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Sample records for affect control theory

  1. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  2. Affective Dynamics of Leadership: An Experimental Test of Affect Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Tobias; Scholl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Affect Control Theory (ACT; Heise 1979, 2007) states that people control social interactions by striving to maintain culturally shared feelings about the situation. The theory is based on mathematical models of language-based impression formation. In a laboratory experiment, we tested the predictive power of a new German-language ACT model with…

  3. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia.

  4. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia. PMID:27197903

  5. Redefining a Bizarre Situation: Relative Concept Stability in Affect Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    I analyze the process by which we react cognitively to information that contradicts our culturally held sentiments in the context of affect control theory. When bizarre, unanticipated events come to our attention and we have no opportunity to act so as to alter them, we must reidentify at least one event component: the actor, the behavior, or the…

  6. Control Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  7. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    PubMed

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.

  8. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  9. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  10. Splines and control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.

  11. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791

  12. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. PMID:26160501

  13. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  14. Intelligent control: integrating AI and control theory

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, K.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the requirements placed upon computer-controlled systems is forcing a departure from rigid, predetermined control sequences toward more flexible, intelligent control regimes. The basic premise of this research is that such systems can be developed by exploiting the strengths of both standard control theory and recent developments in artificial intelligence. A framework is described for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with more traditional control theory approaches both at the design stages as well as online control. Its potential is then discussed in the context of several complex navy control problems including automatic tracking systems, autonomous vehicles, and large-scale, flexible space structures. 8 references.

  15. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  16. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  17. Cortical Control of Affective Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J.; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T.; DeMaio, Kristine D.; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M.; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E.; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1–Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1–Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1–Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders. PMID:23325249

  18. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  19. Dissociation of cognitive from affective components of theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Shur, Syvan; Barcai-Goodman, Liat; Medlovich, S; Harari, Hagay; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2007-01-15

    Patients suffering from schizophrenia show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as misinterpretation of social situations and lack of theory of mind. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding their ability to perform on theory of mind tasks. Based on previous findings with patients suffering from prefrontal damage, the present study suggests that the behavioral deficit of schizophrenic patients may be due to impaired 'affective theory of mind' abilities, rather than to a general impairment in theory of mind. To test this hypothesis we assessed the ability of 22 schizophrenic patients and 55 age-matched healthy controls, to judge first and second order affective vs. cognitive mental state attribution, based on eye gaze. The relationships between negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and affective and cognitive theory of mind were also assessed. Results indicated that while healthy controls made fewer errors on affective as compared to cognitive theory of mind conditions, schizophrenic patients showed a less prominent trend. Although the pattern of reaction time did not differ significantly between groups, the patients made significantly more errors in the affective conditions, as compared to controls. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated that impaired affective theory of mind in these patients correlated with their level of negative symptoms. These results indicate that individuals with high level of negative symptoms of schizophrenia may demonstrate selective impairment in their ability to attribute affective mental states. These findings offer new insight into the affective facets of social behavior that may underlie the profound behavioral disturbances observed in schizophrenia. PMID:17107716

  20. Cognitive and Affective Control in Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ralph E.; Harvey, Allison G.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent disabling chronic disorder. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (a) to review evidence suggesting that dysfunctional forms of cognitive control, such as thought suppression, worry, rumination, and imagery control, are associated with sleep disturbance; (b) to review a new budding field of scientific investigation – the role of dysfunctional affect control in sleep disturbance, such as problems with down-regulating negative and positive affective states; (c) to review evidence that sleep disturbance can impair next-day affect control; and (d) to outline, on the basis of the reviewed evidence, how the repetitive-thought literature and the affective science literature can be combined to further understanding of, and intervention for, insomnia. PMID:22162971

  1. Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

  2. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12–14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19–25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  3. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  4. Brain regions and genes affecting postural control.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2007-01-01

    Postural control is integrated in all facets of motor commands. The role of cortico-subcortical pathways underlying postural control, including cerebellum and its afferents (climbing, mossy, and noradrenergic fibers), basal ganglia, motor thalamus, and parieto-frontal neocortex has been identified in animal models, notably through the brain lesion technique in rats and in mice with spontaneous and induced mutations. These studies are complemented by analyses of the factors underlying postural deficiencies in patients with cerebellar atrophy. With the gene deletion technique in mice, specific genes expressed in cerebellum encoding glutamate receptors (Grid2 and Grm1) and other molecules (Prkcc, Cntn6, Klf9, Syt4, and En2) have also been shown to affect postural control. In addition, transgenic mouse models of the synucleinopathies and of Huntington's disease cause deficiencies of motor coordination resembling those of patients with basal ganglia damage.

  5. Applications of robust control theory - Educational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorato, P.; Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is made of applications of robust control theory to problems of flight control, control of flexible space structures, and engine control which have appeared in recent conferences and journals. An analysis is made of which theoretical techniques are most commonly used and what implications this has for graduate and undergraduate education in aerospace engineering.

  6. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  7. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  8. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.

  9. Do scientific theories affect men’s evaluations of sex crimes?

    PubMed Central

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN; HEINE, STEVEN J.; CHEUNG, BENJAMIN Y.; SCHALLER, MARK

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology accounts of gender differences in sexual behaviors in general and men’s sexual aggression in particular, have been criticized for legitimizing males’ sexual misconduct. To empirically assess such critiques, two studies examined how men’s judgments of male sex crimes (solicitation of sex from a prostitute; rape) are influenced by exposure to (a) evolutionary psychological theories, and (b) social-constructivist theories. Across two studies a consistent pattern emerged: compared to a control condition, (a) exposure to evolutionary psychology theories had no observable impact on male judgments of men’s criminal sexual behavior, whereas (b) exposure to social-constructivist theories did affect judgments, leading men to evaluate sex crimes more harshly. Additional results (from Study 2) indicate that this effect is mediated by perceptions of male control over sexual urges. These results have implications, for journalists, educators, and scientists. PMID:21678431

  10. Control theory for random systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current knowledge available for designing and predicting the effectiveness of controllers for dynamic systems which can be modeled by ordinary differential equations. A short discussion of feedback control is followed by a description of deterministic controller design and the concept of system state. The need for more realistic disturbance models led to the use of stochastic process concepts, in particular the Gauss-Markov process. A compensator controlled system, with random forcing functions, random errors in the measurements, and random initial conditions, is treated as constituting a Gauss-Markov random process; hence the mean-square behavior of the controlled system is readily predicted. As an example, a compensator is designed for a helicopter to maintain it in hover in a gusty wind over a point on the ground.

  11. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  12. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  13. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology.

  14. Control theory meets synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  15. Geometrically constrained observability. [control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with observed processes in situations in which observations are available only when the state vector lies in certain regions. For linear autonomous observed processes, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for half-space observation regions. These results are shown to contain a theorem dual to a controllability result proved by the author for a linear autonomous control system whose control restraint set does not contain the origin as an interior point. Observability results relating to continuous observation systems and sampled data systems are presented, and an example of observing the state of an electrical network is given.

  16. Theory of diffusion controlled growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, R. C.; Somfai, E.

    2003-03-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for Diffusion Limited Aggregation and associated Dielectric Breakdown Models (DBM) in two dimensions [R. C. Ball and E. Somfai; PRL 89, 135503 (2002); and cond-mat/0210598]. The first key step is to understand how these models interrelate when the ultra-violet cut-off strategy is changed, leading us to propose a new set of equivalence relations between generalisations of the original DBM. This enables us to approach these models through the dynamics of conformal maps with a fixed charge cut-off. Using logarithmic field variables then leads to coupled moment equations which appear to be renormalisable. Within the simplest, Gaussian, truncation of mode-mode coupling, all properties can be calculated. The agreement with prior knowledge from simulations is encouraging, and a new superuniversality of the tip scaling exponent is discussed. We find angular resonances relatable to the cone angle theory, and we are led to predict a new Screening Transition in the DBM at large η.

  17. An information theory account of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to efficiently process information and generate appropriate responses depends on the processes collectively called cognitive control. Despite a considerable focus in the literature on the cognitive control of information processing, neural mechanisms underlying control are still unclear, and have not been characterized by considering the quantity of information to be processed. A novel and comprehensive account of cognitive control is proposed using concepts from information theory, which is concerned with communication system analysis and the quantification of information. This account treats the brain as an information-processing entity where cognitive control and its underlying brain networks play a pivotal role in dealing with conditions of uncertainty. This hypothesis and theory article justifies the validity and properties of such an account and relates experimental findings to the frontoparietal network under the framework of information theory. PMID:25228875

  18. An information theory account of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to efficiently process information and generate appropriate responses depends on the processes collectively called cognitive control. Despite a considerable focus in the literature on the cognitive control of information processing, neural mechanisms underlying control are still unclear, and have not been characterized by considering the quantity of information to be processed. A novel and comprehensive account of cognitive control is proposed using concepts from information theory, which is concerned with communication system analysis and the quantification of information. This account treats the brain as an information-processing entity where cognitive control and its underlying brain networks play a pivotal role in dealing with conditions of uncertainty. This hypothesis and theory article justifies the validity and properties of such an account and relates experimental findings to the frontoparietal network under the framework of information theory.

  19. On The Theory Of Intelligent Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1988-02-01

    The recent need of generating machines with enough intelligence to perform autonomously in uncertain environments has imposed new demands on the design of control systems. The new discipline draws its ideas not only from Control Systems Theory but from Artificial Intelligence and Operations Research, as well, in order to meet the needs of intelligent operation with similarities to human behavior. Even though several approaches have been proposed, this paper will deal with the evolution of control theory that leads into the definition of Hierarchically Intelligent Control and the Principle of Decreasing Precision with Increasing Intelligence. A three-level structure representing Organization, Coordination and Execution will be developed as a probabilistic model of such a system and the approaches necessary to implement each one of them will be discussed. Finally, Entropy will be proposed as a common measure of all three levels and the problem of Intelligent Control will be cast as the mathematical programming solution that minimizes the total entropy.

  20. Control theory and multiple placebo effects.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M P; Karoly, P

    The importance of the placebo in medicine is well documented, yet our understanding of placebo effects remains limited. One obstacle to a greater understanding is the fact that the phrase "placebo effect" has been used to refer to a number of qualitatively distinct behavioral events. Thus, different theories have been promulgated, each one tending to explain a selective portion of the placebo phenomenon. To help clarify matters, three kinds of placebo effects are described, and theories that have been used to explain them are reviewed. Limitations of these theories are then discussed, and a general model of placebo effects, based on a control theory perspective, is presented. Some implications and limitations of this model are outlined.

  1. Positive affect increases secondary control among causally uncertain individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Stephanie J; George, Melanie P

    2015-01-01

    Secondary control (acceptance of and adjustment to negative events) is thought to promote positive affect. We examined the opposite path: could positive affect increase secondary control, particularly among individuals high in causal uncertainty, who stand to benefit from it the most? In two studies, participants completed a causal uncertainty scale, thought about a problem while listening to affect-inducing music or no music, and then completed items that assessed secondary control. In Study 1, the music induced positive or negative affect. In Study 2, the music induced affect that was high or low in activation and positive or negative in valence. In both studies, we found that positive affect-inducing music increased secondary control among high causal uncertainty participants. Furthermore, trait affect did not account for the effects of causal uncertainty, and music did not influence primary control. These findings show that secondary control can fluctuate as a function of state affect.

  2. Comparing the neural correlates of affective and cognitive theory of mind using fMRI: Involvement of the basal ganglia in affective theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Maren E.; Kübler, Dorothee; Knake, Susanne; Menzler, Katja; Heverhagen, Johannes T.; Sommer, Jens; Kalbe, Elke; Krach, Sören; Dodel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to infer other people’s mental states like intentions or desires. ToM can be differentiated into affective (i.e., recognizing the feelings of another person) and cognitive (i.e., inferring the mental state of the counterpart) subcomponents. Recently, subcortical structures such as the basal ganglia (BG) have also been ascribed to the multifaceted concept ToM and most BG disorders have been reported to elicit ToM deficits. In order to assess both the correlates of affective and cognitive ToM as well as involvement of the basal ganglia, 30 healthy participants underwent event-related fMRI scanning, neuropsychological testing, and filled in questionnaires concerning different aspects of ToM and empathy. Directly contrasting affective (aff) as well as cognitive (cog) ToM to the control (phy) condition, activation was found in classical ToM regions, namely parts of the temporal lobe including the superior temporal sulcus, the supplementary motor area, and parietal structures in the right hemisphere. The contrast aff > phy yielded additional activation in the orbitofrontal cortex on the right and the cingulate cortex, the precentral and inferior frontal gyrus and the cerebellum on the left. The right BG were recruited in this contrast as well. The direct contrast aff > cog showed activation in the temporoparietal junction and the cingulate cortex on the right as well as in the left supplementary motor area. The reverse contrast cog > aff however did not yield any significant clusters. In summary, affective and cognitive ToM partly share neural correlates but can also be differentiated anatomically. Furthermore, the BG are involved in affective ToM and thus their contribution is discussed as possibly providing a motor component of simulation processes, particularly in affective ToM. PMID:23853676

  3. Dissociable prefrontal networks for cognitive and affective theory of mind: a lesion study.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2007-10-01

    The underlying mechanisms and neuroanatomical correlates of theory of mind (ToM), the ability to make inferences on others' mental states, remain largely unknown. While numerous studies have implicated the ventromedial (VM) frontal lobes in ToM, recent findings have questioned the role of the prefrontal cortex. We designed two novel tasks that examined the hypothesis that affective ToM processing is distinct from that related to cognitive ToM and depends in part on separate anatomical substrates. The performance of patients with localized lesions in the VM was compared to responses of patients with dorsolateral lesions, mixed prefrontal lesions, and posterior lesions and with healthy control subjects. While controls made fewer errors on affective as compared to cognitive ToM conditions in both tasks, patients with VM damage showed a different trend. Furthermore, while affective ToM was mostly impaired by VM damage, cognitive ToM was mostly impaired by extensive prefrontal damage, suggesting that cognitive and affective mentalizing abilities are partly dissociable. By introducing the concept of 'affective ToM' to the study of social cognition, these results offer new insights into the mediating role of the VM in the affective facets of social behavior that may underlie the behavioral disturbances observed in these patients. PMID:17640690

  4. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation.

  5. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation. PMID:24778957

  6. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation. PMID:24778957

  7. Would Controlled Substance Status Affect Steroid Trafficking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1987-01-01

    Loss of control over the use of anabolic steriods had prompted the federal government to take steps to stem the black market manufacture and distribution of these drugs. However, these steps are likely to stop short of bestowing controlled substance status on steriods. (Author/CB)

  8. The role of affect and reward in the conflict-triggered adjustment of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Adapting to changing task demands is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. According to an influential theory, the conflict monitoring theory, the adaptation of information processing occurs in a context-sensitive manner in that conflicts signal the need for control recruitment. Starting from the conflict monitoring theory, here the authors discuss the role of affect in the context of conflict-triggered processing adjustments from three different perspectives: (1) the affective value of conflict per se, (2) the affective modulation of conflict-triggered processing adjustments, and (3) the modulation of conflict adaptation by reward. Based on the current empirical evidence, the authors stress the importance of disentangling effects of affect and reward on conflict-triggered control adjustments.

  9. Cognitive load affects postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Lopez, Luisa; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-05-01

    Inferring relations between cognitive processes and postural control is a relatively topical challenge in developmental neurology. This study investigated the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in a sample of 50 nine-year-old children. Each subject completed two balance trials of 60 s, one with a concurrent cognitive task (cognitive load) and another with no cognitive load. The concurrent cognitive task consisted of mentally counting backwards in steps of 2. Twelve posturographic parameters (PPs) were extracted from the centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory obtained through a load cell force plate. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the majority of the extracted PPs. CoP was found to travel faster, farther, and with substantially different features demonstrating an overall broadening of the spectrum in the frequency domain. Nonlinear stability factors revealed significant differences when exposed to a concurrent cognitive task, showing an increase of instability in the intervention rate of the postural control system. By grouping children through selected items from Teachers Ratings and PANESS assessment, specific significant differences were also found both in time and frequency domain PPs, thus confirming the hypothesis of an interaction between cognitive processes (and their development), and postural control. PMID:17136524

  10. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is involved in understanding affective but not cognitive theory of mind stories.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Tibi-Elhanany, Yasmin; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies have implicated the medial frontal lobes as playing an important role in our ability to predict other people's behavior by attributing to them mental states, such as beliefs, intention and emotion (termed "Theory of Mind"; ToM). However, recent studies have challenged these findings by highlighting the role of the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) in ToM. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the ventromedial (VM) prefrontal cortex plays a unique role in affective ToM reasoning rather than a general role in ToM. We compared the performance of patients with lesions localized either in the VM, dorsolateral, TPJ, or superior parietal to healthy controls, with a battery of naturalistic affective and cognitive ToM stories (about false beliefs, false attribution, irony and lies). Patients with VM damage were impaired at providing appropriate mental state explanations for the affective ToM stories, compared to healthy controls and patients with posterior damage. In the VM group, performance in the affective ToM was significantly impaired as compared to cognitive ToM stories. Furthermore, in the VM group, ratings of levels of emotionality of each story suggested that levels of affective load correlated with number of errors in the stories, indicating that the more the emotional load involved in the story the greater the difficulty posed for the subjects in this group. PMID:18633784

  11. Aspects of social cognition in anorexia nervosa: affective and cognitive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Russell, Tamara Anne; Schmidt, Ulrike; Doherty, Liz; Young, Vicky; Tchanturia, Kate

    2009-08-15

    Although social functioning is clearly impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been limited empirical assessment of this domain in this illness. This study assesses social cognition in AN by examining performance on two 'theory of mind' (ToM) tasks; Baron-Cohen's "Reading the mind in the Eyes" task (RME) and Happé's cartoon task. These tasks probe affective and cognitive ToM, respectively. Forty-four female participants were recruited (AN N=22; healthy controls N=22) and completed both tasks, with concurrent clinical and intellectual functioning assessment. Compared with healthy controls, AN performed significantly worse on both the RME and the Cartoon task (both conditions). The mental state condition did not facilitate performance in the AN group, as it did in the healthy controls. The findings broadly replicate limited previous work [Tchanturia, K., Happé, F., Godley, J., Bara-Carill, N., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., 2004. Theory of mind in AN. European Eating Disorders Review 12, 361-366] but in addition demonstrate abnormalities on a task requiring affective ToM interpretation. More detailed information about the components of ToM and the ToM difficulties demonstrated in AN sufferers may inform our understanding of the disorder as well as future social-cognitive based treatments.

  12. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Jorge M.; Dall'Asén, Analía G.; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback. PMID:21113000

  13. Pheromonal control: reconciling physiological mechanism with signalling theory.

    PubMed

    Peso, Marianne; Elgar, Mark A; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals. They can have profound effects on the behaviour and/or physiology of the receiver, and it is still common to hear pheromones described as controlling of the behaviour of the receiver. The discussion of pheromonal control arose initially from a close association between hormones and pheromones in the comparative physiological literature, but the concept of a controlling pheromone is at odds with contemporary signal evolution theory, which predicts that a manipulative pheromonal signal negatively affecting the receiver's fitness should not be stable over evolutionary time. Here we discuss the meaning of pheromonal control, and the ecological circumstances by which it might be supported. We argue that in discussing pheromonal control it is important to differentiate between control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's physiology (proximate control), and control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's fitness (ultimate control). Critically, a pheromone signal affecting change in the receiver's behaviour or physiology need not necessarily manipulate the fitness of a receiver. In cases where pheromonal signalling does lead to a reduction in the fitness of the receiver, the signalling system would be stable if the pheromone were an honest signal of a social environment that disadvantages the receiver, and the physiological and behavioural changes observed in the receiver were an adaptive response to the new social circumstances communicated by the pheromone. PMID:24925630

  14. Affective and cognitive Theory of Mind in patients with parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Maren E; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Cabanel, Nicole; Eggert, Karla Maria; Unger, Marcus Michael; Oertel, Wolfgang Hermann; Kessler, Josef; Dodel, Richard; Kalbe, Elke

    2010-08-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM), which is the ability to infer other people's mental states such as beliefs or desires, is an important prerequisite for social interaction. Affective and cognitive subcomponents of ToM can be impaired selectively in neurological and psychiatric disorders. This study examines ToM in 21 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects, using the computerized "Yoni task" that assesses affective and cognitive ToM abilities and an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Furthermore, questionnaires to assess health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms were applied and correlations to ToM were investigated. Compared to the control subjects, PD patients scored lower on both the affective (PD: 76% versus HC: 89%; p = 0.006) and cognitive (PD: 80% versus HC: 92%; p = 0.002) ToM subscales but not on control items (PD: 90% versus HC: 95%; p = 0.077). The ToM abilities were not associated with other cognitive functions, depressive symptoms or clinical data. However, affective ToM was correlated with health-related quality of life (p = 0.01). Parkinson patients are impaired in affective as well as cognitive ToM. These deficits are largely independent from other cognitive impairments, depressive symptoms and motor impairment. The relationship of affective ToM to the health-related quality of life of PD patients points to a clinical relevance of this issue and suggests that ToM dysfunctions must be regarded as an important non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease. PMID:20538499

  15. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM. PMID:26803059

  16. Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.

  17. Perspectives in Theory: Anthology of Theorists affecting the Educational World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicking, Misty M., Ed.; Collins, Brian, Ed.; Fernett, Laura, Ed.; Taylor, Barbara, Ed.; Sutton, Kathleen, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of research papers on theorists that affect the educational world are collected in this anthology. Twenty-one students, through the course of their education class, Social and Psychological Conditions of Learning--EDUC 320, researched and applied their knowledge in the elementary and secondary school environments. The contributing…

  18. Exposure to scientific theories affects women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J

    2006-10-20

    Stereotype threat occurs when stereotyped groups perform worse as their group membership is highlighted. We investigated whether stereotype threat is affected by accounts for the origins of stereotypes. In two studies, women who read of genetic causes of sex differences performed worse on math tests than those who read of experiential causes.

  19. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  20. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  1. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  2. Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

  3. Application of control theory to dynamic systems simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Young, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The application of control theory is applied to dynamic systems simulation. Theory and methodology applicable to controlled ecological life support systems are considered. Spatial effects on system stability, design of control systems with uncertain parameters, and an interactive computing language (PARASOL-II) designed for dynamic system simulation, report quality graphics, data acquisition, and simple real time control are discussed.

  4. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  5. Robust control systems design by H-infinity optimization theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, B. C.; Li, X. P.; Banda, S. S.; Yeh, H. H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, step-by-step procedures of applying the H-infinity theory to robust control systems design are given. The objective of the paper is to eliminate the possible difficulties a control engineer may encounter in applying H-infinity control theory and to clear up some misconceptions about H-infinity theory like high-gain controller and numerical obstacles, etc. An efficient algorithm is used to compute the optimal H-infinity norm. The Glover and Doyle (1988) controller formulas are slightly modified and used to construct an optimal controller without any numerical difficulties.

  6. Optimal control theory for unitary transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2003-12-01

    The dynamics of a quantum system driven by an external field is well described by a unitary transformation generated by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The inverse problem of finding the field that generates a specific unitary transformation is the subject of study. The unitary transformation which can represent an algorithm in a quantum computation is imposed on a subset of quantum states embedded in a larger Hilbert space. Optimal control theory is used to solve the inversion problem irrespective of the initial input state. A unified formalism based on the Krotov method is developed leading to a different scheme. The schemes are compared for the inversion of a two-qubit Fourier transform using as registers the vibrational levels of the X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} electronic state of Na{sub 2}. Raman-like transitions through the A {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} electronic state induce the transitions. Light fields are found that are able to implement the Fourier transform within a picosecond time scale. Such fields can be obtained by pulse-shaping techniques of a femtosecond pulse. Of the schemes studied, the square modulus scheme converges fastest. A study of the implementation of the Q qubit Fourier transform in the Na{sub 2} molecule was carried out for up to five qubits. The classical computation effort required to obtain the algorithm with a given fidelity is estimated to scale exponentially with the number of levels. The observed moderate scaling of the pulse intensity with the number of qubits in the transformation is rationalized.

  7. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  8. Control of Humorous Affect in Relation to Children's Conceptual Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinsky, David M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between conceptual tempo and control of humorous affect in young children. Records the responses of reflective, fast-accurate, impulsive, and slow-accurate fourth-grade children to a videotape of an adult telling a series of jokes, half of which are followed by audience laughter. (CM)

  9. Theory of automatic control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Herbert K

    1939-01-01

    Methods of automatically controlling the airplane are reviewed. Equations for the controlled motion including inertia effects of the control are developed and methods of investigating the stability of the resulting fifth and higher order equations are presented. The equations for longitudinal and lateral motion with both ideal and non-ideal controls are developed in dimensionless form in terms of control parameters based on simple dynamic tests of the isolated control unit.

  10. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research directions in the fields of digital signal processing and modern control and estimation theory are discussed. Stability theory, linear prediction and parameter identification, system synthesis and implementation, two-dimensional filtering, decentralized control and estimation, and image processing are considered in order to uncover some of the basic similarities and differences in the goals, techniques, and philosophy of the disciplines.

  11. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.

    2014-03-01

    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  12. Investigating Friendship Quality: An Exploration of Self-Control and Social Control Theories' Friendship Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.

    2012-01-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…

  13. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  14. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable management of the human and natural systems, taking into account their interactions, has become paramount. To achieve this complex multidisciplinary objective, systems theory based techniques prove useful. The proposed work is a step in that direction. Taking a food w...

  15. Shared and nonshared neural networks of cognitive and affective theory-of-mind: a neuroimaging study using cartoon picture stories.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Lissek, Silke; Lenz, Melanie; Juckel, Georg; Schultz, Thomas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to represent one's own and others' cognitive and affective mental states. Recent imaging studies have aimed to disentangle the neural networks involved in cognitive as opposed to affective ToM, based on clinical observations that the two can functionally dissociate. Due to large differences in stimulus material and task complexity findings are, however, inconclusive. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in psychologically healthy male participants (n = 39) using functional brain imaging, whereby the same set of stimuli was presented for all conditions (affective, cognitive and control), but associated with different questions prompting either a cognitive or affective ToM inference. Direct contrasts of cognitive versus affective ToM showed that cognitive ToM recruited the precuneus and cuneus, as well as regions in the temporal lobes bilaterally. Affective ToM, in contrast, involved a neural network comprising prefrontal cortical structures, as well as smaller regions in the posterior cingulate cortex and the basal ganglia. Notably, these results were complemented by a multivariate pattern analysis (leave one study subject out), yielding a classifier with an accuracy rate of more than 85% in distinguishing between the two ToM-conditions. The regions contributing most to successful classification corresponded to those found in the univariate analyses. The study contributes to the differentiation of neural patterns involved in the representation of cognitive and affective mental states of others.

  16. Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. The OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated, and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.

  17. Interrelations in Cognition and Affect in Infancy: A Comparison of Piagetian, Psychoanalytic, and Eriksonian Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of Piagetian and psychoanalytic theories of infancy to establish the developmental relationships between cognition and affect. Theoretical points of similarity and dissimilarity are cited. Relevant reasearch studies (Bell, Gouin-Decarie, Fraiberg) are reviewed in an attempt to resolve…

  18. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  19. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naive Impetus Theory Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…

  20. Propulsion control and control theory: A new research focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Technological developments necessary for the implementation of advanced digital control concepts for aircraft propulsion are identified and discussed. Developments associated with the replacement analog controllers with digital control systems, sensors and actuators, and control modes and software are reported.

  1. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  2. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information. PMID:26114543

  3. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    PubMed

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  4. Climate affects predator control of an herbivore outbreak.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Evan L; Strong, Donald R

    2004-05-01

    Herbivore outbreaks and the accompanying devastation of plant biomass can have enormous ecological effects. Climate directly affects such outbreaks through plant stress or alterations in herbivore life-history traits. Large-scale variation in climate can indirectly affect outbreaks through trophic interactions, but the magnitude of such effects is unknown. On the California coast, rainfall in years during and immediately previous to mass lupine mortality was two-thirds that of years without such mortality. However, neither mature lupines nor their root-feeding herbivores are directly affected by annual variation in rainfall. By increasing soil moisture to levels characteristic of summers following El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, we increased persistence of a predator (the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus). This led to suppression of an outbreak of the herbivorous moth Hepialus californicus, indirectly protecting bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Our results are consistent with the marine-oriented Menge-Sutherland hypothesis (Menge and Sutherland 1987) that abiotic stress has greater effects on higher than on lower trophic levels. The mechanisms producing these results differ from those proposed by Menge-Sutherland, however, highlighting differences between trophic processes in underground and terrestrial/marine food webs. Our evidence suggests that herbivore outbreaks and mass lupine mortality are indirectly affected by ENSO's facilitation of top-down control in this food web.

  5. Intermittent control: a computational theory of human control.

    PubMed

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Lakie, Martin; Gollee, Henrik

    2011-02-01

    The paradigm of continuous control using internal models has advanced understanding of human motor control. However, this paradigm ignores some aspects of human control, including intermittent feedback, serial ballistic control, triggered responses and refractory periods. It is shown that event-driven intermittent control provides a framework to explain the behaviour of the human operator under a wider range of conditions than continuous control. Continuous control is included as a special case, but sampling, system matched hold, an intermittent predictor and an event trigger allow serial open-loop trajectories using intermittent feedback. The implementation here may be described as "continuous observation, intermittent action". Beyond explaining unimodal regulation distributions in common with continuous control, these features naturally explain refractoriness and bimodal stabilisation distributions observed in double stimulus tracking experiments and quiet standing, respectively. Moreover, given that human control systems contain significant time delays, a biological-cybernetic rationale favours intermittent over continuous control: intermittent predictive control is computationally less demanding than continuous predictive control. A standard continuous-time predictive control model of the human operator is used as the underlying design method for an event-driven intermittent controller. It is shown that when event thresholds are small and sampling is regular, the intermittent controller can masquerade as the underlying continuous-time controller and thus, under these conditions, the continuous-time and intermittent controller cannot be distinguished. This explains why the intermittent control hypothesis is consistent with the continuous control hypothesis for certain experimental conditions.

  6. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  7. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research areas associated with digital signal processing and control and estimation theory are identified. Particular attention is given to image processing, system identification problems (parameter identification, linear prediction, least squares, Kalman filtering), stability analyses (the use of the Liapunov theory, frequency domain criteria, passivity), and multiparameter systems, distributed processes, and random fields.

  8. Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Lauren D.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56% female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:25870113

  9. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  10. Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy ratio are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust system comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy ratio, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).

  11. Some Contributions of General Systems Theory, Cybernetics Theory and Management Control Theory to Evaluation Theory and Practice. Research on Evaluation Program Paper and Report Series. Interim Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Desmond L.

    This document, one of a series of reports examining the possible contribution of other disciplines to evaluation methodology, describes the major elements of general systems theory (GST), cybernetics theory (CT) and management control theory (MCT). The author suggests that MCT encapsulates major concerns of evaluation since it reveals that…

  12. Damage control resuscitation: history, theory and technique

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    Damage control resuscitation (DCR) represents the natural evolution of the initial concept of damage control surgery. It currently includes early blood product transfusion, immediate arrest and/or temporization of ongoing hemorrhage (i.e., temporary intravascular shunts and/or balloon tamponade) as well as restoration of blood volume and physiologic/hematologic stability. As a result, DCR addresses the early coagulopathy of trauma, avoids massive crystalloid resuscitation and leaves the peritoneal cavity open when a patient approaches physiologic exhaustion without improvement. This concept also applies to severe injuries within anatomical transition zones as well as extremities. This review will discuss each of these concepts in detail. PMID:24461267

  13. Lie theory and control systems defined on spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that in constructing a theory for the most elementary class of control problems defined on spheres, some results from the Lie theory play a natural role. To understand controllability, optimal control, and certain properties of stochastic equations, Lie theoretic ideas are needed. The framework considered here is the most natural departure from the usual linear system/vector space problems which have dominated control systems literature. For this reason results are compared with those previously available for the finite dimensional vector space case.

  14. Motor Control Theories and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.; Levin, Mindy F.; Scholz, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the idea of synergies based on the principle of motor abundance. The equilibrium-point hypothesis is based on the idea of control with thresholds for activation of neuronal pools; it provides a framework for analysis of both voluntary and involuntary movements. In particular, control of a single muscle can be adequately described with changes in the threshold of motor unit recruitment during slow muscle stretch (threshold of the tonic stretch reflex). Unlike the ideas of internal models, the equilibrium-point hypothesis does not assume neural computations of mechanical variables. The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is based on the dynamic system approach to movements; it offers a toolbox to analyze synergic changes within redundant sets of elements related to stabilization of potentially important performance variables. The referent configuration hypothesis and the principle of abundance can be naturally combined into a single coherent scheme of control of multi-element systems. A body of experimental data on healthy persons and patients with movement disorders are reviewed in support of the mentioned hypotheses. In particular, movement disorders associated with spasticity are considered as consequences of an impaired ability to shift threshold of the tonic stretch reflex within the whole normal range. Technical details and applications of the mentioned hypotheses to studies of motor learning are described. We view the mentioned hypotheses as the most promising ones in the field of motor control, based on a solid physical and neurophysiological foundation. PMID:20944446

  15. Links Among Cognitive Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Affective Perspective Taking by Young Children.

    PubMed

    Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking.

  16. Lagrange duality theory for convex control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lagrange dual to a control problem is studied. The principal result based on the Hahn-Banach theorem proves that the dual problem has an optimal solution if there exists an interior point for the constraint set. A complementary slackness condition holds, if the primal problem has an optimal solution. A necessary and sufficient condition for the optimality of solutions to the primal and the dual problem is also presented.

  17. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  18. Do sedentary motives adversely affect physical activity? Adding cross-behavioural cognitions to the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether sedentary behavior cognitions explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior when integrated within the theory of planned behavior framework (TPB). A random community sample of 206 adults and a sample of 174 undergraduate students completed measures of the TPB pertaining to PA and four popular leisure-time behaviors (TV viewing, computer use, sedentary hobbies, and sedentary socializing) and an adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercize Questionnaire (community sample = cross-sectional, undergraduate sample = 2-week prospective). Results using ordinary least squares regression provided evidence that TV viewing intention explains additional variance in PA behavior, and affective attitude (community sample) and perceived behavioral control (undergraduate sample) towards TV viewing explains additional variance in PA intention even after controlling for PA-related TPB constructs. These results underscore the potential value of adding sedentary control interventions in concert with PA promotion.

  19. Hierarchical control of ride height system for electronically controlled air suspension based on variable structure and fuzzy control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Kongkang; Zou, Nannan; Jiang, Hong; Cui, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    The current research of air suspension mainly focuses on the characteristics and design of the air spring. In fact, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) has excellent performance in flexible height adjustment during different driving conditions. However, the nonlinearity of the ride height adjusting system and the uneven distribution of payload affect the control accuracy of ride height and the body attitude. Firstly, the three-point measurement system of three height sensors is used to establish the mathematical model of the ride height adjusting system. The decentralized control of ride height and the centralized control of body attitude are presented to design the ride height control system for ECAS. The exact feedback linearization method is adopted for the nonlinear mathematical model of the ride height system. Secondly, according to the hierarchical control theory, the variable structure control (VSC) technique is used to design a controller that is able to adjust the ride height for the quarter-vehicle anywhere, and each quarter-vehicle height control system is independent. Meanwhile, the three-point height signals obtained by three height sensors are tracked to calculate the body pitch and roll attitude over time, and then by calculating the deviation of pitch and roll and its rates, the height control correction is reassigned based on the fuzzy algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed combined control strategy, a validating test of ride height control system with and without road disturbance is carried out. Testing results show that the height adjusting time of both lifting and lowering is over 5 s, and the pitch angle and the roll angle of body attitude are less than 0.15°. This research proposes a hierarchical control method that can guarantee the attitude stability, as well as satisfy the ride height tracking system.

  20. Toward a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: the SIMON framework

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work toward a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation. PMID:24109436

  1. Sound as Affective Design Feature in Multimedia Learning--Benefits and Drawbacks from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Königschulte, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates the potential effects of including non-speech audio such as sound effects into multimedia-based instruction taking into account Sweller's cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005) and applied frameworks such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive affective theory of…

  2. Damage to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex impacts affective theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Anne; dal Monte, Olga; Pardini, Matteo; Pulaski, Sarah J.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating theory of mind (ToM) abilities (i.e. ability to understand and predict others’ mental states) have revealed that affective and cognitive functions play a significant role and that each of those functions are associated with distinct neural networks. Cognitive facets of ToM have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction and the anterior paracingulate cortex, whereas affective facets have implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Although the vmPFC has repeatedly shown to be critical for affective functions, knowledge regarding the exact role of the left and right vmPFC in affective ToM is still obscure. Here, we compared performances of 30 patients with left, right and bilateral vmPFC lesions to two comparison groups (one without and one with brain injuries) on the Faux Pas Recognition task measuring the facets of ToM. We also investigated whether any deficits may be associated with other emotional measures, namely emotional empathy and emotional intelligence. Our results extend earlier findings by showing that the vmPFC is associated with abilities in affective ToM. More importantly, our results revealed that the left, and not the right vmPFC as indicated previously, is involved in affective ToM and that this deficit is associated with emotional intelligence. PMID:22021651

  3. Modern control theory for Army missile guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, R. H.; Levari, H.; Gupta, N. K.

    1982-11-01

    A Singular perturbation guidance law has been developed for medium-range surface-to-air missiles. This guidance law is a significant extension of a previously developed guidance law for short-range missiles; in medium-range intercepts, the problem of energy management should be addressed in addition to homing guidance. The mathematical formulation has been simplified by introducing separation of time scales. Target Trajectory Estimation: A recursive algorithm for estimation of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model parameters from noisy samples has been developed. Application of this algorithm to parameter estimation problems has exhibited its fast convergence and unbiasedness in the presence of noise, even with short data records. The algorithm has two versions, a Recursive Maximum Likelihood (RML) form and a Recursive Prediction Error (RPE) form, both of which possess a parallel structure that makes them highly suitable for parallel-processing implementation. Adaptive autopilots: Lattice-form algorithms have been developed for fast, recursive identification and control of time-varying systems. These algorithms have excellent numerical properties and a modular structure that makes them suitable for on-board real-time implementation.

  4. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the activities and research results obtained under a grant (NAG3-998) from the NASA Lewis Research Center. The focus of the research was the investigation of dynamic interactions between airframe and engines for advanced ASTOVL aircraft configurations, and the analysis of the implications of these interactions on the stability and performance of the airframe and engine control systems. In addition, the need for integrated flight and propulsion control for such aircraft was addressed. The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multi variable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important non-linear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multi variable techniques, included model-following formulations of LQG and/or H (infinity) methods showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods.

  5. Putting policy theory to work: tobacco control in California.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2005-05-01

    Policy theory provides a useful lens for nurses evaluating how problems are understood and responded to within the policy arena. This article examines and critiques the agenda-setting model offered by John Kingdon. Furthermore, the theory is applied to the issue of tobacco control in the state of California, suggesting policy solutions and strategies to achieve their placement on the policy agenda. Strategies and techniques that may be useful to nurse policy champions are elucidated.

  6. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multivariable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. In these example evaluations, the significance of these interactions was underscored. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important nonlinear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multivariable techniques, including model-following formulations of LQG and/or H infinity methods, showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods. The major contributions of the second phase of the grant was the development of conditions under which no decentralized controller could achieve closed loop system requirements on stability and/or performance. Sought were conditions that depended only on properties of the plant and the requirement, and independent of any particular control law or synthesis approach. Therefore, they could be applied a priori, before synthesis of a candidate control law. Under this grant, such conditions were found regarding stability, and encouraging initial results were obtained regarding performance.

  7. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    of the system. The behavior of a system, as captured in the system modeling, when properly done will aid in accurately predicting future system performance. The Feedback Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and uses feedback to adjust control inputs into the system. The feedback, which is the right arm of the Control system, allows change to be affected in the overall system; it therefore is important to not only correctly identify the system feedback inputs, but also the system response to the feedback inputs. The Navigation system takes multiple data inputs and based on a priori knowledge of the inputs, develops a statistically based weighting of the inputs and measurements to determine the system's state. Guidance and Planning Logic of the system, complete with an understanding of where the system is (provided by the Navigation system), will in turn determine where the system needs to be and how to get it there. With any system/project, it is critical that the objective of the system/project be clearly defined -- not only to plan but to measure performance and to aid in guiding the system or the project. The system principles discussed above, which can be and have been applied to the current CxP space suit development project, can also be mapped to real-world constituents, thus allowing project managers to apply systems theories that are well defined in engineering and mathematics to a discipline (i.e., Project Management) that historically has been based in personal experience and intuition. This mapping of GN&C theory to Project Management will, in turn, permit a direct, methodical approach to Project Management, planning and control providing a tool to help predict (and guide) performance and an understanding of the project constraints, how the project can be controlled, and the impacts to external influences and inputs. This approach, to a project manager, flows down to the three bottom-line variables of cost, schedule, and scope

  8. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  9. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does. PMID:26096315

  10. Engagement & Disengagement in Mutual-Help Addiction Recovery Housing: A Test of Affective Events Theory

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Christopher R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement and disengagement in addiction recovery settings are important for these communities and their members. This study tested an Affective Events Theory (AET) model of these constructs in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents’ congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents—citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and how intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  11. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory.

  12. Theory and applications survey of decentralized control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nonmathematical overview is presented of trends in the general area of decentralized control strategies which are suitable for hierarchical systems. Advances in decentralized system theory are closely related to advances in the so-called stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools pertaining to the classical stochastic control problem are outlined. Particular attention is devoted to pitfalls in the mathematical problem formulation for decentralized control. Major conclusions are that any purely deterministic approach to multilevel hierarchical dynamic systems is unlikely to lead to realistic theories or designs, that the flow of measurements and decisions in a decentralized system should not be instantaneous and error-free, and that delays in information exchange in a decentralized system lead to reasonable approaches to decentralized control. A mathematically precise notion of aggregating information is not yet available.

  13. Personality and racial/ethnic relations: a perspective from Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Goldman-Flythe, Michelle

    2009-10-01

    The five articles in this special section examine personality and racial/ethnic relations from the perspective of Mischel and Shoda's Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory. In this introductory piece, we first provide a primer on CAPS theory. In particular, we try to highlight the role that context plays in the construction and manifestation of personality as well as the dynamic ways that people interpret and react to input from their environment. We then review research on race-based rejection sensitivity as a programmatic illustration of the role expectancies play in racial/ethnic relations. Finally, we summarize and tie together the articles that comprise this section via a set of emergent themes that are common to the present contributions.

  14. Theory of the control of structures by low authority controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The novel idea presented is based on the observation that if a structure is controlled by distributed systems of sensors and actuators with limited authority, i.e., if the controller is allowed to modify only moderately the natural modes and frequencies of the structure, then it should be possible to apply root perturbation techniques to predict analytically the behavior of the total system. Attention is given to the root perturbation formula first derived by Jacobi for infinitesimal perturbations which neglect the induced eigenvector perturbation, a more general form of Jacobi's formula, first-order structural equations and modal state vectors, state-space equations for damper-augmented structures, and modal damping prediction formulas.

  15. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in affective theory of mind deficits in criminal offenders with psychopathic tendencies.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Harari, Hagai; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with psychopathy show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as lack of emotional responsiveness to others and deficient empathy. However, there are controversies regarding these individuals theory of mind (ToM) abilities and the neuroanatomical basis of their aberrant social behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that impairment in the emotional aspects of ToM (affective ToM) rather than general ToM abilities may account for the impaired social behavior observed in psychopathy and that this pattern of performance may be associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. To assess the emotional and cognitive aspects of ToM we used a task that examines affective versus cognitive ToM processing in separate conditions. ToM abilities of criminal offender diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder with high psychopathy features were compared to that of participants with localized lesions in the OFC or dorsolateral, participants with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Individuals with psychopathy and those with OFC lesions were impaired on the 'affective ToM' conditions but not in cognitive ToM conditions, compared to the control groups. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in psychopathy resembles remarkably that seen in participants with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with OFC damage, providing support for the notion of amygdala-OFC dysfunction in psychopathy. PMID:19501818

  16. Ideology, affect, semiotics: towards a non-personal theory of personality.

    PubMed

    Larocco, Steve

    2014-06-01

    Personality theories, as Giordano (2014) argues, often treat Western versions of the self as having universal import. Eastern notions of self, however, offer a dramatically different basis for thinking about what personality might be. This paper, nonetheless, seeks to offer a general framework for theorizing about the epiphenomenon of personality in any culture, asserting that it is an effect of specific histories of ideological practices, semiotic networks and systems, and affect, which engage each other in dialogic and dialectical ways. The interactions of these factors, guided by ideology, regularize behavior and affective dynamics, largely in non-personal ways. Subjects are produced and reproduced from these complex interactions, which are situationally specific and simultaneously transpersonal. The subjects formed through these interactions are the basis for the folk psychology of personality, which treats the transient, varying effects of these interactions as more or less reified qualities that form a basis for the construction of selfhood, however conceived. PMID:24532354

  17. Ideology, affect, semiotics: towards a non-personal theory of personality.

    PubMed

    Larocco, Steve

    2014-06-01

    Personality theories, as Giordano (2014) argues, often treat Western versions of the self as having universal import. Eastern notions of self, however, offer a dramatically different basis for thinking about what personality might be. This paper, nonetheless, seeks to offer a general framework for theorizing about the epiphenomenon of personality in any culture, asserting that it is an effect of specific histories of ideological practices, semiotic networks and systems, and affect, which engage each other in dialogic and dialectical ways. The interactions of these factors, guided by ideology, regularize behavior and affective dynamics, largely in non-personal ways. Subjects are produced and reproduced from these complex interactions, which are situationally specific and simultaneously transpersonal. The subjects formed through these interactions are the basis for the folk psychology of personality, which treats the transient, varying effects of these interactions as more or less reified qualities that form a basis for the construction of selfhood, however conceived.

  18. How to fly an aircraft with control theory and splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Anders

    1994-01-01

    When trying to fly an aircraft as smoothly as possible it is a good idea to use the derivatives of the pilot command instead of using the actual control. This idea was implemented with splines and control theory, in a system that tries to model an aircraft. Computer calculations in Matlab show that it is impossible to receive enough smooth control signals by this way. This is due to the fact that the splines not only try to approximate the test function, but also its derivatives. A perfect traction is received but we have to pay in very peaky control signals and accelerations.

  19. Approximation in control of flexible structures, theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The sense in which the feedback control law based on an approximate finite dimensional model of a continuous structure approximates a control law which is optimal for the distributed, or infinite dimensional, model of the structure is studied. From the analysis of the various control and stability issues associated with this basis question, useful information for designing finite dimensional compensators which produce near-optimal performance in infinite dimensional systems is gained. Some of the important predictions that can be made about large-order finite dimensional control laws, using the theory of infinite dimensional Riccati equations are indicated.

  20. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-10-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs-namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040)-to suppress Botrytis cinerea infections. Microbial communities of differentially treated leaves were analyzed using plate counts and pyrosequencing and compared with the microbial community of nontreated leaves. Plate count results indicate that the applied Bacillus and Trichoderma spp. survived in the strawberry phyllosphere throughout the strawberry season. However, no significant impacts on the leaf microbiota could be detected by this culture-dependent technique. Pyrosequencing of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal RNA and 16S RNA sequences revealed a change in fungal composition and diversity at class level after the introduction of T. harzianum T22 to the phyllosphere, whereas the bacterial composition and diversity was not affected by either this Trichoderma preparation or the other two BCAs. Our results suggest that pyrosequencing represents a useful method for studying microbial interactions in the phyllosphere. PMID:24020904

  1. Local control theory in trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we extend the implementation of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory in an external field described in Tavernelli et al.[Phys. Rev. A 81, 052508 (2010)] by calculating on-the-fly pulses to control the population transfer between electronic states using local control theory. Using Tully's fewest switches trajectory surface hopping method, we perform MD to control the photoexcitation of LiF and compare the results to quantum dynamics (QD) calculations performed within the Heidelberg multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree package. We show that this approach is able to calculate a field that controls the population transfer between electronic states. The calculated field is in good agreement with that obtained from QD, and the differences that arise are discussed in detail.

  2. Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D.; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2012-01-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another’s thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

  3. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD.

  4. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD. PMID:27173657

  5. Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-07-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

  6. Glancing and Then Looking: On the Role of Body, Affect, and Meaning in Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li; Bowman, Howard; Barnard, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, there is a trade-off between the need to respond optimally to the salient environmental stimuli and the need to meet our long-term goals. This implies that a system of salience sensitive control exists, which trades task-directed processing off against monitoring and responding to potentially high salience stimuli that are irrelevant to the current task. Much cognitive control research has attempted to understand these mechanisms using non-affective stimuli. However, recent research has emphasized the importance of emotions, which are a major factor in the prioritization of competing stimuli and in directing attention. While relatively mature theories of cognitive control exist for non-affective settings, exactly how emotions modulate cognitive processes is less well understood. The attentional blink (AB) task is a useful experimental paradigm to reveal the dynamics of both cognitive and affective control in humans. Hence, we have developed the glance–look model, which has replicated a broad profile of data on the semantic AB task and characterized how attentional deployment is modulated by emotion. Taking inspiration from Barnard’s Interacting Cognitive Subsystems, the model relies on a distinction between two levels of meaning: implicational and propositional, which are supported by two corresponding mental subsystems: the glance and the look respectively. In our model, these two subsystems reflect the central engine of cognitive control and executive function. In particular, the interaction within the central engine dynamically establishes a task filter for salient stimuli using a neurobiologically inspired learning mechanism. In addition, the somatic contribution of emotional effects is modeled by a body-state subsystem. We argue that stimulus-driven interaction among these three subsystems governs the movement of control between them. The model also predicts attenuation effects and fringe awareness during the AB. PMID:22194729

  7. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  8. Control theory and splines, applied to signature storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enqvist, Per

    1994-01-01

    In this report the problem we are going to study is the interpolation of a set of points in the plane with the use of control theory. We will discover how different systems generate different kinds of splines, cubic and exponential, and investigate the effect that the different systems have on the tracking problems. Actually we will see that the important parameters will be the two eigenvalues of the control matrix.

  9. The impact of maternal control on children's anxious cognitions, behaviours and affect: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy

    2010-10-01

    Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety.

  10. A Control Theory Solution to Optimal Faculty Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Stephen M.; And Others

    This study investigates the resource allocation problem of faculty hiring and promotion patterns using the techniques of optimal control theory. The mathematical structure of an academic faculty is described by a linear dynamic model whose parameters were estimated from actual data by two different techniques. The principal characteristics of the…

  11. Integrated control-system design via generalized LQG (GLQG) theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Hyland, David C.; Richter, Stephen; Haddad, Wassim M.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty years of control systems research has produced an enormous body of theoretical results in feedback synthesis. Yet such results see relatively little practical application, and there remains an unsettling gap between classical single-loop techniques (Nyquist, Bode, root locus, pole placement) and modern multivariable approaches (LQG and H infinity theory). Large scale, complex systems, such as high performance aircraft and flexible space structures, now demand efficient, reliable design of multivariable feedback controllers which optimally tradeoff performance against modeling accuracy, bandwidth, sensor noise, actuator power, and control law complexity. A methodology is described which encompasses numerous practical design constraints within a single unified formulation. The approach, which is based upon coupled systems or modified Riccati and Lyapunov equations, encompasses time-domain linear-quadratic-Gaussian theory and frequency-domain H theory, as well as classical objectives such as gain and phase margin via the Nyquist circle criterion. In addition, this approach encompasses the optimal projection approach to reduced-order controller design. The current status of the overall theory will be reviewed including both continuous-time and discrete-time (sampled-data) formulations.

  12. A Path Analytic Examination of Differential Social Control Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ried, L. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Used path analytic techniques to analyze differential social control theory as predictor of drug use among fifth-eighth grade students (N=860). Found that peer non-use expectations had largest effect on drug use and were directly influenced by parental, peer, and school attachments. (Author/CM)

  13. Research on two different mathematical theories on control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-E.; Wang, Tuo; Pang, Xue-Min; Huang, Yong-Xuan; Li, Ji-Sheng

    2008-12-01

    With a brand-new theory, this paper not only provides the differences of attributes in concept, formula expression and function type between fuzzy rough sets and probability statistics, but also introduces their differences in algorithms on target control for better solving the control problem. Some new definitions and theorems concerning fuzzy rough sets and probability statistics are given, but this paper mainly makes a comparison of two control algorithms for the target tracking. The simulation results show that the comprehensive performance of the fuzzy rough sets algorithm is better than that of the probability statistics algorithm, but its control effect is not as good as that of the latter on multisensor target control. Finally, some problems concerning the combination of fuzzy rough sets and the probability statistics phenomenon to be solved and development trends are discussed. By these investigations, we can choose the optimal control algorithms for accomplishing better target control.

  14. Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.

  15. Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.

  16. Control theory based airfoil design using the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony; Reuther, James

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using the potential flow equation with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. The goal of our present work is to extend the development to treat the Euler equations in two-dimensions by procedures that can readily be generalized to treat complex shapes in three-dimensions. Therefore, we have developed methods which can address airfoil design through either an analytic mapping or an arbitrary grid perturbation method applied to a finite volume discretization of the Euler equations. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented for both the inverse problem and drag minimization problem.

  17. An application of artificial intelligence theory to reconfigurable flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handelman, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques were used along with statistical hpyothesis testing and modern control theory, to help the pilot cope with the issues of information, knowledge, and capability in the event of a failure. An intelligent flight control system is being developed which utilizes knowledge of cause and effect relationships between all aircraft components. It will screen the information available to the pilots, supplement his knowledge, and most importantly, utilize the remaining flight capability of the aircraft following a failure. The list of failure types the control system will accommodate includes sensor failures, actuator failures, and structural failures.

  18. Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory.

    PubMed

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2005-09-01

    Internal models and adaptive controls are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models' architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods, such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning, are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of a Luenberger observer and an extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems-such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity-is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal models in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future.

  19. Optimal preview game theory approach to vehicle stability controller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaddoni, Seyed Hossein; Taheri, Saied; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic game theory brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimisation behaviour, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In the presented methodology, vehicle stability is represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely the driver and the direct yaw controller (DYC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the DYC control algorithm is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degrees-of-freedom vehicle-handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. To evaluate the developed control algorithm, CarSim with its built-in nonlinear vehicle model along with the Pacejka tire model is used. The control algorithm is evaluated for a lane change manoeuvre, and the optimal set of steering angle and corrective yaw moment is calculated and fed to the test vehicle. Simulation results show that the optimal preview control algorithm can significantly reduce lateral velocity, yaw rate, and roll angle, which all contribute to enhancing vehicle stability.

  20. Intelligent control based on fuzzy logic and neural net theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    In the conception and design of intelligent systems, one promising direction involves the use of fuzzy logic and neural network theory to enhance such systems' capability to learn from experience and adapt to changes in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. Here, an intelligent control scheme is explored by integrating these multidisciplinary techniques. A self-learning system is proposed as an intelligent controller for dynamical processes, employing a control policy which evolves and improves automatically. One key component of the intelligent system is a fuzzy logic-based system which emulates human decision making behavior. It is shown that the system can solve a fairly difficult control learning problem. Simulation results demonstrate that improved learning performance can be achieved in relation to previously described systems employing bang-bang control. The proposed system is relatively insensitive to variations in the parameters of the system environment.

  1. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health.

  2. Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

    2006-09-01

    Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. PMID:16782230

  3. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health. PMID:15276314

  4. Quantum optimal control theory in the linear response formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Alberto; Tokatly, I. V.

    2011-09-15

    Quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) aims at finding an external field that drives a quantum system in such a way that optimally achieves some predefined target. In practice, this normally means optimizing the value of some observable, a so-called merit function. In consequence, a key part of the theory is a set of equations, which provides the gradient of the merit function with respect to parameters that control the shape of the driving field. We show that these equations can be straightforwardly derived using the standard linear response theory, only requiring a minor generalization: the unperturbed Hamiltonian is allowed to be time dependent. As a result, the aforementioned gradients are identified with certain response functions. This identification leads to a natural reformulation of QOCT in terms of the Keldysh contour formalism of the quantum many-body theory. In particular, the gradients of the merit function can be calculated using the diagrammatic technique for nonequilibrium Green's functions, which should be helpful in the application of QOCT to computationally difficult many-electron problems.

  5. Affiliation and control in marital interaction: interpersonal complementarity is present but is not associated with affect or relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Butner, Jonathan; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Nealey-Moore, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory states that an actor's behavior tends to "pull, elicit, invite, or evoke" responses from interaction partners who are similar in affiliation (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) and opposite in control (i.e., dominance vs. submissiveness). Furthermore, complementary interactions are proposed to evoke less negative affect and promote greater relationship satisfaction. These predictions were examined in two studies of married couples. Results suggest that complementarity in affiliation describes a robust general pattern of marital interaction, but complementarity in control varies across contexts. Consistent with behavioral models of marital interaction, greater levels of affiliation and lower control by partners-not complementarity in affiliation or control-were associated with less anger and anxiety and greater relationship quality. Partners' levels of affiliation and control combined in ways other than complementarity-mostly additively, but sometimes synergistically-to predict negative affect and relationship satisfaction.

  6. Affiliation and control in marital interaction: interpersonal complementarity is present but is not associated with affect or relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Butner, Jonathan; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Nealey-Moore, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory states that an actor's behavior tends to "pull, elicit, invite, or evoke" responses from interaction partners who are similar in affiliation (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) and opposite in control (i.e., dominance vs. submissiveness). Furthermore, complementary interactions are proposed to evoke less negative affect and promote greater relationship satisfaction. These predictions were examined in two studies of married couples. Results suggest that complementarity in affiliation describes a robust general pattern of marital interaction, but complementarity in control varies across contexts. Consistent with behavioral models of marital interaction, greater levels of affiliation and lower control by partners-not complementarity in affiliation or control-were associated with less anger and anxiety and greater relationship quality. Partners' levels of affiliation and control combined in ways other than complementarity-mostly additively, but sometimes synergistically-to predict negative affect and relationship satisfaction. PMID:25367005

  7. A Simplified Theory of Coupled Oscillator Array Phase Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; York, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Linear and planar arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of achieving high power rf sources through coherent spatial power combining. In such - applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Notable among these are linear phase distributions resulting in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the operation of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. This has made it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the impact of oscillator tuning on phase control and has thus impeded practical application. In this work a simpl!fied theory is developed which facilitates intuitive understanding by establishing an analog of the phase control problem in terms of electrostatics.

  8. Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed.

  9. Toward a Theory and Practice for Whole-Person Learning: Reconceptualizing Experience and the Role of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Kasl, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A pragmatic perspective favors reflective discourse over affect. Heron's theory of personhood takes a phenomenological approach to affective learning. Strategies from this approach can be applied to the phenomenon of learning-within-relationship, in which individuals engage their own whole-person learning and that of others. (Contains 36…

  10. Stochastic resonance-a nonlinear control theory interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repperger, D. W.; Farris, K. A.

    2010-07-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is an effect that has been known (Benzi, R., Sutera, A., and Vulpiani, A. (1981), 'The Mechanism of Stochastic Resonance', Journal of Physics, A14, L453-L457) for almost three decades and has been extensively studied in biology, statistics, signal processing and in numerous other eclectic areas (Wiesenfeld, K., and Moss, F. (1995), 'Stochastic Resonance and the Benefits of Noise: From Ice Ages to Crayfish and Squids', Nature, 373, 33-36). Herein, a nonlinear control theory analysis is conducted on how to better understand the class of systems that may exhibit the SR effect. Using nonlinear control theory methods, equilibrium points are manipulated to create the SR response (similar to shaping dynamical response in a phase plane). From this approach, a means of synthesising and designing the appropriate class of nonlinear systems is introduced. New types of nonlinear dynamics that demonstrate the SR effects are discovered, which may have utility in control theory as well as in many diverse applications. A numerical simulation illustrates some powerful attributes of these systems.

  11. A Theory of Cheap Control in Embodied Systems

    PubMed Central

    Montúfar, Guido; Ghazi-Zahedi, Keyan; Ay, Nihat

    2015-01-01

    We present a framework for designing cheap control architectures of embodied agents. Our derivation is guided by the classical problem of universal approximation, whereby we explore the possibility of exploiting the agent’s embodiment for a new and more efficient universal approximation of behaviors generated by sensorimotor control. This embodied universal approximation is compared with the classical non-embodied universal approximation. To exemplify our approach, we present a detailed quantitative case study for policy models defined in terms of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines. In contrast to non-embodied universal approximation, which requires an exponential number of parameters, in the embodied setting we are able to generate all possible behaviors with a drastically smaller model, thus obtaining cheap universal approximation. We test and corroborate the theory experimentally with a six-legged walking machine. The experiments indicate that the controller complexity predicted by our theory is close to the minimal sufficient value, which means that the theory has direct practical implications. PMID:26325254

  12. Adaptive dynamic programming as a theory of sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Many characteristics of sensorimotor control can be explained by models based on optimization and optimal control theories. However, most of the previous models assume that the central nervous system has access to the precise knowledge of the sensorimotor system and its interacting environment. This viewpoint is difficult to be justified theoretically and has not been convincingly validated by experiments. To address this problem, this paper presents a new computational mechanism for sensorimotor control from a perspective of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP), which shares some features of reinforcement learning. The ADP-based model for sensorimotor control suggests that a command signal for the human movement is derived directly from the real-time sensory data, without the need to identify the system dynamics. An iterative learning scheme based on the proposed ADP theory is developed, along with rigorous convergence analysis. Interestingly, the computational model as advocated here is able to reproduce the motor learning behavior observed in experiments where a divergent force field or velocity-dependent force field was present. In addition, this modeling strategy provides a clear way to perform stability analysis of the overall system. Hence, we conjecture that human sensorimotor systems use an ADP-type mechanism to control movements and to achieve successful adaptation to uncertainties present in the environment.

  13. Adaptive dynamic programming as a theory of sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Many characteristics of sensorimotor control can be explained by models based on optimization and optimal control theories. However, most of the previous models assume that the central nervous system has access to the precise knowledge of the sensorimotor system and its interacting environment. This viewpoint is difficult to be justified theoretically and has not been convincingly validated by experiments. To address this problem, this paper presents a new computational mechanism for sensorimotor control from a perspective of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP), which shares some features of reinforcement learning. The ADP-based model for sensorimotor control suggests that a command signal for the human movement is derived directly from the real-time sensory data, without the need to identify the system dynamics. An iterative learning scheme based on the proposed ADP theory is developed, along with rigorous convergence analysis. Interestingly, the computational model as advocated here is able to reproduce the motor learning behavior observed in experiments where a divergent force field or velocity-dependent force field was present. In addition, this modeling strategy provides a clear way to perform stability analysis of the overall system. Hence, we conjecture that human sensorimotor systems use an ADP-type mechanism to control movements and to achieve successful adaptation to uncertainties present in the environment. PMID:24962078

  14. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  15. Factors That Affect Patient Attitudes toward Infection Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated patient attitudes toward different disease control measures taken in dental school clinics (n=272 patients) and private practices (n=107 patients). Variables examined included sex, age, educational background, and knowledge of infectious diseases. Patients tended to accept the control measures being used in each context. (MSE)

  16. Serotonin Affects Movement Gain Control in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K.; Stevenson, Ian H.; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input–output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

  17. Visceral obesity and psychosocial stress: a generalised control theory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-07-01

    The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive - and likely unsustainable - public policy.

  18. Control of resistance plug welding using quantitative feedback theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, A.E.; Horowitz, I. ||; Chait, Y.; Rodrigues, J.

    1996-12-01

    Resistance welding is used extensively throughout the manufacturing industry. Variations in weld quality often result in costly post-weld inspections. Applications of feed-back control to such processes have been limited by the lack of accurate models describing the nonlinear dynamics of this process. A new system based on electrode displacement feedback is developed that greatly improves quality control of the resistance plug welding process. The system is capable of producing repeatable welds of consistent displacement (and thus consistent quality), with wide variations in weld parameters. This paper describes the feedback design of a robust controller using Quantitative Feedback Theory for this highly complex process, and the experimental results of the applied system.

  19. A Theory and Model of Conflict Detection in Air Traffic Control: Incorporating Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S.; Neal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a model that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to…

  20. Applying Motor-Control Theory to Physical Therapy Practice: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Mary T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This case report describes the application of an integrated, systems-based theory of motor control to physical therapy practice. Client Description: The patient was a 5-year-old boy with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy who was entering kindergarten. Parent concerns related to the child's safety in playground activities such as playing on the slide. Interventions: Motor-control theory, including factors related to the task, the environment, and the individual, was used to guide and direct physical therapy management related to the patient goal of safely and effectively climbing the ladder to the playground slide. Patient Outcomes: When the child entered kindergarten, he was able to safely ascend the ladder to the playground slide, using a modified movement pattern, when distractions were minimized. However, attentional issues continued to affect task execution when other children were present. Implications: This case report demonstrates a means by which current knowledge and theory can be integrated into clinical practice. Future Directions: Applying motor-control theory to this case led to the development of clinical questions for future research. PMID:22654241

  1. Beneficial Microbes Affect Endogenous Mechanisms Controlling Root Development.

    PubMed

    Verbon, Eline H; Liberman, Louisa M

    2016-03-01

    Plants have incredible developmental plasticity, enabling them to respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. Among these conditions is the presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the soil. Recent studies show that PGPR affect Arabidopsis thaliana root growth and development by modulating cell division and differentiation in the primary root and influencing lateral root development. These effects lead to dramatic changes in root system architecture that significantly impact aboveground plant growth. Thus, PGPR may promote shoot growth via their effect on root developmental programs. This review focuses on contextualizing root developmental changes elicited by PGPR in light of our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and root developmental biology.

  2. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  3. Application of nonlinear feedback control theory to supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.

    1991-01-01

    Controlled flight at extremely high angles of attack, far exceeding the stall angle, and/or at high angular rates is sometimes referred to as supermaneuvering flight. The objective was to examine methods for design of control laws for aircraft performing supermaneuvers. Since the equations which govern the motion of aircraft during supermaneuvers are nonlinear, this study concentrated on nonlinear control law design procedures. The two nonlinear techniques considered were Nonlinear Quadratic Regulator (NLQR) theory and nonlinear dynamic inversion. A conventional gain scheduled proportional plus integral (P + I) controller was also developed to serve as a baseline design typical of current control laws used in aircraft. A mathematical model of a generic supermaneuverable aircraft was developed from data obtained from the literature. A detailed computer simulation of the aircraft was also developed. This simulation allowed the flying of proposed supermaneuvers and was used to evaluate the performance of the control law designs and to generate linearized models of the aircraft at different flight conditions.

  4. Polymorphic Regions Affecting Human Height Also Control Stature in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Jennie E.; Hayes, Ben J.; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Orthologous positions of 55 genes associated with height in four human populations were located on the bovine genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms close to eight of these genes were significantly associated with stature in cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). This suggests that these genes may contribute to controlling stature across mammalian species. PMID:21212230

  5. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  6. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  7. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings.

  8. Interactive image segmentation framework based on control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Ratner, Vadim; Karasev, Peter; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical imagery is a key step in a variety of clinical applications. Designing a generic, automated method that works for various structures and imaging modalities is a daunting task. Instead of proposing a new specific segmentation algorithm, in this paper, we present a general design principle on how to integrate user interactions from the perspective of control theory. In this formulation, Lyapunov stability analysis is employed to design an interactive segmentation system. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated.

  9. Not that Different in Theory: Discussing the Control-Value Theory of Emotions in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary investigates the extent to which the control-value theory of emotions (Pekrun, 2006) is applicable in online learning environments. Four empirical studies in this special issue of "The Internet and Higher Education" explicitly used the control-value theory as their theoretical framework and several others have components of the…

  10. Guilty pleasures and grim necessities: affective attitudes in dilemmas of self-control.

    PubMed

    Giner-Sorolla, R

    2001-02-01

    Do self-control situations pit controlled reason against impulsive emotion, or do some emotions support the controlled choice? A pilot study of self-control attitudes found ambivalence between hedonic affect associated with short-term perspectives and self-conscious affect associated with the long term. In Study 1, negative self-conscious affect accompanied higher self-control among delayed-cost dilemmas ("guilty pleasures") but not delayed-benefit dilemmas ("grim necessities"). Study 2 showed that hedonic affect was more accessible than was self-conscious affect, but this difference was less among high self-control dilemmas. In Study 3, unobtrusively primed self-conscious emotion words caused dieters to eat less if the emotions were negative, more if positive. Hedonic positive and negative emotion words had the opposite effect. Self-conscious emotional associations, then, can support self-control if brought to mind before the chance to act.

  11. Processes Controlling Temporal Changes in Agriculturally-Affected Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, K. R.; Belitz, K.; Jurgens, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey includes assessment of groundwater-quality changes with time. To better understand changes at a national scale, NAWQA has implemented smaller scale flow-path studies to evaluate the processes affecting these changes. Flow path studies are designed to sample groundwater of different ages. Wells are sampled for a suite of constituents, including tracers of groundwater age. In the 1990s, a 4.6 km transect of monitoring wells was installed near Fresno in the southern Central Valley of California. The region is dominated by intensive agriculture. The wells were sampled in 1994-95, 2003, and 2013 to provide data on changes in water quality and groundwater age. In 2013, the flow path was extended to a regional scale (30 km) by using existing production wells. Preliminary interpretation of the local-scale flow path indicates that nitrate concentrations in the upper 25 m of the aquifer are higher than the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water and variably increase or decrease with time. At intermediate depths (25-40 m), nitrate concentrations are lower and show small to moderate increases. The legacy pesticide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) is degrading at a half-life of about 4-6 years. DBCP is present above the MCL at intermediate depths even though it is has been banned from use for more than 30 years. Both nitrate and DBCP appear to be moving vertically downward through the aquifer. Whereas uranium concentrations are generally below the MCL in the local-scale flow path, concentrations increase along the regional transect, with concentrations nearly an order of magnitude above the MCL in some wells. Further evaluation of processes affecting these constituents (such as source, redox, and mobilization factors) will provide important insight that can be applied to other regions and will assist local water managers.

  12. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  13. Rodent control programmes in areas affected by Bolivian haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Mercado R., Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (BHF) caused by Machupo virus is acquired by contact with the excretions and secretions of Calomys callosus, an indigenous cricetine rodent which is preadapted to peridomestic habitats. It competes successfully with Mus musculus, but not with Rattus rattus. A successful disease control programme has functioned in Beni Department since 1964. It is based on trapping surveys and the detection of splenomegaly in Calomys rodents as an index of chronic virus infection. Mass trapping and poisoning are used initially, and regular trapping is employed to control Calomys populations in towns where disease has occurred. More than 1000 cases of BHF were recorded from 1960-1964, but less than 200 in the past 10 years. The cost of this programme is approximately $30 000 annually. PMID:182405

  14. Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but controversial assumptions regarding…

  15. Investigating friendship quality: an exploration of self-control and social control theories' friendship hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Boman, John H; Krohn, Marvin D; Gibson, Chris L; Stogner, John M

    2012-11-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control theories both premise that delinquents will have largely fractured, weak, and "cold and brittle" friendships. This study investigates how variations in perceptions of friendship quality are related to the delinquency, maternal attachment, school attachment, and self-control levels of both a participant and his/her close friend. To explore these relationships, we use a diverse (14% black; 18% Hispanic; 9% Asian) sample of 2,154 emerging adults within 1,077 friendship pairs (66% female). In each dyad, both members perceived the friendship's quality and reported personal markers of delinquency, social bonds, and self-control. Several series of multilevel models are estimated that regress each participant's friendship quality perception onto the participant's and their friend's delinquency, attachments, self-control, and demographic characteristics. Results show that delinquents have as intense, or more intense, friendships as non-delinquents. However, low levels of both actor and partner attachments and self-control are independently related to low friendship quality, and this is especially true for self-control. Supplemental analyses demonstrate that the effect of self-control on friendship quality may be reduced when individuals in dyads are delinquent. In conclusion, studies that address friendship quality without including characteristics of multiple members of the friendship are only capturing part of one's estimate of friendship quality.

  16. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  17. Happiness as a motivator: positive affect predicts primary control striving for career and educational goals.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Poulin, Michael J; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2012-08-01

    What motivates individuals to invest time and effort and overcome obstacles (i.e., strive for primary control) when pursuing important goals? We propose that positive affect predicts primary control striving for career and educational goals, and we explore the mediating role of control beliefs. In Study 1, positive affect predicted primary control striving for career goals in a two-wave longitudinal study of a U.S. sample. In Study 2, positive affect predicted primary control striving for career and educational goals and objective career outcomes in a six-wave longitudinal study of a German sample. Control beliefs partially mediated the longitudinal associations with primary control striving. Thus, when individuals experience positive affect, they become more motivated to invest time and effort, and overcome obstacles when pursuing their goals, in part because they believe they have more control over attaining their goals. PMID:22569224

  18. Exploring New Dimensions of Mathematics-Related Affect: Embodied and Social Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical approaches for research on mathematics-related affect from the 1990s until today. In order to organise this field, a metatheory of the affective domain is developed, based on distinctions along three dimensions: 1) cognitive, motivational and emotional aspects of affect; 2) rapidly changing affective states…

  19. Gender affects sympathetic neurovascular control during postural stress.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Hughson, R L; Sinoway, L I

    2002-07-01

    Sympathetic outflow increases during head-up tilt (HUT) to stabilize blood pressure in the presence of decreases in venous return and stroke volume (SV). Otherwise, orthostatic hypotension would develop. Gender differences in orthostatic tolerance have been noted but the mechanisms are still uncertain. More recently, Waters et al. reported in a limited sample, greater susceptibility of women to demonstrate orthostatic intolerance following space flight. Therefore, it is important to understand gender differences in reflex blood pressure regulation. Recently, we reported smaller increments in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy women during graded HUT and a non-baroreflex cold pressor test. The purpose of this report is to examine the hypothesis that gender differences in blood pressure control during HUT are related to important variations in MSNA discharge patterns.

  20. How aneuploidy affects metabolic control and causes cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasnick, D; Duesberg, P H

    1999-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of cancer-specific phenotypes, including de-differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis, abnormal morphology and metabolism, genetic instability and progression to malignancy, have so far eluded explanation by a simple, coherent hypothesis. However, an adaptation of Metabolic Control Analysis supports the 100-year-old hypothesis that aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, is the cause of cancer. The results demonstrate the currently counter-intuitive principle that it is the fraction of the genome undergoing differential expression, not the magnitude of the differential expression, that controls phenotypic transformation. Transforming the robust normal phenotype into cancer requires a twofold increase in the expression of thousands of normal gene products. The massive change in gene dose produces highly non-linear (i.e. qualitative) changes in the physiology and metabolism of cells and tissues. Since aneuploidy disrupts the natural balance of mitosis proteins, it also explains the notorious genetic instability of cancer cells as a consequence of the perpetual regrouping of chromosomes. In view of this and the existence of non-cancerous aneuploidy, we propose that cancer is the phenotype of cells above a certain threshold of aneuploidy. This threshold is reached either by the gradual, stepwise increase in the level of aneuploidy as a consequence of the autocatalysed genetic instability of aneuploid cells or by tetraploidization followed by a gradual loss of chromosomes. Thus the initiation step of carcinogenesis produces aneuploidy below the threshold for cancer, and the promotion step increases the level of aneuploidy above this threshold. We conclude that aneuploidy offers a simple and coherent explanation for all the cancer-specific phenotypes. Accordingly, the gross biochemical abnormalities, abnormal cellular size and morphology, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, the high levels of secreted proteins responsible for

  1. Sustainable ecosystem management using optimal control theory: part 1 (deterministic systems).

    PubMed

    Shastri, Y; Diwekar, U

    2006-08-01

    The concept of sustainability, an abstract one by its nature, has been given a mathematical representation through the use of Fisher information as a measure. It is used to propose the sustainability hypotheses for dynamical systems, which has paved the way to achieve sustainable development through externally enforced control schemes. For natural systems, this refers to the task of ecosystem management, which is complicated due the lack of clear objectives. This work attempts to incorporate the idea of sustainability in ecosystem management. The natural regulation of ecosystems suggests two possible control options, top-down control and bottom-up control. A comparison of these two control philosophies is made on generic food chain models using the objectives derived from the sustainability hypotheses. Optimal control theory is used to derive the control profiles to handle the complex nature of the models and the objectives. The results indicate a strong relationship between the hypotheses and the dynamic behavior of the models, supporting the use of Fisher information as a measure. As regards to ecosystem management, it has been observed that top-down control is more aggressive but can result in instability, while bottom-up control is guaranteed to give a stable and improved dynamic response. The results also indicate that bottom-up control is a better option to affect shifts in the dynamic regimes of a system, which may be required to recover the system from a natural disaster like the hurricane Katrina.

  2. Controller design approaches for large space structures using LQG control theory. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents several approaches for the design of reduced order controllers for large space structures. These approaches are shown to be based on LQG control theory and include truncation, modified truncation regulators and estimators, use of higher order estimators, selective modal suppression, and use of polynomial estimators. Further, the use of direct sensor feedback, as opposed to a state estimator, is investigated for some of these approaches. Finally, numerical results are given for a long free beam.

  3. EDITORIAL: Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David

    2011-08-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance

  4. Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: a randomized controlled trial in women.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Minderico, Cláudia S; Matos, Margarida G; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2010-04-01

    Behavior change interventions are effective to the extent that they affect appropriately-measured outcomes, especially in experimental controlled trials. The primary goal of this study was to analyze the impact of a 1-year weight management intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) on theory-based psychosocial mediators, physical activity/exercise, and body weight and composition. Participants were 239 women (37.6 +/- 7.1 years; 31.5 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2)) who received either an intervention focused on promoting autonomous forms of exercise regulation and intrinsic motivation, or a general health education program (controls). At 12 months, the intervention group showed increased weight loss (-7.29%,) and higher levels of physical activity/exercise (+138 +/- 26 min/day of moderate plus vigorous exercise; +2,049 +/- 571 steps/day), compared to controls (P < 0.001). Main intervention targets such as more autonomous self-regulation (for treatment and for exercise) and a more autonomous perceived treatment climate revealed large effect sizes (between 0.80 and .96), favoring intervention (P < 0.001). Results suggest that interventions grounded in SDT can be successfully implemented in the context of weight management, enhancing the internalization of more autonomous forms of behavioral regulation, and facilitating exercise adherence, while producing clinically-significant weight reduction, when compared to a control condition. Findings are fully consistent with previous studies conducted within this theoretical framework in other areas of health behavior change.

  5. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  6. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  7. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion. PMID:20876879

  8. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion.

  9. Affective modulation of the startle reflex and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality: The role of sensitivity to reward.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Blanco, Eduardo; Balada, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated differences in the amplitude of startle reflex and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) personality variables of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). We hypothesized that subjects with higher scores in SR would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to pleasant pictures than lower scores, while higher scores in SP would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to unpleasant pictures than subjects with lower scores in this dimension. The sample consisted of 112 healthy female undergraduate psychology students. Personality was assessed using the short version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Laboratory anxiety was controlled by the State Anxiety Inventory. The startle blink reflex was recorded electromyographically (EMG) from the right orbicularis oculi muscle as a response to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Subjects higher in SR obtained a significant higher startle reflex response in pleasant pictures than lower scorers (48.48 vs 46.28, p<0.012). Subjects with higher scores in SP showed a light tendency of higher startle responses in unpleasant pictures in a non-parametric local regression graphical analysis (LOESS). The findings shed light on the relationships among the impulsive-disinhibited personality, including sensitivity to reward and emotions evoked through pictures of emotional content.

  10. Affective and cognitive attitudes, uncertainty avoidance and intention to obtain genetic testing: an extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Katharina; Nordin, Karin; Brun, Wibecke; Berglund, Gunilla; Kvale, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    To ensure successful implementation of genetic screening and counselling according to patients best interests, the attitudes and motives of the public are important to consider. The aim of this study was to apply a theoretical framework in order to investigate which individual and disease characteristics might facilitate the uptake of genetic testing. A questionnaire using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed to assess the predictive value of affective and cognitive expected outcomes, subjective norms, perceived control and uncertainty avoidance on the intention to undergo genetic testing. In addition to these individual characteristics, the predictive power of two disease characteristics was investigated by systematically varying the diseases fatality and penetrance (i.e. the probability of getting ill in case one is a mutation carrier). This resulted in four versions of the questionnaire which was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Norwegians. Results showed genetic test interest to be quite high, and to vary depending on the characteristics of the disease, with participants preferring tests for highly penetrant diseases. The most important individual predictor was uncertainty avoidance.

  11. Affective modulation of the startle reflex and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality: The role of sensitivity to reward.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Blanco, Eduardo; Balada, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated differences in the amplitude of startle reflex and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) personality variables of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). We hypothesized that subjects with higher scores in SR would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to pleasant pictures than lower scores, while higher scores in SP would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to unpleasant pictures than subjects with lower scores in this dimension. The sample consisted of 112 healthy female undergraduate psychology students. Personality was assessed using the short version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Laboratory anxiety was controlled by the State Anxiety Inventory. The startle blink reflex was recorded electromyographically (EMG) from the right orbicularis oculi muscle as a response to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Subjects higher in SR obtained a significant higher startle reflex response in pleasant pictures than lower scorers (48.48 vs 46.28, p<0.012). Subjects with higher scores in SP showed a light tendency of higher startle responses in unpleasant pictures in a non-parametric local regression graphical analysis (LOESS). The findings shed light on the relationships among the impulsive-disinhibited personality, including sensitivity to reward and emotions evoked through pictures of emotional content. PMID:25447471

  12. Stability theory applications to laminar-flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to design Laminar Flow Control (LFC) configurations, reliable methods are needed for boundary-layer transition predictions. Among the available methods, there are correlations based upon R sub e, shape factors, Goertler number and crossflow Reynolds number. The most advanced transition prediction method is based upon linear stability theory in the form of the e sup N method which has proven to be successful in predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional boundary layers. When transition occurs in a low disturbance environment, the e sup N method provides a viable design tool for transition prediction and LFC in both 2-D and 3-D subsonic/supersonic flows. This is true for transition dominated by either TS, crossflow, or Goertler instability. If Goertler/TS or crossflow/TS interaction is present, the e sup N will fail to predict transition. However, there is no evidence of such interaction at low amplitudes of Goertler and crossflow vortices.

  13. The role of modern control theory in the design of controls for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    The development, applications, and current research in modern control theory (MCT) are reviewed, noting the importance for fuel-efficient operation of turbines with variable inlet guide vanes, compressor stators, and exhaust nozzle area. The evolution of multivariable propulsion control design is examined, noting a basis in a matrix formulation of the differential equations defining the process, leading to state space formulations. Reports and papers which appeared from 1970-1982 which dealt with problems in MCT applications to turbine engine control design are outlined, including works on linear quadratic regulator methods, frequency domain methods, identification, estimation, and model reduction, detection, isolation, and accommodation, and state space control, adaptive control, and optimization approaches. Finally, NASA programs in frequency domain design, sensor failure detection, computer-aided control design, and plant modeling are explored

  14. SimSup's Loop: A Control Theory Approach to Spacecraft Operator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Brandon Dewain; Crocker, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive simulation is a staple of training for many complex system operators, including astronauts and ground operators of spacecraft. However, while much has been written about simulators, simulation facilities, and operator certification programs, the topic of how one develops simulation scenarios to train a spacecraft operator is relatively understated in the literature. In this paper, an approach is presented for using control theory as the basis for developing the immersive simulation scenarios for a spacecraft operator training program. The operator is effectively modeled as a high level controller of lower level hardware and software control loops that affect a select set of system state variables. Simulation scenarios are derived from a STAMP-based hazard analysis of the operator's high and low level control loops. The immersive simulation aspect of the overall training program is characterized by selecting a set of scenarios that expose the operator to the various inadequate control actions that stem from control flaws and inadequate control executions in the different sections of the typical control loop. Results from the application of this approach to the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are provided through an analysis of the simulation scenarios used for operator training and the actual anomalies that occurred during the mission. The simulation scenarios and inflight anomalies are mapped to specific control flaws and inadequate control executions in the different sections of the typical control loop to illustrate the characteristics of anomalies arising from the different sections of the typical control loop (and why it is important for operators to have exposure to these characteristics). Additionally, similarities between the simulation scenarios and inflight anomalies are highlighted to make the case that the simulation scenarios prepared the operators for the mission.

  15. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  16. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    PubMed

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. PMID:25556211

  17. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    PubMed

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

  18. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  19. Stabilization of ultracold molecules using optimal control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2004-07-01

    In recent experiments on ultracold matter, molecules have been produced from ultracold atoms by photoassociation, Feshbach resonances, and three-body recombination. The created molecules are translationally cold, but vibrationally highly excited. This will eventually lead them to be lost from the trap due to collisions. We propose shaped laser pulses to transfer these highly excited molecules to their ground vibrational level. Optimal control theory is employed to find the light field that will carry out this task with minimum intensity. We present results for the sodium dimer. The final target can be reached to within 99% provided the initial guess field is physically motivated. We find that the optimal fields contain the transition frequencies required by a good Franck-Condon pumping scheme. The analysis identifies the ranges of intensity and pulse duration which are able to achieve this task before any other competing processes take place. Such a scheme could produce stable ultracold molecular samples or even stable molecular Bose-Einstein condensates.

  20. Affective Qualities of Sibling Disputes, Mothers' Conflict Attitudes, and Children's Theory of Mind Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Angela C.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2009-01-01

    Preschoolers' theory of mind (ToM) was examined in relation to emotional features of their conflicts with siblings, using mothers as privileged informants. Fifty-four children aged 3 to 5 years and their 54 mothers took part. Children were given 10 standard false belief tasks and a standardized language test. Mothers completed questionnaires,…

  1. Spiking Phineas Gage: A Neurocomputational Theory of Cognitive-Affective Integration in Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagar, Brandon M.; Thagard, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a neurological theory of how cognitive information and emotional information are integrated in the nucleus accumbens during effective decision making. They describe how the nucleus accumbens acts as a gateway to integrate cognitive information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus with emotional…

  2. Some remarks on the current status of the control theory of single space dimension hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Various aspects of the control theory of hyperbolic systems, including controllability, stabilization, control canonical form theory, etc., are reviewed. To allow a unified and not excessively technical treatment, attention is restricted to the case of a single space variable. A newly developed procedure of canonical augmentation is discussed.

  3. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. PMID:26075793

  4. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  5. O the Use of Modern Control Theory for Active Structural Acoustic Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, William Richard

    A modern control theory formulation of Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) of simple structures radiating acoustic energy into light or heavy fluid mediums is discussed in this dissertation. ASAC of a baffled, simply-supported plate subject to mechanical disturbances is investigated. For the case of light fluid loading, a finite element modelling approach is used to extend previous ASAC design methods. Vibration and acoustic controllers are designed for the plate. Comparison of the controller performance shows distinct advantages of the ASAC method for minimizing radiated acoustic power. A novel approach to the modelling of the heavy fluid-loaded plate is developed here. Augmenting structural and acoustic dynamics using state vector formalism allows the design of both vibration and ASAC controllers for the fluid-loaded plate. This modern control approach to active structural acoustic control is unique in its ability to suppress both persistent and transient disturbances on a plate in a heavy fluid. Numerical simulations of the open-loop and closed-loop plate response are provided to support the theoretical developments.

  6. A Theory for Market Impact: How Order Flow Affects Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerig, Austin

    2008-04-01

    It is known that the impact of transactions on stock price (market impact) is a concave function of the size of the order, but there exists little quantitative theory that suggests why this is so. I develop a quantitative theory for the market impact of hidden orders (orders that reflect the true intention of buying and selling) that matches the empirically measured result and that reproduces some of the non-trivial and universal properties of stock returns (returns are percent changes in stock price). The theory is based on a simple premise, that the stock market can be modeled in a mechanical way - as a device that translates order flow into an uncorrelated price stream. Given that order flow is highly autocorrelated, this premise requires that market impact (1) depends on past order flow and (2) is asymmetric for buying and selling. I derive the specific form for the dependence in (1) by assuming that current liquidity responds to information about all currently active hidden orders (liquidity is a measure of the price response to a transaction of a given size). This produces an equation that suggests market impact should scale logarithmically with total order size. Using data from the London Stock Exchange I empirically measure market impact and show that the result matches the theory. Also using empirical data, I qualitatively specify the asymmetry of (2). Putting all results together, I form a model for market impact that reproduces three universal properties of stock returns - that returns are uncorrelated, that returns are distributed with a power law tail, and that the magnitude of returns is highly autocorrelated (also known as clustered volatility).

  7. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  8. Beyond Resource Theory: Another Look at Factors Enabling Women to Affect Family Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Marie LaLiberte

    1976-01-01

    The study concerns the interaction of an equalitarian norm and the wife's contribution of resources with her ability to affect the decision-making and the division of labor in the families of recent Cuban immigrants. The study points up the need to focus on sources of norms as influential factors. (Author)

  9. Affective Expression in Post-Modern Art Education: Theory and Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that encouraging creative self-expression should remain a vital part of the art curriculum. Provides a case study and explains how the art teacher can intervene to engage affective concerns by using appropriate works of art. Concludes that increased resources or recognition in the field should not be reasons to replace a child-centered…

  10. Toddler Inhibitory Control, Bold Response to Novelty, and Positive Affect Predict Externalizing Symptoms in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Kristin A.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Morales, Santiago; Robinson, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Poor inhibitory control and bold-approach have been found to predict the development of externalizing behavior problems in young children. Less research has examined how positive affect may influence the development of externalizing behavior in the context of low inhibitory control and high approach. We used a multimethod approach to examine how observed toddler inhibitory control, bold-approach, and positive affect predicted externalizing outcomes (observed, adult- and self-reported) in additive and interactive ways at the beginning of kindergarten. 24-month-olds (N = 110) participated in a laboratory visit and 84 were followed up in kindergarten for externalizing behaviors. Overall, children who were low in inhibitory control, high in bold-approach, and low in positive affect at 24-months of age were at greater risk for externalizing behaviors during kindergarten. PMID:25018589

  11. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states.

  12. Neurologizing the Psychology of Affects: How Appraisal-Based Constructivism and Basic Emotion Theory Can Coexist.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2007-09-01

    Abundant neurobehavioral data, not discussed by Lisa Feldman Barrett (2006), support the existence of a variety of core emotional operating systems in ancient subneocortical regions of the brain (Panksepp, 1998a, 2005a). Such brain systems are the primary-process ancestral birthrights of all mammals. There may be as many genetically and neurochemically coded subcortical affect systems in emotionally rich medial regions of the brain as there are "natural" emotional action systems in the brain. When emotional primes are aroused directly, as with local electrical or chemical stimulation, the affective changes sustain conditioned place preferences and place aversions, which are the premier secondary-process indices of affective states in animals. Humans are not immune to such brain manipulations; they typically exhibit strong emotional feelings. Human emotion researchers should not ignore these systems and simply look at the complex and highly variable culturally molded manifestations of emotions in humans if they wish to determine what kinds of "natural" emotional processes exist within all mammalian brain. Basic emotion science has generated workable epistemological strategies for under-standing the primal sources of human emotional feelings by detailed study of emotional circuits in our fellow animals.

  13. Neuroathesetics and growing interest in "positive affect" in psychiatry: new evidence and prospects for the theory of informational needs.

    PubMed

    Branković, Saša

    2013-06-01

    What are the necessary and sufficient conditions to experience pleasure in interpersonal communication and dealing with art, science, and philosophy - this is what the theory of informational needs (TIN) suggested eleven years ago is about. At the same time, at the beginning of this century, several lines of research have emerged. Neuroaesthetics has been established; the discovery of the mirror neuron system and theories about its function have appeared; a growing interest in positive affect and pleasure has developed in psychiatry and medicine. The purpose of the present paper is to reconsider the TIN (Branković 2001) in the context of the advance in neuroscience during the last decade and to show how much conceptual clarity is gained when the recent empirical and theoretical findings are viewed from the standpoint of the TIN. A computational model of the aesthetic response based on the TIN's two-factor model of hedonic value of stimuli is delineated.

  14. Neuroathesetics and growing interest in "positive affect" in psychiatry: new evidence and prospects for the theory of informational needs.

    PubMed

    Branković, Saša

    2013-06-01

    What are the necessary and sufficient conditions to experience pleasure in interpersonal communication and dealing with art, science, and philosophy - this is what the theory of informational needs (TIN) suggested eleven years ago is about. At the same time, at the beginning of this century, several lines of research have emerged. Neuroaesthetics has been established; the discovery of the mirror neuron system and theories about its function have appeared; a growing interest in positive affect and pleasure has developed in psychiatry and medicine. The purpose of the present paper is to reconsider the TIN (Branković 2001) in the context of the advance in neuroscience during the last decade and to show how much conceptual clarity is gained when the recent empirical and theoretical findings are viewed from the standpoint of the TIN. A computational model of the aesthetic response based on the TIN's two-factor model of hedonic value of stimuli is delineated. PMID:23793272

  15. Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.

  16. Reduced state feedback gain computation. [optimization and control theory for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    Because application of conventional optimal linear regulator theory to flight controller design requires the capability of measuring and/or estimating the entire state vector, it is of interest to consider procedures for computing controls which are restricted to be linear feedback functions of a lower dimensional output vector and which take into account the presence of measurement noise and process uncertainty. Therefore, a stochastic linear model that was developed is presented which accounts for aircraft parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, turbulence, pilot command and a restricted number of measurable outputs. Optimization with respect to the corresponding output feedback gains was performed for both finite and infinite time performance indices without gradient computation by using Zangwill's modification of a procedure originally proposed by Powell. Results using a seventh order process show the proposed procedures to be very effective.

  17. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  18. A Test of Positive Affect Induction for Countering Self-Control Depletion in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The self-control strength model posits that exerting self-control on one task, such as resisting temptations, will deplete self-control and impair subsequent self-regulatory performance, such as controlling smoking. The current study examined interventions designed to replenish depleted self-control strength to prevent tobacco use by inducing positive affect. DESIGN In a 2×2 design, 200 participants were randomized to either (1) resist eating from a plate of desserts (high temptation) or from a plate of raw vegetables (low temptation) and then (2) undergo a positive or neutral affect induction. Two inductions were compared (video vs. writing technique). Participants were then given a 10-minute recess. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Whether or not participants smoked during the recess, assessed by self-report and biochemical verification, served as the primary dependent variable. RESULTS The interaction between depletion and exposure group was significant, Wald’s X2 = 9.66, df = 3, p <.05. Among those assigned to resist desserts, 65.5% to 85% smoked if they were in the neutral video or writing conditions versus 10.5% in the positive affect video group. CONCLUSION Positive affect elicited with a video was able to counteract the detrimental effects of self-control depletion on smoking behavior, while writing exercises were associated with smoking. Implications for tobacco cessation intervention are discussed. PMID:21553949

  19. Modeling transonic aerodynamic response using nonlinear systems theory for use with modern control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.

  20. Exploring the Utility of Social Control Theory for Youth Development: Issues of Attachment, Involvement, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Betts, Sherry C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the utility of social control theory's attachment and involvement bonds as protective factors to examine gender differences in reports of delinquency and academic achievement. Surveys of 7th-12th graders indicated that although several of the involvement bond variables of social control theory were predictive of both delinquency and…

  1. The Integration of Negative Affect, Pain, and Cognitive Control in the Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Salomons, Tim V.; Slagter, Heleen A.; Fox, Andrew S.; Winter, Jameel J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Preface It has been argued that emotion, pain, and cognitive control are functionally segregated in distinct subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. But recent observations encourage a fundamentally different view. Imaging studies indicate that negative affect, pain, and cognitive control activate an overlapping region of dorsal cingulate, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Anatomical studies reveal that aMCC constitutes a hub where information about reinforcers can be linked to motor centers responsible for expressing affect and executing goal-directed behavior. Computational modeling and other kinds of evidence suggest that this intimacy reflects control processes that are common to all three domains. These observations compel a reconsideration of dorsal cingulate’s contribution to negative affect and pain. PMID:21331082

  2. When learning order affects sensitivity to base rates: challenges for theories of causal learning.

    PubMed

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Waldmann, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we investigated whether two procedures of acquiring knowledge about the same causal structure, predictive learning (from causes to effects) versus diagnostic learning (from effects to causes), would lead to different base-rate use in diagnostic judgments. Results showed that learners are capable of incorporating base-rate information in their judgments regardless of the direction in which the causal structure is learned. However, this only holds true for relatively simple scenarios. When complexity was increased, base rates were only used after diagnostic learning, but were largely neglected after predictive learning. It could be shown that this asymmetry is not due to a failure of encoding base rates in predictive learning because participants in all conditions were fairly good at reporting them. The findings present challenges for all theories of causal learning.

  3. A comparison of variant theories of intact biochemical systems. II. Flux-oriented and metabolic control theories.

    PubMed

    Sorribas, A; Savageau, M A

    1989-06-01

    In the past two decades, several theories, all ultimately based upon the same power-law formalism, have been proposed to relate the behavior of intact biochemical systems to the properties of their underlying determinants. Confusion concerning the relatedness of these alternatives has become acute because the implications of these theories have never been compared. In the preceding paper we characterized a specific system involving enzyme-enzyme interactions for reference in comparing alternative theories. We also analyzed the reference system by using an explicit variant that involves the S-system representation within biochemical systems theory (BST). We now analyze the same reference system according to two other variants within BST. First, we carry out the analysis by using an explicit variant that involves the generalized mass action representation, which includes the flux-oriented theory of Crabtree and Newsholme as a special case. Second, we carry out the analysis by using an implicit variant that involves the generalized mass action representation, which includes the metabolic control theory of Kacser and his colleagues as a special case. The explicit variants are found to provide a more complete characterization of the reference system than the implicit variants. Within each of these variant classes, the S-system representation is shown to be more mathematically tractable and accurate than the generalized mass action representation. The results allow one to make clear distinctions among the variant theories.

  4. Spacing affects some but not all visual searches: implications for theories of attention and crowding.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Lavanya; VanRullen, Rufin

    2007-02-02

    We investigated the effect of varying interstimulus spacing on an upright among inverted face search and a red-green among green-red bisected disk search. Both tasks are classic examples of serial search; however, spacing affects them very differently: As spacing increased, face discrimination performance improved significantly, whereas performance on the bisected disks remained poor. (No effect of spacing was observed for either a red among green or an L among + search tasks, two classic examples of parallel search.) In a second experiment, we precued the target location so that attention was no longer a limiting factor: Both serial search tasks were now equally affected by spacing, a result we attribute to a more classical form of crowding. The observed spacing effect in visual search suggests that for certain tasks, serial search may result from local neuronal competition between target and distractors, soliciting attentional resources; in other cases, serial search must occur for another reason, for example, because an item-by-item, attention-mediated recognition must take place. We speculate that this distinction may be based on whether or not there exist neuronal populations tuned to the relevant target-distractor distinction, and we discuss the possible relations between this spacing effect in visual search and other forms of crowding.

  5. Exact Controllability of a Piezoelectric Body. Theory and Numerical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Miara, Bernadette Muench, Arnaud

    2009-06-15

    We study the exact controllability of a three-dimensional body made of a material whose constitutive law introduces an elasticity-electricity coupling. We show that a coupled elastic-electric control acting on the whole boundary of the body drives the system to rest after time large enough. Two-dimensional numerical experiments suggest that controllability can still be achieved by relaxing this restrictive condition using either both controls on a reduced support or elastic control alone.

  6. Application of modern control theory to the design of optimum aircraft controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis procedure presented is based on the solution of the output regulator problem of linear optimal control theory for time-invariant systems. By this technique, solution of the matrix Riccati equation leads to a constant linear feedback control law for an output regulator which will maintain a plant in a particular equilibrium condition in the presence of impulse disturbances. Two simple algorithms are presented that can be used in an automatic synthesis procedure for the design of maneuverable output regulators requiring only selected state variables for feedback. The first algorithm is for the construction of optimal feedforward control laws that can be superimposed upon a Kalman output regulator and that will drive the output of a plant to a desired constant value on command. The second algorithm is for the construction of optimal Luenberger observers that can be used to obtain feedback control laws for the output regulator requiring measurement of only part of the state vector. This algorithm constructs observers which have minimum response time under the constraint that the magnitude of the gains in the observer filter be less than some arbitrary limit.

  7. Multivariable control theory applied to hierarchial attitude control for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III; Russell, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Multivariable control theory is applied to the design of a hierarchial attitude control system for the CARD space vehicle. The system selected uses reaction control jets (RCJ) and control moment gyros (CMG). The RCJ system uses linear signal mixing and a no-fire region similar to that used on the Skylab program; the y-axis and z-axis systems which are coupled use a sum and difference feedback scheme. The CMG system uses the optimum steering law and the same feedback signals as the RCJ system. When both systems are active the design is such that the torques from each system are never in opposition. A state-space analysis was made of the CMG system to determine the general structure of the input matrices (steering law) and feedback matrices that will decouple the axes. It is shown that the optimum steering law and proportional-plus-rate feedback are special cases. A derivation of the disturbing torques on the space vehicle due to the motion of the on-board television camera is presented. A procedure for computing an upper bound on these torques (given the system parameters) is included.

  8. Neural responses to affective and cognitive theory of mind in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Park, Bumhee; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Song, Dong-Ho

    2016-05-16

    Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by an impaired Theory of Mind (ToM). Recent evidence suggested that two aspects of ToM (cognitive ToM versus affective ToM) are differentially impaired in individuals with ASD. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in children and adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing children (TDCs). Twelve children and adolescents with ASD and 12 age, IQ matched TDCs participated in this functional MRI study. The ToM task involved the attribution of cognitive and affective mental states to a cartoon character based on verbal and eye-gaze cues. In cognitive ToM tasks, ASD participants recruited the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG) to a greater extent than did TDCs. In affective ToM tasks, both ASD and TDC participants showed more activation in the insula and other subcortical regions than in cognitive ToM tasks. Correlational analysis revealed that greater activation of the mPFC/ACC regions was associated with less symptom severity in ASD patients. In sum, our study suggests that the recruitment of additional prefrontal resources can compensate for the successful behavioral performance in the ToM task in ASD participants. PMID:27084690

  9. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic control module being developed in the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperative Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at the Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is described. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to the strategic controller. Experimental results for a dual two-link arm robotic system are presented to verify the controllers performance, for both free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  10. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic control module of the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperating Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to higher level strategic control modules. Experimental results from a dual two-link-arm robotic system are used to compare the object impedance controller with other strategies, both for free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  11. Decentralized adaptive control of manipulators - Theory, simulation, and experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive-control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The control objective is to achieve accurate tracking of desired joint trajectories. The proposed control scheme does not use the complex manipulator dynamic model, and each joint is controlled simply by a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. Simulation results are given for a two-link direct-drive manipulator under adaptive independent joint control. The results illustrate trajectory tracking under coupled dynamics and varying payload. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the three major joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite coupled nonlinear joint dynamics.

  12. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed.

  13. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  14. Controlling chaotic convection using neural nets-theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bau, Haim H.; Yuen, Po Ki

    1998-04-01

    An exploratory study is conducted to assess the feasibility of using neural networks to control flow patterns and to evaluate the performance of these controllers. Neural networks were used to control (suppress) chaotic convection both in experiments and in a theoretical model of a thermal convection loop. It is demonstrated that the neural network controller can successfully cause the flow to behave in a desired way. The performance of the neural network controllers was compared with that of previously used conventional linear proportional controllers.

  15. Cognitive control and the anterior cingulate cortex: how conflicting stimuli affect attentional control in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; Creer, David J.; McGaughy, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex is critical for cognitive control. One prefrontal subregion, the anterior cingulate cortex, is hypothesized to be necessary to resolve response conflicts, disregard salient distractors and alter behavior in response to the generation of an error. These situations all involve goal-oriented monitoring of performance in order to effectively adjust cognitive processes. Several neuropsychological disorders, e.g., schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive compulsive disorder, are accompanied by morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments on tasks that require cognitive control found in these subjects. A novel conflict monitoring task was used to assess the effects on cognitive control of excitotoxic lesions to anterior cingulate cortex in rats. Prior to surgery all subjects showed improved accuracy on the second of two consecutive, incongruent trials. Lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex abolished this. Lesioned animals had difficulty in adjusting cognitive control on a trial-by-trial basis regardless of whether cognitive changes were increased or decreased. These results support a role for the anterior cingulate cortex in adjustments in cognitive control. PMID:25051488

  16. Process Dynamics and Control, a Theory-Experiential Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, A. J.; And Others

    A required senior-level chemical engineering course at Colorado State University is described. The first nine weeks are devoted to the theory portion of the course, which includes the following topics: LaPlace transformations and time constants, block diagrams, inverse transformations, linearization, frequency response analysis, graphical…

  17. Control system design for spacecraft formation flying: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew Dunbar

    Spacecraft formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space science missions, such as separated spacecraft interferometers (SSI). However the sensing, control and coordination of such instruments pose many new design challenges. SSI missions will require precise relative sensing and control, fuel-efficient, fuel-balanced operation to maximize mission life and group-level autonomy to reduce operations costs. Enabling these new formation flying capabilities requires precise relative sensing and estimation, enhanced control capabilities such as cooperative control (multiple independent spacecraft acting together), group-level formation management and informed design of a system architecture to manage distributed sensing and control-system resources. This research defines an end-to-end control system, including the key elements unique to the formation flying problem: cooperative control, relative sensing, coordination, and the control-system architecture. A new control-system design optimizes performance under typical spacecraft constraints (e.g., on-off actuators, finite fuel, limited computation power, limited contact with ground control, etc.). Standard control techniques have been extended, and new ones synthesized to meet these goals. In designing this control system, several contributions have been made to the field of spacecraft formation flying control including: an analytic two-vehicle fuel-time-optimal cooperative control algorithm, a fast numeric multi-vehicle, optimal cooperative control algorithm that can be used as a feedforward or a feedback controller, a fleet-level coordinator for autonomous fuel balancing, validation of GPS-based relative sensing for formation flying, and trade studies of the relative control and relative-estimation-architecture design problems. These research contributions are mapped to possible applications for three spacecraft formation flying missions currently in development. The lessons learned from this research

  18. Status of dual control theory. [stochastic decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, E.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical studies of decision making and stochastic processes are discussed. Several approaches are described for an improved performing control method. It is shown that control performance is highly dependent on the knowledge of the unknown parameters in the system.

  19. Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Locus of Control and Positive Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonky, Edward; Reihman, Jacqueline

    This study tests the hypothesis that individual differences in locus of control orientation may mediate elementary school students' responses to positive verbal feedback. A total of 30 kindergarten through fourth grade subjects were assessed for locus of control orientation using the Bialer Children's Locus of Control Questionnaire. To establish a…

  20. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  1. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wyatt I; Friedman, Jonathan M; Gaskin, John F; Norton, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others. PMID:24665340

  2. How Positive Affect Modulates Cognitive Control: The Costs and Benefits of Reduced Maintenance Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive action in a constantly changing environment requires the ability to maintain intentions and goals over time and to flexibly switch between these goals in response to significant changes. Dreisbach and Goschke (2004) argued that positive affect modulates these antagonistic control demands in favor of a more flexible but also more…

  3. Further Analysis of Variables That Affect Self-Control with Aversive Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Christopher J.; Neef, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variables that affect self-control in the context of academic task completion by elementary school children with autism. In the baseline assessment of Study 1, mathematics problem completion was shown to be an aversive event, and sensitivity to task magnitude, task difficulty, and delay to task completion…

  4. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  5. Dynamic metabolic control theory. A methodology for investigating metabolic regulation using transient metabolic data.

    PubMed

    Liao, J C; Delgado, J

    1992-10-13

    The purposes of the dynamic metabolic control theory are to provide a theoretical basis for estimating the control coefficients using the transient metabolic responses and to gain insights into the metabolic regulation in the transient states. The numerical application of this theory is relatively straightforward: it involves a standard linear regression and a matrix multiplication. Although the equations are exact only for linear kinetics, they yield relatively good estimates of the control coefficients for nonlinear systems. PMID:1416609

  6. Adaptive independent joint control of manipulators - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The proposed control scheme for each joint consists of a PID (proportional integral and differential) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. The static and dynamic couplings that exist between the joint motions are compensated by the adaptive independent joint controllers while ensuring trajectory tracking. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the first three joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite strongly coupled, highly nonlinear joint dynamics. The results confirm that the proposed decentralized adaptive control of manipulators is feasible, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. The control scheme presented is computationally very fast and is amenable to parallel processing implementation within a distributed computing architecture, where each joint is controlled independently by a simple algorithm on a dedicated microprocessor.

  7. Investigation of practical applications of H infinity control theory to the design of control systems for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. Dennis

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of H infinity control theory to the problems of large space structures (LSS) control was investigated. A complete evaluation to any technique as a candidate for large space structure control involves analytical evaluation, algorithmic evaluation, evaluation via simulation studies, and experimental evaluation. The results of analytical and algorithmic evaluations are documented. The analytical evaluation involves the determination of the appropriateness of the underlying assumptions inherent in the H infinity theory, the determination of the capability of the H infinity theory to achieve the design goals likely to be imposed on an LSS control design, and the identification of any LSS specific simplifications or complications of the theory. The resuls of the analytical evaluation are presented in the form of a tutorial on the subject of H infinity control theory with the LSS control designer in mind. The algorthmic evaluation of H infinity for LSS control pertains to the identification of general, high level algorithms for effecting the application of H infinity to LSS control problems, the identification of specific, numerically reliable algorithms necessary for a computer implementation of the general algorithms, the recommendation of a flexible software system for implementing the H infinity design steps, and ultimately the actual development of the necessary computer codes. Finally, the state of the art in H infinity applications is summarized with a brief outline of the most promising areas of current research.

  8. Apple orchard pest control strategies affect bird communities in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Ricci, Benoît; Agerberg, Julia; Lavigne, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Birds are regarded as appropriate biological indicators of how changes in agricultural practices affect the environment. They are also involved in the biocontrol of pests. In the present study, we provide an assessment of the impact of pest control strategies on bird communities in apple orchards in southeastern France. We compared the structure (abundance, species richness, and diversity) of breeding bird communities in 15 orchards under conventional or organic pest control over a three-year period (2003-2005). Pest control strategies and their evolution over time were characterized by analyzing farmers' treatment schedules. The landscape surrounding the orchards was characterized using a Geographic Information System. We observed 30 bird species overall. Bird abundance, species richness, and diversity were all affected by pest control strategies, and were highest in organic orchards and lowest in conventional orchards during the three study years. The pest control strategy affected insectivores more than granivores. We further observed a tendency for bird communities in integrated pest management orchards to change over time and become increasingly different from communities in organic orchards, which also corresponded to changes in treatment schedules. These findings indicate that within-orchard bird communities may respond quickly to changes in pesticide use and may, in turn, influence biocontrol of pests by birds.

  9. Positive Affect Versus Reward: Emotional and Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Kimberly S.; Braver, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses. PMID:22022318

  10. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation.

  11. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation. PMID:23240823

  12. Theory Of Controlling Spacecraft Motion With Pulsed Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Sam W.; Flashner, Henryk

    1996-01-01

    Report presents new class of flight-control laws for making spacecraft follow desired trajectory by use of pulsed thrusters during such maneuvers as automated rendezvous on orbit and soft landing on planet. Although emphasis in report on guidance, ultimately shown same techniques also useful for attitude control and station keeping.

  13. Theory of perturbative pulse train based coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinev, Timur; Brumer, Paul

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical description of coherent control of excited state dynamics using pulse trains in the perturbative regime, as carried out in recent experiments, is presented. Analytical expressions relating the excited state populations to the pulse train control parameters are derived. Numerical examples are provided for models of pyrazine and β-carotene, and the significant role of overlapping resonances is exposed.

  14. An application of modern control theory to an elastic spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V.; Likins, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented to illustrate the application of established procedures of linear, quadratic, Gaussian optimal estimation and control to a spacecraft with dynamically significant elastic appendages. Interpretations are provided in both time domain and frequency domain, and conclusions are drawn for a wide class of problems of flexible spacecraft attitude control.

  15. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults.

  16. Stimulus control topography coherence theory: foundations and extensions.

    PubMed

    McIlvane, William J; Dube, William V

    2003-01-01

    Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control topography coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control topography coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants.

  17. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain.

    PubMed

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget's theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman's theory on intuitive heuristics.

  18. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain

    PubMed Central

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget’s theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman’s theory on intuitive heuristics. PMID:25852528

  19. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain.

    PubMed

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget's theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman's theory on intuitive heuristics. PMID:25852528

  20. Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.

  1. Learning control system design based on 2-D theory - An application to parallel link manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Z.; Carroll, R. L.; Lee, J. D.; Haynes, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An approach to iterative learning control system design based on two-dimensional system theory is presented. A two-dimensional model for the iterative learning control system which reveals the connections between learning control systems and two-dimensional system theory is established. A learning control algorithm is proposed, and the convergence of learning using this algorithm is guaranteed by two-dimensional stability. The learning algorithm is applied successfully to the trajectory tracking control problem for a parallel link robot manipulator. The excellent performance of this learning algorithm is demonstrated by the computer simulation results.

  2. Effects of a National Public Service Information Campaign on Crime Prevention: Perspectives from Social Learning and Social Control Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordan, Edward J.; Kwon, Joongrok

    This study examined the effects of public service advertising from two theoretical backgrounds: social learning theory and social control theory. Traditional social learning theory assumes that learning occurs by subjects performing responses and experiencing their effects, with reinforcement as the main determinant. Social control theory, as…

  3. Robert Ezra Park's Theory of News, Public Opinion and Social Control. Journalism Monographs No. 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, P. Jean; Gaziano, Cecilie

    This monograph reconstructs a theory of news, public opinion, and social control originally presented between 1904 and 1941 by Robert Ezra Park, a founder of the sociological study of mass communication and public opinion, and suggests that the theory is pertinent to contemporary journalists and scholars. Park's work is described as the basis of…

  4. Race, Gender, Single-Mother Households, and Delinquency: A Further Test of Power-Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Kristin Y.; Leiber, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Using power-control theory as the theoretical framework, the present study examines the gender gap in delinquency for White and African American youth from single-mother households. The research is driven by the need to focus more attention on understanding how delinquency theories apply across different racial groups. Results from both bivariate…

  5. Heavy Episodic Drinking among Adolescents: A Test of Hypotheses Derived from Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Barbara J.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on the causes of heavy episodic drinking, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon in the sociological and criminological literature. This research assesses the extent to which a popular theory of crime and deviance, control theory, can explain heavy episodic drinking. Analysis of data collected from a…

  6. Does age affect the stress and coping process? Implications of age differences in perceived control.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, C M

    1991-07-01

    The perceived controllability of situations is thought to influence the types of coping strategies used, and thus is important in adaptive processes. Elderly individuals are widely perceived to have less control over their environment than other adults. This lack of perceived control should have adverse affects on how they cope with stressful situations. However, most studies have shown that older adults differ little from younger adults in their approaches to coping with stress. This contradiction was investigated in a sample of 228 community-residing adults with a mean age of 42.16 (SD = 14.88). Path analysis revealed that appraisals and attributions do affect the use of coping strategies such as instrumental action and escapism in the expected directions, and age is negatively associated with perceived control. However, there was an independent and negative relationship between age and the reported use of escapist coping strategies, which mitigated the adverse effects of perceived lack of control. Neither age nor perceived controllability had direct effects on depression, but they had indirect effects through their influence on the use of coping strategies and perceived efficacy.

  7. Advanced stability theory analyses for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments of the SALLY computer code for stability analysis of laminar flow control wings are summarized. Extensions of SALLY to study three dimensional compressible flows, nonparallel and nonlinear effects are discussed.

  8. Convex hulls of a curve in control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatskii, Aleksei N

    2012-03-31

    A classification is obtained for typical singularities of the local transitivity sets of control systems on three-dimensional manifolds with nonconvex indicatrices that are closed smooth spatial curves. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  9. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  10. Decoupling and observation theory applied to control of a long flexible beam in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques which use decoupling theory and state variable feedback to control the pitch attitude and the flexible mode amplitudes of a long, thin beam are discussed. An observer based on the steady state Kalman filter was incorporated into the control design procedure in order to estimate the values of the modal state variables required for the feedback control law.

  11. A causal role for the anterior mid-cingulate cortex in negative affect and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Tolomeo, Serenella; Christmas, David; Jentzsch, Ines; Johnston, Blair; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Matthews, Keith; Douglas Steele, J

    2016-06-01

    Converging evidence has linked the anterior mid-cingulate cortex to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. It has previously been proposed that this region uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions. Studies on the effects of lesions allow causal inferences about brain function; however, naturally occurring lesions in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex are rare. In two studies we therefore recruited 94 volunteers, comprising 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had received bilateral anterior cingulotomy, which consists of lesions made within the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, 20 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had not received surgery and 59 healthy control subjects. Using the Ekman 60 faces paradigm and two Stroop paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that patients who received anterior cingulotomy were impaired in recognizing negative facial affect expressions but not positive or neutral facial expressions, and impaired in Stroop cognitive control, with larger lesions being associated with more impairment. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted more impairment in recognizing fear, disgust and anger, and no impairment in recognizing facial expressions of surprise or happiness. However, we found no impairment in recognizing expressions of sadness. Also consistent with the hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted impaired Stroop cognitive control. Notably, this relationship was only present when anterior mid-cingulate cortex lesion volume was defined as the overlap between cingulotomy lesion volume and Shackman's meta-analysis-derived binary masks for negative affect and cognitive control. Given substantial evidence from healthy subjects that the anterior mid-cingulate cortex is part of a network associated with the experience of negative affect and pain, engaging cognitive control processes for optimizing behaviour in the presence of such

  12. A causal role for the anterior mid-cingulate cortex in negative affect and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Tolomeo, Serenella; Christmas, David; Jentzsch, Ines; Johnston, Blair; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Matthews, Keith; Douglas Steele, J

    2016-06-01

    Converging evidence has linked the anterior mid-cingulate cortex to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. It has previously been proposed that this region uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions. Studies on the effects of lesions allow causal inferences about brain function; however, naturally occurring lesions in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex are rare. In two studies we therefore recruited 94 volunteers, comprising 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had received bilateral anterior cingulotomy, which consists of lesions made within the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, 20 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had not received surgery and 59 healthy control subjects. Using the Ekman 60 faces paradigm and two Stroop paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that patients who received anterior cingulotomy were impaired in recognizing negative facial affect expressions but not positive or neutral facial expressions, and impaired in Stroop cognitive control, with larger lesions being associated with more impairment. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted more impairment in recognizing fear, disgust and anger, and no impairment in recognizing facial expressions of surprise or happiness. However, we found no impairment in recognizing expressions of sadness. Also consistent with the hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted impaired Stroop cognitive control. Notably, this relationship was only present when anterior mid-cingulate cortex lesion volume was defined as the overlap between cingulotomy lesion volume and Shackman's meta-analysis-derived binary masks for negative affect and cognitive control. Given substantial evidence from healthy subjects that the anterior mid-cingulate cortex is part of a network associated with the experience of negative affect and pain, engaging cognitive control processes for optimizing behaviour in the presence of such

  13. ORACLS - A modern control theory design package. [Optimal Regulator Algorithms for Control of Linear Systems computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program (ORACLS) for implementing the optimal regulator theory approach to the design of controllers for linear time-invariant systems is described. The user-oriented program employs the latest numerical techniques and is applicable to both the digital and continuous control problems.

  14. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  15. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  16. On stability theory. [of nonlinear feedback control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.

    1979-01-01

    It is found that under mild assumptions, feedback system stability can be concluded if one can 'topologically separate' the infinite-dimensional function space containing the system's dynamical input-output relations into two regions, one region containing the dynamical input-output relation of the 'feedforward' element of the system and the other region containing the dynamical output-input relation of the 'feedback' element. Nonlinear system stability criteria of both the input-output type and the state-space (Liapunov) type are interpreted in this context. The abstract generality and conceptual simplicity afforded by the topological separation perspective clarifies some of the basic issues underlying stability theory and serves to suggest improvements in existing stability criteria. A generalization of Zames' (1966) conic-relation stability criterion is proved, laying the foundation for improved multivariable generalizations of the frequency-domain circle stability criterion for nonlinear systems.

  17. Robust stabilization control based on guardian maps theory for a longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua

    2014-01-01

    A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. Robust Stabilization Control Based on Guardian Maps Theory for a Longitudinal Model of Hypersonic Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua

    2014-01-01

    A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24795535

  19. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  20. Factors affecting defaulting from DOTS therapy under the national programme of tuberculosis control in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Din, M Nour; Elhoseeny, T; Mohsen, A M M A

    2013-02-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to identify factors affecting default from therapy under the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt. Record reviews and structured interviews were made with 57 defaulters and 187 randomly selected controls. Univariate analysis showed 13 out of 54 factors, investigated were significantly associated with defaulting and, after stepwise logistic regression, 5 factors remained in the model: younger age (adjusted OR = 0.16), rural area of residence (OR = 12.9), long waiting times (OR = 5.81), poor physician-patient communication (OR = 3.06) and fear of information leakage (OR = 3.62). Reasons cited by defaulters included long distance to the clinic, unsuitable clinic times and long waiting times. The main factors associated with defaulting from the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt were service-related factors, which are amenable to improvement.

  1. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Conflict Control in the Conflict-Resolving Stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Baoxi; Guo, Shichun; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive basis of the effect of long-term high altitude exposure on conflict control is unclear. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a flanker task to investigate the influence of high altitude on conflict control in the high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but were born at low altitude) and the low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although altitude effect was not significant at the behavioral level, ERPs showed cognitive conflict modulation. The interaction between group and trial type was significant: P3 amplitude was greater in the low-altitude group than in the high-altitude group in the incongruent trial. This result suggests that long-term exposure to high altitude affects conflict control in the conflict-resolving stage, and that attentional resources are decreased to resist the conflict control in the high-altitude group.

  2. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Conflict Control in the Conflict-Resolving Stage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Baoxi; Guo, Shichun; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive basis of the effect of long-term high altitude exposure on conflict control is unclear. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a flanker task to investigate the influence of high altitude on conflict control in the high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but were born at low altitude) and the low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although altitude effect was not significant at the behavioral level, ERPs showed cognitive conflict modulation. The interaction between group and trial type was significant: P3 amplitude was greater in the low-altitude group than in the high-altitude group in the incongruent trial. This result suggests that long-term exposure to high altitude affects conflict control in the conflict-resolving stage, and that attentional resources are decreased to resist the conflict control in the high-altitude group. PMID:26671280

  3. Neural Mechanisms of Attentional Control Differentiate Trait and State Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Warren, Stacie L.; Bredemeier, Keith; Sutton, Bradley P.; Banich, Marie T.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA). Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways. PMID:22934089

  4. Optically controlled spherical liquid-crystal lens: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gural'nik, I R; Samagin, S A

    2003-05-31

    A liquid-crystal lens with the focal distance depending on the transmitted light intensity is proposed and studied. A theoretical model is developed which adequately describes the wave-front formation by the lens. The results of visualisation of the wave-front control in a setup with crossed Polaroids and the intensity distributions, which characterise the focusing properties of the lens, are presented. To illustrate the application of the lens, an adaptive-optics system is built for stabilisation of radiation power on a 1-mm diaphragm, which reduces the power fluctuations by a factor of 30. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  5. Constrained modes in control theory - Transmission zeros of uniform beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical arguments are presented demonstrating that the well-established control system concept of the transmission zero is very closely related to the structural concept of the constrained mode. It is shown that the transmission zeros of a flexible structure form a set of constrained natural frequencies for it, with the constraints depending explicitly on the locations and the types of sensors and actuators used for control. Based on this formulation, an algorithm is derived and used to produce dimensionless plots of the zero of a uniform beam with a compatible sensor/actuator pair.

  6. Towards a Theory of Psychosocial Development and Fertility Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvetkovich, George

    It is popularly held that the low rate of birth control use among sexually-active American teenagers is primarily due to their immaturity. Many teenagers are commencing their sexual careers prior to acquisition of the social and cognitive abilities demanded by responsible contraceptive use. A general decision-making framework can be used to create…

  7. Authority Control for Creators in Italy: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoja, Maurizio; Vitali, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The first part of the article illustrates the connections between the debate on "ISAAR(CPF)" and archival authority control and the discussions about the nature of archives and their relationships with their creators that have taken place within the Italian archival community during the twentieth century. The second part of the article offers some…

  8. Closing the Gap Between Process Control Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Carlos; Cardona-Martinez, Nelson; Velazquez, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The pressure on world-wide manufacturing industries to meet tougher demands and regulations has forced companies to focus on improving manufacturing using tools like process automation. This focus requires better-prepared students. The process control course of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez has…

  9. Applications of Learning Theory: A Course in Self-Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, Ted; Collins, Gordon

    A 10-week seminar in self-control for 25 selected junior and senior psychology majors at the College of Wooster is described. The seminar was developed in response to increasing popularity of behavior modification and an interest in exploring applications of a science of behavior. The didactic aspect of the course was complemented by an applied…

  10. Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; And Others

    Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates…

  11. The making and breaking of affectional bonds. I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. An expanded version of the Fiftieth Maudsley Lecture, delivered before the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 19 November 1976.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, J

    1977-03-01

    An account is given of attachment theory as a way of conceptualizing the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others and of explaining the many forms of emotional distress and personality disturbance, including anxiety, anger, depression and emotional detachment, to which unwilling separation and loss give rise. Though it incorporates much psychoanalytic thinking, many of its principles derive from ethology, cognitive psychology and control theory. It conforms to the ordinary criteria of a scientific discipline. Certain common patterns of personality development, both healthy and pathological, are described in these terms, and also some of the common patterns of parenting that contribute to them.

  12. Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.

  13. New control concepts for uncertain water resources systems: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming

    1993-06-01

    A major complicating factor in water resources systems management is handling unknown inputs. Stochastic optimization provides a sound mathematical framework but requires that enough data exist to develop statistical input representations. In cases where data records are insufficient (e.g., extreme events) or atypical of future input realizations, stochastic methods are inadequate. This article presents a control approach where input variables are only expected to belong in certain sets. The objective is to determine sets of admissible control actions guaranteeing that the system will remain within desirable bounds. The solution is based on dynamic programming and derived for the case where all sets are convex polyhedra. A companion paper (Yao and Georgakakos, this issue) addresses specific applications and problems in relation to reservoir system management.

  14. Theory and Application of Semiochemicals in Nuisance Fish Control.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Peter W; Johnson, Nicholas S

    2016-07-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in "push-pull" configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  15. Theory and application of semiochemicals in nuisance fish control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Peter W.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in “push-pull” configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  16. Theory and Application of Semiochemicals in Nuisance Fish Control.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Peter W; Johnson, Nicholas S

    2016-07-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in "push-pull" configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  17. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  18. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models. PMID:25571577

  19. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    PubMed

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  20. Effects of temptations on the affective salience of weight control goals.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Macdonald, Alexandra

    2007-03-01

    Despite the value of weight control goals, the maintenance of healthy eating habits represents a challenge for most. Self-regulatory efforts are often challenged by the presence of high-risk cues (e.g., tempting foods) which provide short-term positive outcomes at the expense of these long-term health objectives. The current study examined contextual influences on self-regulation failure by exploring the effect of cues on an indirect measure of goal value. Two experiments were conducted with undergraduate students which examined the effect of temptation cues on the evaluation of information related to the goal of weight control. Results of Study 1 provided preliminary evidence for the utility of this task as an indirect measure of goal value and showed that food-related primes slowed evaluation response times for weight control-related targets. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by demonstrating that temptation cues may not only decrease the affective salience of weight control related information but increase the salience of information related to the goal of affect enhancement. These results suggest that self-regulation failure may be influenced by contextual changes in the value of health-related goals. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  1. A Theory of Rate Coding Control by Intrinsic Plasticity Effects

    PubMed Central

    Naudé, J.; Paz, J. T.; Berry, H.; Delord, B.

    2012-01-01

    , the present theory is also relevant to other neural processes involving excitability changes, such as neuromodulation, development, aging and neural disorders. PMID:22275858

  2. A theory of rate coding control by intrinsic plasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Naudé, J; Paz, J T; Berry, H; Delord, B

    2012-01-01

    , the present theory is also relevant to other neural processes involving excitability changes, such as neuromodulation, development, aging and neural disorders.

  3. A theory of rate coding control by intrinsic plasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Naudé, J; Paz, J T; Berry, H; Delord, B

    2012-01-01

    , the present theory is also relevant to other neural processes involving excitability changes, such as neuromodulation, development, aging and neural disorders. PMID:22275858

  4. Applications of nonlinear systems theory to control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro

    1988-01-01

    For most applications in the control area, the standard practice is to approximate a nonlinear mathematical model by a linear system. Since the feedback linearizable systems contain linear systems as a subclass, the procedure of approximating a nonlinear system by a feedback linearizable one is examined. Because many physical plants (e.g., aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center) have mathematical models which are close to feedback linearizable systems, such approximations are certainly justified. Results and techniques are introduced for measuring the gap between the model and its truncated linearizable part. The topic of pure feedback systems is important to the study.

  5. The use of "stabilization exercises" to affect neuromuscular control in the lumbopelvic region: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Paul

    2014-06-01

    It is well-established that the coordination of muscular activity in the lumbopelvic region is vital to the generation of mechanical spinal stability. Several models illustrating mechanisms by which dysfunctional neuromuscular control strategies may serve as a cause and/or effect of low back pain have been described in the literature. The term "core stability" is variously used by clinicians and researchers, and this variety has led to several rehabilitative approaches suggested to affect the neuromuscular control strategies of the lumbopelvic region (e.g. "stabilization exercise", "motor control exercise"). This narrative review will highlight: 1) the ongoing debate in the clinical and research communities regarding the terms "core stability" and "stabilization exercise", 2) the importance of sub-grouping in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from such therapeutic interventions, and 3) two protocols that can assist clinicians in this process.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of a unified theory for simultaneous multiple axis artificial arm control.

    PubMed

    Jerard, R B; Jacobsen, S C

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports on the application of a "postulate-based" control method for multi-axis artificial arm control. This method uses shoulder muscle EMG's as control sites, but, unlike previous techniques, the theory is the first that can be rigorously defined in terms of musculoskeletal anatomy, EMG muscle-force relationships, EMG transmission characteristics, muscle recruitment, limb dynamics and normal motion constraints. The control theory results in a deterministic, mathematically expressible set of controller equations, which use the vector of natural limb torques estimated by shoulder EMG signals and a "constraint" for input. The output of the controller equations is a vector of prosthetic torques to be applied to the artificial limb. We report on the implementation of the theory up to the point of laboratory feasibility trials of actual simultaneous above-elbow amputee control of elbow flexion and humeral rotation. Implementation of the theory required: 1) deviation of the controller equations from Newton's dynamic equations of motion into controller form in conformity with the postulate theory; 2) development of a methodology for estimating natural musculoskeletal torques from EMG signals; 3) hardware and software for experimental testing with actual closed loop amputee control of the prosthesis; and 4) a methodology for evaluating the performance of the prosthesis relative to both alternative prosthetic systems and the natural arm. These tasks were completed and simultaneous multiple-axis control of a prosthetic arm was accomplished by both amputee and nonamputee subjects. Key questions of control compatibility, naturalness, stability, and performance evaluation relative to other prostheses and the natural arm were addressed. Various problems are discussed with the conclusion that this method, despite some difficulties, holds great promise as a practical rehabilitation tool.

  7. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention.

    PubMed

    Allen, Micah; Dietz, Martin; Blair, Karina S; van Beek, Martijn; Rees, Geraint; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Lutz, Antoine; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2012-10-31

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory, and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through interoceptive salience and attentional control mechanisms, but until now conflicting evidence from behavioral and neural measures renders difficult distinguishing their respective roles. To resolve this question we conducted a fully randomized 6 week longitudinal trial of MT, explicitly controlling for cognitive and treatment effects with an active-control group. We measured behavioral metacognition and whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals using functional MRI during an affective Stroop task before and after intervention in healthy human subjects. Although both groups improved significantly on a response-inhibition task, only the MT group showed reduced affective Stroop conflict. Moreover, the MT group displayed greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses during executive processing, consistent with increased recruitment of top-down mechanisms to resolve conflict. In contrast, we did not observe overall group-by-time interactions on negative affect-related reaction times or BOLD responses. However, only participants with the greatest amount of MT practice showed improvements in response inhibition and increased recruitment of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and right anterior insula during negative valence processing. Our findings highlight the importance of active control in MT research, indicate unique neural mechanisms for progressive stages of mindfulness training, and suggest that optimal application of MT may differ depending on context, contrary to a one-size-fits-all approach.

  8. Controlling Interfacial Instabilities in Hele-Shaw Cells: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuwang; Lowengrub, John; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2006-03-01

    The growth of crystals in an undercooled melt and interface evolution in Hele-Shaw cells are governed by similar underlying mathematics. Hele-Shaw experiments can therefore give valuable insights into crystal growth. In the context of crystal growth, Li, Lowengrub and co-workers have demonstrated (e.g. see J. Crystal Growth, Physica D) that by varying the temperature conditions in the far-field in a prescribed way without feedback, interface instabilities (e.g. Mullins-Sekerka) can be suppressed and crystals may be grown with desired symmetries. Interestingly, at long times nonlinear stabilization is observed and leads to the existence of universal crystal shapes that depend only on the far-field temperature conditions. Here, this work is adapted to interface evolution in Hele-Shaw cells where the control parameter is the injection pressure. Namely, we consider the displacement of oil by air and we demonstrate that by varying the injection pressure in a prescribed, time-dependent way (without feedback) that the Saffman-Taylor instability can be suppressed and controlled such that bubbles of desired symmetries can form. This is in agreement with recent experimental predictions (presented separately in this session). We further predict the existence of universal bubble shapes that depend only on the injection pressure; the experimental confirmation of such universal shapes is the subject of ongoing studies.

  9. Simultaneous controlled vitamin release from multiparticulates: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Seidenberger, T; Siepmann, J; Bley, H; Maeder, K; Siepmann, F

    2011-06-30

    The aim of this study was to simultaneously control the release of multiple vitamins exhibiting very different water-solubility and molecular weights from multiparticulates. Several types of sucrose esters and triglycerides were studied as matrix formers in granules prepared by wet granulation, melt granulation or compression and grinding. The vitamin release kinetics were measured in 0.1N HCl, phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and water in a USP paddle apparatus. An appropriate analytical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion was used to better understand the underlying mass transport phenomena. Importantly, the release rates of nicotinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin 5'-phosphate, riboflavin, thiamine chloride hydrochloride and thiamine nitrate can simultaneously be controlled from the investigated multiparticulates. Varying the total vitamin content, granule size, type of preparation technique and type of matrix former (Sucrose Stearate S370, Sucrose Stearate S1170, glycerol dibehenate, glycerol dipalmitostearate), desired vitamin release rates can be adjusted. Interestingly, diffusion seems to be the dominant mass transport mechanism in most cases. Thus, appropriate solutions of Fick's law can be used to quantitatively predict the effects of the systems' composition and dimensions on the resulting vitamin release patterns. This knowledge can significantly help facilitating device optimization.

  10. Theory of the Control of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Andrew Musso

    This dissertation describes the theoretial exploration of electron transfer (ET) processes at the interface between bulk and molecular or nanoscale materials. Analysis of simple model Hamiltonians, those for the two- and three-level electronic systems as well as for a single electronic level coupled to a continuum, inform an understanding of electron transfer in nontrivial systems. A new treatment of the three-level system at an undergraduate level encapsulates the hopping and superexchange mechanisms of electron transfer. The elegance of the behavior of ET from a single-level/continuum system precedes a treatment of the reverse process---quasicontinuum-to-discrete level ET. This reverse process, relevant to ET from a bulk material to a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) offers a handle for the coherent control of ET at an interface: the shape of an electronic wavepacket within the quasicontinuum. An extension of the single-level-to-continuum ET process is the injection of an electron from a QD to a wide-bandgap semiconductor nanoparticle (NP). We construct a minimal model to explain trends in ET rates at the QD/NP interface as a function of QD size. Finally, we propose a scheme to gate ET through a molecular junction via the coherent control of the torsional mode(s) of a linking molecule within the junction.

  11. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  12. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  13. Advanced Quality Control Theory for Training and Education: A Guide to Optimizing Training and Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppler, Brad

    2008-01-01

    This is a book about quality and how to control quality through deliberate actions on the part of the professionals developing and implementing the instances of instruction available at an organization. Quality control theory favors no particular learning philosophy and is only directed towards aspects of how, what, where and when measurements are…

  14. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

  15. INSTRUCTIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE THEORY OF STOCHASTIC PROCESSES: Controlled random sequences and Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkevich, A. A.; Chitashvili, R. Ya

    1982-12-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction Chapter I. Foundations of the general theory of controlled random sequences and Markov chains with the expected reward criterion § 1. Controlled random sequences, Markov chains, and models § 2. Necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality § 3. The Bellman equation for the value function and the existence of (ε-) optimal strategies Chapter II. Some problems in the theory of controlled homogeneous Markov chains § 4. Description of the solutions of the Bellman equation, a characterization of the value function, and the Bellman operator § 5. Sufficiency of stationary strategies in homogeneous Markov models § 6. The lexicographic Bellman equation References

  16. A comparison of design variables for control theory based airfoil optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work in the area it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using either the potential flow or the Euler equations with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. We have also explored three-dimensional extensions of these formulations recently. The goal of our present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the control theory approach by designing airfoils using both Hicks-Henne functions and B-spline control points as design variables. The research also demonstrates that the parameterization of the design space is an open question in aerodynamic design.

  17. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy; Magnusdottir, Brynja; Morgen, Katrin; Arnarsdottir, Sunna; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Walters, G Bragi; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Doyle, Orla M; Tost, Heike; Grimm, Oliver; Kristjansdottir, Solveig; Snorrason, Heimir; Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Gudmundsson, Larus J; Jonsson, Gudbjorn F; Stefansdottir, Berglind; Helgadottir, Isafold; Haraldsson, Magnus; Jonsdottir, Birna; Thygesen, Johan H; Schwarz, Adam J; Didriksen, Michael; Stensbøl, Tine B; Brammer, Michael; Kapur, Shitij; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-16

    In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia. PMID:24352232

  18. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony.

    PubMed

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Beersma, Domien G M; den Boer, Johan A; van den Hoofdakker, Rutger H

    2003-01-25

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the circadian pacemaker have been proposed to be a pathogenetic factor in Seasonal Affective Disorder, winter type (SAD). This report presents a test of this proposition. To this end seven SAD patients and matched controls were subjected to a 120-h forced desynchrony protocol, in which they were exposed to six 20-h days. This protocol enables us to discriminate the extent to which the course of mood is determined by the imposed 20-h sleep-wake cycle from the influence of the circadian pacemaker on that course. Patients participated during a depressive episode, after recovery upon light therapy and in summer. Controls were studied in winter and in summer. Between SAD patients and controls no significant differences were observed in the period length nor in the timing of the endogenous circadian temperature minimum. In both groups, sleep-wake cycle- and pacemaker-related components were observed in the variations of mood, which were not significantly different between conditions.

  19. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy; Magnusdottir, Brynja; Morgen, Katrin; Arnarsdottir, Sunna; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Walters, G Bragi; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Doyle, Orla M; Tost, Heike; Grimm, Oliver; Kristjansdottir, Solveig; Snorrason, Heimir; Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Gudmundsson, Larus J; Jonsson, Gudbjorn F; Stefansdottir, Berglind; Helgadottir, Isafold; Haraldsson, Magnus; Jonsdottir, Birna; Thygesen, Johan H; Schwarz, Adam J; Didriksen, Michael; Stensbøl, Tine B; Brammer, Michael; Kapur, Shitij; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-16

    In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia.

  20. A Behavioral Intervention for War-Affected Youth in Sierra Leone: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Brennan, Robert T.; Weisz, John R.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)–based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15–24 years) in Sierra Leone. Method War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. Results The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. Conclusion YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI

  1. "Pedagogy, Identity and the Construction of a Theory of Symbolic Control": Basil Bernstein Questioned by Joseph Solomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Basil; Solomon, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on Basil Bernstein and his theory of symbolic control and cultural production. Presents an interview with Bernstein addressing such topics as the concept of "pedagogy" and its role in his theory, "boundaries" as a conceptual key in his theory, and transformation of his theory. (CMK)

  2. Cartesian theories on the passions, the pineal gland and the pathogenesis of affective disorders: an early forerunner.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between physical and functional alterations in the pineal gland, the 'passions' (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that 'passions' were sensitive movements that the soul, located in the pineal gland, experienced due to its union with the body, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of the six primitive passions of the soul, which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century and during much of the 18th century, but the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders it was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The recent development of a new pharmacological agent acting through melatonergic receptors (agomelatine) has confirmed the close link between the pineal gland and affective disorders.

  3. Self-control, negative affect and neural activity during effortful cognition in deprived smokers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen J; Sayette, Michael A; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-06-01

    The vast majority of attempts to quit smoking cigarettes are unsuccessful. Negative affect (NA) is one of the primary factors contributing to smoking relapse, in part because it interferes with psychological processes that are essential for self-regulation and coping. Converging evidence suggests that NA may be less of a problem for smokers with high relative to low dispositional self-control, but very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this issue by examining the associations between trait self-control, state levels of NA and patterns of brain activation in nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 117) during the performance of a verbal n-back paradigm (a task requiring cognitive processes that support self-regulation). While the activation of several brain regions linked to executive control correlated positively and negatively with state NA and trait self-control, respectively, an interaction between these factors was identified in only one region: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We conclude that the functions supported by the vmPFC are an important source of variability in smokers' self-regulatory functioning and propose that the region may contribute to the use of implicit forms of self-control under demanding circumstances.

  4. Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Schifter, D E; Ajzen, I

    1985-09-01

    Success at attempted weight reduction among college women was predicted on the basis of a theory of planned behavior. At the beginning of a 6-week period, participants expressed their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, and intentions with respect to losing weight. In addition, the extent to which they had made detailed weight reduction plans was assessed, as were a number of general attitudes and personality factors. In support of the theory, intentions to lose weight were accurately predicted on the basis of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control; perceived control and intentions were together moderately successful in predicting the amount of weight that participants actually lost over the 6-week period. Actual weight loss was also found to increase with development of a plan and with ego strength, factors that were assumed to increase control over goal attainment. Other factors, such as health locus of control, perceived competence, and action control, were found to be unrelated to weight reduction. PMID:4045706

  5. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-08-28

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  6. Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria.

  7. Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria. PMID:25272067

  8. A Case Controlled Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Smith, Phillip N; Chen, Tian; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-07-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that the most proximal cause of suicide is the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness coupled with a pre-existing vulnerability of reduced fear of death and increased pain tolerance. This pre-existing vulnerability develops in response to painful and provocative life events. According to the theory, empirically demonstrated risk factors for suicide operate by increasing the likelihood of one or more of the theory's constructs. The current study examined the relations of the major constructs of the interpersonal theory with suicide case status compared to living controls in the second half of life. The current study used a pre-existing psychological autopsy database to compare suicide decedents to living controls 50 years and older. Theory constructs were measured by composite scores of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and painful and provocative experiences using an a priori selection of items comprising each construct. Suicide decedents experienced greater levels of all three of the theory's constructs when examined independently compared to living controls. When examined simultaneously while also controlling for Major Depression, greater perceived burdensomeness and painful and provocative experiences were associated with suicide case status (vs. control). The interpersonal theory is a comprehensive framework that may be useful in understanding risk for death by suicide in the second half of life. Clinical management of suicide risk for adults in the second half of life could include a focus on perceived burdensomeness, as the IPTS proposes that this psychological state is amenable to change via therapeutic intervention. PMID:26219512

  9. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  10. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target's internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences.

  11. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  12. Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Robert; Björklund, Martin; Hornborg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Stina; Hesser, Hugo; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rousseau, Andréas; Frederick, Ronald J; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT), as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders. Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average) in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up. Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size of Cohen's d

  13. Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.

  14. Inhibitory Control in anxious and healthy adolescents is modulated by incentive and incidental affective stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods Twenty-five healthy adolescents and 25 adolescents meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder were compared on a task of response inhibition. Inhibitory control was assayed with an antisaccade task that included both incentive (monetary reward) and incidental emotion (facial expression) cues presented prior to the execution of inhibitory behavior. Results Inhibitory control was enhanced following exposure to threat cues (fear faces) only in adolescent patients, and following exposure to positive cues (happy faces) only in healthy adolescents. Results also revealed a robust performance improvement associated with monetary incentives. This incentive effect did not differ by group. No interaction between incentives and emotional cues was detected. Conclusions These findings suggest that biased processing of threat in anxious adolescents affects inhibitory control, perhaps by raising arousal prior to behavioral performance. The absence of normalization of performance in anxious adolescents following exposure to positive emotional cues is a novel finding and will require additional exploration. Future studies will need to more specifically examine how perturbations in positive emotion processes contribute to the symptomatology and the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. PMID:19573033

  15. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  16. Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, K

    2010-10-01

    According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use.

  17. Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, K

    2010-10-01

    According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use. PMID:20513655

  18. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  19. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  20. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients with Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study).

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghei, Abbas

    2015-05-17

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases.

  1. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…

  2. Control of high-purity distillation column using a nonlinear wave theory

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Myungwan; Park, Sunwon )

    1993-05-01

    A new model-based controller for profile position control of high-purity distillation columns is presented. The controller has been developed by incorporating nonlinear wave model into the generic model control framework. An observer based on the nonlinear wave theory is also proposed to determine the profile position. The performance of the nonlinear control scheme has been tested in simulation experiments of high-purity binary distillation columns. Tight control of profile position, which leads to fast stabilization of product compositions, has been achieved. Since the profile position control alone produces a slight offset from the desired product concentration, the composition/profile position cascade system has been used to remove the offset. The control scheme can handle significant disturbances and model-plant mismatch.

  3. Musical rhythm and affect. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Maria A. G.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The Quartet Theory of Human Emotion (QT) proposed by Koelsch et al. [1] adds to existing affective models, e.g. by directing more attention to emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal-directed emotions. Such an approach seems particularly appropriate to modelling musical emotions, and music is indeed a recurring example in the text, used to illustrate the distinct characteristics of the affect systems that are at the centre of the theory. Yet, it would seem important for any theory of emotion to account for basic functions such as prediction and anticipation, which are only briefly mentioned. Here we propose that QT, specifically its focus on emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal directed emotions, might help generate new ideas about a largely neglected source of emotion - rhythm - a musical property that relies fundamentally on the mechanism of prediction.

  4. Teaching Children and Youth Self-Control: Applications of Perceptual Control Theory. From the Second CCBD Mini-Library Series: Successful Interventions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.

    This monograph discusses using an approach based on perceptual control theory (PCT) to teach self-control to children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. PCT is described as a general approach to understanding self-regulated systems that relies on the theory that behavior controls an individual's perceptions rather than the…

  5. Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: a life history theory approach.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2014-10-01

    Past research found that environmental uncertainty leads people to behave differently depending on their childhood environment. For example, economic uncertainty leads people from poor childhoods to become more impulsive while leading people from wealthy childhoods to become less impulsive. Drawing on life history theory, we examine the psychological mechanism driving such diverging responses to uncertainty. Five experiments show that uncertainty alters people's sense of control over the environment. Exposure to uncertainty led people from poorer childhoods to have a significantly lower sense of control than those from wealthier childhoods. In addition, perceptions of control statistically mediated the effect of uncertainty on impulsive behavior. These studies contribute by demonstrating that sense of control is a psychological driver of behaviors associated with fast and slow life history strategies. We discuss the implications of this for theory and future research, including that environmental uncertainty might lead people who grew up poor to quit challenging tasks sooner than people who grew up wealthy.

  6. Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: a life history theory approach.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2014-10-01

    Past research found that environmental uncertainty leads people to behave differently depending on their childhood environment. For example, economic uncertainty leads people from poor childhoods to become more impulsive while leading people from wealthy childhoods to become less impulsive. Drawing on life history theory, we examine the psychological mechanism driving such diverging responses to uncertainty. Five experiments show that uncertainty alters people's sense of control over the environment. Exposure to uncertainty led people from poorer childhoods to have a significantly lower sense of control than those from wealthier childhoods. In addition, perceptions of control statistically mediated the effect of uncertainty on impulsive behavior. These studies contribute by demonstrating that sense of control is a psychological driver of behaviors associated with fast and slow life history strategies. We discuss the implications of this for theory and future research, including that environmental uncertainty might lead people who grew up poor to quit challenging tasks sooner than people who grew up wealthy. PMID:25133717

  7. Control theory based airfoil design for potential flow and a finite volume discretization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J.; Jameson, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for two-dimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a conformal transformation from a unit circle, and the control is the mapping function. The goal of our present work is to develop a method which does not depend on conformal mapping, so that it can be extended to treat three-dimensional problems. Therefore, we have developed a method which can address arbitrary geometric shapes through the use of a finite volume method to discretize the potential flow equation. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented, where both target speed distributions and minimum drag are used as objective functions.

  8. Interpretation of Self-Talk and Post-Lecture Affective States of Higher Education Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Emily J.; Markland, David; Hardy, James

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-determination theory posits that informational versus controlling interpretations of intra-personal events have positive and negative implications, respectively, for well-being. Self-talk represents an intra-personal event that could be interpreted as informational or controlling and may attenuate or exacerbate the negative…

  9. The dominant foot affects the postural control mechanism: examination by body tracking test

    PubMed Central

    Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Tositake; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion The antero-posterior (AP) body tracking test (BTT) showed that the dominant foot could affect the tilt angle of the sway movement, delineated by primary component analysis. Differences associated with the dominant foot could represent the difference in space perception of each person. Objectives To examine whether the dominant foot could affect the postural control mechanism using the BTT. Methods Ninety-seven healthy participants enrolled in the study were classified into right-foot and left-foot dominance groups, and their performances were compared. For the BTT, each participant stood on a stabilometer and caught the movement of a visual target moving vertically (anterior-posterior) or horizontally by the center of pressure movement, displayed on a 14-inch screen monitor at 100 cm in front of the subject. The mean displacement angle of the obtained stabilogram was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results The AP BTT in the right-foot dominance group showed a clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of 3.022 ± 3.761°, whereas the group with left-foot dominance had a modest counter-clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of –0.694 ± 4.497°. This difference was found to be significant by the independent t test (p < 0.0001). In the lateral BTT, the mean displacement angles were not significant. PMID:25252704

  10. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  11. Web Intervention for Adolescents Affected by Disaster: Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Price, Matthew; Adams, Zachary; Stauffacher, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Knapp, Rebecca; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of Bounce Back Now (BBN), a modular, web-based intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents. Method A population-based randomized controlled trial used address-based sampling to enroll 2,000 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Joplin, MO, and Alabama. Data collection via baseline and follow-up semi-structured telephone interviews was completed between September 2011 and August 2013. All families were invited to access the BBN study web portal irrespective of mental health status at baseline. Families who accessed the web portal were assigned randomly to 3 groups: (1) BBN, which featured modules for adolescents and parents targeting adolescents’ mental health symptoms; (2) BBN plus additional modules targeting parents’ mental health symptoms; or (3) assessment only. The primary outcomes were adolescent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Results Nearly 50% of families accessed the web portal. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed time × condition interactions for PTSD symptoms (B=−0.24, SE=0.08, p<.01) and depressive symptoms (B=−0.23, SE=0.09, p<.01). Post-hoc comparisons revealed fewer PTSD and depressive symptoms for adolescents in the experimental vs. control conditions at 12-month follow-up (PTSD: B=−0.36, SE=0.19, p=.06; depressive symptoms: B=−0.42, SE=0.19, p=0.03). A time × condition interaction also was found favoring the BBN vs. BBN + parent self-help condition for PTSD symptoms (B=0.30, SE=0.12, p=.02), but not depressive symptoms (B=0.12, SE=0.12, p=.33). Conclusion Results supported the feasibility and initial efficacy of BBN as a scalable disaster mental health intervention for adolescents. Technology-based solutions have tremendous potential value if found to reduce the mental health burden of disasters. PMID:26299292

  12. Searching for the Self: An Identity Control Theory Approach to Triggers of Occupational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katherine L.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    Identity control theory researchers have found evidence for two processes of identity development (identity defense and identity change) and have theorized a third process (identity exploration). College students (N = 123) self-rated as high or low in occupational identity certainty and importance received self-discrepant feedback to induce…

  13. Optimal control theory for optical waveguide design: application to Y-branch structures.

    PubMed

    Pant, D K; Coalson, R D; Hernández, M I; Campos-Martínez, J

    1999-06-20

    A recently introduced optimal control theory method for optical waveguide design is applied to Y-branch waveguides and Mach-Zehnder modulators. The method simultaneously optimizes many parameters in a chosen design scheme; computational effort scales mildly with the number of parameters considered. Significant improvement in guiding efficiency relative to intuitively reasonable initial parameter choices is obtained in all cases.

  14. Controlling Rater Stringency Error in Clinical Performance Rating: Further Validation of a Performance Rating Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    Prior research in a single clinical training setting has shown Cason and Cason's (1981) simplified model of their performance rating theory can improve rating reliability and validity through statistical control of rater stringency error. Here, the model was applied to clinical performance ratings of 14 cohorts (about 250 students and 200 raters)…

  15. Optimal guidance law for cooperative attack of multiple missiles based on optimal control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Xia, Yuanqing

    2012-08-01

    This article considers the problem of optimal guidance laws for cooperative attack of multiple missiles based on the optimal control theory. New guidance laws are presented such that multiple missiles attack a single target simultaneously. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  16. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  17. An approximation theory for nonlinear partial differential equations with applications to identification and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kunisch, K.

    1982-01-01

    Approximation results from linear semigroup theory are used to develop a general framework for convergence of approximation schemes in parameter estimation and optimal control problems for nonlinear partial differential equations. These ideas are used to establish theoretical convergence results for parameter identification using modal (eigenfunction) approximation techniques. Results from numerical investigations of these schemes for both hyperbolic and parabolic systems are given.

  18. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  19. Theory of Mind Training in Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40).…

  20. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  1. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  2. Credibility theory based dynamic control bound optimization for reservoir flood limited water level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Ping; Ji, Changming; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic control operation of reservoir flood limited water level (FLWL) can solve the contradictions between reservoir flood control and beneficial operation well, and it is an important measure to make sure the security of flood control and realize the flood utilization. The dynamic control bound of FLWL is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir dynamic control operation. In order to optimize the dynamic control bound of FLWL by considering flood forecasting error, this paper took the forecasting error as a fuzzy variable, and described it with the emerging credibility theory in recent years. By combining the flood forecasting error quantitative model, a credibility-based fuzzy chance constrained model used to optimize the dynamic control bound was proposed in this paper, and fuzzy simulation technology was used to solve the model. The FENGTAN reservoir in China was selected as a case study, and the results show that, compared with the original operation water level, the initial operation water level (IOWL) of FENGTAN reservoir can be raised 4 m, 2 m and 5.5 m respectively in the three division stages of flood season, and without increasing flood control risk. In addition, the rationality and feasibility of the proposed forecasting error quantitative model and credibility-based dynamic control bound optimization model are verified by the calculation results of extreme risk theory.

  3. Emotional modulation of control dilemmas: the role of positive affect, reward, and dopamine in cognitive stability and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2014-09-01

    Goal-directed action in changing environments requires a dynamic balance between complementary control modes, which serve antagonistic adaptive functions (e.g., to shield goals from competing responses and distracting information vs. to flexibly switch between goals and behavioral dispositions in response to significant changes). Too rigid goal shielding promotes stability but incurs a cost in terms of perseveration and reduced flexibility, whereas too weak goal shielding promotes flexibility but incurs a cost in terms of increased distractibility. While research on cognitive control has long been conducted relatively independently from the study of emotion and motivation, it is becoming increasingly clear that positive affect and reward play a central role in modulating cognitive control. In particular, evidence from the past decade suggests that positive affect not only influences the contents of cognitive processes, but also modulates the balance between complementary modes of cognitive control. In this article we review studies from the past decade that examined effects of induced positive affect on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility with a focus on set switching and working memory maintenance and updating. Moreover, we review recent evidence indicating that task-irrelevant positive affect and performance-contingent rewards exert different and sometimes opposite effects on cognitive control modes, suggesting dissociations between emotional and motivational effects of positive affect. Finally, we critically review evidence for the popular hypothesis that effects of positive affect may be mediated by dopaminergic modulations of neural processing in prefrontal and striatal brain circuits, and we refine this "dopamine hypothesis of positive affect" by specifying distinct mechanisms by which dopamine may mediate effects of positive affect and reward on cognitive control. We conclude with a discussion of limitations of current research, point to

  4. Emotional modulation of control dilemmas: the role of positive affect, reward, and dopamine in cognitive stability and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2014-09-01

    Goal-directed action in changing environments requires a dynamic balance between complementary control modes, which serve antagonistic adaptive functions (e.g., to shield goals from competing responses and distracting information vs. to flexibly switch between goals and behavioral dispositions in response to significant changes). Too rigid goal shielding promotes stability but incurs a cost in terms of perseveration and reduced flexibility, whereas too weak goal shielding promotes flexibility but incurs a cost in terms of increased distractibility. While research on cognitive control has long been conducted relatively independently from the study of emotion and motivation, it is becoming increasingly clear that positive affect and reward play a central role in modulating cognitive control. In particular, evidence from the past decade suggests that positive affect not only influences the contents of cognitive processes, but also modulates the balance between complementary modes of cognitive control. In this article we review studies from the past decade that examined effects of induced positive affect on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility with a focus on set switching and working memory maintenance and updating. Moreover, we review recent evidence indicating that task-irrelevant positive affect and performance-contingent rewards exert different and sometimes opposite effects on cognitive control modes, suggesting dissociations between emotional and motivational effects of positive affect. Finally, we critically review evidence for the popular hypothesis that effects of positive affect may be mediated by dopaminergic modulations of neural processing in prefrontal and striatal brain circuits, and we refine this "dopamine hypothesis of positive affect" by specifying distinct mechanisms by which dopamine may mediate effects of positive affect and reward on cognitive control. We conclude with a discussion of limitations of current research, point to

  5. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal

  6. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent’s resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target’s feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent’s strategy and the target’s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as

  7. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  8. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression.

  9. A Rate Feedback Predictive Control Scheme Based on Neural Network and Control Theory for Autonomic Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Naixue; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Yang, Laurence T.; Long, Fei; Shu, Lei; Li, Yingshu

    The main difficulty arising in designing an efficient congestion control scheme lies in the large propagation delay in data transfer which usually leads to a mismatch between the network resources and the amount of admitted traffic. To attack this problem, this chapter describes a novel congestion control scheme that is based on a Back Propagation (BP) neural network technique.We consider a general computer communication model with multiple sources and one destination node. The dynamic buffer occupancy of the bottleneck node is predicted and controlled by using a BP neural network. The controlled best-effort traffic of the sources uses the bandwidth, which is left over by the guaranteed traffic. This control mechanism is shown to be able to avoid network congestion efficiently and to optimize the transfer performance both by the theoretic analyzing procedures and by the simulation studies.

  10. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to the design of a rotorcraft flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Gorder, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. Quantitative Feedback Theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear uncertain model of the AH-64 rotorcraft. In this model, the uncertainty is assigned, and is assumed to be attributable to actual uncertainty in the dynamic model and to the changes in the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics which occur near hover. The model includes an approximation to the rotor and actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which handling qualities criteria may be incorporated into the design of realistic rotorcraft control systems in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model.

  11. Aerodynamic shape optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. Recently, the method has been implemented for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. Here results are presented both for the optimization of a swept wing using an analytic mapping, and for the optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using a general mesh.

  12. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  13. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernanda C.; Paiva, Franciny A.; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C.; Caldeira, Henrique M. A.; Fontes, Marco A. P.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C. A.; Casali, Karina R.; Fortes, Gláucia H.; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine—a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mm

  14. Blood donation and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour: an examination of perceived behavioural control.

    PubMed

    Giles, M; Cairns, E

    1995-06-01

    In spite of the success achieved by the theory of reasoned action, researchers continue to suggest that new components should be added to the original model. Indeed, Ajzen has himself acknowledged that some behaviours may be subject to control problems and thus proposed the theory of planned behaviour to handle behaviours of this kind. This study set out to explore the predictive superiority of the revised theory of planned behaviour by focusing on blood donation, a behavioural domain in which volitional control was thought to be incomplete. It was also the intention to explore the extent to which the belief-based measure of attitude exists as a multidimensional construct. An Ajzen & Fishbein type questionnaire was administered to 141 undergraduate students. Multiple regression analyses provided strong support for the theory of planned behaviour, suggesting that perception of control has an important impact on a person's behavioural motivation. Also, some support for a multidimensional representation of the belief-based measure of attitude was provided.

  15. Blood donation and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour: an examination of perceived behavioural control.

    PubMed

    Giles, M; Cairns, E

    1995-06-01

    In spite of the success achieved by the theory of reasoned action, researchers continue to suggest that new components should be added to the original model. Indeed, Ajzen has himself acknowledged that some behaviours may be subject to control problems and thus proposed the theory of planned behaviour to handle behaviours of this kind. This study set out to explore the predictive superiority of the revised theory of planned behaviour by focusing on blood donation, a behavioural domain in which volitional control was thought to be incomplete. It was also the intention to explore the extent to which the belief-based measure of attitude exists as a multidimensional construct. An Ajzen & Fishbein type questionnaire was administered to 141 undergraduate students. Multiple regression analyses provided strong support for the theory of planned behaviour, suggesting that perception of control has an important impact on a person's behavioural motivation. Also, some support for a multidimensional representation of the belief-based measure of attitude was provided. PMID:7620844

  16. Realization theory and quadratic optimal controllers for systems defined over Banach and Frechet algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, C. I.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that recent work by Kamen (1979) on the stability of half-plane digital filters shows that the problem of the existence of a feedback law also arises for other Banach algebras in applications. This situation calls for a realization theory and stabilizability criteria for systems defined over Banach for Frechet algebra A. Such a theory is developed here, with special emphasis placed on the construction of finitely generated realizations, the existence of coprime factorizations for T(s) defined over A, and the solvability of the quadratic optimal control problem and the associated algebraic Riccati equation over A.

  17. REVIEW: Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2005-09-01

    Internal models and adaptive controls are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models' architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods, such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning, are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of a Luenberger observer and an extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems—such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity—is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal models in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future.

  18. Steering of Frequency Standards by the Use of Linear Quadratic Gaussian Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppang, Paul; Leland, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Linear quadratic Gaussian control is a technique that uses Kalman filtering to estimate a state vector used for input into a control calculation. A control correction is calculated by minimizing a quadratic cost function that is dependent on both the state vector and the control amount. Different penalties, chosen by the designer, are assessed by the controller as the state vector and control amount vary from given optimal values. With this feature controllers can be designed to force the phase and frequency differences between two standards to zero either more or less aggressively depending on the application. Data will be used to show how using different parameters in the cost function analysis affects the steering and the stability of the frequency standards.

  19. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 1: The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions: Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed first principle kinetic theory for electrons which is neither a classical fluid treatment nor an exospheric calculation is presented. This theory illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion that shape the observed features of the electron distribution function, such as its bifurcation, its skewness and the differential temperatures of the thermal and suprathermal subpopulations. Coulomb collisions are substantial mediators of the interplanetary electron velocity distribution function and they place a zone for a bifurcation of the electron distribution function deep in the corona. The local cause and effect precept which permeates the physics of denser media is modified for electrons in the solar wind. The local form of transport laws and equations of state which apply to collision dominated plasmas are replaced with global relations that explicitly depend on the relative position of the observer to the boundaries of the system.

  20. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations.

  1. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations. PMID:15451859

  2. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  3. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive-Affect Intervention and Medication Adherence in Hypertensive African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga O.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Wells, Martin T.; Allegrante, John P.; Isen, Alice M.; Jobe, Jared B.; Charlson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor adherence explains poor blood pressure (BP) control; however African Americans suffer worse hypertension-related outcomes. Methods This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a patient education intervention enhanced with positive-affect induction and self-affirmation (PA) was more effective than patient education (PE) alone in improving medication adherence and BP reduction among 256 hypertensive African Americans followed up in 2 primary care practices. Patients in both groups received a culturally tailored hypertension self-management workbook, a behavioral contract, and bimonthly telephone calls designed to help them overcome barriers to medication adherence. Also, patients in the PA group received small gifts and bimonthly telephone calls to help them incorporate positive thoughts into their daily routine and foster self-affirmation. The main outcome measures were medication adherence (assessed with electronic pill monitors) and within-patient change in BP from baseline to 12 months. Results The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups: the mean BP was 137/82 mm Hg; 36% of the patients had diabetes; 11% had stroke; and 3% had chronic kidney disease. Based on the intention-to-treat principle, medication adherence at 12 months was higher in the PA group than in the PE group (42% vs 36%, respectively; P =.049). The within-group reduction in systolic BP (2.14 mm Hg vs 2.18 mm Hg; P =.98) and diastolic BP (−1.59 mm Hg vs −0.78 mm Hg; P=.45) for the PA group and PE group, respectively, was not significant. Conclusions A PE intervention enhanced with PA led to significantly higher medication adherence compared with PE alone in hypertensive African Americans. Future studies should assess the cost-effectiveness of integrating such interventions into primary care. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00227175 PMID:22269592

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy, and Their Combination for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Tierney Lindsey, Kathryn; Johnson, Leigh G.; Lippy, Robert D.; Lacy, Timothy J.; Barton, Franca B.

    2007-01-01

    This first controlled psychotherapy trial for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) compared SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), light therapy (LT), and their combination to a concurrent wait-list control. Adults (N = 61) with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, were randomized to one of four 6-week conditions: CBT (1.5-hr…

  6. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  7. Monotonically convergent optimal control theory of quantum systems with spectral constraints on the control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Tehini, R.; Turinici, G.; Sugny, D.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a monotonically convergent algorithm which can enforce spectral constraints on the control field (and extends to arbitrary filters). The procedure differs from standard algorithms in that at each iteration, the control field is taken as a linear combination of the control field (computed by the standard algorithm) and the filtered field. The parameter of the linear combination is chosen to respect the monotonic behavior of the algorithm and to be as close to the filtered field as possible. We test the efficiency of this method on molecular alignment. Using bandpass filters, we show how to select particular rotational transitions to reach high alignment efficiency. We also consider spectral constraints corresponding to experimental conditions using pulse-shaping techniques. We determine an optimal solution that could be implemented experimentally with this technique.

  8. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M.; Lee, Christopher C.H.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Whalen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in “context A”. Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory. PMID:25721797

  9. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  10. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory.

  11. Actin dynamics affect mitochondrial quality control and aging in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Ryo; Vevea, Jason D; Swayne, Theresa C; Chojnowski, Robert; Hill, Vanessa; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2013-12-01

    Actin cables of budding yeast are bundles of F-actin that extend from the bud tip or neck to the mother cell tip, serve as tracks for bidirectional cargo transport, and undergo continuous movement from buds toward mother cells [1]. This movement, retrograde actin cable flow (RACF), is similar to retrograde actin flow in lamellipodia, growth cones, immunological synapses, dendritic spines, and filopodia [2-5]. In all cases, actin flow is driven by the push of actin polymerization and assembly at the cell cortex, and myosin-driven pulling forces deeper within the cell [6-10]. Therefore, for movement and inheritance from mothers to buds, mitochondria must "swim upstream" against the opposing force of RACF [11]. We find that increasing RACF rates results in increased fitness of mitochondria inherited by buds and that the increase in mitochondrial fitness leads to extended replicative lifespan and increased cellular healthspan. The sirtuin SIR2 is required for normal RACF and mitochondrial fitness, and increasing RACF rates in sir2Δ cells increases mitochondrial fitness and cellular healthspan but does not affect replicative lifespan. These studies support the model that RACF serves as a filter for segregation of fit from less-fit mitochondria during inheritance, which controls cellular lifespan and healthspan. They also support a role for Sir2p in these processes.

  12. Digital signal processing and control and estimation theory -- Points of tangency, area of intersection, and parallel directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    A number of current research directions in the fields of digital signal processing and modern control and estimation theory were studied. Topics such as stability theory, linear prediction and parameter identification, system analysis and implementation, two-dimensional filtering, decentralized control and estimation, image processing, and nonlinear system theory were examined in order to uncover some of the basic similarities and differences in the goals, techniques, and philosophy of the two disciplines. An extensive bibliography is included.

  13. Ross, macdonald, and a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Battle, Katherine E; Hay, Simon I; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various "Ross-Macdonald" mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955-1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  14. Ross, Macdonald, and a Theory for the Dynamics and Control of Mosquito-Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Hay, Simon I.; Barker, Christopher M.; Scott, Thomas W.; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various “Ross-Macdonald” mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955–1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22496640

  15. Individual Differences in Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind: An Investigation of Inhibitory Control and Planning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.; Claxton, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the relative contributions of two aspects of executive function--inhibitory control and planning ability--to theory of mind in 49 3- and 4-year-olds. Children were given two standard theory of mind measures (Appearance-Reality and False Belief), three inhibitory control tasks (Bear/Dragon, Whisper, and Gift Delay), three…

  16. Opportunities, Rational Choice, and Self-Control: On the Interaction of Person and Situation in a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…

  17. Bridges from affect to language. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, David S.; Aryani, Arash

    2015-06-01

    The comprehensive Quartet Theory of Human Emotions proposed by Koelsch et al. [4] offers an exceptional synopsis regarding major developments in affective neuroscience, encompassing classical data based on animal studies as well as emotions generally classified as uniquely human. In doing so, it becomes apparent that while general anatomical grounds appear well covered mainly based on animal studies, neuroanatomical underpinnings of interactions between emotion and language may not be readily understood.

  18. Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.

  19. Management of redundancy in flight control systems using optimal decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of using redundancy that exists between dissimilar systems in aircraft flight control is addressed. That is, using the redundancy that exists between a rate gyro and an accelerometer--devices that have dissimilar outputs which are related only through the dynamics of the aircraft motion. Management of this type of redundancy requires advanced logic so that the system can monitor failure status and can reconfigure itself in the event of one or more failures. An optimal decision theory was tutorially developed for the management of sensor redundancy and the theory is applied to two aircraft examples. The first example is the space shuttle and the second is a highly maneuvering high performance aircraft--the F8-C. The examples illustrate the redundancy management design process and the performance of the algorithms presented in failure detection and control law reconfiguration.

  20. What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T

    2013-02-01

    The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality.

  1. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music. PMID:26551862

  2. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  3. Approximation theory for LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) optimal control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Adamian, A.

    1988-01-01

    An approximation theory is presented for the LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) optimal control problem for flexible structures whose distributed models have bounded input and output operators. The main purpose of the theory is to guide the design of finite dimensional compensators that approximate closely the optimal compensator. The optimal LQG problem separates into an optimal linear-quadratic regulator problem and an optimal state estimation problem. The solution of the former problem lies in the solution to an infinite dimensional Riccati operator equation. The approximation scheme approximates the infinite dimensional LQG problem with a sequence of finite dimensional LQG problems defined for a sequence of finite dimensional, usually finite element or modal, approximations of the distributed model of the structure. Two Riccati matrix equations determine the solution to each approximating problem. The finite dimensional equations for numerical approximation are developed, including formulas for converting matrix control and estimator gains to their functional representation to allow comparison of gains based on different orders of approximation. Convergence of the approximating control and estimator gains and of the corresponding finite dimensional compensators is studied. Also, convergence and stability of the closed-loop systems produced with the finite dimensional compensators are discussed. The convergence theory is based on the convergence of the solutions of the finite dimensional Riccati equations to the solutions of the infinite dimensional Riccati equations. A numerical example with a flexible beam, a rotating rigid body, and a lumped mass is given.

  4. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M.; George, Dylan B.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Garcia, Andres J.; Gatton, Michelle L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hartley, David M.; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y.; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L.; Pigott, David M.; Reisen, William K.; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K.; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J.; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Cohen, Justin M.; Hay, Simon I.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross–Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453

  5. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control.

  6. Using Wenger's Social Theory of Learning to Examine University Teachers' Understanding of How Instructional Technology Affects Their Experience in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…

  7. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  8. Improving breast cancer control among Latinas: evaluation of a theory-based educational program.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S I; Chavez, L R; Magaña, J R; Nava, P; Burciaga Valdez, R; Hubbell, F A

    1998-10-01

    The study evaluated a theory-based breast cancer control program specially developed for less acculturated Latinas. The authors used a quasi-experimental design with random assignment of Latinas into experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 37) groups that completed one pretest and two posttest surveys. The experimental group received the educational program, which was based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory and Freire's empowerment pedagogy. Outcome measures included knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, attitudes, breast self-examination (BSE) skills, and mammogram use. At posttest 1, controlling for pretest scores, the experimental group was significantly more likely than the control group to have more medically recognized knowledge (sum of square [SS] = 17.0, F = 6.58, p < .01), have less medically recognized knowledge (SS = 128.8, F = 39.24, p < .001), greater sense of perceived self-efficacy (SS = 316.5, F = 9.63, p < .01), and greater adeptness in the conduct of BSE (SS = 234.8, F = 153.33, p < .001). Cancer control programs designed for less acculturated women should use informal and interactive educational methods that incorporate skill-enhancing and empowering techniques. PMID:9768384

  9. Unit Template Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangarraju, J.; Rajagopal, V.; Jayalaxmi, A.

    2014-04-01

    This article proposes new and simplified unit templates instead of standard phase locked loop (PLL) for Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Control Algorithm (SRFT). The extraction of synchronizing components (sinθ and cosθ) for parks and inverse parks transformation using standard PLL takes more execution time. This execution time in control algorithm delays the extraction of reference source current generation. The standard PLL not only takes more execution time but also increases the reactive power burden on the Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). This work proposes a unit template based SRFT control algorithm for four-leg insulated gate bipolar transistor based voltage source converter for DSTATCOM in distribution systems. This will reduce the execution time and reactive power burden on the DSTATCOM. The proposed DSTATCOM suppress harmonics, regulates the terminal voltage along with neutral current compensation. The DSTATCOM in distribution systems with proposed control algorithm is modeled and simulated using MATLAB using SIMULINK and Simpower systems toolboxes.

  10. Vibration isolation and reduction by spring-stiffness control based on theory of variable structure systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Shioya, S.; Oda, M.

    1995-12-31

    By controlling spring stiffness, vibration reduction and isolation for the mass-spring system are achieved in this paper. The control algorithm of the spring stiffness is based on the variable structure systems (VSS) theory. The stiffness-controllable spring is achieved by using two straight bars that are hinged to the mass in a line perpendicular to the direction of mass motion and are applied axial force. Since the axial force causes restoring force equivalent to the spring, the stiffness is controlled by the axial force. In the numerical simulations and experiments, the settling time of the impulse response and the displacement transmissibility are investigated. The results show that the proposed method is effective in suppressing shock motion and isolating vibration transmitted from the floor.

  11. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  12. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  13. Monotonically convergent optimal control theory of quantum systems under a nonlinear interaction with the control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Tehini, R.; Turinici, G.; Sugny, D.

    2008-08-01

    We consider the optimal control of quantum systems interacting nonlinearly with an electromagnetic field. We propose monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the optimal equations. The monotonic behavior of the algorithm is ensured by a nonstandard choice of the cost, which is not quadratic in the field. These algorithms can be constructed for pure- and mixed-state quantum systems. The efficiency of the method is shown numerically for molecular orientation with a nonlinearity of order 3 in the field. Discretizing the amplitude and the phase of the Fourier transform of the optimal field, we show that the optimal solution can be well approximated by pulses that could be implemented experimentally.

  14. Internally directed cognition and mindfulness: an integrative perspective derived from predictive and reactive control systems theory

    PubMed Central

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Quirin, Markus; IJzerman, Hans; Koole, Sander L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we will apply the predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the “default mode network” (DMN) and anterior insula (AI) as parts of two different behavioral and homeostatic control systems. The DMN, a network that becomes active at rest when there is no external stimulation or task to perform, has been implicated in self-reflective awareness and prospection. By contrast, the AI is associated with awareness and task-related attention. This has led to competing theories stressing the role of the DMN in self-awareness vs. the role of interoceptive and emotional information integration in the AI in awareness of the emotional moment. In PARCS, the respective functions of the DMN and AI in a specific control system explains their association with different qualities of awareness, and how mental states can shift from one state (e.g., prospective self-reflection) to the other (e.g., awareness of the emotional moment) depending on the relative dominance of control systems. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of novel information, integration of this novel information within existing knowledge structures, and the creation of a continuous personal context in which novel information can be integrated and understood. As such, PARCS can explain key characteristics of mental states, such as their temporal and spatial focus (e.g., a focus on the here and now vs. the future; a first person vs. a third person perspective). PARCS further relates mental states to brain states and functions, such as activation of the DMN or hemispheric asymmetry in frontal cortical functions. Together, PARCS deepens the understanding of a broad range of mental states, including mindfulness, mind wandering, rumination, autobiographical memory, imagery, and the experience of self. PMID:24904455

  15. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Mediate the Effects of Low Self-Control on Alcohol Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Marcum, Catherine Davis

    2005-01-01

    Some studies show that Gottfredson and Hirschi's low self-control plays an important role in alcohol use, but low self-control remains stable over time. Because self-control is not easily changed, the present study examines the ability of theory of planned behavior to mediate the effect of low self-control on intentions to use alcohol and alcohol…

  16. Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Distributed System Theory to the Control of Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Two general themes in the control of large space structures are addressed: control theory for distributed parameter systems and distributed control for systems requiring spatially-distributed multipoint sensing and actuation. Topics include modeling and control, stabilization, and estimation and identification.

  17. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. I - The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions - Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic theory for the velocity distribution of solar wind electrons which illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion is proposed. By means of the Boltzmann equation with the Krook collision operator accounting for Coulomb collisions, it is found that Coulomb collisions determine the population and shape of the electron distribution function in both the thermal and suprathermal energy regimes. For suprathermal electrons, the cumulative effects of Coulomb interactions are shown to take place on the scale of the heliosphere itself, whereas the Coulomb interactions of thermal electrons occur on a local scale near the point of observation (1 AU). The bifurcation of the electron distribution between thermal and suprathermal electrons is localized to the deep solar corona (1 to 10 solar radii).

  18. A neurocognitive theory of higher mental emergence: from anoetic affective experiences to noetic knowledge and autonoetic awareness.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    This essay provides an overview of evolutionary levels of consciousness, with a focus on a continuum of consciousness: from primarily affective to more advanced cognitive forms of neural processing-from anoetic (without knowledge) consciousness based on affective feelings, elaborated by brain networks that are subcortical- and can function without neocortical involvement, to noetic (knowledge based) and autonoetic (higher reflective mental) processes that permits conscious awareness. An abundance of such mind-brain linkages have been established using standard neuropsychological and brain-imaging procedures. Much of the characterization of human mental landscapes has been achieved with long accepted psychometric procedures that often do not adequately tap the lived anoetic experiential phenomenological aspects of mind. Without an understanding of affective based anoetic forms of consciousness, an adequate characterization of the human mind may never be achieved. A full synthesis will require us to view mental-experiential processes concurrently at several distinct neurophysiological levels, including foundational affective-emotional issues that are best probed with cross-species affective neuroscience strategies. This essay attempts to relate these levels of analysis to the neural systems that constitute lived experience in the human mind. PMID:21530586

  19. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  20. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    composition (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and Úbeda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio

  1. PARKINSON'S DISEASE PATIENTS WITH DOMINANT HEMIBODY AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE RELY MORE ON VISION TO MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.

  2. First- and higher-order models of attitudes, normative influence, and perceived behavioural control in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of an augmented version of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), adopting second-order latent factors to explain relationships between the differentiated components of the theory constructs. This model was tested on data from two independent samples, for exercise and dieting behaviours, respectively. The affective and instrumental attitude, injunctive and descriptive norms, and perceived controllability and self-efficacy constructs all exhibited discriminant validity in the first instance. First- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses exhibited satisfactory fit with the observed data from both samples. There were no substantial differences in the fit indices across the first- and second-order models, and the second-order models exhibited the most optimal parsimony-corrected fit indices. The higher-order models could therefore not be rejected on the grounds of inferior fit or parsimony. First- and second-order structural equation models accounted for significant variance in intentions and behaviour. These results corroborate Ajzen's (2002a) and Bagozzi, Lee, and van Loo's (2001) premise that recent augmentations of the TPB that differentiate the model components can be subsumed by global, higher-order factors while still making the distinction at the subordinate level.

  3. The fading affect bias in the context of emotion activation level, mood, and personal theories of emotion change.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Timothy; Skowronski, John J; Hartnett, Jessica; Wells, Brett; Walker, W Richard

    2009-05-01

    The intensity of emotions associated with memory of pleasant events generally fades more slowly across time than the intensity of emotions associated with memory of unpleasant events, a phenomenon known as the fading affect bias (FAB). Four studies examined variables that might account for, or moderate, the bias. These included the activation level of the emotions, individual differences in dispositional mood, and participant expectations of emotion change across time. Results suggest that (a) although emotion activation level was related to overall fading of affect, it was unrelated to the FAB; (b) dispositional mood moderated the FAB, but could not fully account for it; and (c) although participants' predictions of event-related emotion change across time were somewhat veridical, the FAB emerged even when these predictions were accounted for statistically. Methodological and theoretical implications for research on the affect associated with autobiographical events are discussed.

  4. Optimal control of open quantum systems: A combined surrogate Hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten

    2012-03-28

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  5. Optimal control of open quantum systems: a combined surrogate hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Erik; Klüner, Thorsten

    2012-03-28

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ℏ = m(e) = e = a(0) = 1, have been used unless otherwise stated. PMID:22462846

  6. Optimal control of open quantum systems: A combined surrogate Hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Erik; Klüner, Thorsten

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)], 10.1063/1.473950. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998), 10.1063/1.475576; Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)], 10.1063/1.1650297. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ℏ = me = e = a0 = 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  7. Positive and negative affect recognition in schizophrenia: a comparison with substance abuse and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Bell, M; Bryson, G; Lysaker, P

    1997-11-14

    This study had three aims: to compare a schizophrenia sample (n = 50) with a substance abuse (n = 25) and normal sample (n = 81) on affect recognition; to compare differences in their performance between positive and negative affect recognition; and to introduce a new videotape method of stimulus presentation. Subjects were asked to identify the predominant affect depicted in 21 5-10-s vignettes containing three trials of seven affect states. Results demonstrate significant group differences: normal subjects scored in the normal or mild range, substance abuse (s/a) subjects scored in the mild and moderate ranges, and the schizophrenia sample scored predominantly in the moderate to severe ranges. Accuracies were 92.3% for the normal sample, 77.2 for the s/a sample and 64.8 for the schizophrenia sample. Response dispersions were 97.6% for the schizophrenia group, 69% for the s/a sample and 38% in the normal sample. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a group by type of affect interaction with schizophrenia subjects showing far greater differential impairment on negative affect recognition. Difficulty of item did not contribute to this difference. Test-retest reliability at 5 months for this new method was r = 0.76, and stability of categorization was very high over 5 months (weighted kappa = 0.93). These affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia are discussed as they relate to lateralization of brain function, high EE families, social skills impairment and implications for rehabilitation services. PMID:9463840

  8. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  9. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  10. CR-Calculus and adaptive array theory applied to MIMO random vibration control tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musella, U.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.; Guillaume, P.

    2016-09-01

    Performing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) tests to reproduce the vibration environment in a user-defined number of control points of a unit under test is necessary in applications where a realistic environment replication has to be achieved. MIMO tests require vibration control strategies to calculate the required drive signal vector that gives an acceptable replication of the target. This target is a (complex) vector with magnitude and phase information at the control points for MIMO Sine Control tests while in MIMO Random Control tests, in the most general case, the target is a complete spectral density matrix. The idea behind this work is to tailor a MIMO random vibration control approach that can be generalized to other MIMO tests, e.g. MIMO Sine and MIMO Time Waveform Replication. In this work the approach is to use gradient-based procedures over the complex space, applying the so called CR-Calculus and the adaptive array theory. With this approach it is possible to better control the process performances allowing the step-by-step Jacobian Matrix update. The theoretical bases behind the work are followed by an application of the developed method to a two-exciter two-axis system and by performance comparisons with standard methods.

  11. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2010-06-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction.

  12. Autonomy and control: augmenting the validity of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting exercise.

    PubMed

    Brickell, Tracey A; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Pretty, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) along with additional constructs in predicting exercise, and explored the motivational antecedents of exercise intentions. Participants included 162 Canadian University College students (61% females). Measures of TPB, autonomous and controlling intention, perceived autonomy support and core autonomous intention were completed during phase 1 of data collection. Two and three weeks later behaviour was assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: (a) attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted TPB intention and core autonomous intention; (b) subjective norm predicted controlling intention; and (c) perceived autonomy support predicted autonomous and core autonomous intention. TPB intention significantly predicted behaviour. TPB is a fairly useful model for predicting behaviour and important information can be gained when other measures of intention are explored.

  13. Development of a two-dimensional skin friction balance nulling circuit using multivariable control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Patek, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of planar skin friction forces in aerodynamic testing currently requires installation of two perpendicularly mounted, single-axis balances; consequently, force components must be sensed at two distinct locations. A two-axis instrument developed at the Langley Research Center to overcome this disadvantage allows measurement of a two-dimensional force at one location. This paper describes a feedback-controlled nulling circuit developed for the NASA two-axis balance which, without external compensation, is inherently unstable because of its low friction mechanical design. Linear multivariable control theory is applied to an experimentally validated mathematical model of the balance to synthesize a state-variable feedback control law. Pole placement techniques and computer simulation studies are employed to select eigenvalues which provide ideal transient response with decoupled sensing dynamics.

  14. Optimal control theory investigation of proprotor/wing response to vertical gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J. K. D.; Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is used to design linear state variable feedback to improve the dynamic characteristics of a rotor and cantilever wing representing the tilting proprotor aircraft in cruise flight. The response to a vertical gust and system damping are used as criteria for the open and closed loop performance. The improvement in the dynamic characteristics achievable is examined for a gimballed rotor and for a hingeless rotor design. Several features of the design process are examined, including: (1) using only the wing or only the rotor dynamics in the control system design; (2) the use of a wing flap as well as the rotor controls for inputs; (3) and the performance of the system designed for one velocity at other forward speeds.

  15. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  16. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  17. Heart rate discrimination and heart rate control: a test of Brener's theory.

    PubMed

    Grigg, L; Ashton, R

    1984-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine predictions from Brener's theory regarding the relationship between autonomic discrimination and autonomic control. Experiment 1 examined the possibility that training subjects to discriminate their heart rates would enhance their skill at controlling that response. Twenty subjects participated in two sessions during which one group of 10 subjects received training (knowledge of results) on the Ashton discrimination technique. The second group performed the discrimination task but received no training. All subjects then took part in a third session of heart rate (HR) control (both increase and decrease) where half of each of the aforementioned groups received feedback during the control task, while the other half performed the HR control task without feedback. Results indicated that for the control of both HR increases and decreases, there was no significant difference between those subjects trained to discriminate their HR, and those who had received no training to discriminate HR. The second experiment investigated the hypothesis that training subjects with feedback to control their HR would enhance their capacity to discriminate their heart activity. Ten subjects participated in two sessions of HR control during which half the subjects received feedback training to increase HR. During a third session, all subjects underwent a test of discrimination ability using the Ashton technique, and no knowledge of results regarding performance was provided. Results confirmed the hypothesis. The final experiment in the series investigated the discrimination/control relationship within a problem-solving framework and used 20 subjects. Results confirmed the hypothesis that subjects forewarned at the time of discrimination training that a heart rate control task was to follow would perform better than 10 subjects receiving no forewarning of the task objective. This effect took place independently of cardiac discrimination ability. A

  18. The Effects of Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression on Cognitive Control in Affective Contexts: an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Felder, Jennifer N.; Smoski, Moria J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired cognitive control in affective contexts, but the potential for psychotherapy to affect the neural correlates of these functions has not been evaluated. Method Twelve adults with and 15 adults without MDD participated in two identical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans that utilized a task requiring cognitive control in both sad and neutral contexts. Between scans, MDD outpatients received Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression, a psychotherapy modality designed to increase engagement with positive stimuli and reduce avoidance behaviors. Results Seventy-five percent of adults with MDD were treatment responders, achieving post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of six or below. Consistent with predictions, psychotherapy resulted in decreased activation in response to cognitive control stimuli presented within a sad context in prefrontal structures, including the paracingulate gyrus, the right orbital frontal cortex, and the right frontal pole. Furthermore, the magnitude of pretreatment activation in the paracingulate gyrus cluster responsive to psychotherapy predicted the magnitude of depressive symptom change after psychotherapy. Limitations Replication with larger samples is needed, as are follow-up studies that involve placebo control groups, wait-list control groups, and alternative forms of antidepressant intervention. Conclusions Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression improves depressive symptoms and concomitantly influences brain systems mediating cognitive control in affective contexts. PMID:20421135

  19. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  20. Adaptive modeling, identification, and control of dynamic structural systems. I. Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1989-01-01

    A concise review of the theory of adaptive modeling, identification, and control of dynamic structural systems based on discrete-time recordings is presented. Adaptive methods have four major advantages over the classical methods: (1) Removal of the noise from the signal is done over the whole frequency band; (2) time-varying characteristics of systems can be tracked; (3) systems with unknown characteristics can be controlled; and (4) a small segment of the data is needed during the computations. Included in the paper are the discrete-time representation of single-input single-output (SISO) systems, models for SISO systems with noise, the concept of stochastic approximation, recursive prediction error method (RPEM) for system identification, and the adaptive control. Guidelines for model selection and model validation and the computational aspects of the method are also discussed in the paper. The present paper is the first of two companion papers. The theory given in the paper is limited to that which is necessary to follow the examples for applications in structural dynamics presented in the second paper.

  1. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  2. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  3. Theory of agent-based market models with controlled levels of greed and anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, P.; Coolen, A. C. C.

    2010-01-01

    We use generating functional analysis to study minority-game-type market models with generalized strategy valuation updates that control the psychology of agents' actions. The agents' choice between trend-following and contrarian trading, and their vigor in each, depends on the overall state of the market. Even in 'fake history' models, the theory now involves an effective overall bid process (coupled to the effective agent process) which can exhibit profound remanence effects and new phase transitions. For some models the bid process can be solved directly, others require Maxwell-construction-type approximations.

  4. The Significance of Turning Passive Into Active in Control Mastery Theory

    PubMed Central

    FOREMAN, STEVEN A.

    1996-01-01

    Turning passive into active was first described by Freud but was later given expanded importance by Weiss. This new conceptualization of turning passive into active as an interpersonal communication and test has made a major contribution to the clinical treatment of difficult patients. This article reviews "control mastery" theory and puts its notion of passive-into-active testing into perspective with regard to Freud’s original conception as well as other conceptions, such as identification with the aggressor and projective identification. Formulation and the treatment of patients are illustrated with clinical examples. PMID:22700271

  5. Ability of Stress, Sense of Control, and Self-Theories to Predict Swedish High School Students' Final Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollfors, Marianne; Andersson, Sven Ingmar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate self-theories (theories of intelligence, confidence in one's intelligence, internal attribution of failure, academic self-efficacy), specific control, and experiencing of stress by means of a questionnaire for 915 Swedish high school students. Factor analysis yielded 6 stress domains (Workload, Psychosocial…

  6. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  7. Designing Functionalized Nanoparticles for Controlled Assembly in Polymer Matrix: Self consistent PRISM Theory and Monte Carlo simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Arthi; Nair, Nitish

    2011-03-01

    Significant interest has grown around the ability to create hybrid materials with controlled spatial arrangement of nanoparticles mediated by a polymer matrix. By functionalizing or grafting polymers on to nanoparticle surfaces and systematically tuning the composition, chemistry, molecular weight and grafting density of the grafted polymers one can tailor the inter-particle interactions and control the assembly/dispersion of the particles in the polymer matrix. In our recent work using self-consistent Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) theory- Monte Carlo simulations we have shown that tailoring the monomer sequences in the grafted copolymers provides a novel route to tuning the effective inter-particle interactions between the functionalized nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. In this talk I will present how monomer sequence and molecular weights (with and without polydispersity) of the grafted polymers, compatibility of the graft and matrix polymers, and nanoparticle size affect the chain conformations of the grafted polymers and the potential of mean force between the grafted nanoparticles in the matrix.

  8. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention. PMID:18361907

  9. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  10. Fuzzy Set Theory Applied to Measurement Data for Exposure Control in Beryllium Part Manufacturing.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Abeln, S. P.; Creek, K. L.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory has been applied to some exposure control problems encountered in the machining and the manufacturing of beryllium parts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A portion of that work is presented here. The major driving force for using fuzzy techniques in this case rather than classical statistical process control is that beryllium exposure is very task dependent and this manufacturing plant is quite atypical. It is feared that standard techniques produce too many false alarms. Our beryllium plant produces parts on a daily basis, but every day is different. Some days many parts are produced and some days only a few. Some times the parts are large and sometimes the parts are small. Some machining cuts are rough and some are fine. These factors and others make it hard to define a typical day. The problem of concern, for this study, is the worker beryllium exposure. Even though the plant is new and very modern and the exposure levels are expected to be well below the required levels, the Department of Energy (DOE), who is our major customer, has demanded that the levels for this plant be well below required levels. The control charts used to monitor this process are expected to answer two questions: (1) Is the process out of Control? Do we need to instigate special controls such as requiring workers to use respirators? (2) Are new, previously untested, controls making a difference? The standard Schewart type control charts, based on consistent plant operating conditions do not adequately answer this question. The approach described here is based upon a fuzzy modification to the Schewart Xbar-R chart. This approach is expected to yield better results than work based upon the classical probabilistic control chart.

  11. Dispositional Empathic Concern, Gender, Level of Experience, Teacher Efficacy, Attributions of Controllability and Teacher Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panik, Meredith Anne

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' pity and anger responses to students who fail often are interpreted by the students as indicative of the teachers' attributions for the cause behind the student failure. Students' interpretations of these emotional responses can affect their self-esteem and expectations for future success. The present study explored variables that may…

  12. Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Attention to Threat-Relevant Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Vasey, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of temperamental influences on risk for psychopathology. Whereas the link between the broad temperament construct of negative affectivity (NA) and problems associated with anxiety and depression is now well-established, the mechanisms through which this link operate are not well understood. One possibility involves…

  13. How Positive Affect Modulates Cognitive Control: Reduced Perseveration at the Cost of Increased Distractibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Goschke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental problem that organisms face in a changing environment is how to regulate dynamically the balance between stable maintenance and flexible switching of goals and cognitive sets. The authors show that positive affect plays an important role in the regulation of this stability-flexibility balance. In a cognitive set-switching paradigm,…

  14. Anxiety and Affective Control among Distance Language Learners in China and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Stella; Xiao, Junhong

    2010-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA) has been the focus of many studies into affect in classroom settings. However, the growing numbers of distance language learners worldwide in recent years calls for greater attention to be paid to this increasingly important constituency of language learners. Following on from Hurd's investigation into FLA with…

  15. Altruistic sharing behavior in children: Role of theory of mind and inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Buyun; Huang, Zhelan; Xu, Guifeng; Jin, Yu; Chen, Yajun; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Qingxiong; Song, Shanshan; Jing, Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess altruistic sharing behavior in children aged 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 11 years and to explore the involvement of potential cognitive mechanisms, namely theory of mind (ToM) and inhibitory control. A total of 158 children completed a dictator game with stickers as incentives. ToM was evaluated using a false belief task in preschoolers and the Strange Story Test in school-age children. Inhibitory control was assessed in preschoolers with the Day-Night task and in older children with the Stroop Color-Word Test. The result was that 48.10% of children aged 3 to 5 years decided to share, and the percentage rose significantly with increasing age. The difference in altruism level in children who decided to share among the three age groups was nonsignificant. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decision to share or not and altruistic behavior may be different. No significant linear relations were found between cognitive processes (i.e., ToM and inhibitory control) and sharing behavior. Surprisingly, 9- to 11-year-olds who shared 3 of 10 stickers performed worse in inhibitory control than did those who shared any other number of stickers. In conclusion, the proportion of children who decided to share, but not the level of altruism, increased with age. ToM was not involved in altruistic sharing, whereas inhibitory control may play a role when deciding how much to share. PMID:26452508

  16. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict.

  17. Optimal control theory (OWEM) applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. J.; Kai, T.

    1975-01-01

    A major difficulty in the practical application of linear-quadratic regulator theory is how to choose the weighting matrices in quadratic cost functions. The control system design with optimal weighting matrices was applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase. The weighting matrices were calculated to extremize the closed loop total system damping subject to constraints on the determinants. The extremization is really a minimization of the effects of disturbances, and interpreted as a compromise between the generalized system accuracy and the generalized system response speed. The trade-off between the accuracy and the response speed is adjusted by a single parameter, the ratio of determinants. By this approach an objective measure can be obtained for the design of a control system. The measure is to be determined by the system requirements.

  18. Control of a Flexible Space Antenna: A Finite Dimensional Perspective Based on Distributed Parameter Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingori, D. L.; Gibson, J. S.; Blelloch, P.; Adamian, A.

    1985-01-01

    The methods presented are based on results from infinite dimensional control theory, but they can be described and used in a finite dimensional context. This blend leads to an approach which employs powerful ideas on convergence, and is also quite practical for systems of realistic complexity. Appropriate reduced order models are generated simultaneously with the development of the compensator. The required models change as a function of changes in the performance demanded, sensor and actuator location, inherent damping, disturbances, etc. Thus they are driven by the control and estimation problems at hand. The compensators which emerge are very close to the ideal compensators which would be obtained with a very large order model. However, some simplification is frequently possible. The method of balanced realizations was found to be effective for this purpose.

  19. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  20. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  1. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  2. Utilizing measure-based feedback in control-mastery theory: A clinical error.

    PubMed

    Snyder, John; Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie

    2016-09-01

    Clinical errors and ruptures are an inevitable part of clinical practice. Often times, therapists are unaware that a clinical error or rupture has occurred, leaving no space for repair, and potentially leading to patient dropout and/or less effective treatment. One way to overcome our blind spots is by frequently and systematically collecting measure-based feedback from the patient. Patient feedback measures that focus on the process of psychotherapy such as the Patient's Experience of Attunement and Responsiveness scale (PEAR) can be used in conjunction with treatment outcome measures such as the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45.2) to monitor the patient's therapeutic experience and progress. The regular use of these types of measures can aid clinicians in the identification of clinical errors and the associated patient deterioration that might otherwise go unnoticed and unaddressed. The current case study describes an instance of clinical error that occurred during the 2-year treatment of a highly traumatized young woman. The clinical error was identified using measure-based feedback and subsequently understood and addressed from the theoretical standpoint of the control-mastery theory of psychotherapy. An alternative hypothetical response is also presented and explained using control-mastery theory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631857

  3. Affects, agency, and self-regulation: complexity theory in the treatment of children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly unsettled and violent world, with swelling numbers of children who are abused, abandoned, or neglected, emotionally if not physically, and an increasing population of aggressive preschool children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders who cannot be contained in ordinary settings, psychoanalysts can make a contribution. Early intervention is essential. In very early childhood, new procedural memories for interacting with others and for regulating affects can be formed more easily than they can ever be again. Intervention should aim toward helping the child develop a sense of agency, establish moral standards, assume self-responsibility, and attain the capacity for emotional regulation. The principles of complex dynamic systems can inform psychoanalytic treatment strategies, as demonstrated with five children whose cases are presented.

  4. Individual differences in executive functioning and theory of mind: An investigation of inhibitory control and planning ability.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Moses, Louis J; Claxton, Laura J

    2004-04-01

    This research examined the relative contributions of two aspects of executive function-inhibitory control and planning ability-to theory of mind in 49 3- and 4-year-olds. Children were given two standard theory of mind measures (Appearance-Reality and False Belief), three inhibitory control tasks (Bear/Dragon, Whisper, and Gift Delay), three planning tasks (Tower of Hanoi, Truck Loading, and Kitten Delivery), and a receptive vocabulary test (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test [PPVT-3]). Multiple regression analyses indicated that two inhibition tasks (Bear/Dragon and Whisper) were significantly related to theory of mind after accounting for age, receptive vocabulary, and planning. In contrast, the planning tasks did not share unique variance with theory of mind. These results increase our understanding of the specific nature of executive function-theory of mind relations during early childhood. PMID:15050456

  5. Simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for large-scale genotyping of cattle for factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Jha, M; Muraleedharan, P; Gupta, R R; Rathod, R N; Mehta, H H; Khoda, V K

    2006-01-01

    An insertion mutation within exon 12 of the factor XI gene has been described in Holstein cattle. This has opened the prospect for large-scale screening of cattle using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the rapid identification of heterozygous animals. To facilitate such a screening process, the mutant and normal alleles of factor XI gene, represented by 244- and 320-bp PCR amplified fragments, were individually cloned in Escherichia coli using a multicopy plasmid cloning vehicle to generate pFXI-N and pFXI-M, respectively. The authenticity of the inserts was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. A nested PCR method was developed, by which PCR amplicons generated from primers with annealing sites on the recombinant plasmids and by flanking the insert were used as templates for amplification of the diagnostic products using factor XI gene-specific primers. An equimolar mixture of both PCR amplicons, originating from pFXI-N and pFXI-M, constituted the carrier control while the individual amplicons were the affected and normal controls. The controls were used as references for in-gel comparison to screen a population of 307 cattle and 259 water buffaloes; the frequency of the mutant allele was found to be 0. No DNA size standards were required in this study. The simulated control DNA samples representing normal, carrier and affected cattle have the potential to help in large-scale screening of a cattle population for individuals that are carriers or affected by factor XI deficiency.

  6. The Factors Affecting Airspace Capacity in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Time-Series Analysis Using Simulated Controller Workload Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington Y.; McAuley, Gérard; Lenzi, Jean Michel; Lepadatu, Catalin

    2004-09-01

    Air traffic in Europe is increasing at a rapid rate and traffic patterns no longer display pronounced daily peaks but instead exhibit peak spreading. Airspace capacity planning can no longer be for the peak period but must consider the whole day. En route airspace capacity in the high density European air traffic network is determined by controller workload. Controller workload is primarily affected by the features of the air traffic and ATC sector. This paper considers the air traffic and ATC sector factors that affect controller workload throughout the whole day. A simulation study using the widely used Reorganized ATC Mathematical Simulator (RAMS) model of air traffic controller workload is conducted for the Central European Air Traffic Services (CEATS) Upper Area Control Centre region of Europe. A cross-sectional time series analysis of the simulation output is conducted with corrections for temporal autocorrelation in the data. The results indicate that a subset of traffic and sector variables and their parameter estimates can be used to predict controller workload in any sector of the CEATS region in any given hour.

  7. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive 'mentalizing' functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people's non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas.

  8. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive ‘mentalizing’ functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people’s non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  9. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive 'mentalizing' functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people's non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  10. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production as affected by varying environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  11. Factors affecting prevention and control of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in care homes.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, R; Trainor, E; Oyinloye, A; Keenan, A

    2012-10-01

    We assess the effect of key care quality indicators on viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and control in care homes using mandatory inspection data collected by a non-departmental public body. Outbreak occurrence was associated with care home size but not with overall quality or individual environmental standards. Care home size, hygiene and infection control standard scores were inversely associated with attack rate in residents, whereas delayed reporting to the local public health agency was associated with higher attack rates.

  12. Sustainable ecosystem management using optimal control theory: part 2 (stochastic systems).

    PubMed

    Shastri, Y; Diwekar, U

    2006-08-01

    Sustainable development of ecosystems through external ecosystem management is assuming importance for the environmentalists. To that effect, previous work by the authors looked at the option of manipulating population dynamics of the species in an ecosystem to achieve sustainability. Fisher information is used as the quantifying measure of sustainability and optimal control theory is used to derive the control profiles. However, that work considered only deterministic systems. Uncertainty being prevalent in all systems, particularly in natural systems, this paper extends that work to analyse uncertain systems. Predator-prey models are used to model the species populations and different control philosophies are compared. Ito mean reverting process is used to model the stochastic process, and stochastic maximum principle is used to derive the control profiles. The results for the objective of FI variance minimization qualitatively agree with those for the deterministic system, while the results for the FI maximization objective differ. It is observed that the instability associated with the FI maximization objective for deterministic systems is absorbed by the noise introduced by the uncertainty. Quantitatively, it is observed that the degree of uncertainty, along with its presence, is also important to identify the most appropriate management strategy.

  13. Use of implicit methods from general sensitivity theory to develop a systematic approach to metabolic control. I. Unbranched pathways.

    PubMed

    Cascante, M; Franco, R; Canela, E I

    1989-06-01

    It is shown that metabolic control theory (MCT), is its present form, is a particular case of general sensitivity theory, which studies the effects of parameter variations on the behavior of dynamic systems. It has been shown that metabolic control theory is obtained from this more general theory for the particular case of steady-state and linear relationships between velocities and enzyme concentrations. In such conditions the relationships between elasticities and flux control coefficients are easily obtained. These relationships are in the form of a matrix product constructed in a priori form. Relationships between combined response coefficients and concentration control coefficients are presented. The use of implicit methodology from general sensitivity theory provides a generalization of MCT, which is applied to unbranched pathways. For this particular case, provided the matrices have been properly constructed, the matrix of global properties (flux and concentration control coefficients) can be obtained by inversion of the matrix of local properties (elasticities). The theorems of MCT (concentration summation, flux summation, flux connectivity, and concentration connectivity) applicable for unbranched pathways are directly obtained by inspection of the matrix product. With these results, the present theoretical basis of MCT is extended with a more structured framework that allows a wider range of application. The results make clearer the relatedness of MCT to the more general approach provided by biochemical systems theory (BST). PMID:2520171

  14. Proprioceptive deficits of the lower limb following anterior cruciate ligament deficiency affect whole body steering control.

    PubMed

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2007-09-01

    The role of lower limb proprioception in the steering control of locomotion is still unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether steering control is altered in individuals with reduced lower limb proprioception. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) results in a decrease in proprioceptive information from the injured knee joint (Barrack et al. 1989). Therefore the whole body kinematics were recorded for eight unilateral ACLD individuals and eight CONTROL individuals during the descent of a 20 degrees incline ramp followed by either a redirection using a side or cross cutting maneuver or a continuation straight ahead. Onset of head and trunk yaw, mediolateral displacement of a weighted center of mass (COM(HT)) and mediolateral displacement of the swing foot were analyzed to evaluate differences in the steering control. Timing analyses revealed that ACLD individuals delayed the reorientation of body segments compared to CONTROL individuals. In addition, ACLD did not use a typical steering synergy where the head leads whole body reorientation; rather ACLD individuals reoriented the head, trunk and COM(HT) in the new direction at the same time. These results suggest that when lower limb proprioceptive information is reduced, the central nervous system (CNS) may delay whole body reorientation to the new travel direction, perhaps in order to integrate existing sensory information (vision, vestibular and proprioception) with the reduced information from the injured knee joint. This control strategy is maintained when visual information is present or reduced in a low light environment. Additionally, the CNS may move the head and trunk segments as, effectively, one segment to decrease the number of degrees of freedom that must be controlled and increase whole body stability during the turning task.

  15. Theory of planned behaviour variables and objective walking behaviour do not show seasonal variation in a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies have shown that objectively measured walking behaviour is subject to seasonal variation, with people walking more in summer compared to winter. Seasonality therefore may have the potential to bias the results of randomised controlled trials if there are not adequate statistical or design controls. Despite this there are no studies that assess the impact of seasonality on walking behaviour in a randomised controlled trial, to quantify the extent of such bias. Further there have been no studies assessing how season impacts on the psychological predictors of walking behaviour to date. The aim of the present study was to assess seasonal differences in a) objective walking behaviour and b) Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) variables during a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking. Methods 315 patients were recruited to a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking in primary care. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of season on pedometer measures of walking behaviour and TPB measures, assessed immediately post-intervention and six months later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess whether season moderated the prediction of intention and behaviour by TPB measures. Results There were no significant differences in time spent walking in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in most TPB variables, although the belief that there will be good weather was significantly higher in spring/summer (F = 19.46, p < .001). Season did not significantly predict intention or objective walking behaviour, or moderate the effects of TPB variables on intention or behaviour. Conclusion Seasonality does not influence objectively measured walking behaviour or psychological variables during a randomised controlled trial. Consequently physical activity behaviour outcomes in trials will

  16. Mood, anxiety, and incomplete seizure control affect quality of life after epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Karen; Cong, Xiangyu; Dziura, James; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Vickrey, Barbara G.; Berg, Anne T.; Bazil, Carl W.; Langfitt, John T.; Walczak, Thaddeus S.; Sperling, Michael R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Devinsky, Orrin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined the complex relationship between depression, anxiety, and seizure control and quality of life (QOL) outcomes after epilepsy surgery. Methods: Seven epilepsy centers enrolled 373 patients and completed a comprehensive diagnostic workup and psychiatric and follow-up QOL evaluation. Subjects were evaluated before surgery and then at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 60 months after surgery. Standardized assessments included the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory–89, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was used to analyze associations of depression, anxiety, seizure outcome, and seizure history with overall QOL score and QOL subscores (cognitive distress, physical health, mental health, epilepsy-targeted) prospectively. Results: The groups with excellent and good seizure control showed a significant positive effect on the overall QOL compared to the groups with fair and poor seizure control. The BDI and BAI scores were both highly and negatively associated with overall QOL; increases in BDI and BAI scores were associated with decreased overall QOL score. Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are strongly and independently associated with worse QOL after epilepsy surgery. Interestingly, even partial seizure control, controlling for depression and anxiety levels, improved QOL. Management of mood and anxiety is a critical component to postsurgical care. PMID:24489129

  17. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  18. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  19. Evaluation of some significant issues affecting trajectory and control management for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-12-01

    Horizontal takeoff airbreathing-propulsion launch vehicles require near-optimal guidance and control which takes into account performance sensitivities to atmospheric characteristics while satisfying physically-derived operational constraints. A generic trajectory/control analysis tool that deepens insight into these considerations has been applied to two versions of a winged-cone vehicle model. Information that is critical to the design and trajectory of these vehicles is derived, and several unusual characteristics of the airbreathing propulsion model are shown to have potentially substantial effects on vehicle dynamics.

  20. Evaluation of some significant issues affecting trajectory and control management for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff airbreathing-propulsion launch vehicles require near-optimal guidance and control which takes into account performance sensitivities to atmospheric characteristics while satisfying physically-derived operational constraints. A generic trajectory/control analysis tool that deepens insight into these considerations has been applied to two versions of a winged-cone vehicle model. Information that is critical to the design and trajectory of these vehicles is derived, and several unusual characteristics of the airbreathing propulsion model are shown to have potentially substantial effects on vehicle dynamics.

  1. In dystrophic hamsters losartan affects control of ventilation and dopamine D1 receptor density.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2010-08-31

    The BIO 14.6 hamster (DV), an animal model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, has elevated angiotensin AT1 receptors that may affect ventilation. Moreover, AT1 receptors may modulate expression of dopamine D1 receptors. We investigated if chronic treatment of BIO 14.6 hamsters (DL) with losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, affects D1 receptor density in the striatum and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and normalizes ventilation during exposure to air, hypoxia, following hypoxia, and hypercapnia, Ventilation was evaluated using plethysmography. Compared to the golden Syrian hamsters (GS), DV hamsters exhibited lower hypercapnic and hypoxic responsiveness and ventilation during hypercapnic exposure. Relative to GS, DL hamsters increased breathing frequency in air and maintained ventilation during hypercapnia. Post-hypoxic minute ventilation decline occurred in DV but not in DL or GS hamsters. DL hamsters exhibited higher D1 receptor density in the striatum and NTS relative to DV hamsters. Thus, in dystrophic hamsters chronic losartan treatment stimulated frequency of breathing and increased the density of D1 receptors.

  2. Obese Binge Eaters: Affect, Cognitions, and Response to Behavioral Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Marsha D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared obese female binge and nonbinge eaters on mood, diet behavior, and responses to standard and modified behavioral weight control programs, the latter emphasizing meal regularity, intake of complex carbohydrates, and activity. Binge eaters reported significantly more depressive symptomatology, psychological distress and maladaptive diet…

  3. Inhibitory Control in Anxious and Healthy Adolescents Is Modulated by Incentive and Incidental Affective Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy…

  4. Treatment Preferences Affect the Therapeutic Alliance: Implications for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; McCarthy, Kevin Scott; Barrett, Marna S.; Rynn, Moira; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of treatment preferences on the development of the therapeutic alliance was investigated. Seventy-five patients were followed while participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing supportive-expressive psychotherapy with sertraline or pill placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Therapeutic alliance was…

  5. Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

  6. Motivating Operations Affect Stimulus Control: A Largely Overlooked Phenomenon in Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfizadeh, Amin D.; Edwards, Timothy L.; Redner, Ryan; Poling, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored what Michael (e.g., 1982) termed the "value-altering" effect and the "behavior-altering" effect of motivating operations. One aspect of the behavior-altering effect that has garnered no recent attention involves changes in stimulus control produced by motivating operations. To call attention to this aspect of…

  7. Retention controlling and peak shape simulation in anion chromatography using multiple equilibrium model and stochastic theory.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Krisztián; Olajos, Marcell; Felinger, Attila; Hajós, Péter

    2008-05-01

    The stochastic theory of chromatography and an equilibrium based approach were used for the prediction of peak shape and retention data of anions. This attempt incorporating the potential advantages of two different chromatographic phenomena for analytical purposes. It is an integrated method to estimate kinetic and thermodynamic properties for the same chromatographic run of ions. The stochastic parameters of eluted anions, such as the residence time of the molecule on the surface of the stationary phase, and the average number of adsorption steps were determined on the basis of a retention database of organic and inorganic anions (formate, chloride, bromide, nitrate, sulphate, oxalate, phosphate) obtained by using carbonate/bicarbonate eluent system at different pHs (9-11) and concentrations (7-13 mM). In the investigated IC system the residence times are much higher and the average number of sorption steps is somewhat smaller than in RP-HPLC. The simultaneous application of the stochastic and the multispecies eluent/analyte model was utilized to peak shape simulation and the retention controlling of various anions under elution conditions of practical importance. The similarities between the measured and the calculated chromatograms indicates the predictive and simulation power of the combined application of the stochastic theory and the multiple species eluent/analyte retention model. PMID:17719052

  8. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness.

  9. Training children's theory-of-mind: A meta-analysis of controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan; Doan, Stacey N.; Sprung, Manuel; Wilson, Anne; Ebesutani, Chad; Andrews, Leigh; Curtiss, Joshua; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Theory-of-mind (ToM) refers to knowledge and awareness of mental states in oneself and others. Various training programs have been developed to improve ToM in children. Objectives In the present study, we conducted a quantitative review of ToM training programs that have been tested in controlled studies. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches. Review Methods We identified 32 papers with 45 studies or experiments that included1529 children with an average age of 63 months (SD= 28.7). Results ToM training procedures were more effective than control procedures and their aggregate effect size was moderately strong (Hedges'g = 0.75, CI = 0.60 - 0.894, p<.001). Moderator analyses revealed that although ToM training programs were generally effective, ToM skill-related outcomes increased with length of training sessions and were significantly higher in active control studies. Conclusion ToM training procedures can effectively enhance ToM in children. PMID:26901235

  10. Application of optimal control theory to the design of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. S.; Nickerson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) techniques to the design of the 70-m axis servos is described. Linear quadratic optimal control and Kalman filter theory are reviewed, and model development and verification are discussed. Families of optimal controller and Kalman filter gain vectors were generated by varying weight parameters. Performance specifications were used to select final gain vectors.

  11. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  12. An Initial Test of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory: How Partners of Drug Abusers Assist Their Partners' Sobriety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Hallett, Jennifer S.; Erlandson, Karen T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how inconsistent nurturing as control theory asserts that because of competing goals of nurturing and controlling, partners of drug-dependent individuals will unintentionally encourage the very behavior they are trying to extinguish through inconsistent manifestations of reinforcement and punishment. Finds that partners of substance…

  13. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  14. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  15. Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: a model.

    PubMed

    Janecka, Ivo P

    2007-01-01

    Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing.A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education). PMID:17589568

  16. Use of digital control theory state space formalism for feedback at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, T.; Hendrickson, L.; Rouse, F.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-05-01

    The algorithms used in the database-driven SLC fast-feedback system are based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. These are implemented as a set of matrix equations which use a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of states from a vector of measurements, and then apply a gain matrix to determine the actuator settings from the state vector. The matrices used in the calculation are derived offline using Linear Quadratic Gaussian minimization. For a given noise spectrum, this procedure minimizes the rms of the states (e.g., the position or energy of the beam). The offline program also allows simulation of the loop's response to arbitrary inputs, and calculates its frequency response. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Doping strategies to control A-centres in silicon: insights from hybrid density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chroneos, A; Londos, C A; Sgourou, E N; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2014-05-14

    Hybrid density functional theory is used to gain insights into the interaction of intrinsic vacancies (V) and oxygen-vacancy pairs (VO, known as A-centres) with the dopants (D) germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb) in silicon (Si). We determine the structures as well as binding and formation energies of the DVO and DV complexes. The results are discussed in terms of the density of states and in view of the potential of isovalent doping to control A-centres in Si. We argue that doping with Sn is the most efficient isovalent doping strategy to suppress A-centres by the formation of SnVO complexes, as these are charge neutral and strongly bound.

  18. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan’s power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory’s merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory’s merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:25342866

  19. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    PubMed

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO. PMID:25353548

  20. Design and control of the precise tracking bed based on complex electromechanical design theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Changzhi; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Liao; Chen, Ken

    2010-05-01

    The precise tracking technology is wide used in astronomical instruments, satellite tracking and aeronautic test bed. However, the precise ultra low speed tracking drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, which one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. The precise Tracking Bed is one ultra-exact, ultra-low speed, high precision and huge inertial instrument, which some kind of mechanism and environment of the ultra low speed is different from general technology. This paper explores the design process based on complex electromechanical optimizing design theory, one non-PID with a CMAC forward feedback control method is used in the servo system of the precise tracking bed and some simulation results are discussed.