power, limited contact with ground control, etc.). Standard control techniques have been extended, and new ones synthesized to meet these goals. In designing this control system, several contributions have been made to the field of spacecraft formation flying control including: an analytic two-vehicle fuel-time-optimal cooperative control algorithm, a fast numeric multi-vehicle, optimal cooperative control algorithm that can be used as a feedforward or a feedback controller, a fleet-level coordinator for autonomous fuel balancing, validation of GPS-based relative sensing for formation flying, and trade studies of the relative control and relative-estimation-architecture design problems. These research contributions are mapped to possible applications for three spacecraft formation flying missions currently in development. The lessons learned from this research

  4. Load Theory of Selective Attention and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Nilli; Hirst, Aleksandra; de Fockert, Jan W.; Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    A load theory of attention in which distractor rejection depends on the level and type of load involved in current processing was tested. A series of experiments demonstrates that whereas high perceptual load reduces distractor interference, working memory load or dual-task coordination load increases distractor interference. These findings…

  5. Process Dynamics and Control, a Theory-Experiential Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, A. J.; And Others

    A required senior-level chemical engineering course at Colorado State University is described. The first nine weeks are devoted to the theory portion of the course, which includes the following topics: LaPlace transformations and time constants, block diagrams, inverse transformations, linearization, frequency response analysis, graphical…

  6. Status of dual control theory. [stochastic decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, E.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical studies of decision making and stochastic processes are discussed. Several approaches are described for an improved performing control method. It is shown that control performance is highly dependent on the knowledge of the unknown parameters in the system.

  7. Control of an ozone generator - theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, I. D.; Baird, R. C.; Kelly, T.

    1998-06-01

    The process of ozone generating using `silent' or `barrier' discharges is described and analysed. Based upon conclusions from the analysis, a voltage control circuit is described which utilizes two IGBTs as switching devices with associated control circuitry. The circuit so developed has been used to control the output from a 0957-0233/9/6/016/img6 commercial ozone generator.

  8. Positive Affect Versus Reward: Emotional and Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Kimberly S.; Braver, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses. PMID:22022318

  9. Investigation of practical applications of H infinity control theory to the design of control systems for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. Dennis

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of H infinity control theory to the problems of large space structures (LSS) control was investigated. A complete evaluation to any technique as a candidate for large space structure control involves analytical evaluation, algorithmic evaluation, evaluation via simulation studies, and experimental evaluation. The results of analytical and algorithmic evaluations are documented. The analytical evaluation involves the determination of the appropriateness of the underlying assumptions inherent in the H infinity theory, the determination of the capability of the H infinity theory to achieve the design goals likely to be imposed on an LSS control design, and the identification of any LSS specific simplifications or complications of the theory. The resuls of the analytical evaluation are presented in the form of a tutorial on the subject of H infinity control theory with the LSS control designer in mind. The algorthmic evaluation of H infinity for LSS control pertains to the identification of general, high level algorithms for effecting the application of H infinity to LSS control problems, the identification of specific, numerically reliable algorithms necessary for a computer implementation of the general algorithms, the recommendation of a flexible software system for implementing the H infinity design steps, and ultimately the actual development of the necessary computer codes. Finally, the state of the art in H infinity applications is summarized with a brief outline of the most promising areas of current research.

  10. Adaptive independent joint control of manipulators - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The proposed control scheme for each joint consists of a PID (proportional integral and differential) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. The static and dynamic couplings that exist between the joint motions are compensated by the adaptive independent joint controllers while ensuring trajectory tracking. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the first three joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite strongly coupled, highly nonlinear joint dynamics. The results confirm that the proposed decentralized adaptive control of manipulators is feasible, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. The control scheme presented is computationally very fast and is amenable to parallel processing implementation within a distributed computing architecture, where each joint is controlled independently by a simple algorithm on a dedicated microprocessor.

  11. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults. PMID:27214523

  12. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation. PMID:23240823

  13. FURTHER ANALYSIS OF VARIABLES THAT AFFECT SELF-CONTROL WITH AVERSIVE EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Christopher J; Neef, Nancy A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variables that affect self-control in the context of academic task completion by elementary school children with autism. In the baseline assessment of Study 1, mathematics problem completion was shown to be an aversive event, and sensitivity to task magnitude, task difficulty, and delay to task completion were measured. The effects of manipulating values of those parameters on self-control then were assessed. For all participants, self-control increased as a function of one or more changes in task parameter values. In Study 2, the effects of a commitment response on self-control was assessed. Results indicated that for all participants, levels of self-control were higher when the opportunity to commit to the immediate aversive event was available. PMID:22844138

  14. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain

    PubMed Central

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget’s theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman’s theory on intuitive heuristics. PMID:25852528

  15. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain.

    PubMed

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget's theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman's theory on intuitive heuristics. PMID:25852528

  16. An application of modern control theory to an elastic spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V.; Likins, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented to illustrate the application of established procedures of linear, quadratic, Gaussian optimal estimation and control to a spacecraft with dynamically significant elastic appendages. Interpretations are provided in both time domain and frequency domain, and conclusions are drawn for a wide class of problems of flexible spacecraft attitude control.

  17. Stimulus control topography coherence theory: Foundations and extensions

    PubMed Central

    McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.

    2003-01-01

    Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control topography coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control topography coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:22478402

  18. Configuration control of redundant manipulators - Theory and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    A simple approach for controlling the manipulator configuration over the entire motion is presented, based on augmentation of the manipulator forward kinematics. User-defined kinematic functions and the end-effector Cartesian coordinates are combined to form a set of task-related configuration variables as generalized coordinates for the manipulator. A task-based adaptive scheme is then utilized to control the configuration variables and achieve tracking of the desired reference trajectories. This achieves the desired end-effector motion while utilizing redundancy to achieve any additional task. Simulation results for a direct-drive two-link arm are given to illustrate the proposed control scheme. The scheme has also been implemented for real-time control of three links of a PUMA 560 industrial robot. The simulation and experimental results validate the configuration control scheme and demonstrate its capabilities for performing various realistic tasks.

  19. Learning control system design based on 2-D theory - An application to parallel link manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Z.; Carroll, R. L.; Lee, J. D.; Haynes, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An approach to iterative learning control system design based on two-dimensional system theory is presented. A two-dimensional model for the iterative learning control system which reveals the connections between learning control systems and two-dimensional system theory is established. A learning control algorithm is proposed, and the convergence of learning using this algorithm is guaranteed by two-dimensional stability. The learning algorithm is applied successfully to the trajectory tracking control problem for a parallel link robot manipulator. The excellent performance of this learning algorithm is demonstrated by the computer simulation results.

  20. Effects of a National Public Service Information Campaign on Crime Prevention: Perspectives from Social Learning and Social Control Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordan, Edward J.; Kwon, Joongrok

    This study examined the effects of public service advertising from two theoretical backgrounds: social learning theory and social control theory. Traditional social learning theory assumes that learning occurs by subjects performing responses and experiencing their effects, with reinforcement as the main determinant. Social control theory, as…

  1. A causal role for the anterior mid-cingulate cortex in negative affect and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Tolomeo, Serenella; Christmas, David; Jentzsch, Ines; Johnston, Blair; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Matthews, Keith; Douglas Steele, J

    2016-06-01

    Converging evidence has linked the anterior mid-cingulate cortex to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. It has previously been proposed that this region uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions. Studies on the effects of lesions allow causal inferences about brain function; however, naturally occurring lesions in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex are rare. In two studies we therefore recruited 94 volunteers, comprising 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had received bilateral anterior cingulotomy, which consists of lesions made within the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, 20 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had not received surgery and 59 healthy control subjects. Using the Ekman 60 faces paradigm and two Stroop paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that patients who received anterior cingulotomy were impaired in recognizing negative facial affect expressions but not positive or neutral facial expressions, and impaired in Stroop cognitive control, with larger lesions being associated with more impairment. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted more impairment in recognizing fear, disgust and anger, and no impairment in recognizing facial expressions of surprise or happiness. However, we found no impairment in recognizing expressions of sadness. Also consistent with the hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted impaired Stroop cognitive control. Notably, this relationship was only present when anterior mid-cingulate cortex lesion volume was defined as the overlap between cingulotomy lesion volume and Shackman's meta-analysis-derived binary masks for negative affect and cognitive control. Given substantial evidence from healthy subjects that the anterior mid-cingulate cortex is part of a network associated with the experience of negative affect and pain, engaging cognitive control processes for optimizing behaviour in the presence of such

  2. Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: the role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Dean, M; Lampila, P; Saba, A; Lähteenmäki, L; Shepherd, R

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of integrating measures of affective and moral attitudes into the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-model in predicting purchase intentions of organic foods. Moral attitude was operationalised as positive self-rewarding feelings of doing the right thing. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Italy (N=202), Finland (N=270) and UK (N=200) in March 2004. Questions focussed on intentions to purchase organic apples and organic ready-to-cook pizza instead of their conventional alternatives. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling by simultaneous multi-group analysis of the three countries. Along with attitudes, moral attitude and subjective norms explained considerable shares of variances in intentions. The relative influences of these variables varied between the countries, such that in the UK and Italy moral attitude rather than subjective norms had stronger explanatory power. In Finland it was other way around. Inclusion of moral attitude improved the model fit and predictive ability of the model, although only marginally in Finland. Thus the results partially support the usefulness of incorporating moral measures as well as affective items for attitude into the framework of TPB. PMID:18036702

  3. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  4. Race, Gender, Single-Mother Households, and Delinquency: A Further Test of Power-Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Kristin Y.; Leiber, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Using power-control theory as the theoretical framework, the present study examines the gender gap in delinquency for White and African American youth from single-mother households. The research is driven by the need to focus more attention on understanding how delinquency theories apply across different racial groups. Results from both bivariate…

  5. Heavy Episodic Drinking among Adolescents: A Test of Hypotheses Derived from Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Barbara J.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on the causes of heavy episodic drinking, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon in the sociological and criminological literature. This research assesses the extent to which a popular theory of crime and deviance, control theory, can explain heavy episodic drinking. Analysis of data collected from a…

  6. Wetting-controlled strategies: from theories to bio-inspiration.

    PubMed

    Song, Cheng; Zheng, Yongmei

    2014-08-01

    Creatures have evolved the unique wetting-controlled strategies on their surfaces to collect water for the sake of survival, such as Beetle back, spider silk and plant leaf as well, which inspires us to open the area of novel researches. In this feature article, we review the theoretical basis of wetting-controlling regarding of wettability and highlight the biological wetting-controlled strategies in water transport, and water collection, and also introduce some bio-inspired materials with water collection properties. It is significant to design the novel materials that would be used in the fields of responsive, smart catalysis, filtration and sensing besides water collection. PMID:24290249

  7. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  8. Decoupling and observation theory applied to control of a long flexible beam in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques which use decoupling theory and state variable feedback to control the pitch attitude and the flexible mode amplitudes of a long, thin beam are discussed. An observer based on the steady state Kalman filter was incorporated into the control design procedure in order to estimate the values of the modal state variables required for the feedback control law.

  9. A control theory model for human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  10. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  11. Convex hulls of a curve in control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatskii, Aleksei N

    2012-03-31

    A classification is obtained for typical singularities of the local transitivity sets of control systems on three-dimensional manifolds with nonconvex indicatrices that are closed smooth spatial curves. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  12. Advanced stability theory analyses for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments of the SALLY computer code for stability analysis of laminar flow control wings are summarized. Extensions of SALLY to study three dimensional compressible flows, nonparallel and nonlinear effects are discussed.

  13. Neural Mechanisms of Attentional Control Differentiate Trait and State Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Warren, Stacie L.; Bredemeier, Keith; Sutton, Bradley P.; Banich, Marie T.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA). Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways. PMID:22934089

  14. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Conflict Control in the Conflict-Resolving Stage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Baoxi; Guo, Shichun; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive basis of the effect of long-term high altitude exposure on conflict control is unclear. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a flanker task to investigate the influence of high altitude on conflict control in the high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but were born at low altitude) and the low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although altitude effect was not significant at the behavioral level, ERPs showed cognitive conflict modulation. The interaction between group and trial type was significant: P3 amplitude was greater in the low-altitude group than in the high-altitude group in the incongruent trial. This result suggests that long-term exposure to high altitude affects conflict control in the conflict-resolving stage, and that attentional resources are decreased to resist the conflict control in the high-altitude group. PMID:26671280

  15. Psychological mindsets affect consumption: How different mindsets help (hurt) portion control.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Derek D; He, Sharlene

    2016-08-01

    The present work discusses how psychological mindsets-orientations that affect how consumers encode, interpret, and respond to information- can help, as well as hurt, portion control. To this end, the current article first provides an overview of the general idea of psychological mindsets. Subsequently, evidence from three distinct areas of mindset research is reviewed: power and powerlessness; fixed and growth; promotion and prevention. For each literature, the relevant mindsets are discussed, and their implications for consumer behavior generally and portion control specifically are illuminated. The paper also provides a discussion of gaps in mindset research with consideration given to how to bridge the theoretical development on mindsets to practical applications. PMID:26767613

  16. Robust stabilization control based on guardian maps theory for a longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua

    2014-01-01

    A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24795535

  17. Robust Stabilization Control Based on Guardian Maps Theory for a Longitudinal Model of Hypersonic Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua

    2014-01-01

    A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24795535

  18. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  19. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  20. ORACLS - A modern control theory design package. [Optimal Regulator Algorithms for Control of Linear Systems computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program (ORACLS) for implementing the optimal regulator theory approach to the design of controllers for linear time-invariant systems is described. The user-oriented program employs the latest numerical techniques and is applicable to both the digital and continuous control problems.

  1. A new method of excitation control based on fuzzy set theory

    SciTech Connect

    Handschin, E.; Hoffmann, W.; Reyer, F.; Stephanblome, T.; Schluecking, U.; Westermann, D. ); Ahmed, S.S. )

    1994-02-01

    The synthesis of the structure of the PSS and its parameterization are based entirely on method of linear system theory. Thus the desorbed effect of the PSS is limited to a bounded area around one system operating point. The use of a controller based on fuzzy set theory introduces an event controlled excitation of the synchronous machine taking into account the power system operation. The desired response of the fuzzy controller is given by a set of rules which are obtained from the limits of the voltage regulator and the undesired performance of the conventional excitation control. A fuzzy controller has been developed for which simulation results are provided. These results support the concept of a fuzzy controller for the purpose of excitation control. They show that a well designed fuzzy controller is superior to a fast excitation control with an additional PSS.

  2. On stability theory. [of nonlinear feedback control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.

    1979-01-01

    It is found that under mild assumptions, feedback system stability can be concluded if one can 'topologically separate' the infinite-dimensional function space containing the system's dynamical input-output relations into two regions, one region containing the dynamical input-output relation of the 'feedforward' element of the system and the other region containing the dynamical output-input relation of the 'feedback' element. Nonlinear system stability criteria of both the input-output type and the state-space (Liapunov) type are interpreted in this context. The abstract generality and conceptual simplicity afforded by the topological separation perspective clarifies some of the basic issues underlying stability theory and serves to suggest improvements in existing stability criteria. A generalization of Zames' (1966) conic-relation stability criterion is proved, laying the foundation for improved multivariable generalizations of the frequency-domain circle stability criterion for nonlinear systems.

  3. Application of modern control theory for building structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharkhah, M. A.; Yao, J. T. P.

    The design of feedback compensators is considered for linear and constant-coefficient multivariable systems and an attempt is made to find a suitable gain matrix for active control of structures. The application of the pole-assignment method is discussed. It is based on the shifting of open-loop poles to the left side of the s-plane, and is applicable to mechanical and electrical systems. The second method developed in this study provides a physical understanding of the active control of civil engineering structures because it allows control of several modes of the system. The K matrix of the control law can be found so that the first few modes of the system have smaller displacements than the corresponding displacements of the original system. Therefore, more modes of higher gain can be used to substantially reduce system displacements. Because the pole-assignment method will not always significantly reduce displacements, the second method is found to be better for the control of civil engineering structures.

  4. Constrained modes in control theory - Transmission zeros of uniform beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical arguments are presented demonstrating that the well-established control system concept of the transmission zero is very closely related to the structural concept of the constrained mode. It is shown that the transmission zeros of a flexible structure form a set of constrained natural frequencies for it, with the constraints depending explicitly on the locations and the types of sensors and actuators used for control. Based on this formulation, an algorithm is derived and used to produce dimensionless plots of the zero of a uniform beam with a compatible sensor/actuator pair.

  5. Towards a Theory of Psychosocial Development and Fertility Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvetkovich, George

    It is popularly held that the low rate of birth control use among sexually-active American teenagers is primarily due to their immaturity. Many teenagers are commencing their sexual careers prior to acquisition of the social and cognitive abilities demanded by responsible contraceptive use. A general decision-making framework can be used to create…

  6. Applications of Learning Theory: A Course in Self-Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, Ted; Collins, Gordon

    A 10-week seminar in self-control for 25 selected junior and senior psychology majors at the College of Wooster is described. The seminar was developed in response to increasing popularity of behavior modification and an interest in exploring applications of a science of behavior. The didactic aspect of the course was complemented by an applied…

  7. Authority Control for Creators in Italy: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoja, Maurizio; Vitali, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The first part of the article illustrates the connections between the debate on "ISAAR(CPF)" and archival authority control and the discussions about the nature of archives and their relationships with their creators that have taken place within the Italian archival community during the twentieth century. The second part of the article offers some…

  8. Control Engineering, System Theory and Mathematics: The Teacher's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenger, K.

    2007-01-01

    The principles, difficulties and challenges in control education are discussed and compared to the similar problems in the teaching of mathematics and systems science in general. The difficulties of today's students to appreciate the classical teaching of engineering disciplines, which are based on rigorous and scientifically sound grounds, are…

  9. Closing the Gap Between Process Control Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Carlos; Cardona-Martinez, Nelson; Velazquez, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The pressure on world-wide manufacturing industries to meet tougher demands and regulations has forced companies to focus on improving manufacturing using tools like process automation. This focus requires better-prepared students. The process control course of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez has…

  10. Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; And Others

    Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates…

  11. Effects of temptations on the affective salience of weight control goals.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Macdonald, Alexandra

    2007-03-01

    Despite the value of weight control goals, the maintenance of healthy eating habits represents a challenge for most. Self-regulatory efforts are often challenged by the presence of high-risk cues (e.g., tempting foods) which provide short-term positive outcomes at the expense of these long-term health objectives. The current study examined contextual influences on self-regulation failure by exploring the effect of cues on an indirect measure of goal value. Two experiments were conducted with undergraduate students which examined the effect of temptation cues on the evaluation of information related to the goal of weight control. Results of Study 1 provided preliminary evidence for the utility of this task as an indirect measure of goal value and showed that food-related primes slowed evaluation response times for weight control-related targets. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by demonstrating that temptation cues may not only decrease the affective salience of weight control related information but increase the salience of information related to the goal of affect enhancement. These results suggest that self-regulation failure may be influenced by contextual changes in the value of health-related goals. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:16712782

  12. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models. PMID:25571577

  13. New control concepts for uncertain water resources systems: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming

    1993-06-01

    A major complicating factor in water resources systems management is handling unknown inputs. Stochastic optimization provides a sound mathematical framework but requires that enough data exist to develop statistical input representations. In cases where data records are insufficient (e.g., extreme events) or atypical of future input realizations, stochastic methods are inadequate. This article presents a control approach where input variables are only expected to belong in certain sets. The objective is to determine sets of admissible control actions guaranteeing that the system will remain within desirable bounds. The solution is based on dynamic programming and derived for the case where all sets are convex polyhedra. A companion paper (Yao and Georgakakos, this issue) addresses specific applications and problems in relation to reservoir system management.

  14. Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.

  15. Application of stability theory to laminar flow control - Progress and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Malik, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    Paper briefly summarizes the current status of linear stability theory as applied to laminar flow control for aerodynamics. Results indicate that the conventional 'N factor' method of correlating stability theory and transition has a broad application range, including low- and high-speeds, two- and three-dimensional mean flow and TS, Gortler and crossflow disturbance modes. Linear theory is particularly applicable to the laminar flow control problem as, for system efficiency, control must be exercised and disturbances maintained in the linear regime. Current areas of concern for LFC, which require further stability theory research, include TS-crossflow interaction, combined disturbance fields (roughness, waviness, noise) and suction-induced disturbances. Some results on wave-interactions are presented.

  16. Theory and Application of Semiochemicals in Nuisance Fish Control.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Peter W; Johnson, Nicholas S

    2016-07-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in "push-pull" configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  17. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. PMID:24787342

  18. Theory and application of semiochemicals in nuisance fish control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Peter W.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in “push-pull” configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  19. Tuning RED parameters in satellite networks using control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Mukundan; Durresi, Arjan; Chellappan, Sriram; Ozbay, Hitay; Jain, Raj

    2003-08-01

    Congestion in the Internet results in wasted bandwidth and also stands in the way of guaranteeing QoS. The effect of congestion is multiplied many fold in Satellite networks, where the resources are very expensive. Thus congestion control has a special significance in the performance of Satellite networks. In today's Internet, congestion control is implemented mostly using some form of the de facto standard, RED. But tuning of parameters in RED has been a major problem throughout. Achieving high throughput with corresponding low delays is the main goal in parameter setting. It is also desired to keep the oscillations in the queue low to reduce jitter, so that the QoS guarantees can be improved. In this paper, we use a previously linearized fluid flow model of TCP-RED to study the performance and stability of the Queue in the router. We use classical control tools like Tracking Error minimization and Delay Margin to study the performance, stability of the system. We use the above-mentioned tools to provide guidelines for setting the parameters in RED, such that the throughput, delay and jitter of the system are optimized. Thus we provide guidelines for optimizing satellite IP networks. We apply our results exclusively for optimizing the performance of satellite networks, where the effects of congestion are much pronounced and need for optimization is much important. We use ns simulator to validate our results to support our analysis.

  20. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Micah; Dietz, Martin; Blair, Karina S.; van Beek, Martijn; Rees, Geraint; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Lutz, Antoine; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness meditation training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act on attention through interoceptive salience and attentional control mechanisms, but until now conflicting evidence from behavioral and neural measures has made it difficult to distinguish the role of these mechanisms. To resolve this question we conducted a fully randomized 6-week longitudinal trial of MT, explicitly controlling for cognitive and treatment effects with an active control group. We measured behavioral metacognition and whole-brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals using functional MRI during an affective Stroop task before and after intervention. Although both groups improved significantly on a response-inhibition task, only the MT group showed reduced affective Stroop conflict. Moreover, the MT group displayed greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responses during executive processing, consistent with increased recruitment of top-down mechanisms to resolve conflict. In contrast, we did not observe overall group by time interactions on negative affect-related RTs or BOLD responses. However, only participants with the greatest amount of MT practice showed improvements in response-inhibition and increased recruitment of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and right anterior insula during negative valence processing. Collectively our findings highlight the importance of active control in MT research, and indicate unique neural mechanisms for progressive stages of mindfulness training. PMID:23115195

  1. A Theory of Rate Coding Control by Intrinsic Plasticity Effects

    PubMed Central

    Naudé, J.; Paz, J. T.; Berry, H.; Delord, B.

    2012-01-01

    , the present theory is also relevant to other neural processes involving excitability changes, such as neuromodulation, development, aging and neural disorders. PMID:22275858

  2. A theory of rate coding control by intrinsic plasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Naudé, J; Paz, J T; Berry, H; Delord, B

    2012-01-01

    , the present theory is also relevant to other neural processes involving excitability changes, such as neuromodulation, development, aging and neural disorders. PMID:22275858

  3. Applications of nonlinear systems theory to control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro

    1988-01-01

    For most applications in the control area, the standard practice is to approximate a nonlinear mathematical model by a linear system. Since the feedback linearizable systems contain linear systems as a subclass, the procedure of approximating a nonlinear system by a feedback linearizable one is examined. Because many physical plants (e.g., aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center) have mathematical models which are close to feedback linearizable systems, such approximations are certainly justified. Results and techniques are introduced for measuring the gap between the model and its truncated linearizable part. The topic of pure feedback systems is important to the study.

  4. Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Theory of Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, James C.

    2008-08-01

    The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method for simplifying the treatment of reactions in complex systems is summarized and the selection of constraints for both close-to and far-from equilibrium systems is discussed. Illustrative examples of RCCE calculations of carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaust products of an internal combustion engine and ignition delays for methane-oxygen mixtures in a constant volume adiabatic chamber are given and compared with "detailed" calculations. The advantages of RCCE calculations over "detailed" calculations are discussed.

  5. A Behavioral Intervention for War-Affected Youth in Sierra Leone: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Brennan, Robert T.; Weisz, John R.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)–based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15–24 years) in Sierra Leone. Method War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. Results The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. Conclusion YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI

  6. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy; Magnusdottir, Brynja; Morgen, Katrin; Arnarsdottir, Sunna; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Walters, G Bragi; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Doyle, Orla M; Tost, Heike; Grimm, Oliver; Kristjansdottir, Solveig; Snorrason, Heimir; Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Gudmundsson, Larus J; Jonsson, Gudbjorn F; Stefansdottir, Berglind; Helgadottir, Isafold; Haraldsson, Magnus; Jonsdottir, Birna; Thygesen, Johan H; Schwarz, Adam J; Didriksen, Michael; Stensbøl, Tine B; Brammer, Michael; Kapur, Shitij; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-16

    In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia. PMID:24352232

  7. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  8. 45 CFR 2526.30 - How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD § 2526.30 How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use that award? (a) Except... controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use that award? 2526.30 Section...

  9. 45 CFR 2526.30 - How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD § 2526.30 How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use that award? (a) Except... controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use that award? 2526.30 Section...

  10. Controlling Retrieval during Practice: Implications for Memory-Based Theories of Automaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Nicolas J.; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Memory-based processing theories of automaticity assume that shifts from algorithmic to retrieval-based processing underlie practice effects on response times. The current work examined the extent to which individuals can exert control over the involvement of retrieval during skill acquisition and the factors that may influence control. In two…

  11. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

  12. Advanced Quality Control Theory for Training and Education: A Guide to Optimizing Training and Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppler, Brad

    2008-01-01

    This is a book about quality and how to control quality through deliberate actions on the part of the professionals developing and implementing the instances of instruction available at an organization. Quality control theory favors no particular learning philosophy and is only directed towards aspects of how, what, where and when measurements are…

  13. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  14. Radiative transfer theory verified by controlled laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Goldstein, Dennis H; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-09-15

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2% to 10%. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to ∼2%. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5% should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination. PMID:24104804

  15. Kalman meets neuron: the emerging intersection of control theory with neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models that provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I show recent examples of the use of nonlinear control theory for the assimilation and control of single neuron dynamics, the modulation of oscillatory wave dynamics in brain cortex, a control framework for Parkinsonian dynamics and seizures, and the use of optimized parameter model networks to assimilate complex network data - the 'consensus set'. PMID:19964302

  16. Kalman Meets Neuron: The Emerging Intersection of Control Theory with Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models that provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I show recent examples of the use of nonlinear control theory for the assimilation and control of single neuron dynamics, the modulation of oscillatory wave dynamics in brain cortex, a control framework for Parkinsonian dynamics and seizures, and the use of optimized parameter model networks to assimilate complex network data – the ‘consensus set’. PMID:19964302

  17. A comparison of design variables for control theory based airfoil optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work in the area it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using either the potential flow or the Euler equations with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. We have also explored three-dimensional extensions of these formulations recently. The goal of our present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the control theory approach by designing airfoils using both Hicks-Henne functions and B-spline control points as design variables. The research also demonstrates that the parameterization of the design space is an open question in aerodynamic design.

  18. Aircraft ride quality controller design using new robust root clustering theory for linear uncertain systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    The aspect of controller design for improving the ride quality of aircraft in terms of damping ratio and natural frequency specifications on the short period dynamics is addressed. The controller is designed to be robust with respect to uncertainties in the real parameters of the control design model such as uncertainties in the dimensional stability derivatives, imperfections in actuator/sensor locations and possibly variations in flight conditions, etc. The design is based on a new robust root clustering theory developed by the author by extending the nominal root clustering theory of Gutman and Jury to perturbed matrices. The proposed methodology allows to get an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty radius of the parameter space. The current literature available for robust stability becomes a special case of this unified theory. The bounds derived on the parameter perturbation for robust root clustering are then used in selecting the robust controller.

  19. Sustained Pain Reduction Through Affective Self-awareness in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Lumley, Mark A.; Stracks, John S.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Affect and how it is regulated plays a role in pain perception, maintenance of pain, and its resolution. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated an innovative affective self-awareness (ASA) intervention, which was designed to reduce pain and improve functioning in individuals with fibromyalgia. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS Forty-five women with fibromyalgia were randomized to a manualized ASA intervention (n = 24) or wait-list control (n = 21). The intervention began with a one-time physician consultation, followed by 3 weekly, 2-h group sessions based upon a mind-body model of pain. Sessions focused on structured written emotional disclosure and emotional awareness exercises. Outcomes in both conditions were measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. MEASURES The primary outcome was pain severity (Brief Pain Inventory); secondary outcomes included tender-point threshold and physical function (SF-36 Physical Component Summary). Intent-to-treat analyses compared groups on outcomes using analysis of covariance and on the proportion of patients achieving ≥30% and ≥50% pain reduction at 6 months. RESULTS Adjusting for baseline scores, the intervention group had significantly lower pain severity (p < 0.001), higher self-reported physical function (p < 0.001), and higher tender-point threshold (p = 0.02) at 6 months compared to the control group. From baseline to 6 months, 45.8% of the ASA intervention group had ≥30% reduction in pain severity, compared to none of the controls (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The affective self-awareness intervention improved pain, tenderness, and self-reported physical function for at least 6 months in women with fibromyalgia compared to wait-list control. This study suggests the value of interventions targeting emotional processes in fibromyalgia, although further studies should evaluate the efficacy of this intervention relative to active

  20. Components of self-esteem in affective patients and non-psychiatric controls.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Olgiati, Paolo; Colombo, Cristina

    2005-09-01

    Decrease in self-esteem (SE) is found in all mood disorders during inter-episode phases. This trait was associated with relapse and suicidality but its genetic basis is still undefined, probably because SE has multiple components. The aim of the current study was to ascertain which of those components were altered in a sample of affective patients. Three hundred and thirty-one outpatients with bipolar (N=199) and major depressive MD (N=132) disorders in remission for at least three months and one hundred controls completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; [Rosenberg, M., 1965. The measurement of self-esteem, Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton University Press, pp.16-36]). Principal component analysis was performed to identify RSE factor structure. Extracted factors were compared across case and control groups in the whole sample (N=431) and in a sub-sample (N=301) with low self-esteem (RSE <20). PCA yielded a two-factor solution with self-confidence (SC) and self-deprecation (SD) that was largely consistent with the existing literature. Such factors were both associated with lower scores in affective patients than controls (SC: F=52, p<0.01; SD: F=43, p<0.01). However in the low RSE group only self-confidence was found to be decreased in subjects with mood disorders (SC: F=13.8, p<0.01; SD: F=0.05, p=0.9). These findings suggest that self-esteem deficit in affective disorders might involve specific components. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:16040127

  1. Self-control, negative affect and neural activity during effortful cognition in deprived smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of attempts to quit smoking cigarettes are unsuccessful. Negative affect (NA) is one of the primary factors contributing to smoking relapse, in part because it interferes with psychological processes that are essential for self-regulation and coping. Converging evidence suggests that NA may be less of a problem for smokers with high relative to low dispositional self-control, but very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this issue by examining the associations between trait self-control, state levels of NA and patterns of brain activation in nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 117) during the performance of a verbal n-back paradigm (a task requiring cognitive processes that support self-regulation). While the activation of several brain regions linked to executive control correlated positively and negatively with state NA and trait self-control, respectively, an interaction between these factors was identified in only one region: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We conclude that the functions supported by the vmPFC are an important source of variability in smokers’ self-regulatory functioning and propose that the region may contribute to the use of implicit forms of self-control under demanding circumstances. PMID:23620601

  2. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  3. "Pedagogy, Identity and the Construction of a Theory of Symbolic Control": Basil Bernstein Questioned by Joseph Solomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Basil; Solomon, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on Basil Bernstein and his theory of symbolic control and cultural production. Presents an interview with Bernstein addressing such topics as the concept of "pedagogy" and its role in his theory, "boundaries" as a conceptual key in his theory, and transformation of his theory. (CMK)

  4. Controlling a virtual forehand prosthesis using an adaptive and affective Human-Machine Interface.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, I Mohammad; Firoozabadi, S M P; Golpayegani, S M R Hashemi; Hu, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an adaptable Human-Machine Interface (HMI) for controlling virtual forearm prosthesis. Direct physical performance measures (obtained score and completion time) for the requested tasks were calculated. Furthermore, bioelectric signals from the forehead were recorded using one pair of electrodes placed on the frontal region of the subject head to extract the mental (affective) measures while performing the tasks. By employing the proposed algorithm and above measures, the proposed HMI can adapt itself to the subject's mental states, thus improving the usability of the interface. The quantitative results from 15 subjects show that the proposed HMI achieved better physical performance measures in comparison to a conventional non-adaptive myoelectric controller (p < 0.001). PMID:22255248

  5. Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Schifter, D E; Ajzen, I

    1985-09-01

    Success at attempted weight reduction among college women was predicted on the basis of a theory of planned behavior. At the beginning of a 6-week period, participants expressed their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, and intentions with respect to losing weight. In addition, the extent to which they had made detailed weight reduction plans was assessed, as were a number of general attitudes and personality factors. In support of the theory, intentions to lose weight were accurately predicted on the basis of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control; perceived control and intentions were together moderately successful in predicting the amount of weight that participants actually lost over the 6-week period. Actual weight loss was also found to increase with development of a plan and with ego strength, factors that were assumed to increase control over goal attainment. Other factors, such as health locus of control, perceived competence, and action control, were found to be unrelated to weight reduction. PMID:4045706

  6. Vibration and control of a flexible rotor in magnetic bearings using hybrid method and H{sup {infinity}} control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, T.N.; Sheu, G.J.; Yang, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The vibration and active control of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings are investigated using Hybrid Method (HM) and H{sup {infinity}} control theory with consideration of gyroscopic effect. The hybrid method, which combines the merits of the finite element method (FEM) and generalized polynomial expansion method (GPEM) is employed to model the flexible rotor system with small order of plant. The mixed sensitivity problem of H{sup {infinity}} control theory is applied to design the control of system vibration with spillover phenomena for the reduced order plant. The H{sub 2} control design is also employed for comparison with the H{sup {infinity}} design. The experimental simulation is used to illustrate the effects of control design. It is shown that the H{sup {infinity}} controller design can be very effective to suppress spillover phenomena. In addition, the H{sup {infinity}} control design has robustness to the variation of the model parameters. The application of the hybrid method (HM) together with H{sup {infinity}} control design is highly recommended for vibration control of flexible rotor systems with magnetic bearings.

  7. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  8. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-08-28

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  9. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  10. Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Robert; Björklund, Martin; Hornborg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Stina; Hesser, Hugo; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rousseau, Andréas; Frederick, Ronald J; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT), as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders. Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average) in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up. Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size of Cohen's d

  11. A Case Controlled Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Smith, Phillip N; Chen, Tian; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-07-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that the most proximal cause of suicide is the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness coupled with a pre-existing vulnerability of reduced fear of death and increased pain tolerance. This pre-existing vulnerability develops in response to painful and provocative life events. According to the theory, empirically demonstrated risk factors for suicide operate by increasing the likelihood of one or more of the theory's constructs. The current study examined the relations of the major constructs of the interpersonal theory with suicide case status compared to living controls in the second half of life. The current study used a pre-existing psychological autopsy database to compare suicide decedents to living controls 50 years and older. Theory constructs were measured by composite scores of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and painful and provocative experiences using an a priori selection of items comprising each construct. Suicide decedents experienced greater levels of all three of the theory's constructs when examined independently compared to living controls. When examined simultaneously while also controlling for Major Depression, greater perceived burdensomeness and painful and provocative experiences were associated with suicide case status (vs. control). The interpersonal theory is a comprehensive framework that may be useful in understanding risk for death by suicide in the second half of life. Clinical management of suicide risk for adults in the second half of life could include a focus on perceived burdensomeness, as the IPTS proposes that this psychological state is amenable to change via therapeutic intervention. PMID:26219512

  12. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  13. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…

  14. Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.

  15. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  16. Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, K

    2010-10-01

    According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use. PMID:20513655

  17. Musical rhythm and affect. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Maria A. G.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The Quartet Theory of Human Emotion (QT) proposed by Koelsch et al. [1] adds to existing affective models, e.g. by directing more attention to emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal-directed emotions. Such an approach seems particularly appropriate to modelling musical emotions, and music is indeed a recurring example in the text, used to illustrate the distinct characteristics of the affect systems that are at the centre of the theory. Yet, it would seem important for any theory of emotion to account for basic functions such as prediction and anticipation, which are only briefly mentioned. Here we propose that QT, specifically its focus on emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal directed emotions, might help generate new ideas about a largely neglected source of emotion - rhythm - a musical property that relies fundamentally on the mechanism of prediction.

  18. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  20. Interpretation of Self-Talk and Post-Lecture Affective States of Higher Education Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Emily J.; Markland, David; Hardy, James

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-determination theory posits that informational versus controlling interpretations of intra-personal events have positive and negative implications, respectively, for well-being. Self-talk represents an intra-personal event that could be interpreted as informational or controlling and may attenuate or exacerbate the negative…

  1. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  2. Affective processing in positive schizotypy: Loose control of social-emotional information.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas

    2014-10-30

    Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations. PMID:25463142

  3. The dominant foot affects the postural control mechanism: examination by body tracking test

    PubMed Central

    Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Tositake; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion The antero-posterior (AP) body tracking test (BTT) showed that the dominant foot could affect the tilt angle of the sway movement, delineated by primary component analysis. Differences associated with the dominant foot could represent the difference in space perception of each person. Objectives To examine whether the dominant foot could affect the postural control mechanism using the BTT. Methods Ninety-seven healthy participants enrolled in the study were classified into right-foot and left-foot dominance groups, and their performances were compared. For the BTT, each participant stood on a stabilometer and caught the movement of a visual target moving vertically (anterior-posterior) or horizontally by the center of pressure movement, displayed on a 14-inch screen monitor at 100 cm in front of the subject. The mean displacement angle of the obtained stabilogram was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results The AP BTT in the right-foot dominance group showed a clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of 3.022 ± 3.761°, whereas the group with left-foot dominance had a modest counter-clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of –0.694 ± 4.497°. This difference was found to be significant by the independent t test (p < 0.0001). In the lateral BTT, the mean displacement angles were not significant. PMID:25252704

  4. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  5. Web Intervention for Adolescents Affected by Disaster: Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Price, Matthew; Adams, Zachary; Stauffacher, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Knapp, Rebecca; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of Bounce Back Now (BBN), a modular, web-based intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents. Method A population-based randomized controlled trial used address-based sampling to enroll 2,000 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Joplin, MO, and Alabama. Data collection via baseline and follow-up semi-structured telephone interviews was completed between September 2011 and August 2013. All families were invited to access the BBN study web portal irrespective of mental health status at baseline. Families who accessed the web portal were assigned randomly to 3 groups: (1) BBN, which featured modules for adolescents and parents targeting adolescents’ mental health symptoms; (2) BBN plus additional modules targeting parents’ mental health symptoms; or (3) assessment only. The primary outcomes were adolescent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Results Nearly 50% of families accessed the web portal. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed time × condition interactions for PTSD symptoms (B=−0.24, SE=0.08, p<.01) and depressive symptoms (B=−0.23, SE=0.09, p<.01). Post-hoc comparisons revealed fewer PTSD and depressive symptoms for adolescents in the experimental vs. control conditions at 12-month follow-up (PTSD: B=−0.36, SE=0.19, p=.06; depressive symptoms: B=−0.42, SE=0.19, p=0.03). A time × condition interaction also was found favoring the BBN vs. BBN + parent self-help condition for PTSD symptoms (B=0.30, SE=0.12, p=.02), but not depressive symptoms (B=0.12, SE=0.12, p=.33). Conclusion Results supported the feasibility and initial efficacy of BBN as a scalable disaster mental health intervention for adolescents. Technology-based solutions have tremendous potential value if found to reduce the mental health burden of disasters. PMID:26299292

  6. Teaching Children and Youth Self-Control: Applications of Perceptual Control Theory. From the Second CCBD Mini-Library Series: Successful Interventions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.

    This monograph discusses using an approach based on perceptual control theory (PCT) to teach self-control to children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. PCT is described as a general approach to understanding self-regulated systems that relies on the theory that behavior controls an individual's perceptions rather than the…

  7. Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: a life history theory approach.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2014-10-01

    Past research found that environmental uncertainty leads people to behave differently depending on their childhood environment. For example, economic uncertainty leads people from poor childhoods to become more impulsive while leading people from wealthy childhoods to become less impulsive. Drawing on life history theory, we examine the psychological mechanism driving such diverging responses to uncertainty. Five experiments show that uncertainty alters people's sense of control over the environment. Exposure to uncertainty led people from poorer childhoods to have a significantly lower sense of control than those from wealthier childhoods. In addition, perceptions of control statistically mediated the effect of uncertainty on impulsive behavior. These studies contribute by demonstrating that sense of control is a psychological driver of behaviors associated with fast and slow life history strategies. We discuss the implications of this for theory and future research, including that environmental uncertainty might lead people who grew up poor to quit challenging tasks sooner than people who grew up wealthy. PMID:25133717

  8. Control theory based airfoil design for potential flow and a finite volume discretization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J.; Jameson, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for two-dimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a conformal transformation from a unit circle, and the control is the mapping function. The goal of our present work is to develop a method which does not depend on conformal mapping, so that it can be extended to treat three-dimensional problems. Therefore, we have developed a method which can address arbitrary geometric shapes through the use of a finite volume method to discretize the potential flow equation. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented, where both target speed distributions and minimum drag are used as objective functions.

  9. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  10. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  11. Emotional modulation of control dilemmas: the role of positive affect, reward, and dopamine in cognitive stability and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2014-09-01

    Goal-directed action in changing environments requires a dynamic balance between complementary control modes, which serve antagonistic adaptive functions (e.g., to shield goals from competing responses and distracting information vs. to flexibly switch between goals and behavioral dispositions in response to significant changes). Too rigid goal shielding promotes stability but incurs a cost in terms of perseveration and reduced flexibility, whereas too weak goal shielding promotes flexibility but incurs a cost in terms of increased distractibility. While research on cognitive control has long been conducted relatively independently from the study of emotion and motivation, it is becoming increasingly clear that positive affect and reward play a central role in modulating cognitive control. In particular, evidence from the past decade suggests that positive affect not only influences the contents of cognitive processes, but also modulates the balance between complementary modes of cognitive control. In this article we review studies from the past decade that examined effects of induced positive affect on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility with a focus on set switching and working memory maintenance and updating. Moreover, we review recent evidence indicating that task-irrelevant positive affect and performance-contingent rewards exert different and sometimes opposite effects on cognitive control modes, suggesting dissociations between emotional and motivational effects of positive affect. Finally, we critically review evidence for the popular hypothesis that effects of positive affect may be mediated by dopaminergic modulations of neural processing in prefrontal and striatal brain circuits, and we refine this "dopamine hypothesis of positive affect" by specifying distinct mechanisms by which dopamine may mediate effects of positive affect and reward on cognitive control. We conclude with a discussion of limitations of current research, point to

  12. Searching for the Self: An Identity Control Theory Approach to Triggers of Occupational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katherine L.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    Identity control theory researchers have found evidence for two processes of identity development (identity defense and identity change) and have theorized a third process (identity exploration). College students (N = 123) self-rated as high or low in occupational identity certainty and importance received self-discrepant feedback to induce…

  13. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  14. Theory of Mind Training in Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40).…

  15. An approximation theory for nonlinear partial differential equations with applications to identification and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kunisch, K.

    1982-01-01

    Approximation results from linear semigroup theory are used to develop a general framework for convergence of approximation schemes in parameter estimation and optimal control problems for nonlinear partial differential equations. These ideas are used to establish theoretical convergence results for parameter identification using modal (eigenfunction) approximation techniques. Results from numerical investigations of these schemes for both hyperbolic and parabolic systems are given.

  16. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  17. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent’s resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target’s feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent’s strategy and the target’s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as

  18. Equilibrium Plasma Position Control for a Large Tokamak Using Modern Control Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunishi, Kohyu; Saito, Seiji; Ogata, Atsushi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa

    1980-09-01

    Optimal control techniques are applied to maintain the plasma in its equilibrium position in a large tokamak. The application of the state space equation to plasma position control is also discussed. Optimal controls with states, which are plasma current, OH coil current and vertical field current, and integrated plasma displacement feedbacks are formulated as linear, time invariant expressions with quadratic performance indices. Effective plasma position control was obtained with integral state feedback in computer simulations for the JT-60. These control techniques will be applied to the JT-60.

  19. Credibility theory based dynamic control bound optimization for reservoir flood limited water level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Ping; Ji, Changming; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic control operation of reservoir flood limited water level (FLWL) can solve the contradictions between reservoir flood control and beneficial operation well, and it is an important measure to make sure the security of flood control and realize the flood utilization. The dynamic control bound of FLWL is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir dynamic control operation. In order to optimize the dynamic control bound of FLWL by considering flood forecasting error, this paper took the forecasting error as a fuzzy variable, and described it with the emerging credibility theory in recent years. By combining the flood forecasting error quantitative model, a credibility-based fuzzy chance constrained model used to optimize the dynamic control bound was proposed in this paper, and fuzzy simulation technology was used to solve the model. The FENGTAN reservoir in China was selected as a case study, and the results show that, compared with the original operation water level, the initial operation water level (IOWL) of FENGTAN reservoir can be raised 4 m, 2 m and 5.5 m respectively in the three division stages of flood season, and without increasing flood control risk. In addition, the rationality and feasibility of the proposed forecasting error quantitative model and credibility-based dynamic control bound optimization model are verified by the calculation results of extreme risk theory.

  20. [Factors affecting Diatomaceous earth effectiveness in the control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults].

    PubMed

    Alves, Luis F A; Oliveira, Daian G P; Neves, Pedro M O J

    2008-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a potential alternative to control the lesser mealworm of poultry farms Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Our study aimed to understand the role of some of the environmental and insect behavioral factors play on DE effectiveness, such as the substrate (chicken food and poultry house litter), temperature and DE repellent activity on lesser mealworm adults. Mortality was higher at the highest temperature (32 masculineC), and it increased with DE concentration (53 and 84% respectively, for concentrations of 86 and 172 g/m(2)) (P < 0.05). The substrate also influenced DE effectiveness: 95% mortality was observed in the feed, against 4% in the poultry litter. Part of these results can be attributed to the removal of DE particles by the poultry bedding, as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and rhodamine concentration on the surface of the insects. As to insect behavior, DE had a repellent effect, since trap capture decreased nearly 50% in traps containing DE as opposed to those containing only food. Therefore, environmental factors do affect the DE effectiveness, and they must be taken into consideration when looking into developing control strategies in the field. PMID:19169561

  1. Brain Regions Affected by Impaired Control Modulate Responses to Alcohol and Smoking Cues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Despite the commonly observed comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use disorders and years of research, the mechanism underlying concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco is not yet clear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the relationship between brain responses to alcohol and smoking cues in 45 subjects with episodic drinking and regular smoking. Method: fMRI data were collected from two studies performing an alcohol-craving task and a smoking-craving task. First, we identified brain voxels significantly activated for both substance cues and then associated the activation of these voxels with various alcohol- and nicotine-dependence measures. Significant clusters (cluster-wise p < .05) correlated with behavioral assessments were extracted, and clusters identified from both cues were compared. Results: The association tests with various dependence scores showed that the loss of behavioral control subcategory in the Alcohol Dependence Scale was significantly correlated with brain activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right posterior insula regardless of cue types. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCC and right posterior insula, each playing a role in the salience network, are affected significantly by impaired control for alcohol and in turn influence brain responses to not only alcohol but also smoking cues, providing insight to neuronal mechanisms for concurrent use or comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence. PMID:25208199

  2. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  3. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernanda C.; Paiva, Franciny A.; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C.; Caldeira, Henrique M. A.; Fontes, Marco A. P.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C. A.; Casali, Karina R.; Fortes, Gláucia H.; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine—a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mm

  4. Application of modern control theory to temperature control of the MBE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Chan, Yuen Chuen; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Tada, Kunio

    1990-03-01

    The setup of an MBE control system without PID controllers, whereby one microprocessor manages all the Knudsen cells directly, is reported. The model-following algorithm is applied to the temperature control of the Knudsen cells, and improved dynamic response of the cell temperature is obtained compared with that obtained by the conventional PID algorithm. An application of the model-following algorithm to device fabrication is demonstrated.

  5. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077

  6. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to the design of a rotorcraft flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Gorder, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. Quantitative Feedback Theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear uncertain model of the AH-64 rotorcraft. In this model, the uncertainty is assigned, and is assumed to be attributable to actual uncertainty in the dynamic model and to the changes in the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics which occur near hover. The model includes an approximation to the rotor and actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which handling qualities criteria may be incorporated into the design of realistic rotorcraft control systems in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model.

  7. Aerodynamic shape optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. Recently, the method has been implemented for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. Here results are presented both for the optimization of a swept wing using an analytic mapping, and for the optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using a general mesh.

  8. Blood donation and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour: an examination of perceived behavioural control.

    PubMed

    Giles, M; Cairns, E

    1995-06-01

    In spite of the success achieved by the theory of reasoned action, researchers continue to suggest that new components should be added to the original model. Indeed, Ajzen has himself acknowledged that some behaviours may be subject to control problems and thus proposed the theory of planned behaviour to handle behaviours of this kind. This study set out to explore the predictive superiority of the revised theory of planned behaviour by focusing on blood donation, a behavioural domain in which volitional control was thought to be incomplete. It was also the intention to explore the extent to which the belief-based measure of attitude exists as a multidimensional construct. An Ajzen & Fishbein type questionnaire was administered to 141 undergraduate students. Multiple regression analyses provided strong support for the theory of planned behaviour, suggesting that perception of control has an important impact on a person's behavioural motivation. Also, some support for a multidimensional representation of the belief-based measure of attitude was provided. PMID:7620844

  9. H{sub {infinity}} Control Theory Applied to Xenon Control for Load-Following Operation of a Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Sung Goo; Cho, Nam Zin

    2002-02-15

    A robust controller is designed by applying the H{sub {infinity}} optimal control theory to the xenon control for the load-following operation of a nuclear reactor. The set of reactor model equations for controller design is a stiff system. This singularly perturbed system arises from the interaction of slow dynamics modes (iodine and xenon concentrations) and fast dynamics modes (neutron density, fuel and coolant temperatures). The singular perturbation technique is used to overcome this stiffness problem. The design specifications are incorporated by the frequency weights using the mixed-sensitivity problem approach. The robustness of H{sub {infinity}} control is demonstrated by comparing it with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control in the case of a measurement delay of the power measurement system.Since the gains and phase margins of H{sub {infinity}} control are larger than those of LQG control, the H{sub {infinity}} control is expected to provide excellent stability robustness and performance robustness against external disturbances and noises, model parameter variations, and modeling errors as well as hardware failures. It may also provide a practical design method because the design specifications can be easily implemented by the frequency weights.

  10. Realization theory and quadratic optimal controllers for systems defined over Banach and Frechet algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, C. I.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that recent work by Kamen (1979) on the stability of half-plane digital filters shows that the problem of the existence of a feedback law also arises for other Banach algebras in applications. This situation calls for a realization theory and stabilizability criteria for systems defined over Banach for Frechet algebra A. Such a theory is developed here, with special emphasis placed on the construction of finitely generated realizations, the existence of coprime factorizations for T(s) defined over A, and the solvability of the quadratic optimal control problem and the associated algebraic Riccati equation over A.

  11. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 1: The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions: Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed first principle kinetic theory for electrons which is neither a classical fluid treatment nor an exospheric calculation is presented. This theory illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion that shape the observed features of the electron distribution function, such as its bifurcation, its skewness and the differential temperatures of the thermal and suprathermal subpopulations. Coulomb collisions are substantial mediators of the interplanetary electron velocity distribution function and they place a zone for a bifurcation of the electron distribution function deep in the corona. The local cause and effect precept which permeates the physics of denser media is modified for electrons in the solar wind. The local form of transport laws and equations of state which apply to collision dominated plasmas are replaced with global relations that explicitly depend on the relative position of the observer to the boundaries of the system.

  12. REVIEW: Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2005-09-01

    Internal models and adaptive controls are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models' architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods, such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning, are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of a Luenberger observer and an extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems—such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity—is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal models in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future.

  13. Marital Estrangement, Positive Affect, and Locus of Control among Spouses of Workaholics and Spouses of Nonworkaholics: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.; Carroll, Jane E.; Flowers, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Compared a sample of spouses of workaholics and spouses of nonworkaholics on ratings of marital estrangement, positive feelings toward husband, and locus of control. Spouses of workaholics reported greater marital estrangement and less positive affect towards husbands and higher external locus of control than did spouses of nonworkaholics. (BF)

  14. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  15. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  16. Bridges from affect to language. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, David S.; Aryani, Arash

    2015-06-01

    The comprehensive Quartet Theory of Human Emotions proposed by Koelsch et al. [4] offers an exceptional synopsis regarding major developments in affective neuroscience, encompassing classical data based on animal studies as well as emotions generally classified as uniquely human. In doing so, it becomes apparent that while general anatomical grounds appear well covered mainly based on animal studies, neuroanatomical underpinnings of interactions between emotion and language may not be readily understood.

  17. Steering of Frequency Standards by the Use of Linear Quadratic Gaussian Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppang, Paul; Leland, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Linear quadratic Gaussian control is a technique that uses Kalman filtering to estimate a state vector used for input into a control calculation. A control correction is calculated by minimizing a quadratic cost function that is dependent on both the state vector and the control amount. Different penalties, chosen by the designer, are assessed by the controller as the state vector and control amount vary from given optimal values. With this feature controllers can be designed to force the phase and frequency differences between two standards to zero either more or less aggressively depending on the application. Data will be used to show how using different parameters in the cost function analysis affects the steering and the stability of the frequency standards.

  18. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise

    PubMed Central

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated. PMID:26042047

  19. Rice ORMDL controls sphingolipid homeostasis affecting fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Chueasiri, Chutharat; Chunthong, Ketsuwan; Pitnjam, Keasinee; Chakhonkaen, Sriprapai; Sangarwut, Numphet; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Suksangpanomrung, Malinee; Michaelson, Louise V; Napier, Johnathan A; Muangprom, Amorntip

    2014-01-01

    The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development. PMID:25192280

  20. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music. PMID:26551862

  1. Characterization of a regulatory unit that controls melanization and affects longevity of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    An, Chunju; Budd, Aidan; Kanost, Michael R.; Michel, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Melanization is an innate immune response in arthropods that encapsulates and kills invading pathogens. One of its rate-limiting steps is the activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO), which is controlled by an extracellular proteinase cascade and serpin inhibitors. The molecular composition of this system is largely unknown in mosquitoes with the exception of serpin-2 (SRPN2), which was previously identified as a key negative regulator of melanization. Using reverse genetic and biochemical techniques we identified the Anopheles gambiae clip-serine proteinase CLIPB9 as a PPO-activating proteinase, which is inhibited by SRPN2. Double-knockdown of SRPN2 and CLIPB9 reversed the pleiotrophic phenotype induced by SRPN2 silencing. This study identifies the first inhibitory serpin-serine proteinase pair in mosquitoes, and defines a regulatory unit of melanization. Additionally, the interaction of CLIPB9 and SRPN2 affects the life span of adult female mosquitoes, and therefore constitutes a well-defined potential molecular target for novel Late-Life Acting insecticides. PMID:20953892

  2. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  3. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory. PMID:25721797

  4. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M.; Lee, Christopher C.H.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Whalen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in “context A”. Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory. PMID:25721797

  5. Digital signal processing and control and estimation theory -- Points of tangency, area of intersection, and parallel directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    A number of current research directions in the fields of digital signal processing and modern control and estimation theory were studied. Topics such as stability theory, linear prediction and parameter identification, system analysis and implementation, two-dimensional filtering, decentralized control and estimation, image processing, and nonlinear system theory were examined in order to uncover some of the basic similarities and differences in the goals, techniques, and philosophy of the two disciplines. An extensive bibliography is included.

  6. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…

  7. Opportunities, Rational Choice, and Self-Control: On the Interaction of Person and Situation in a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…

  8. Individual Differences in Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind: An Investigation of Inhibitory Control and Planning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.; Claxton, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the relative contributions of two aspects of executive function--inhibitory control and planning ability--to theory of mind in 49 3- and 4-year-olds. Children were given two standard theory of mind measures (Appearance-Reality and False Belief), three inhibitory control tasks (Bear/Dragon, Whisper, and Gift Delay), three…

  9. Stability and Control Harmony in Approach and Landing. [analysis of factors affecting flight characteristics at low airspeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the factors which affect stability and control harmony in approach and landing is made to obtain a clearer understanding of the proper relationship, the trade-offs involved, and to show how limits in stability and control harmony are established for advanced aircraft. Factors which influence stability and control harmony include the longitudinal short period response of the aircraft and the level of several pitch control characteristics including control power, control sensitivity, and control feel. At low stability levels for advanced aircraft, less conventional control techniques such as DLC are needed to improve harmony and some form of stability augmentation must be provided to improve precession of flight path control and reduce pilot work load.

  10. Ross, Macdonald, and a Theory for the Dynamics and Control of Mosquito-Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Hay, Simon I.; Barker, Christopher M.; Scott, Thomas W.; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various “Ross-Macdonald” mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955–1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22496640

  11. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  12. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  13. NL(q) Theory: A Neural Control Framework with Global Asymptotic Stability Criteria.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Joos; De Moor, Bart L.R.; Suykens, Johan A.K.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper a framework for model-based neural control design is presented, consisting of nonlinear state space models and controllers, parametrized by multilayer feedforward neural networks. The models and closed-loop systems are transformed into so-called NL(q) system form. NL(q) systems represent a large class of nonlinear dynamical systems consisting of q layers with alternating linear and static nonlinear operators that satisfy a sector condition. For such NL(q)s sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability, input/output stability (dissipativity with finite L(2)-gain) and robust stability and performance are presented. The stability criteria are expressed as linear matrix inequalities. In the analysis problem it is shown how stability of a given controller can be checked. In the synthesis problem two methods for neural control design are discussed. In the first method Narendra's dynamic backpropagation for tracking on a set of specific reference inputs is modified with an NL(q) stability constraint in order to ensure, e.g., closed-loop stability. In a second method control design is done without tracking on specific reference inputs, but based on the input/output stability criteria itself, within a standard plant framework as this is done, for example, in H( infinity ) control theory and &mgr; theory. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662859

  14. Active Control of Sound Field Using State-Space Model and Feedback Control Theory: a Numerical Simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhen

    Active sound filed control techniques have received growing attention since they provide alternative solutions to low-frequency sound control, where the conventional passive methods have not been very successful. They have wide industrial and military applications such as noise reduction, room acoustics design, acoustic measurements, underwater acoustic camouflage, etc. An appropriate model of an acoustical system serves as the basis of control law synthesis and active control system design. A classical system model describes the dynamics of an acoustic system in a view of input/output relation through transfer functions. On the other hand, a time-domain based state-space model equivalently describes the system dynamics in terms of internal system variables and provides a direct physical insight of active control of sound. Furthermore, based on a state-space model, one can take advantage of modern control analysis and synthesis tools to design an optimal control system for broadband, global sound absorption. This thesis explores state-space feedback control in unbounded acoustic systems. State-space models are developed for unbounded one-dimensional acoustic systems using a finite-difference method with special boundary treatments. State feedback control algorithms including state estimations are developed using optimal control theory (LQG). Numerical simulation results of the closed-loop system responses demonstrate the optimal performance of active control systems considering the trade-off between the high reflection reduction and limited sensing/actuating power. Two numerical examples, an active underwater sound absorbing coating system, and an active noise control system in a duct, are studied. For the active underwater sound absorbing system, a feedback control system involving two sensors and one actuator is designed. Numerical simulation of the closed-loop response indicates a substantial and broadband reflection (echo) reduction for this design. A variety

  15. Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.

  16. What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T

    2013-02-01

    The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality. PMID:23386660

  17. Management of redundancy in flight control systems using optimal decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of using redundancy that exists between dissimilar systems in aircraft flight control is addressed. That is, using the redundancy that exists between a rate gyro and an accelerometer--devices that have dissimilar outputs which are related only through the dynamics of the aircraft motion. Management of this type of redundancy requires advanced logic so that the system can monitor failure status and can reconfigure itself in the event of one or more failures. An optimal decision theory was tutorially developed for the management of sensor redundancy and the theory is applied to two aircraft examples. The first example is the space shuttle and the second is a highly maneuvering high performance aircraft--the F8-C. The examples illustrate the redundancy management design process and the performance of the algorithms presented in failure detection and control law reconfiguration.

  18. A neurocognitive theory of higher mental emergence: from anoetic affective experiences to noetic knowledge and autonoetic awareness.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    This essay provides an overview of evolutionary levels of consciousness, with a focus on a continuum of consciousness: from primarily affective to more advanced cognitive forms of neural processing-from anoetic (without knowledge) consciousness based on affective feelings, elaborated by brain networks that are subcortical- and can function without neocortical involvement, to noetic (knowledge based) and autonoetic (higher reflective mental) processes that permits conscious awareness. An abundance of such mind-brain linkages have been established using standard neuropsychological and brain-imaging procedures. Much of the characterization of human mental landscapes has been achieved with long accepted psychometric procedures that often do not adequately tap the lived anoetic experiential phenomenological aspects of mind. Without an understanding of affective based anoetic forms of consciousness, an adequate characterization of the human mind may never be achieved. A full synthesis will require us to view mental-experiential processes concurrently at several distinct neurophysiological levels, including foundational affective-emotional issues that are best probed with cross-species affective neuroscience strategies. This essay attempts to relate these levels of analysis to the neural systems that constitute lived experience in the human mind. PMID:21530586

  19. Approximation theory for LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) optimal control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Adamian, A.

    1988-01-01

    An approximation theory is presented for the LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) optimal control problem for flexible structures whose distributed models have bounded input and output operators. The main purpose of the theory is to guide the design of finite dimensional compensators that approximate closely the optimal compensator. The optimal LQG problem separates into an optimal linear-quadratic regulator problem and an optimal state estimation problem. The solution of the former problem lies in the solution to an infinite dimensional Riccati operator equation. The approximation scheme approximates the infinite dimensional LQG problem with a sequence of finite dimensional LQG problems defined for a sequence of finite dimensional, usually finite element or modal, approximations of the distributed model of the structure. Two Riccati matrix equations determine the solution to each approximating problem. The finite dimensional equations for numerical approximation are developed, including formulas for converting matrix control and estimator gains to their functional representation to allow comparison of gains based on different orders of approximation. Convergence of the approximating control and estimator gains and of the corresponding finite dimensional compensators is studied. Also, convergence and stability of the closed-loop systems produced with the finite dimensional compensators are discussed. The convergence theory is based on the convergence of the solutions of the finite dimensional Riccati equations to the solutions of the infinite dimensional Riccati equations. A numerical example with a flexible beam, a rotating rigid body, and a lumped mass is given.

  20. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M.; George, Dylan B.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Garcia, Andres J.; Gatton, Michelle L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hartley, David M.; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y.; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L.; Pigott, David M.; Reisen, William K.; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K.; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J.; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Cohen, Justin M.; Hay, Simon I.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross–Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453

  1. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453

  2. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. I - The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions - Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic theory for the velocity distribution of solar wind electrons which illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion is proposed. By means of the Boltzmann equation with the Krook collision operator accounting for Coulomb collisions, it is found that Coulomb collisions determine the population and shape of the electron distribution function in both the thermal and suprathermal energy regimes. For suprathermal electrons, the cumulative effects of Coulomb interactions are shown to take place on the scale of the heliosphere itself, whereas the Coulomb interactions of thermal electrons occur on a local scale near the point of observation (1 AU). The bifurcation of the electron distribution between thermal and suprathermal electrons is localized to the deep solar corona (1 to 10 solar radii).

  3. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  4. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  5. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  6. Improving breast cancer control among Latinas: evaluation of a theory-based educational program.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S I; Chavez, L R; Magaña, J R; Nava, P; Burciaga Valdez, R; Hubbell, F A

    1998-10-01

    The study evaluated a theory-based breast cancer control program specially developed for less acculturated Latinas. The authors used a quasi-experimental design with random assignment of Latinas into experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 37) groups that completed one pretest and two posttest surveys. The experimental group received the educational program, which was based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory and Freire's empowerment pedagogy. Outcome measures included knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, attitudes, breast self-examination (BSE) skills, and mammogram use. At posttest 1, controlling for pretest scores, the experimental group was significantly more likely than the control group to have more medically recognized knowledge (sum of square [SS] = 17.0, F = 6.58, p < .01), have less medically recognized knowledge (SS = 128.8, F = 39.24, p < .001), greater sense of perceived self-efficacy (SS = 316.5, F = 9.63, p < .01), and greater adeptness in the conduct of BSE (SS = 234.8, F = 153.33, p < .001). Cancer control programs designed for less acculturated women should use informal and interactive educational methods that incorporate skill-enhancing and empowering techniques. PMID:9768384

  7. Unit Template Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangarraju, J.; Rajagopal, V.; Jayalaxmi, A.

    2014-04-01

    This article proposes new and simplified unit templates instead of standard phase locked loop (PLL) for Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Control Algorithm (SRFT). The extraction of synchronizing components (sinθ and cosθ) for parks and inverse parks transformation using standard PLL takes more execution time. This execution time in control algorithm delays the extraction of reference source current generation. The standard PLL not only takes more execution time but also increases the reactive power burden on the Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). This work proposes a unit template based SRFT control algorithm for four-leg insulated gate bipolar transistor based voltage source converter for DSTATCOM in distribution systems. This will reduce the execution time and reactive power burden on the DSTATCOM. The proposed DSTATCOM suppress harmonics, regulates the terminal voltage along with neutral current compensation. The DSTATCOM in distribution systems with proposed control algorithm is modeled and simulated using MATLAB using SIMULINK and Simpower systems toolboxes.

  8. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  9. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Mediate the Effects of Low Self-Control on Alcohol Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Marcum, Catherine Davis

    2005-01-01

    Some studies show that Gottfredson and Hirschi's low self-control plays an important role in alcohol use, but low self-control remains stable over time. Because self-control is not easily changed, the present study examines the ability of theory of planned behavior to mediate the effect of low self-control on intentions to use alcohol and alcohol…

  10. Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Distributed System Theory to the Control of Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Two general themes in the control of large space structures are addressed: control theory for distributed parameter systems and distributed control for systems requiring spatially-distributed multipoint sensing and actuation. Topics include modeling and control, stabilization, and estimation and identification.

  11. Internally directed cognition and mindfulness: an integrative perspective derived from predictive and reactive control systems theory

    PubMed Central

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Quirin, Markus; IJzerman, Hans; Koole, Sander L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we will apply the predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the “default mode network” (DMN) and anterior insula (AI) as parts of two different behavioral and homeostatic control systems. The DMN, a network that becomes active at rest when there is no external stimulation or task to perform, has been implicated in self-reflective awareness and prospection. By contrast, the AI is associated with awareness and task-related attention. This has led to competing theories stressing the role of the DMN in self-awareness vs. the role of interoceptive and emotional information integration in the AI in awareness of the emotional moment. In PARCS, the respective functions of the DMN and AI in a specific control system explains their association with different qualities of awareness, and how mental states can shift from one state (e.g., prospective self-reflection) to the other (e.g., awareness of the emotional moment) depending on the relative dominance of control systems. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of novel information, integration of this novel information within existing knowledge structures, and the creation of a continuous personal context in which novel information can be integrated and understood. As such, PARCS can explain key characteristics of mental states, such as their temporal and spatial focus (e.g., a focus on the here and now vs. the future; a first person vs. a third person perspective). PARCS further relates mental states to brain states and functions, such as activation of the DMN or hemispheric asymmetry in frontal cortical functions. Together, PARCS deepens the understanding of a broad range of mental states, including mindfulness, mind wandering, rumination, autobiographical memory, imagery, and the experience of self. PMID:24904455

  12. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  13. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    composition (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and Úbeda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio

  14. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  15. Positive and negative affect recognition in schizophrenia: a comparison with substance abuse and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Bell, M; Bryson, G; Lysaker, P

    1997-11-14

    This study had three aims: to compare a schizophrenia sample (n = 50) with a substance abuse (n = 25) and normal sample (n = 81) on affect recognition; to compare differences in their performance between positive and negative affect recognition; and to introduce a new videotape method of stimulus presentation. Subjects were asked to identify the predominant affect depicted in 21 5-10-s vignettes containing three trials of seven affect states. Results demonstrate significant group differences: normal subjects scored in the normal or mild range, substance abuse (s/a) subjects scored in the mild and moderate ranges, and the schizophrenia sample scored predominantly in the moderate to severe ranges. Accuracies were 92.3% for the normal sample, 77.2 for the s/a sample and 64.8 for the schizophrenia sample. Response dispersions were 97.6% for the schizophrenia group, 69% for the s/a sample and 38% in the normal sample. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a group by type of affect interaction with schizophrenia subjects showing far greater differential impairment on negative affect recognition. Difficulty of item did not contribute to this difference. Test-retest reliability at 5 months for this new method was r = 0.76, and stability of categorization was very high over 5 months (weighted kappa = 0.93). These affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia are discussed as they relate to lateralization of brain function, high EE families, social skills impairment and implications for rehabilitation services. PMID:9463840

  16. Optimal control of open quantum systems: A combined surrogate Hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten

    2012-03-28

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  17. Steady, subsonic, lifting surface theory for wings with swept, partial span, trailing edge control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A method for computing the lifting pressure distribution on a wing with partial span, swept control surfaces is presented. This method is valid within the framework of linearized, steady, potential flow theory and consists of using conventional lifting surface theory in conjuction with a flap pressure mode. The cause of a numerical instability that can occur during the quadrature of the flap pressure mode is discussed, and an efficient technique to eliminate the instability is derived. This technique is valid for both the flap pressure mode and regular pressure modes and could be used to improve existing lifting surface methods. Examples of the use of the flap pressure mode and comparisons among this method, other theoretical methods, and experiments are given. Discrepancies with experiment are indicated and candidate causes are presented. It is concluded that the method can lead to an efficient and accurate solution of the mathematical problem when a partial span, trailing edge flap is involved.

  18. Development of a two-dimensional skin friction balance nulling circuit using multivariable control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Patek, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of planar skin friction forces in aerodynamic testing currently requires installation of two perpendicularly mounted, single-axis balances; consequently, force components must be sensed at two distinct locations. A two-axis instrument developed at the Langley Research Center to overcome this disadvantage allows measurement of a two-dimensional force at one location. This paper describes a feedback-controlled nulling circuit developed for the NASA two-axis balance which, without external compensation, is inherently unstable because of its low friction mechanical design. Linear multivariable control theory is applied to an experimentally validated mathematical model of the balance to synthesize a state-variable feedback control law. Pole placement techniques and computer simulation studies are employed to select eigenvalues which provide ideal transient response with decoupled sensing dynamics.

  19. Optimal control theory investigation of proprotor/wing response to vertical gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J. K. D.; Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is used to design linear state variable feedback to improve the dynamic characteristics of a rotor and cantilever wing representing the tilting proprotor aircraft in cruise flight. The response to a vertical gust and system damping are used as criteria for the open and closed loop performance. The improvement in the dynamic characteristics achievable is examined for a gimballed rotor and for a hingeless rotor design. Several features of the design process are examined, including: (1) using only the wing or only the rotor dynamics in the control system design; (2) the use of a wing flap as well as the rotor controls for inputs; (3) and the performance of the system designed for one velocity at other forward speeds.

  20. A manual control theory analysis of vertical situation displays for STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Levison, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Pilot-vehicle-display systems theory is applied to the analysis of proposed vertical situation displays for manual control in approach-to-landing of a STOL aircraft. The effects of display variables on pilot workload and on total closed-loop system performance was calculated using an optimal-control model for the human operator. The steep approach of an augmentor wing jet STOL aircraft was analyzed. Both random turbulence and mean-wind shears were considered. Linearized perturbation equations were used to describe longitudinal and lateral dynamics of the aircraft. The basic display configuration was one that abstracted the essential status information (including glide-slope and localizer errors) of an EADI display. Proposed flight director displays for both longitudinal and lateral control were also investigated.

  1. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  2. 45 CFR 2526.30 - How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use that award? 2526.30 Section 2526.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR...

  3. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  4. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  5. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  6. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  7. The Effects of Thematic Content of Rheostatically Controlled Visual Subliminals Upon the Receiving Level of the Affective Domain of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of rheostatically controlled visual subliminals on the affective interrelations of a learning task of subjects within a classroom setting. Four groups of students were used. Subjects were unknowingly exposed to a rheostatically projected subliminal message for 30 minutes during otherwise normal…

  8. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  9. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  10. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  11. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  12. Adaptive modeling, identification, and control of dynamic structural systems. I. Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1989-01-01

    A concise review of the theory of adaptive modeling, identification, and control of dynamic structural systems based on discrete-time recordings is presented. Adaptive methods have four major advantages over the classical methods: (1) Removal of the noise from the signal is done over the whole frequency band; (2) time-varying characteristics of systems can be tracked; (3) systems with unknown characteristics can be controlled; and (4) a small segment of the data is needed during the computations. Included in the paper are the discrete-time representation of single-input single-output (SISO) systems, models for SISO systems with noise, the concept of stochastic approximation, recursive prediction error method (RPEM) for system identification, and the adaptive control. Guidelines for model selection and model validation and the computational aspects of the method are also discussed in the paper. The present paper is the first of two companion papers. The theory given in the paper is limited to that which is necessary to follow the examples for applications in structural dynamics presented in the second paper.

  13. The Significance of Turning Passive Into Active in Control Mastery Theory

    PubMed Central

    FOREMAN, STEVEN A.

    1996-01-01

    Turning passive into active was first described by Freud but was later given expanded importance by Weiss. This new conceptualization of turning passive into active as an interpersonal communication and test has made a major contribution to the clinical treatment of difficult patients. This article reviews "control mastery" theory and puts its notion of passive-into-active testing into perspective with regard to Freud’s original conception as well as other conceptions, such as identification with the aggressor and projective identification. Formulation and the treatment of patients are illustrated with clinical examples. PMID:22700271

  14. Theory of agent-based market models with controlled levels of greed and anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, P.; Coolen, A. C. C.

    2010-01-01

    We use generating functional analysis to study minority-game-type market models with generalized strategy valuation updates that control the psychology of agents' actions. The agents' choice between trend-following and contrarian trading, and their vigor in each, depends on the overall state of the market. Even in 'fake history' models, the theory now involves an effective overall bid process (coupled to the effective agent process) which can exhibit profound remanence effects and new phase transitions. For some models the bid process can be solved directly, others require Maxwell-construction-type approximations.

  15. The Stability Analysis for an Extended Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Meng, Xiang-Pei; Zhu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A new method is proposed to study the stability of the car-following model considering traffic interruption probability. The stability condition for the extended car-following model is obtained by using the Lyapunov function and the condition for no traffic jam is also given based on the control theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate and verify the analytical results. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the traffic interruption probability has an influence on driving behavior and confirm the effectiveness of the method on the stability of traffic flow.

  16. Ability of Stress, Sense of Control, and Self-Theories to Predict Swedish High School Students' Final Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollfors, Marianne; Andersson, Sven Ingmar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate self-theories (theories of intelligence, confidence in one's intelligence, internal attribution of failure, academic self-efficacy), specific control, and experiencing of stress by means of a questionnaire for 915 Swedish high school students. Factor analysis yielded 6 stress domains (Workload, Psychosocial…

  17. Young People, Trouble, and Crime: Restorative Justice as a Normative Theory of Informal Social Control and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazemore, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the normative theory of restorative justice in youth crime, highlighting three core principles: repairing the harm of crime; involving stakeholders; and transforming community and government roles in response to crime. Considers connections between restorative intervention theories and informal social control and social support mechanisms…

  18. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  19. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention. PMID:18361907

  20. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict. PMID:23750741

  1. Applications of Control Theory to the Dynamics and Propagation of Cardiac Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Laura M.; Stockton, Jonathan F.; Otani, Niels F.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a widespread cause of death in the industrialized world. Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest are due to ventricular fibrillation (VF), a lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Electrophysiological abnormalities such as alternans (a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration) and conduction block have been suspected to contribute to the onset of VF. This study focuses on the use of control-systems techniques to analyze and design methods for suppressing these precursor factors. Control-systems tools, specifically controllability analysis and Lyapunov stability methods, were applied to a two-variable Karma model of the action-potential (AP) dynamics of a single cell, to analyze the effectiveness of strategies for suppressing AP abnormalities. State-feedback-integral (SFI) control was then applied to a Purkinje fiber simulated with the Karma model, where only one stimulating electrode was used to affect the system. SFI control converted both discordant alternans and 2:1 conduction block back toward more normal patterns, over a wider range of fiber lengths and pacing intervals compared with a Pyragas-type chaos controller. The advantages conferred by using feedback from multiple locations in the fiber, and using integral (i.e., memory) terms in the controller, are discussed. PMID:20407833

  2. How Positive Affect Modulates Cognitive Control: Reduced Perseveration at the Cost of Increased Distractibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Goschke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental problem that organisms face in a changing environment is how to regulate dynamically the balance between stable maintenance and flexible switching of goals and cognitive sets. The authors show that positive affect plays an important role in the regulation of this stability-flexibility balance. In a cognitive set-switching paradigm,…

  3. Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Attention to Threat-Relevant Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Vasey, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of temperamental influences on risk for psychopathology. Whereas the link between the broad temperament construct of negative affectivity (NA) and problems associated with anxiety and depression is now well-established, the mechanisms through which this link operate are not well understood. One possibility involves…

  4. Dispositional Empathic Concern, Gender, Level of Experience, Teacher Efficacy, Attributions of Controllability and Teacher Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panik, Meredith Anne

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' pity and anger responses to students who fail often are interpreted by the students as indicative of the teachers' attributions for the cause behind the student failure. Students' interpretations of these emotional responses can affect their self-esteem and expectations for future success. The present study explored variables that may…

  5. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD...) through (c)(3) of this section, as appropriate, instead of the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate, and are not required to comply with the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD... requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart DDD. Compliance can be based on either organic HAP or TOC. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected...

  10. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  11. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  12. Fuzzy Set Theory Applied to Measurement Data for Exposure Control in Beryllium Part Manufacturing.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Abeln, S. P.; Creek, K. L.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory has been applied to some exposure control problems encountered in the machining and the manufacturing of beryllium parts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A portion of that work is presented here. The major driving force for using fuzzy techniques in this case rather than classical statistical process control is that beryllium exposure is very task dependent and this manufacturing plant is quite atypical. It is feared that standard techniques produce too many false alarms. Our beryllium plant produces parts on a daily basis, but every day is different. Some days many parts are produced and some days only a few. Some times the parts are large and sometimes the parts are small. Some machining cuts are rough and some are fine. These factors and others make it hard to define a typical day. The problem of concern, for this study, is the worker beryllium exposure. Even though the plant is new and very modern and the exposure levels are expected to be well below the required levels, the Department of Energy (DOE), who is our major customer, has demanded that the levels for this plant be well below required levels. The control charts used to monitor this process are expected to answer two questions: (1) Is the process out of Control? Do we need to instigate special controls such as requiring workers to use respirators? (2) Are new, previously untested, controls making a difference? The standard Schewart type control charts, based on consistent plant operating conditions do not adequately answer this question. The approach described here is based upon a fuzzy modification to the Schewart Xbar-R chart. This approach is expected to yield better results than work based upon the classical probabilistic control chart.

  13. Environmental factors affecting efficacy of bifenthrin-treated vegetation for mosquito control.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pesticide-treated vegetation as a barrier for control of nuisance and disease-bearing mosquitoes has become an option for mosquito management for home owners, public health and mosquito control professionals. Potted wax myrtle and azalea plants were treated with bifenthrin (0.79% AI) at ...

  14. Can Instruction as Such Affect Learning? The Case of Learner Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, Mieke; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of learners' perceptions in a learner-controlled computer-based learning environment. Computer-based learning environments that offer learner control (LC) to the learners are assumed to enhance motivation and learning outcomes. Recently, the focus of LC research has shifted from measuring the direct effect of LC on…

  15. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive 'mentalizing' functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people's non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  16. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive ‘mentalizing’ functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people’s non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  17. Hingeless rotor theory and experiment on vibration reduction by periodic variation of conventional controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sissingh, G. J.; Donham, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is made of the concept of vibration reduction by properly selected oscillatory collective and cyclic control applications. The investigations are based on experimental frequency response data covering advance ratios from approximately 0.2 to 0.85. Because there was no instrumentation for the measurement of the pitch and roll vibrations, these values were obtained by properly adding up the flap-bending moments at 3.3 in. Any other quantity representing pitch/roll vibrations can be compensated for in the same fashion. The calculated control inputs required for vibration reduction stay within acceptable limits. For four of the five conditions tested they are smaller than the values used for the frequency response tests. As to be expected, the compensating controls greatly affect the blade loads, i.e., torsion, flap- and chordwise bending.

  18. Representation, control, or reasoning? Distinct functions for theory of mind within the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hartwright, Charlotte E; Apperly, Ian A; Hansen, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    The medial pFC (mPFC) is frequently reported to play a central role in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, the contribution of this large cortical region in ToM is not well understood. Combining a novel behavioral task with fMRI, we sought to demonstrate functional divisions between dorsal and rostral mPFC. All conditions of the task required the representation of mental states (beliefs and desires). The level of demands on cognitive control (high vs. low) and the nature of the demands on reasoning (deductive vs. abductive) were varied orthogonally between conditions. Activation in dorsal mPFC was modulated by the need for control, whereas rostral mPFC was modulated by reasoning demands. These findings fit with previously suggested domain-general functions for different parts of mPFC and suggest that these functions are recruited selectively in the service of ToM. PMID:24236763

  19. Control of a Flexible Space Antenna: A Finite Dimensional Perspective Based on Distributed Parameter Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingori, D. L.; Gibson, J. S.; Blelloch, P.; Adamian, A.

    1985-01-01

    The methods presented are based on results from infinite dimensional control theory, but they can be described and used in a finite dimensional context. This blend leads to an approach which employs powerful ideas on convergence, and is also quite practical for systems of realistic complexity. Appropriate reduced order models are generated simultaneously with the development of the compensator. The required models change as a function of changes in the performance demanded, sensor and actuator location, inherent damping, disturbances, etc. Thus they are driven by the control and estimation problems at hand. The compensators which emerge are very close to the ideal compensators which would be obtained with a very large order model. However, some simplification is frequently possible. The method of balanced realizations was found to be effective for this purpose.

  20. Optimal control theory (OWEM) applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. J.; Kai, T.

    1975-01-01

    A major difficulty in the practical application of linear-quadratic regulator theory is how to choose the weighting matrices in quadratic cost functions. The control system design with optimal weighting matrices was applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase. The weighting matrices were calculated to extremize the closed loop total system damping subject to constraints on the determinants. The extremization is really a minimization of the effects of disturbances, and interpreted as a compromise between the generalized system accuracy and the generalized system response speed. The trade-off between the accuracy and the response speed is adjusted by a single parameter, the ratio of determinants. By this approach an objective measure can be obtained for the design of a control system. The measure is to be determined by the system requirements.

  1. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. PMID:25363638

  2. Use of variational equations and optimal control theory in the description of the satellites desorbitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobinddass, Marie-Line; Omrane, Abdennebi

    Among scientific challenges in space science we find the understanding and the managing of relativity and acceleration's effects on space satellites. Due to the high number of satellite launch every year, the question of recycling addressed by several countries in the world. Some projects focus on the rejection of satellites out of the gravity field of the earth for avoiding a sudden fall in a populated area, but other environmentally friendly projects involve trying to get these satellites for recycling purposes. We will focus on the second recycling point. The good knowledge of these effects can allow the control of all satellites orbit during their lifetime and also after. A mathematical analysis together with the optimal control point of view are here used. We will develop an existence method based on a variational formulation. Then we will use the optimal control theory for the trajectory optimal control under pollution (recycling satellites). Finally, we will focus on the possible generalization of the method with different fixed parameters.

  3. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  4. Theory of planned behaviour variables and objective walking behaviour do not show seasonal variation in a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies have shown that objectively measured walking behaviour is subject to seasonal variation, with people walking more in summer compared to winter. Seasonality therefore may have the potential to bias the results of randomised controlled trials if there are not adequate statistical or design controls. Despite this there are no studies that assess the impact of seasonality on walking behaviour in a randomised controlled trial, to quantify the extent of such bias. Further there have been no studies assessing how season impacts on the psychological predictors of walking behaviour to date. The aim of the present study was to assess seasonal differences in a) objective walking behaviour and b) Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) variables during a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking. Methods 315 patients were recruited to a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking in primary care. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of season on pedometer measures of walking behaviour and TPB measures, assessed immediately post-intervention and six months later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess whether season moderated the prediction of intention and behaviour by TPB measures. Results There were no significant differences in time spent walking in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in most TPB variables, although the belief that there will be good weather was significantly higher in spring/summer (F = 19.46, p < .001). Season did not significantly predict intention or objective walking behaviour, or moderate the effects of TPB variables on intention or behaviour. Conclusion Seasonality does not influence objectively measured walking behaviour or psychological variables during a randomised controlled trial. Consequently physical activity behaviour outcomes in trials will

  5. Sensorless Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Using an On-Line Parameter Identification Method not Affected by Position Estimation Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Akitoshi; Ichikawa, Shinji; Tomita, Mutuwo; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

    This paper presents a novel on-line parameter identification method for sensorless control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors (SynRMs). Although conventional sensorless control methods based on mathematical models usually need some complex measurements of motor parameters in advance, the proposed identification method does not require them and can be realized on-line. The proposed method identifies motor parameters under sensorless control, so rotor position and velocity can not be used to identify these parameters. However, the proposed method does not need rotor position and veocity, identified parameters are not affected by these estimation errors. The sensorless control using identified motor parameters is realized, and effective of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  6. Quantifying the effect size of changing environmental controls on carbon release from permafrost-affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, C.; Bader, M. K. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Bracho, R. G.; Capek, P.; De Baets, S. L.; Diakova, K.; Ernakovich, J. G.; Hartley, I. P.; Iversen, C. M.; Kane, E. S.; Knoblauch, C.; Lupascu, M.; Natali, S.; Norby, R. J.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Santruckova, H.; Shaver, G. R.; Sloan, V. L.; Treat, C. C.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude surface air temperatures are rising twice as fast as the global mean, causing permafrost to thaw and thereby exposing large quantities of previously frozen organic carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Increasing temperatures in high latitude ecosystems not only increase C emissions from previously frozen C in permafrost but also indirectly affect the C cycle through changes in regional and local hydrology. Warmer temperatures increase thawing of ice-rich permafrost, causing land surface subsidence where soils become waterlogged, anoxic conditions prevail and C is released in form of anaerobic CO2 and CH4. Although substrate quality, physical protection, and nutrient availability affect C decomposition, increasing temperatures and changes in surface and sub-surface hydrology are likely the dominant factors affecting the rate and form of C release from permafrost; however, their effect size on C release is poorly quantified. We have compiled a database of 24 incubation studies with soils from active layer and permafrost from across the entire permafrost zone to quantify a) the effect size of increasing temperatures and b) the changes from aerobic to anaerobic environmental soil conditions on C release. Results from two different meta-analyses show that a 10°C increase in temperature increased C release by a factor of two in boreal forest, peatland and tundra ecosystems. Under aerobic incubation conditions, soils released on average three times more C than under anaerobic conditions with large variation among the different ecosystems. While peatlands showed similar amounts of C release under aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions, tundra and boreal forest ecosystems released up to 8 times more C under anoxic conditions. This pan-arctic synthesis shows that boreal forest and tundra soils will have a larger impact on climate change when newly thawed permafrost C decomposes in an aerobic environment compared to an anaerobic environment even when

  7. Evaluation of some significant issues affecting trajectory and control management for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff airbreathing-propulsion launch vehicles require near-optimal guidance and control which takes into account performance sensitivities to atmospheric characteristics while satisfying physically-derived operational constraints. A generic trajectory/control analysis tool that deepens insight into these considerations has been applied to two versions of a winged-cone vehicle model. Information that is critical to the design and trajectory of these vehicles is derived, and several unusual characteristics of the airbreathing propulsion model are shown to have potentially substantial effects on vehicle dynamics.

  8. Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

  9. Inhibitory Control in Anxious and Healthy Adolescents Is Modulated by Incentive and Incidental Affective Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy…

  10. Palmer Amaranth Control as Affected by Herbicide, Method of Application, and Winter Cover Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-tolerant cotton allows growers to transition to conservation tillage, promoting soil conservation. Elimination of cultivation in conservation tillage shifts the weed control burden on herbicides. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (PA) was discovered in 2004 and threatens effective weed...

  11. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control as affected by herbicide, method of application, and winter cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated cover crop effect, herbicide application method, and residual PRE herbicides on control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (PA) in cotton in Macon County GA during 2008 and 2009. Tillage methods were conventional, strip tillage in rolled wheat, or strip tillage in rolled rye. ...

  12. Motivating Operations Affect Stimulus Control: A Largely Overlooked Phenomenon in Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfizadeh, Amin D.; Edwards, Timothy L.; Redner, Ryan; Poling, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored what Michael (e.g., 1982) termed the "value-altering" effect and the "behavior-altering" effect of motivating operations. One aspect of the behavior-altering effect that has garnered no recent attention involves changes in stimulus control produced by motivating operations. To call attention to this aspect of…

  13. Treatment Preferences Affect the Therapeutic Alliance: Implications for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; McCarthy, Kevin Scott; Barrett, Marna S.; Rynn, Moira; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of treatment preferences on the development of the therapeutic alliance was investigated. Seventy-five patients were followed while participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing supportive-expressive psychotherapy with sertraline or pill placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Therapeutic alliance was…

  14. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  15. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction). 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i) intention to change behaviour, (ii) understanding of risk information, (iii) emotional affect and (iv) worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different graphical cardiovascular

  16. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness. PMID:25642722

  17. Impact of negative affectively charged stimuli and response style on cognitive-control-related neural activation: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, C.; Pine, D. S.; Fox, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The canonical AX-CPT task measures two forms of cognitive control: sustained goal-oriented control (“proactive” control) and transient changes in cognitive control following unexpected events (“reactive” control). We modified this task by adding negative and neutral International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures to assess the effects of negative emotion on these two forms of cognitive control. Proactive and reactive control styles were assessed based on measures of behavior and electrophysiology, including the N2 event-related potential component and source space activation (Low Resolution Tomography [LORETA]). We found slower reaction-times and greater DLPFC activation for negative relative to neutral stimuli. Additionally, we found that a proactive style of responding was related to less prefrontal activation (interpreted to reflect increased efficiency of processing) during actively maintained previously cued information and that a reactive style of responding was related to less prefrontal activation (interpreted to reflect increased efficiency of processing) during just-in-time environmentally triggered information. This pattern of results was evident in relatively neutral contexts, but in the face of negative emotion, these associations were not found, suggesting potential response style-by-emotion interaction effects on prefrontal neural activation PMID:24021156

  18. Income under Female versus Male Control: Hypotheses from a Theory of Gender Stratification and Data from the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes Blumberg's theory of gender stratification, which emphasizes relative male/female control of economic resources as a main predictor of multiple gender stratification consequences. Reviews evidence from Third World countries that men and women spend income differently, such that, when women lose control of income, family well-being and…

  19. Application of optimal control theory to the design of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. S.; Nickerson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) techniques to the design of the 70-m axis servos is described. Linear quadratic optimal control and Kalman filter theory are reviewed, and model development and verification are discussed. Families of optimal controller and Kalman filter gain vectors were generated by varying weight parameters. Performance specifications were used to select final gain vectors.

  20. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  1. The Role of Control Functions in Mentalizing: Dual-Task Studies of Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Phillips, Louise H.; Conway, Claire A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting evidence has arisen from correlational studies regarding the role of executive control functions in Theory of Mind. The current study used dual-task manipulations of executive functions (inhibition, updating and switching) to investigate the role of these control functions in mental state and non-mental state tasks. The "Eyes"…

  2. Repeated Strains, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General Strain Theory in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    In Agnew's general strain theory, repeated strains can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated strains in school and at…

  3. Advances in adaptive control theory: Gradient- and derivative-free approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucelen, Tansel

    In this dissertation, we present new approaches to improve standard designs in adaptive control theory, and novel adaptive control architectures. We first present a novel Kalman filter based approach for approximately enforcing a linear constraint in standard adaptive control design. One application is that this leads to alternative forms for well known modification terms such as e-modification. In addition, it leads to smaller tracking errors without incurring significant oscillations in the system response and without requiring high modification gain. We derive alternative forms of e- and adaptive loop recovery (ALR-) modifications. Next, we show how to use Kalman filter optimization to derive a novel adaptation law. This results in an optimization-based time-varying adaptation gain that reduces the need for adaptation gain tuning. A second major contribution of this dissertation is the development of a novel derivative-free, delayed weight update law for adaptive control. The assumption of constant unknown ideal weights is relaxed to the existence of time-varying weights, such that fast and possibly discontinuous variation in weights are allowed. This approach is particulary advantageous for applications to systems that can undergo a sudden change in dynamics, such as might be due to reconfiguration, deployment of a payload, docking, or structural damage, and for rejection of external disturbance processes. As a third and final contribution, we develop a novel approach for extending all the methods developed in this dissertation to the case of output feedback. The approach is developed only for the case of derivative-free adaptive control, and the extension of the other approaches developed previously for the state feedback case to output feedback is left as a future research topic. The proposed approaches of this dissertation are illustrated in both simulation and flight test.

  4. Training children's theory-of-mind: A meta-analysis of controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan; Doan, Stacey N.; Sprung, Manuel; Wilson, Anne; Ebesutani, Chad; Andrews, Leigh; Curtiss, Joshua; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Theory-of-mind (ToM) refers to knowledge and awareness of mental states in oneself and others. Various training programs have been developed to improve ToM in children. Objectives In the present study, we conducted a quantitative review of ToM training programs that have been tested in controlled studies. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches. Review Methods We identified 32 papers with 45 studies or experiments that included1529 children with an average age of 63 months (SD= 28.7). Results ToM training procedures were more effective than control procedures and their aggregate effect size was moderately strong (Hedges'g = 0.75, CI = 0.60 - 0.894, p<.001). Moderator analyses revealed that although ToM training programs were generally effective, ToM skill-related outcomes increased with length of training sessions and were significantly higher in active control studies. Conclusion ToM training procedures can effectively enhance ToM in children. PMID:26901235

  5. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wan-chi; Li, Yin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Xu, Huanu

    2014-01-01

    An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637). The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales) for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither “primacy of primary control” nor “primacy of secondary control” was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos' ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses. PMID:24904483

  6. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. PMID:24692342

  7. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies. PMID:23765262

  8. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; Wout, Angelique van’t; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

  9. Controlled drug release from Gelucire-based matrix pellets: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, F; Muschert, S; Flament, M P; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Siepmann, J

    2006-07-24

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the underlying drug release mechanisms from lipidic matrix pellets, using theophylline and Gelucire 50/02 as model drug and carrier material, respectively. Pellets were prepared by two different techniques: melt-solidification and extrusion-spheronization. The effects of different formulations and processing parameters on the resulting drug release kinetics in 0.1N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 were studied and the obtained results analyzed using adequate mathematical models in order to get further insight into the underlying mass transport mechanisms. The type of preparation technique was found to strongly affect the underlying drug release mechanisms. Drug release from pellets prepared by the melt-solidification method was primarily controlled by pure diffusion, whereas drug release from pellets prepared by the extrusion-spheronization method was purely diffusion-controlled only at early time points. After approximately 2h, the pellets started to disintegrate, resulting in decreased diffusion pathway lengths and, thus, increased drug release rates. Furthermore, the curing conditions significantly affected the theophylline release kinetics, whereas varying the initial drug loading from 20 to 50% (w/w) resulted only in a slight increase in the relative drug release rate. Interestingly, the effects of the size of pellets prepared by the melt-solidification method on the resulting drug release kinetics could be quantitatively predicted using an analytical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion. These predictions could be verified by independent experiments. PMID:16621362

  10. Prognostic factors affecting local control of hepatic tumors treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Robotic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy with real-time tumor tracking has shown encouraging results for hepatic tumors with good efficacy and low toxicity. We studied the factors associated with local control of primary or secondary hepatic lesions post-SBRT. Methods and materials Since 2007, 153 stereotactic liver treatments were administered to 120 patients using the CyberKnife® System. Ninety-nine liver metastases (72 patients), 48 hepatocellular carcinomas (42 patients), and six cholangiocarcinomas were treated. On average, three to four sessions were delivered over 12 days. Twenty-seven to 45 Gy was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. Margins consisted of 5 to 10 mm for clinical target volume (CTV) and 3 mm for planning target volume (PTV). Results Median size was 33 mm (range, 5–112 mm). Median gross tumor volume (GTV) was 32.38 cm3 (range, 0.2–499.5 cm3). Median total dose was 45 Gy in three fractions. Median minimum dose was 27 Gy in three fractions. With a median follow-up of 15.0 months, local control rates at one and two years were 84% and 74.6%, respectively. The factors associated with better local control were lesion size < 50 mm (p = 0.019), GTV volume (p < 0.05), PTV volume (p < 0.01) and two treatment factors: a total dose of 45 Gy and a dose–per-fraction of 15 Gy (p = 0.019). Conclusions Dose, tumor diameter and volume are prognostic factors for local control when a stereotactic radiation therapy for hepatic lesions is considered. These results should be considered in order to obtain a maximum therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23050794

  11. Efficacy of theory-based interventions to promote physical activity. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Gourlan, M; Bernard, P; Bortolon, C; Romain, A J; Lareyre, O; Carayol, M; Ninot, G; Boiché, J

    2016-01-01

    Implementing theory-based interventions is an effective way to influence physical activity (PA) behaviour in the population. This meta-analysis aimed to (1) determine the global effect of theory-based randomised controlled trials dedicated to the promotion of PA among adults, (2) measure the actual efficacy of interventions against their theoretical objectives and (3) compare the efficacy of single- versus combined-theory interventions. A systematic search through databases and review articles was carried out. Our results show that theory-based interventions (k = 82) significantly impact the PA behaviour of participants (d = 0.31, 95% CI [0.24, 0.37]). While moderation analyses revealed no efficacy difference between theories, interventions based on a single theory (d = 0.35; 95% CI [0.26, 0.43]) reported a higher impact on PA behaviour than those based on a combination of theories (d = 0.21; 95% CI [0.11, 0.32]). In spite of the global positive effect of theory-based interventions on PA behaviour, further research is required to better identify the specificities, overlaps or complementarities of the components of interventions based on relevant theories. PMID:25402606

  12. Multi-Attribute Decision Theory methodology for pollution control measure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Roldan, A.S.; Corona Juarez, A.; Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R.

    1992-12-31

    A methodology based in Multi-Attribute Decision Theory was developed to prioritize air pollution control measures and strategies (a set of measures) for Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). We have developed a framework that takes into account economic, technical feasibility, environmental, social, political, and institutional factors to evaluate pollution mitigation measures and strategies utilizing a decision analysis process. In a series of meetings with a panel of experts in air pollution from different offices of the mexican government we have developed General and Specific criteria for a decision analysis tree. With these tools the measures or strategies can be graded and a figure of merit can be assigned to each of them, so they can be ranked. Two pollution mitigation measures were analyzed to test the methodology, the results are presented. This methodology was developed specifically for Mexico City, though the experience gained in this work can be used to develop similar methodologies for other metropolitan areas throughout the world.

  13. Multi-Attribute Decision Theory methodology for pollution control measure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Roldan, A.S.; Corona Juarez, A. ); Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1992-01-01

    A methodology based in Multi-Attribute Decision Theory was developed to prioritize air pollution control measures and strategies (a set of measures) for Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). We have developed a framework that takes into account economic, technical feasibility, environmental, social, political, and institutional factors to evaluate pollution mitigation measures and strategies utilizing a decision analysis process. In a series of meetings with a panel of experts in air pollution from different offices of the mexican government we have developed General and Specific criteria for a decision analysis tree. With these tools the measures or strategies can be graded and a figure of merit can be assigned to each of them, so they can be ranked. Two pollution mitigation measures were analyzed to test the methodology, the results are presented. This methodology was developed specifically for Mexico City, though the experience gained in this work can be used to develop similar methodologies for other metropolitan areas throughout the world.

  14. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    PubMed

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO. PMID:25353548

  15. Use of digital control theory state space formalism for feedback at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, T.; Hendrickson, L.; Rouse, F.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-05-01

    The algorithms used in the database-driven SLC fast-feedback system are based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. These are implemented as a set of matrix equations which use a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of states from a vector of measurements, and then apply a gain matrix to determine the actuator settings from the state vector. The matrices used in the calculation are derived offline using Linear Quadratic Gaussian minimization. For a given noise spectrum, this procedure minimizes the rms of the states (e.g., the position or energy of the beam). The offline program also allows simulation of the loop's response to arbitrary inputs, and calculates its frequency response. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  17. Control Theory based Shape Design for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, G.; Martinelli, L.

    2003-12-01

    A design method for shape optimization in incompressible turbulent viscous flow has been developed and validated for inverse design. The gradient information is determined using a control theory based algorithm. With such an approach, the cost of computing the gradient is negligible. An additional adjoint system must be solved which requires the cost of a single steady state flow solution. Thus, this method has an enormous advantage over traditional finite-difference based algorithms. The method of artificial compressibility is utilized to solve both the flow and adjoint systems. An algebraic turbulence model is used to compute the eddy viscosity. The method is validated using several inverse wing design test cases. In each case, the program must modify the shape of the initial wing such that its pressure distribution matches that of the target wing. Results are shown for the inversion of both finite thickness wings as well as zero thickness wings which can be considered a model of yacht sails.

  18. Optimization of a photovoltaic pumping system based on the optimal control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Betka, A.; Attali, A.

    2010-07-15

    This paper suggests how an optimal operation of a photovoltaic pumping system based on an induction motor driving a centrifugal pump can be realized. The optimization problem consists in maximizing the daily pumped water quantity via the optimization of the motor efficiency for every operation point. The proposed structure allows at the same time the minimization the machine losses, the field oriented control and the maximum power tracking of the photovoltaic array. This will be attained based on multi-input and multi-output optimal regulator theory. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is described by simulation and the obtained results are compared to those of a system working with a constant air gap flux. (author)

  19. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan’s power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory’s merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory’s merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:25342866

  20. Miro GTPase controls mitochondrial behavior affecting stress tolerance and virulence of a fungal insect pathogen.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi; Wang, Ding-Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Miro homologues are small mitochondrial Rho GTPases belonging to the Ras superfamily across organisms and are generally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we identified a Miro orthologue (bMiro) in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen as a classic biological control agent of insect pests. This orthologue was proven to anchor on mitochondrial outer membrane in a manner depending completely upon a short C-terminal transmembrane domain. As a result of bmiro deletion, mitochondria in hyphal cells were largely aggregated, and their mass and mobility were reduced, accompanied with a remarkable decrease in ATP content but little change in mitochondrial morphology. The deletion mutant became 42%, 37%, 19% and 10% more tolerant to Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) than wild-type, respectively, during cultivation in a minimal medium under normal conditions. The deletion mutant also showed mild defects in conidial germination, vegetative growth, thermotolerance, UV-B resistance and virulence despite null response to oxidative and osmotic stresses. All these phenotypic changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Our results indicate that bMiro can control mitochondrial distribution and movement required for the transport of ATP-form energy and metal ions and contributes significantly to the fungal potential against insect pests through the control. PMID:27241960

  1. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

  2. [Mitigation effect of several controlled-release N fertilizers on ammonia volatilization and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Sun, Kejun; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qiming; Jia, Aiping; Liao, Zongwen

    2004-12-01

    By using static absorption and soil column leaching methods, this paper studied the behaviors of several controlled-release N fertilizers in soil under laboratory conditions. The results showed that under the application rate of 450 mg x kg(-1), total ammonia volatilization from three controlled-release fertilizers decreased by 49.7%, 28.0% and 71.2%, respectively, in comparing with common urea. When the application rate was 600 mg x kg(-1), total ammonia volatilization decreased by 34.6%, 12.3%, 69.9%, respectively. Controlled-release fertilizers could markedly reduce total ammonia volatilization from soil and decrease environment pollution via fertilization. The results also indicated that total ammonia volatilization correlated significantly with soil urease activity, pH value and N leaching rate. The correlation coefficient between total ammonia volatilization and accumulated N leaching rate was 0.9533, and that between total ammonia volatilization and soil urease activity and pH value was 0.9533 and 0.9908, respectively. PMID:15825454

  3. An active feedback flow control theory of the vortex breakdown process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granata, Joshua

    An active feedback flow control theory of the vortex breakdown process in incompressible, axisymmetric swirling flows in a finite-length, straight, circular pipe is developed. Flow injection distributed along the pipe wall is used as the controller. The flow is subjected to non-periodic inlet and outlet conditions. A long-wave asymptotic analysis, which involves a re-scaling of the axial distance and time at near critical swirl ratios, results in a nonlinear model problem for the dynamics and control of both inviscid and high-Reynolds number, Re, flows. The approach provides the bifurcation diagram of steady states and the stability characteristics of these states. Computed examples of the flow dynamics based on the full Euler and Navier-Stokes formulations at various swirl levels demonstrate the evolution to near-steady breakdown states when swirl is above a critical level which depends on Re. Numerical stability and mesh convergence studies performed on the inviscid and high-Re flow simulations ensure the accuracy of the computations and the agreement with the theoretical approaches. In addition, an energy analysis of the nonlinear model problem sheds insight into the mechanisms of the flow dynamics which lead to vortex breakdown and suggests a feedback control law which relates the flow injection and the evolving maximum radial velocity at the inlet. Moreover, applying the proposed feedback control law during flow evolution, shows for the first time the successful and robust elimination of the breakdown states and flow stabilization on an almost columnar state for a wide range of swirl up to 53 percent above the first critical level for the inviscid flow case and for a range of swirl up to 15 percent above the first critical level for viscous flows. The control law can be improved for a lower momentary maximum flux injection through the use of discrete injection regions along the pipe. The feedback control cuts the natural feed-forward mechanism of the breakdown

  4. Analytic Theory and Control of the Motion of Spinning Rigid Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations are often resorted to, in order to understand the attitude response and control characteristics of a rigid body. However, this approach in performing sensitivity and/or error analyses may be prohibitively expensive and time consuming, especially when a large number of problem parameters are involved. Thus, there is an important role for analytical models in obtaining an understanding of the complex dynamical behavior. In this dissertation, new analytic solutions are derived for the complete attitude motion of spinning rigid bodies, under minimal assumptions. Hence, we obtain the most general solutions reported in the literature so far. Specifically, large external torques and large asymmetries are included in the problem statement. Moreover, problems involving large angular excursions are treated in detail. A new tractable formulation of the kinematics is introduced which proves to be extremely helpful in the search for analytic solutions of the attitude history of such kinds of problems. The main utility of the new formulation becomes apparent however, when searching for feedback control laws for stabilization and/or reorientation of spinning spacecraft. This is an inherently nonlinear problem, where standard linear control techniques fail. We derive a class of control laws for spin axis stabilization of symmetric spacecraft using only two pairs of gas jet actuators. Practically, this could correspond to a spacecraft operating in failure mode, for example. Theoretically, it is also an important control problem which, because of its difficulty, has received little, if any, attention in the literature. The proposed control laws are especially simple and elegant. A feedback control law that achieves arbitrary reorientation of the spacecraft is also derived, using ideas from invariant manifold theory. The significance of this research is twofold. First, it provides a deeper understanding of the fundamental behavior of rigid bodies subject to body

  5. Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Lena M; Walter, Henrik; Steimke, Rosa; Ludwig, Vera U; Gaschler, Robert; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control in demanding cognitive tasks can be improved by manipulating the motivational state. Motivation to obtain gains and motivation to avoid losses both usually result in faster reaction times and stronger activation in relevant brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about differences in the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these types of motivation in an attentional control context. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether potential gain and loss as motivating incentives lead to overlapping or distinct neural effects in the attentional network, and whether one of these conditions is more effective than the other. A Flanker task with word stimuli as targets and distracters was performed by 115 healthy participants. Using a mixed blocked and event-related design allowed us to investigate transient and sustained motivation-related effects. Participants could either gain money (potential gain) or avoid losing money (potential loss) in different task blocks. Participants showed a congruency effect with increased reaction times for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Potential gain led to generally faster responses compared to the neutral condition and to stronger improvements than potential loss. Potential loss also led to shorter response times compared to the neutral condition, but participants improved mainly during incongruent and not during congruent trials. The event-related fMRI data revealed a main effect of congruency with increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), bilateral insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and visual word form area (VWFA). While potential gain led to increased activity in a cluster of the IFJ and the VWFA only during incongruent trials, potential loss was linked to activity increases in these regions during incongruent and congruent trials. The

  6. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives

    PubMed Central

    Malwela, Thivhulawi; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives. Setting The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini. Methods A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method. Result One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards. Conclusion Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical. PMID:27380847

  7. Surgency and negative affectivity, but not effortful control, are uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behaviors among low-income preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Chen, Yu Pu; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L

    2014-07-01

    Despite increased attention to the role of temperament in children's obesogenic eating behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining whether different dimensions of temperament may be differentially associated with specific eating behaviors among preschool-age children. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether three temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control) were uniquely associated with six obesogenic eating behaviors (caregiver-reported food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, satiety responsiveness, and tantrums over food; and observed eating in the absence of hunger) among low-income preschool-age children, covarying home environment quality. Results showed that temperament dimensions were differentially associated with different eating behaviors. Specifically, preschoolers with higher surgency were more likely to overeat in response to external cues, have frequent desire to eat, derive pleasure from food, and eat in the absence of hunger. In contrast, preschoolers with higher negative affectivity were more likely to have tantrums over being denied food and less likely to eat in the absence of hunger. Effortful control was not uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behavior. Findings remained significant even when home chaos was accounted for, suggesting that child surgency and negative affectivity are important to consider, independent of home environment. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied prevention implications. PMID:24685763

  8. Social Brains in Context: Lesions Targeted to the Song Control System in Female Cowbirds Affect Their Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah E.; Schmidt, Marc F.; White, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system. PMID:23650558

  9. Carbon availability affects diurnally controlled processes and cell morphology of Cyanothece 51142.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

  10. Carbon Availability Affects Diurnally Controlled Processes and Cell Morphology of Cyanothece 51142

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

  11. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-11-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs. PMID:25266856

  12. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs. PMID:25266856

  13. Study of the language functions controlled by the right hemisphere in patients affected by dementia.

    PubMed

    Motta, M

    1993-01-01

    An insertion test (Shift vs. non-Shift) was performed by eight subjects (mean age 69 years, mean schooling 5.87 years) with clinical diagnosis of suspected Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to reveal right hemisphere cerebral distress in concomitance with damage of the left hemisphere which controls language in AD. Their Shift and non-Shift test scores were significantly lower than those of 28 controls, even if they achieved normal or slightly modified classical language test scores. Shift involves insertion of a syntagma or word in a stimulus-sentence that changes the syntactical relationship of some components of the newly formed sentence, whereas in non-Shift the insertion determines only a change in meaning. Statistical analysis revealed that the difference was not caused by age and schooling. Furthermore, the AD patients achieved significantly lower scores in Shift compared with non-Shift. This indicates greater right hemisphere damage in these patients and confirms its physiological decline in the elderly. The results revealed that the insertion test is more sensitive than classical neurolinguistic tests. They also showed that both superficial (non-Shift) and deep (Shift) types of syntaxes are already compromised in early stages of AD and that they mirror the bilateral thinning which is more pronounced in the right hemisphere. PMID:15374327

  14. Drosophila miR-277 controls branched-chain amino acid catabolism and affects lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Esslinger, Stephanie Maria; Schwalb, Björn; Helfer, Stephanie; Michalik, Katharina Maria; Witte, Heidi; Maier, Kerstin C.; Martin, Dietmar; Michalke, Bernhard; Tresch, Achim; Cramer, Patrick; Förstemann, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Development, growth and adult survival are coordinated with available metabolic resources, ascertaining that the organism responds appropriately to environmental conditions. MicroRNAs are short (21–23 nt) regulatory RNAs that confer specificity on the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to inhibit a given set of mRNA targets. We profiled changes in miRNA expression during adult life in Drosophila melanogaster and determined that miR-277 is downregulated during adult life. Molecular analysis revealed that this miRNA controls branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism and as a result it can modulate the activity of the TOR kinase, a central growth regulator, in cultured cells. Metabolite analysis in cultured cells as well as flies suggests that the mechanistic basis may be an accumulation of branched-chain α-keto-acids (BCKA), rather than BCAAs, thus avoiding potentially detrimental consequences of increased branched chain amino acid levels on e.g., translational fidelity. Constitutive miR-277 expression shortens lifespan and is synthetically lethal with reduced insulin signaling, indicating that metabolic control underlies this phenotype. Transgenic inhibition with a miRNA sponge construct also shortens lifespan, in particular on protein-rich food. Thus, optimal metabolic adaptation appears to require tuning of cellular BCAA catabolism by miR-277. PMID:23669073

  15. Area-wide biological control of disease vectors and agents affecting wildlife.

    PubMed

    Reichard, R E

    2002-04-01

    Two examples of area-wide programmes, employing the sterile insect technique (SIT), which have eradicated a parasite and a disease vector common to domestic and wild animals are described. New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, caused significant morbidity and mortality of livestock and wild mammals in tropical and subtropical areas of America before eradication was achieved in North America using the SIT and other components of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. Movement of wild as well as domestic animals from an area which is infested with screwworm to a free area requires prophylactic treatment. Tsetse fly-borne trypanosomosis has an immense influence on the distribution of people and livestock in Africa. The immunotolerance of wildlife to the parasites is an important factor in maintaining some areas livestock free as wildlife refuges. Slaughter has ceased of wild hoofstock species considered to be disease reservoirs for control purposes. The SIT, combined with other IPM measures, has resulted in the eradication of the tsetse fly and trypanosomosis from Zanzibar. Other programmes in Africa are underway. Microbial 'biopesticides' have also been employed successfully against plant insect pests and some vectors of human disease. It seems likely that for the immediate future, wildlife may benefit from area-wide biological control programmes, intended mainly to protect humans and/or domestic animals. PMID:11974628

  16. Fractional representation theory - Robustness results with applications to finite dimensional control of a class of linear distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nett, C. N.; Jacobson, C. A.; Balas, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews and extends the fractional representation theory. In particular, new and powerful robustness results are presented. This new theory is utilized to develop a preliminary design methodology for finite dimensional control of a class of linear evolution equations on a Banach space. The design is for stability in an input-output sense, but particular attention is paid to internal stability as well.

  17. Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Theory with State Estimation and State Feedback for Region II Control of Large Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory called Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Control (ADTC) is introduced and used to track the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) of 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). Since ADTC theory requires wind speed information, a wind disturbance generator model is combined with lower order plant model to estimate the wind speed as well as partial states of the wind turbine. In this paper, we present a proof of stability and convergence of ADTC theory with lower order estimator and show that the state feedback can be adaptive.

  18. A theory-based exercise intervention in patients with heart failure: A protocol for randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Masoomeh; Tavakol, Kamran; Feizi, Awat; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regular exercise has been associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart failure (HF). However, less is known on the theoretical framework, depicting how educational intervention on psychological, social, and cognitive variables affects physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a social cognitive theory-based (SCT-based) exercise intervention in patients with HF. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and at 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up. Sixty patients who are referred to the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) unit and meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a usual-care control group. Data will be collected using various methods (i.e., questionnaires, physical tests, paraclinical tests, patients’ interviews, and focus groups). The patients in the intervention group will receive eight face-to-face counseling sessions, two focus groups, and six educational sessions over a 2-month period. The intervention will include watching videos, using book and pamphlets, and sending short massage services to the participants. The primary outcome measures are PA and QoL. The secondary outcome measures will be the components of SCT, heart rate and blood pressure at rest, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, exercise capacity, and maximum heart rate. Conclusion: The findings of this trial may assist with the development of a theoretical model for exercise intervention in CR. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the usually limited and incoherent provision of educational care in the CR setting. PMID:24379841

  19. Mapping the urban asthma experience: Using qualitative GIS to understand contextual factors affecting asthma control.

    PubMed

    Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Glanz, Karen; Jackson, Tara; Green, Sarah; George, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is complex and connected to a number of factors including access to healthcare, crime and violence, and environmental triggers. A mixed method approach was used to examine the experiences of urban people with asthma in controlling their asthma symptoms. The study started with an initial phase of qualitative interviews in West Philadelphia, a primarily poor African American community. Data from qualitative, semi-structured interviews indicated that stress, environmental irritants, and environmental allergens were the most salient triggers of asthma. Based on the interviews, the team identified six neighborhood factors to map including crime, housing vacancy, illegal dumping, tree canopy and parks. These map layers were combined into a final composite map. These combined methodologies contextualized respondents' perceptions in the framework of the actual community and built environment which tells a more complete story about their experience with asthma. PMID:26184704

  20. The activity of isolated snail neurons controlling locomotion is affected by glucose

    PubMed Central

    Dyakonova, Varvara; Hernádi, László; Ito, Etsuro; Dyakonova, Taisia; Zakharov, Igor; Sakharov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of serotonin in mediating hunger-related changes in behavioral state has been described in many invertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which hunger signals to serotonergic cells remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that serotonergic neurons can directly sense the concentration of glucose, a metabolic indicator of nutritional state. In the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, we demonstrate that completely isolated pedal serotonergic neurons that control locomotion changed their biophysical characteristics in response to glucose application by lowering membrane potential and decreasing the firing rate. Additionally, the excitatory response of the isolated serotonergic neurons to the neuroactive microenvironment of the pedal ganglia was significantly lowered by glucose application. Because hunger has been reported to increase the activity of select neurons and their responses to the pedal ganglia microenvironment, these responses to glucose are in accordance with the hypothesis that direct glucose signaling is involved in the mediation of the hunger-related behavioral state. PMID:27493515