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Sample records for affect depressive symptoms

  1. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    older adults was similar to US-age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms. Conclusion Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective. PMID:27104091

  2. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  3. Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.

  4. Pain and affective memory biases interact to predict depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bruce, J M; Polen, D; Arnett, P A

    2007-01-01

    A large literature supports a direct relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among various patient populations. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently experience both pain and depression. Despite this, no relationship between pain and depression has been found in MS. The present investigation explored the relationship between pain and depression in a sample of patients with MS. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, results supported the hypothesis that pain would only contribute to depression when MS patients exhibited a concomitant cognitive vulnerability. Cognitive vulnerability to depression was measured using a performance based affective memory bias (AMB) task. Patients with high levels of pain and negative AMB reported more depressive symptoms compared to patients with pain and positive AMB. Implications for the identification and treatment of depression in MS are discussed. PMID:17294612

  5. Changes in Depressive Symptoms and Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure: Effects of Cognitive-Affective and Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Boyoung; Moser, Debra K.; Pelter, Michele M.; Nesbitt, Thomas S.; Dracup, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the effect of changes in cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms on mortality of HF patients is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms over time were associated with mortality in HF. Methods In this secondary analysis of data from the REMOTE-HF clinical trial, we analyzed data from 457 HF patients (39% female, mean [SD] age, 65.6 [12.8] years) who survived at least 1 year and repeated the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 1 year. Cognitive-affective and somatic depression scores were calculated, respectively, based on published PHQ-9 factor models. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, we evaluated the effect of changes in cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms from baseline to 1 year on cardiac and all-cause deaths. Results Controlling for baseline depression scores and other patient characteristics, the change in somatic symptoms was associated with increased risk of cardiac death during the subsequent 1-year period (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 – 1.44, p = .005), but the change in cognitive-affective symptoms was not (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81 – 1.08, p = .38). Similar results were found for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Worsening somatic depressive symptoms, not cognitive-affective symptoms, are independently associated with increased mortality of HF patients. The findings suggest that routine and ongoing assessment of somatic depressive symptoms in HF patients may help clinicians identify patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:26230482

  6. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD.

  7. Severe depression as the sole symptom of affective focal status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2014-05-14

    Depression as well as fear, joy and anger have been described as the semiological features of focal epileptic seizures. When emotions present as the sole symptoms of epileptic seizures, they may easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder. We describe a patient with affective focal status epilepticus, secondary to limbic encephalitis, in which depression was the only clinical manifestation. Through EEG correlates the epileptic nature of depression could be proven. Furthermore, we discuss the association between epilepsy and depression, as well as the link between ictal depression and suicidal rates.

  8. Severe depression as the sole symptom of affective focal status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2014-01-01

    Depression as well as fear, joy and anger have been described as the semiological features of focal epileptic seizures. When emotions present as the sole symptoms of epileptic seizures, they may easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder. We describe a patient with affective focal status epilepticus, secondary to limbic encephalitis, in which depression was the only clinical manifestation. Through EEG correlates the epileptic nature of depression could be proven. Furthermore, we discuss the association between epilepsy and depression, as well as the link between ictal depression and suicidal rates. PMID:24827645

  9. Role of adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms on transactional emotion recognition: context and state affect matter.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Fussner, Lauren M; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Early, Martha C; Bell, Debora J

    2013-12-01

    Depressive symptomatology is associated with impaired recognition of emotion. Previous investigations have predominantly focused on emotion recognition of static facial expressions neglecting the influence of social interaction and critical contextual factors. In the current study, we investigated how youth and maternal symptoms of depression may be associated with emotion recognition biases during familial interactions across distinct contextual settings. Further, we explored if an individual's current emotional state may account for youth and maternal emotion recognition biases. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 128) completed measures of depressive symptomatology and participated in three family interactions, each designed to elicit distinct emotions. Mothers and youth completed state affect ratings pertaining to self and other at the conclusion of each interaction task. Using multiple regression, depressive symptoms in both mothers and adolescents were associated with biased recognition of both positive affect (i.e., happy, excited) and negative affect (i.e., sadness, anger, frustration); however, this bias emerged primarily in contexts with a less strong emotional signal. Using actor-partner interdependence models, results suggested that youth's own state affect accounted for depression-related biases in their recognition of maternal affect. State affect did not function similarly in explaining depression-related biases for maternal recognition of adolescent emotion. Together these findings suggest a similar negative bias in emotion recognition associated with depressive symptoms in both adolescents and mothers in real-life situations, albeit potentially driven by different mechanisms.

  10. Effects of sequential fluoxetine and gender on prequit depressive symptoms, affect, craving, and quit day abstinence in smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: a growth curve modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Kahler, Christopher W; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Prince, Mark A; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Niaura, Raymond; Miller, Ivan W; Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    Although the important roles of postquit affect and withdrawal symptoms in the process of smoking cessation have been well established, little is known about the relations between prequit affective trajectories and cessation outcome on the target quit date (TQD). This study examined whether a 16-week course of fluoxetine initiated 8 weeks prequit ("sequential" fluoxetine) improved TQD abstinence relative to placebo through its effects on prequit depressive symptoms, affect (withdrawal-relevant negative affect, general negative affect, and positive affect), and craving to smoke among 206 smokers with elevated depressed symptoms. The moderating effects of gender were also examined. In total, 83 smokers (40%) failed to achieve abstinence on TQD, with no difference between treatment conditions or gender. Overall structural equation models showed that fluoxetine had significant indirect effects on TQD abstinence through changes in prequit withdrawal-relevant negative affect and craving, but not depressive symptoms. However, multigroup analyses revealed gender differences. Sequential fluoxetine reduced prequit depressive symptoms, withdrawal-relevant negative affect, and craving only among women. Reduction in prequit depressive symptoms and craving among women, and withdrawal-relevant negative affect among men was associated with TQD abstinence. Moreover, exploratory analysis showed negative trend-level indirect effects of fluoxetine on TQD abstinence via increased side effects, regardless of gender. This study demonstrated the importance of considering gender when examining treatment efficacy. Identifying ways to further reduce prequit depressive symptoms and craving for women and withdrawal-relevant negative affect for men whereas alleviating side effects may help smokers with elevated depressed symptoms achieve the first smoking cessation milestone.

  11. Applications of Text Messaging, and Bibliotherapy for Treatment of Patients Affected by Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Taleban, Roya; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Moafi, Mohammad; Jiryaee, Nasrin; Khadivi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intensity of depressive symptoms could be exacerbated due to the paucity of appropriate treatments. We assessed the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and text messaging, which aimed at amelioration of patient's behavior and consciousness, which could lead to suicide prevention. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial implemented in rural health centers of Isfahan district (Iran). Health centers were assigned in three trials consisting of the booklet, text messaging, and control groups. Each group consisted of 70 patients. Inclusion criteria were being affected by depressive symptom, <18 years, and cell phone accessibility. Mental retardation, drug and alcohol abuse, visual disability, dementia, suicide attempt history, electrotherapy, and receiving psychological interventions were our not met criteria. Our patient outcomes comprised intensity of depressive symptom and treatment compliance. The first two trials were requested to study instructive booklets in 30 days while the second cohort was demanded to study the booklet in accordance with the daily delivered text messaging. Results: Out of 210 individuals, 198 patients finished this study. The intensity of depressive symptom was significantly affected through time and group factors as well as time-group interaction (F = 12.30, P < 0.001). Based on treatment compliance, the interactive effect of group factor and the time factor was statistically significant. Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment. PMID:27076884

  12. MS patients with depressive symptoms exhibit affective memory biases when verbal encoding strategies are suppressed.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared M; Arnett, Peter A

    2005-09-01

    As many as 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience clinical or subclinical depression. A voluminous literature has documented affective memory biases (AMB) among depressed individuals. Despite this, little is known regarding how depressive symptoms may affect MS patients' ability to recall positive and negative material. The present study employed an affective list-learning task that increased cognitive load and inhibited the use of higher order encoding strategies. The purpose of the study was twofold: to determine whether MS patients exhibit AMB and to examine whether subvocal repetition and other higher order encoding strategies are essential to the formation of AMB among people experiencing depression. Results indicated a strong relationship between depression and AMB in MS. The results are discussed in relation to existing biological research that indicates limbic and/or other subcortical systems may play a role in the formation of AMB.

  13. Let it be: Accepting negative emotional experiences predicts decreased negative affect and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Troy, Allison S.; Boland, Matthew; Mauss, Iris B.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies examined whether a tendency to accept negative emotional experiences buffers individuals from experiencing elevated negative affect during negative emotional situations (Study 1) and from developing depressive symptoms in the face of life stress (Study 2). Both studies examined female samples. This research expands on existing acceptance research in four ways. First, it examined whether acceptance has beneficial correlates when it matters most: in emotionally taxing (versus more neutral) contexts. Second, in Study 2 a prospective design was used in which acceptance was measured before stress was encountered and before outcomes were measured. Third, depressive symptoms (rather than general functioning or trauma symptoms) were examined as a particularly relevant outcome in the context of stress. Fourth, to enhance generalizability, a community sample (versus undergraduates or a purely clinical sample) was recruited. Results indicated that acceptance was correlated with decreased negative affect during a negative emotion induction but not an affectively neutral condition (Study 1). In Study 2, acceptance interacted with life stress such that acceptance predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms after higher, but not lower, life stress. These results suggest that accepting negative experiences may protect individuals from experiencing negative affect and from developing depressive symptoms. PMID:20566191

  14. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  15. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence. PMID:24198197

  16. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships Between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54 % female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (M age.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection-identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans.

  17. PRODROMAL SYMPTOMS AND ATYPICAL AFFECTIVITY AS PREDICTORS OF MAJOR DEPRESSION IN JUVENILES: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the long-term morbidity of juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD), it is timely to consider whether more effort should be dedicated to its primary and secondary prevention. Methods We reviewed studies of prodromal symptoms that may herald a first episode pediatric MDD and considered whether that literature has made an impact on secondary prevention (efforts to prevent progression from symptoms to full disorder). We also reviewed studies of children at familial risk for MDD that addressed atypical affectivity and the regulation of sad, dysphoric affect (mood repair) and related physiological systems, and considered whether research in those areas has made an impact on primary prevention of pediatric MDD (efforts to prevent the disorder). Results A compelling body of literature indicates that depressive symptoms in youngsters predict subsequent MDD across the juvenile (and early adult) years and that any combination of several symptoms for at least one week is informative in that regard. These findings are echoed in the case selection criteria used by many secondary prevention programs. Convergent findings also indicate that (compared to typical peers) young offspring at familial-risk for depression manifest low positive affectivity and compromised mood repair, along with signs of dysfunction in three intertwined physiological systems that contribute to affectivity and mood repair (the HPA axis, cerebral hemispheric asymmetry, and cardiac vagal control). While all these affect-related parameters are suitable for case selection and as intervention targets, they have not yet made an impact on primary prevention programs. Conclusions According to recent meta-analyses, attempts to prevent pediatric depression have not lived up to expectations. Based on our review, possible reasons for this include: (a) the use of case selection criteria that yield samples heterogeneous with regard to whether the symptoms are truly prodromal to an episode of MDD

  18. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states.

  19. Excessive Reassurance Seeking, Hassles, and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Multiwave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abela, John R. Z.; Zuroff, David C.; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Adams, Philippe; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined whether excessive reassurance seeking serves as a vulnerability factor to depression in a sample of high-risk youth using a multiwave longitudinal design. At Time 1, 140 children (aged 6-14) of affectively disordered parents completed measures assessing reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms. In addition, every 6…

  20. Developmental associations between adolescent change in depressive symptoms and menstrual-cycle-phase-specific negative affect during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François

    2012-10-01

    The causal factors associated with increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls remain an area of theoretical debate, and the limited research considering a hormonal influence has provided mixed results. The goal of the present study was to test a set of longitudinal associations, that, if found, would provide support for a hormonal contribution to these changes. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that changes in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls would be associated with phase-specific symptoms of the menstrual cycle during early adulthood; that these associations would differ across three phases of the menstrual cycle; and that the pattern of associations would differ for changes in depressive symptoms during early- and late-adolescence. The sample consisted of 47 women with longitudinal data from 12 to 21 years old (approximately 91% European Canadian, 4% Middle Eastern Canadian, 2% Haitian Canadian, and 2% Asian Canadian). Consistent with expectations, results showed that early-adolescent increases in depressive symptoms were negatively associated with menstrual-phase negative affect, and positively associated with mid-cycle negative affect, but not associated with premenstrual negative affect; whereas late-adolescent change in depressive symptoms was only associated with depressive symptoms at 20-21 years. Thus, early-adolescent changes in depressive symptoms are longitudinally associated with later mood change across the menstrual cycle, suggesting a common underlying cause, which is hypothesized to be hormonal. Moreover, results suggest that, with respect to variables that are involved in affective development, important differences exist between early- and late-adolescence. The discussion considers menstrual-cycle-related symptoms (e.g., dysmenorrhea) during adolescence, and the need to study their effects on development. It is suggested that focused intervention and prevention efforts may be indicated to interrupt negative

  1. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  2. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  3. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuusinen, Tiina; Tuovinen, Soile; Villa, Pia; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation. Methods Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI) symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records. Results One standard deviation (SD) unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04–0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02), corresponding to only 0.1–0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks) delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02). Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks), birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions. Conclusions This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight. PMID:26919119

  4. The Affective Structure of Supportive Parenting: Depressive Symptoms, Immediate Emotions, and Child-Oriented Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Meunier, Leah N.; Miller, Pamela C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the maternal concerns and emotions that may regulate one form of sensitive parenting, support for children's immediate desires or intentions. While reviewing a videotape of interactions with their 1-year-olds, mothers who varied on depressive symptoms reported concerns and emotions they had during the interaction. Emotions…

  5. Prodromal Symptoms and Atypical Affectivity as Predictors of Major Depression in Juveniles: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the long-term morbidity of juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD), it is timely to consider whether more effort should be dedicated to its primary and secondary prevention. Methods: We reviewed studies of prodromal symptoms that may herald a first episode pediatric MDD and considered whether that literature has made an…

  6. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  7. Effects of Sequential Fluoxetine and Gender on Pre-quit Depressive Symptoms, Affect, Craving, and Quit Day Abstinence in Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Prince, Mark A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Strong, David R.; Niaura, Raymond; Miller, Ivan W.; Palm Reed, Kathleen M.; Price, Lawrence H.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    While the important roles of post-quit affect and withdrawal symptoms in the process of smoking cessation have been well established, little is known about the relations between pre-quit affective trajectories and cessation outcome on the target quit date (TQD). This study examined whether a 16-week course of fluoxetine initiated 8 weeks pre-quit (“sequential” fluoxetine) improved TQD abstinence relative to placebo through its effects on pre-quit depressive symptoms, affect (withdrawal-relevant negative affect, general negative affect, and positive affect), and craving to smoke among 206 smokers with elevated depressed symptoms. The moderating effects of gender were also examined. A total of 83 smokers (40%) failed to achieve abstinence on TQD, with no difference between treatment conditions or gender. Overall structural equation models showed that fluoxetine had significant indirect effects on TQD abstinence through changes in pre-quit withdrawal-relevant negative affect and craving, but not depressive symptoms. However, multigroup analyses revealed gender differences. Sequential fluoxetine reduced pre-quit depressive symptoms, withdrawal-relevant negative affect, and craving only among women. Reduction in pre-quit depressive symptoms and craving among women, and withdrawal-relevant negative affect among men was associated with TQD abstinence. Moreover, exploratory analysis showed negative trend-level indirect effects of fluoxetine on TQD abstinence via increased side effects, regardless of gender. This study demonstrated the importance of considering gender when examining treatment efficacy. Identifying ways to further reduce pre-quit depressive symptoms and craving for women and withdrawal-relevant negative affect for men while alleviating side effects may help smokers with elevated depressed symptoms achieve the first smoking cessation milestone. PMID:25089930

  8. Probiotic supplementation can positively affect anxiety and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Katz, Joel; de Souza, Russell J; Stearns, Jennifer C; Motamed, Mehras; Ritvo, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiota, consisting of microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in digestive, metabolic, and immune functioning. Preclinical studies on rodents have linked behavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system with deficits or alterations in these bacterial communities. Moreover, probiotic supplementation in rodents has been shown to markedly change behavior, with correlated changes in central neurochemistry. While such studies have documented behavioral and mood-related supplementation effects, the significance of these effects in humans, especially in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms, are relatively unknown. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to systematically evaluate current literature on the impact of probiotic supplementation on anxiety and depression symptoms in humans. To this end, multiple databases, including Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials published between January 1990 and January 2016. Search results led to a total of 10 randomized controlled trials (4 in clinically diagnosed and 6 in non-clinical samples) that provided limited support for the use of some probiotics in reducing human anxiety and depression. Despite methodological limitations of the included trials and the complex nature of gut-brain interactions, results suggest the detection of apparent psychological benefits from probiotic supplementation. Nevertheless a better understanding of developmental, modulatory, and metagenomic influences on the GI microbiota, specifically as they relate to mood and mental health, represent strong priorities for future research in this area. PMID:27632908

  9. The Emergence of Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Petersen, Anne C., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve papers on the emergence and maintenance of severe clinical depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence are presented. Topics include parental influences, epidemiological data, depressive and negative affect, hormonal effects, preadolescent symptoms, sex differences, longitudinal studies with rhesus monkeys, suicidal ideation,…

  10. The effect of preterm birth on infant negative affect and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: A preliminary examination in an underrepresented minority sample

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Nicole; Hartley, Chelsey M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of preterm birth on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect in an underrepresented minority sample. Method Participants were 102 mothers and their 3- to 10-month-old infants. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Results Relative to normative samples, the current underrepresented minority sample of mostly Hispanics and Blacks displayed high rates of preterm birth (30%) and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms (17%). Preterm birth had a significant direct effect on postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect. Additionally, there was an indirect effect of postpartum depressive symptoms on the relation between preterm birth and infant negative affect. Specifically, lower birth weight and gestational age predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, in turn, predicted higher levels of infant negative affect. Conclusion Findings emphasize the importance of screening for postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect among mothers and their preterm infants, especially among families from underrepresented minority backgrounds. PMID:25879520

  11. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  12. Physical Activity, Gender Difference, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yen, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of physical activity (exercise) and sociodemographic factors in depressive symptoms among men and women in the United States. Data Source 2011 U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Study Design Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) scores are aggregated and divided into five categories. An ordered switching probability model with binary endogenous physical activity is developed to accommodate ordinality of depression categories and ameliorate statistical biases due to endogeneity of physical activity. Principal Findings Average treatment effects suggest physical activity ameliorates depressive symptoms among mildly and moderately depressed individuals, most notably among mildly depressed women. Gender differences exist in the roles of sociodemographic factors, with age, income, race, education, employment status, and recent mental health condition playing differentiated roles in affecting depressive symptoms. Conclusions Regular physical activity reduces depressive symptoms among both men and women with mild to moderate depression, notably among women. PMID:25630931

  13. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  14. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth E; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  15. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A.; Kuipers, Elizabeth E.; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  16. Does alleviating poverty affect mothers’ depressive symptoms? A quasi-experimental investigation of Mexico’s Oportunidades programme

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Emily J; Fernald, Lia CH; Weber, Ann; Flynn, Emily P; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is a major cause of disability, particularly among women; poverty heightens the risk for depression. Beyond its direct effects, maternal depression can harm children’s health and development. This study aimed to assess the effects of a large-scale anti-poverty programme in Mexico (Oportunidades) on maternal depressive symptoms. Methods In 2003, 5050 women living in rural communities who had participated in Oportunidades since its inception were assessed and compared with a group of 1293 women from matched communities, whose families had received no exposure to Oportunidades at the time of assessment but were later enrolled. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares regressions were used to evaluate the treatment effect of programme participation on depression while adjusting for covariates and clustering at the community level. Results Women in the treatment group had lower depressive symptoms than those in the comparison group (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 16.9 ± 9.8 vs 18.6 ± 10.2). In multivariable analyses, programme participation was associated with lower depression whilst controlling for maternal age, education and household demographic, ethnicity and socio-economic variables [β = −1.7 points, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) −2.46 to −0.96, P < 0.001]. Reductions in perceived stress and increases in perceived control were mediators of programme effects on women. Conclusions Although Oportunidades did not target maternal mental health directly, we found modest but clinically meaningful effects on depressive symptoms. Our design permits stronger causal inference than observational studies that have linked poverty and depressive symptoms. Our results emphasize that the well-being of individuals is responsive to macro-level economic policies and programmes. PMID:21737404

  17. Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-11-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

  18. Healthy Adolescents' Neural Response to Reward: Associations with Puberty, Positive Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Phillips, Mary L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Worthman, Carol M.; Moyles, Donna L.; Tarr, Jill A.; Sciarrillo, Samantha R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of…

  19. Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

  20. How Does Functional Disability Affect Depressive Symptoms in Late Life? The Role of Perceived Social Support and Psychological Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the process whereby functional disability amplifies depressive symptoms through decreasing perceived social support and psychological resources. The study analyzed two waves of panel data (1986 to 1992) of a large sample of older adults from the National Institutes of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of…

  1. Developmental Associations between Adolescent Change in Depressive Symptoms and Menstrual-Cycle-Phase-Specific Negative Affect during Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The causal factors associated with increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls remain an area of theoretical debate, and the limited research considering a hormonal influence has provided mixed results. The goal of the present study was to test a set of longitudinal associations, that, if found, would provide support for a hormonal…

  2. Children's Depressive Symptoms and Their Regulation of Negative Affect in Response to Vignette Depicted Emotion-Eliciting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Hurkens, Edith

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between sub-clinical depressive symptoms and children's anticipated cognitive and behavioral reactions to two written vignettes depicting emotion-eliciting stressors (i.e., fight with one's best friend and failure at a roller blade contest). Participants (N = 244) ranging in age between 10 and 13 were…

  3. Uraemic pruritus markedly affects the quality of life and depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Suseł, Joanna; Batycka-Baran, Aleksandra; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of uraemic pruritus on patients' wellbeing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of uraemic pruritus on quality of life and depressive symptoms in patients with end-stage renal disease. A total of 200 haemodialysis patients were included into the study. The prevalence of uraemic pruritus was 38%. Patients with uraemic pruritus had significantly lower quality of life according to SF-36 questionnaire compared to the remaining of analysed subjects. Among patients with uraemic pruritus, 64.5% individuals also showed impaired skin-related quality of life evaluated with Dermatology Life Quality Index. The quality of life impairment correlated with uraemic pruritus intensity assessed with VAS and the 4-item itch questionnaire. Depression level significantly correlated with quality of life and severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with uraemic pruritus intensity. Our study underscores that uraemic pruritus should be regarded as an important health problem among haemodialysis patients.

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  5. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  6. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lemke, M R

    2008-04-01

    Depression occurs in approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), does not correlate with the stage of motor deficits, reduces quality of life independently of motor symptoms and appears to be underrated and undertreated. Anxiety and depression are the risk factors for the development of PD and may be present many years before the appearance of motor symptoms. Studies using functional imaging techniques indicate a primary relationship between depression and PD. Because of overlapping clinical symptoms, the diagnosis is mainly based on subjectively experienced anhedonia and feelings of emptiness. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms play key roles in the aetiology of depression in PD. Tricyclic and newer selective antidepressants including serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors appear to be effective in treating depression in PD. Selective reuptake inhibitors seem to be better tolerated because of their favourable side-effect profile. Experimental and clinical investigations indicate antidepressive effects for pramipexole. Placebo-controlled studies showed antidepressant effects of pramipexole in patients with different forms of depression. Various studies show that pramipexole improves depression in addition to motor symptoms in patients with PD. Because of the data available as well as clinical reasoning, pramipexole may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with PD and depression.

  7. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  8. Disasters and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Betty S.; Auslander, Beth A.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Podkowirow, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disasters are destructive, potentially traumatic events that affect millions of youth each year. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on depressive symptoms among youth after disasters. Specifically, we examined the prevalence of depression, risk factors associated with depressive symptoms, and theories…

  9. Motivational enhancement of cognitive control depends on depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2014-01-01

    Performance feedback can motivate improvements in executive function (Ravizza et al., 2012). The present study examines whether the enhancement of task switching with performance feedback is modulated by the level of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been linked to deficits in processing affective information inherent to such feedback (Henriques, 1994; Pizzagalli, et al., 2005). Task switching speed was assessed when performance feedback about accuracy was present or absent in a group of participants with minimal to moderate levels of depression. A significant positive correlation was observed between depressive symptoms and feedback effects on executive function indicating that those with lower depressive symptoms were more likely to show improvements in switching speed when performance feedback was present. These results suggest a novel link between executive function deficits and depression symptoms; namely, that greater levels of depressive symptoms are linked to diminished executive functioning via deficits in processing the affective component of performance feedback. PMID:24866522

  10. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    PubMed

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    PubMed Central

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  12. Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

  13. Determinants of depressive symptoms in Jordanian working women.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, H; Abuidhail, J; Sowan, A; Al-Rawashdeh, A

    2010-09-01

    Depressive symptoms are an epidemic problem affecting different subgroups of women in clinical and non-clinical settings. However, depressive symptoms experienced by working women have rarely been studied. This study aimed at identifying depressive symptoms and their determinants in a sample of 101 Jordanian working women recruited from a higher educational institution. Data about women's depressive symptoms, their educational level, presence of children, sharing a job with an intimate partner, health status, diagnosis with chronic illnesses, and complaints of spousal abuse were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to test for the significance of the selected factors on women's experiences of depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that 51.2% (n = 42) women complained of moderate and severe levels of depressive symptoms. Factors identified as significant in predicting depressive symptoms were women's experiences of spousal abuse (odds ratio adjusted = 3.5, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-11.7) and being diagnosed with chronic illnesses (odds ratio adjusted = 7.09, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-42.2). It was concluded that causes of women's depressive symptoms were imbedded in their familial and social environment, rather than their job per se. Mental health nurses can change the practice of nursing to better standards. Being familiarized with causes of depressive symptoms can empower nurses to be active advocates for depressed women. PMID:20712679

  14. Late-life Depressive Symptoms: Prediction Models of Change

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Carmen; Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario; Arango-Lopera, Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez-Aldana, Ricardo; Gallo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms. Methods Longitudinal study of community-dwelling elderly people (>60 years or older), baseline evaluations, and two additional evaluations were reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and a score of 11 was used as cutoff point for significant depressive symptoms in order to stratify the analyses in two groups: with significant depressive symptoms and without significant depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic data, social support, anxiety, cognition, positive affect, control locus, activities of daily living, recent traumatic life events, physical activity, comorbidities, and quality of life were evaluated. Multi-level generalised estimating equation model was used to assess the impact on the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results 7,882 subjects were assessed, with 29.42% attrition. At baseline assessment, mean age was 70.96 years, 61.15% were women. Trajectories of depressive symptoms had a decreasing trend. Stronger associations in those with significant depressive symptoms, were social support (OR .971, p<.001), chronic pain (OR 2.277, p<.001) and higher locus of control (OR .581, p<.001). In contrast for those without baseline significant depressive symptoms anxiety and a higher locus of control were the strongest associations. Conclusions New insights into late-life depression are provided, with special emphasis in differentiated factors influencing the trajectory when stratifying regarding basal status of significant depressive symptoms. Limitations The study has not included clinical evaluations and nutritional assessments PMID:23731940

  15. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  16. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and cingulate volumes in older adults

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, M E; Szymkowicz, S M; O'Shea, A; Woods, A J; Anton, S D; Dotson, V M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical depression and subthreshold depressive symptoms in older adults have been linked to structural changes in the cingulate gyrus. The cingulate comprises functionally distinct subregions that may have distinct associations with different types, or symptom dimensions, of depression. This study examined the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate and isthmus of the cingulate in a nonclinical sample. The study included 41 community-dwelling older adults between the ages of 55 and 81. Participants received a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Subscale scores for depressed mood, somatic symptoms and lack of positive affect were calculated, and Freesurfer was used to extract cingulate gray matter volumes. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and volumes of cingulate subregions while controlling for sex, age and estimated total intracranial volume. Higher scores on the depressed mood subscale were associated with larger volumes in the left posterior cingulate and smaller volumes in the isthmus cingulate. Higher scores on the somatic symptoms subscale were significantly related to smaller volumes in the posterior cingulate. A trend was observed for a positive relationship between higher scores on the lack of positive affect subscale and larger volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These results are consistent with previous findings of altered cingulate volumes with increased depressive symptomatology and suggest specific symptom dimensions of depression may differ in their relationship with subregions of the cingulate. PMID:27093070

  17. Disasters and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Betty S.; Auslander, Beth A.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Podkowirow, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background Disasters are destructive, potentially traumatic events that affect millions of youth each year. Objective The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on depressive symptoms among youth after disasters. Specifically, we examined the prevalence of depression, risk factors associated with depressive symptoms, and theories utilized in this research area. Methods We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and PubMed electronic databases for English language articles published up to May 1, 2013. Reference lists from included studies were reviewed to capture additional studies. Only quantitative, peer reviewed studies, conducted with youth under the age of 18 years, that examined postdisaster depressive symptoms were included. Seventy-two studies met inclusion criteria. Prevalence of depressive symptoms, disaster type, correlates of depressive symptoms, and theories of depressive symptoms were reviewed. Results Only 27 studies (38%) reported on prevalence rates among youth in their sample. Prevalence rates of depression among youth postdisaster ranged from 2% to 69%. Potential risk factors were identified (e.g., female gender, exposure stressors, posttraumatic stress symptoms). Theories were examined in less than one-third of studies (k = 21). Conclusions Given the variability in prevalence rates, difficulty identifying a single profile of youth at risk for developing depressive symptoms, and lack of a unifying theory emerging from the studies, recommendations for future research are discussed. Use of established batteries of assessments could enable comparisons across studies. Merging existing theories from children’s postdisaster and depression literatures could aid in the identification of risk factors and causal pathways. PMID:25067897

  18. Emotional inertia contributes to depressive symptoms beyond perseverative thinking.

    PubMed

    Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The autocorrelation or inertia of negative affect reflects how much negative emotions carry over from moment to moment and has been associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this study, we posed three challenges to this association by examining: (1) whether emotional inertia is relevant for depressive symptoms when assessed on a longer timescale than usual; (2) whether inertia is uniquely related to depressive symptoms after controlling for perseverative thoughts; and (3) whether inertia is related to depressive symptoms over and above the within-person association between affect and perseverative thoughts. Participants (N = 101) provided ratings of affect and perseverative thoughts for 100 days; depressive symptoms were reported before and after the study, and again after 2.5 years. Day-to-day emotional inertia was related to depressive symptoms over and above trait and state perseverative thoughts. Moreover, inertia predicted depressive symptoms when adjusting for its association with perseverative thoughts. These findings establish the relevance of emotional inertia in depressive symptoms independent of perseverative thoughts.

  19. Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

  20. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  1. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J.; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26300814

  2. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26300814

  3. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    PubMed

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  4. Negative symptoms in psychometrically defined schizotypy: The role of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Campellone, Timothy R; Elis, Ori; Mote, Jasmine; Sanchez, Amy H; Kring, Ann M

    2016-06-30

    People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms. People high in schizotypy had more MAP negative symptoms than people low in schizotypy, but we found no group differences in EXP negative symptoms. Importantly, the relationship between MAP negative symptoms and schizotypy was fully mediated by cognitive depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms, specifically cognitive depressive symptoms, may be a pathway for motivation and pleasure impairment, in people at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  5. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-related Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, and Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence.

  6. Does cold winter weather produce depressive symptoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.

    1988-06-01

    To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.

  7. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Foster Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Susan A.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The main purposes of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms among foster caregivers, (2) the social-demographics, risk factors, and social support predicting depressive symptoms, and (3) whether social support buffered the effects of the risk factors in the Illinois Foster Caregivers Study. Method:…

  8. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. PMID:26865423

  9. Depressive symptoms and observed eating in youth.

    PubMed

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-04-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  10. Dynamics of positive emotion regulation: associations with youth depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fussner, Lauren M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2015-04-01

    Depression is frequently considered a disorder of impaired affect regulation with deficits across both positive and negative affective systems. However, where deficits in emotion regulation occur in youth, specifically regarding regulation of positive emotions, is relatively unknown. The current study tested whether deficits in broad (felt and expressed) and specific (up-regulation and maintenance) positive emotion processes are associated with youth depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n = 134; 65 girls) in grades 7 to 9 completed a self-report measure of depressive symptoms prior to participating in two parent-child interactions tasks, a rewarding trivia task and a problem-solving conflict task. During the interaction tasks, adolescent's overall self-reported experience and observed expression of positive affect (PA) was examined. Following the reward task, youth's ability to up-regulate PA (PA response) and maintain PA while buffering against NA (PA persistence) was explored observationally. Results suggested that reduced experience and expression of PA was associated with depression symptoms, but only in a context that elicited negative emotions. No association was found between PA response and depression symptoms; however, shorter PA persistence was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Youth higher in depressive symptoms appear able to respond similarly to rewarding events, but fail to maintain PA and ward off NA when transitioning from a positive to negative task.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Bryan S.; Coryell, William H.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Keller, Martin; Solomon, David A.; Endicott, Jean; Potash, James B.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort – the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up. Results A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January. Conclusions There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. PMID:25176622

  12. Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Dicianno, Brad E.; Kinback, Nicholas; Bellin, Melissa; Chaikind, Laurie; Buhari, Alhaji; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Zabel, Andy; Donlan, Robert M.; Collins, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adults with spina bifida and identify contributing factors for depressive symptomatology. Research Method/Design Retrospective Cohort Study. Data collection was conducted at a regional adult spina bifida clinic. A total of 190 charts from adult patients with spina bifida were included. The main outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the mobility domain of the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique Short Form (CHART-SF). Results Of the 190 participants, 49 (25.8%) had BDI-II scores (14+) indicative of depressive symptomatology. Sixty-nine (36.3%) of all participants were on antidepressants for the purpose of treating depressive symptoms, and 31 (63.3%) of those with clinical symptoms of depression were on antidepressants. The total number of participants with a history of depressive symptoms may be as high as 45.7% if both participants with BDI-II scores 14+ and those with antidepressant use specifically for the purposes of depression treatment are combined. In this population, lower CHART-SF mobility score, expressing “emotional concerns” as a reason for the visit on an intake sheet, and use of antidepressant medications were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions/Implications Depressive symptomatology appears to be common and undertreated in this cohort of adults with spina bifida, which may warrant screening for emotional concerns in routine clinic appointments. Significant depressive symptoms are associated with fewer hours out of bed and fewer days leaving the house. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of interventions directed towards mobility on depression and in the treatment of depression in this patient population. PMID:26147238

  13. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. PMID:23834363

  14. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  15. Depressive symptoms and Depo-Provera.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, C; Truman, C; Kalmuss, D; Cushman, L; Davidson, A; Rulin, M; Heartwell, S

    1998-04-01

    Women enrolled in a multicenter prospective study were evaluated to identify any possible relationship between depressive symptoms and the use of contraceptives. Women choosing Depo-Provera (n = 495) were evaluated before starting these contraceptives and were reinterviewed 1 year later. Women who continued the method had lower depressive symptom scores at baseline than did the women who discontinued the method or who were lost to follow-up. Among the continuing Depo-Provera users, the depressive symptom scores improved slightly at 1 year (7.4 vs 6.7). Those subjects with the highest (i.e., worst) scores at enrollment demonstrated improved scores at follow-up.

  16. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  17. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  18. Depression, Life Events and Somatic Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozzini, Renzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…

  19. Illness episodes, physician visits, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Berkanovic, E; Hurwicz, M L

    1992-08-01

    Although there is a large literature examining the effects of distress on the demand for medical care, the data on which this literature is based are equivocal. Nonetheless, this literature is cited frequently by those who advocate a national mental health policy designed to produce a cost-effective "medical offset effect." In this study, longitudinal data on illness episodes, physician visits, and depressive symptoms were collected from 940 Medicare recipients enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) under a Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) contract. Seven waves of interviews were conducted over a period of 1 year. This article presents two sets of analyses. In the first, controlling for chronic conditions and demographics reported at baseline, the relationships between depressive symptoms reported at baseline, and all illness episodes and physician visits that occurred over the subsequent year are examined. In the second, controlling for depressive symptoms and demographics reported at baseline, the relationships between illness episodes and physician visits over the study year, and depressive symptoms recorded at the final interview are examined. The data indicate that, whereas depressive symptoms at baseline are virtually unrelated to subsequent illness episodes and physician visits, illness episodes and physician visits are related to subsequent depressive symptoms. These data indicate, therefore, that policies aimed at diverting the distressed from seeking medical care may result in further inequities in the receipt of needed care. PMID:10120227

  20. Depressive symptoms amongst asthmatic children's caregivers.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Alexandra; Mezei, Györgyi; Kovári, Eva; Cserháti, Endre

    2010-06-01

    We wanted to find out, whether the number of depressive symptoms is higher amongst asthmatic children's caregivers, compared to international data, to the Hungarian population average, and to parents of children with chronic renal disease. Are these depressive symptoms connected to the children's psychological status, asthma severity or current asthma symptoms? One-hundred and eight, 7- to 17-yr-old asthmatic children were enrolled, who have been treated at the Semmelweis University, First Department of Pediatrics. Children were suffering from asthma for at least 1 yr, with a median of 8 yr (1-16 yr), they started to develop asthmatic symptoms between the age of 0.5-14 yr (median: 3 yr). We also identified 27 children with chronic renal diseases and their caregivers, who functioned as a control group. Children were asked to complete the Hungarian-validated versions of the Child Depression Inventory, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Asthma severity and current symptoms were also documented, 56% had no symptoms on the preceding week. Caregivers were asked to complete the Hungarian versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) short form, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Caregivers' Quality of Life Questionnaire. Caregivers of asthmatic children had significantly more depressive symptoms (7.73 +/- 6.69 s.d.) than the age-specific normal population (p < 0.01). Caregivers of renal patients also experience more depressive symptoms (9.61 +/- 7.43 s.d.) than their healthy peers, but difference between the two chronic diseases' group did not prove to be significant. Asthmatic children's caregivers who scored more points on the BDI than the population average suffer from more anxiety symptoms, but their quality of life is not worse than the caregivers' with less depressive points. Depressive symptoms were neither connected to the children's psychological

  1. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  2. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    PubMed

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.

  4. Depressive symptoms and learned resourcefulness among Taiwanese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Sousa, Valmi D; Tu, Shu-Yin; Hwang, Mei-Yi

    2005-06-01

    Depression in adolescents is a widespread problem and has negative consequences on mental health, including suicidal tendencies. Worldwide, this condition is twice as prevalent in females as in males. To identify factors that may affect the development of depression in female adolescents in Taiwan, a cross-sectional, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among stressors, learned resourcefulness, and depressive symptoms. Four hundred four Taiwanese female adolescents participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression were used to analyze data. The study findings suggested that low household income, dissatisfaction with grades, perceived poor health state, and poor peer relationships were significant stressors that contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Adolescents with greater learned resourcefulness had fewer depressive symptoms. In addition, learned resourcefulness mediated the effects of perceived health and peer relationships on depressive symptoms. Health-care providers can use this knowledge to teach adolescents coping strategies such as use of learned resourcefulness to prevent depression and its negative consequences. PMID:15991147

  5. Plasma biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, S E; Xie, S X; Leung, Y-Y; Wang, L-S; Kling, M A; Han, X; Kim, E J; Wolk, D A; Bennett, D A; Chen-Plotkin, A; Grossman, M; Hu, W; Lee, V M-Y; Mackin, R Scott; Trojanowski, J Q; Wilson, R S; Shaw, L M

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology of negative affect states in older adults is complex, and a host of central nervous system and peripheral systemic mechanisms may play primary or contributing roles. We conducted an unbiased analysis of 146 plasma analytes in a multiplex biochemical biomarker study in relation to number of depressive symptoms endorsed by 566 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) at their baseline and 1-year assessments. Analytes that were most highly associated with depressive symptoms included hepatocyte growth factor, insulin polypeptides, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and vascular endothelial growth factor. Separate regression models assessed contributions of past history of psychiatric illness, antidepressant or other psychotropic medicine, apolipoprotein E genotype, body mass index, serum glucose and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) τ and amyloid levels, and none of these values significantly attenuated the main effects of the candidate analyte levels for depressive symptoms score. Ensemble machine learning with Random Forests found good accuracy (∼80%) in classifying groups with and without depressive symptoms. These data begin to identify biochemical biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults that may be useful in investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms of depression in aging and neurodegenerative dementias and as targets of novel treatment approaches. PMID:22832727

  6. Apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms: Points of convergence and divergence.

    PubMed

    Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A; Santorelli, Gennarina D; Santospago, Breanna P

    2016-10-30

    This study determined convergence and divergence in the constructs of alexithymia, apathy, and depressive symptoms. Understanding of similarities and differences between these constructs will improve diagnostic accuracy for clinical and research purposes. Community-dwelling participants (N=622, M age=35.6 years, SD=13.1) completed online measures of alexithymia, depression, and apathy; 12.2% were alexithymic, 37.8% reported significant depressive symptoms, and 24.9% reported significant apathy. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFAs) determined the best factor structure for the apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was comprised of three factors and accounted for 45.1% of item variance. The Depression, Apathy, and Alexithymia factors were defined most strongly by item content that is at the core of each construct. Depression was defined most highly by items assessing sadness, low self-esteem, and loneliness. The strongest item loadings for Alexithymia were difficulty identifying and describing feelings. Apathy was characterized by poor motivation, low interest, and lack of initiative. However, each of these core and defining features had significant cross-loadings on one of the other two factors. Negative affect shared variance with Apathy, low motivation shared variance with Depression, and difficulty describing and identify feelings shared variance with Depression and Apathy. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:27512920

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  8. Depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females and males.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.

  9. Depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females and males.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms. PMID:20229229

  10. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  11. Effects of retirement and grandchild care on depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how grandchild care in conjunction with grandparents' retirement affects depressive symptoms, using data from the Health and Retirement Survey. The findings demonstrate that retirement moderates the influence of grandchild care obligations on well-being, measured by depressive symptoms. For retired men, freedom from grandchild care obligations is associated with heightened well-being. Among women, continued employment seems to protect against potential negative effects of extensive grandchild care obligations on well-being. The results for men seem most in line with the argument that family care obligations spoil retirement, whereas the results for women suggest a scenario that is most compatible with the role enhancement thesis. PMID:16454480

  12. The Longitudinal Association between Oppositional and Depressive Symptoms across Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Khrista; Georgiades, Katholiki; Szatmari, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and depression show high rates of co-occurrence, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This study examines the extent to which variation in oppositional symptoms predict, variation in depressive symptoms over time, accounting for co-occurring depressive symptoms and measurement error.…

  13. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a…

  14. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  15. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  16. Depressive symptoms induce paranoid symptoms in narcissistic personalities (but not narcissistic symptoms in paranoid personalities).

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Petty, Scharles; Perez, Marisol; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Rudd, M David

    2008-05-30

    Based on clinical experience, anecdotal reports, and past empirical and conceptual work, we predicted that when people with narcissistic tendencies experience depressive symptoms, they are prone to develop paranoid attitudes. Moreover, we expected that this process was unidirectional, and that the combination of paranoid tendencies and depressive symptoms would not be associated with an increase in narcissistic symptoms. In both cases, results from our 6-month longitudinal study of 71 previously suicidal adults conformed to our expectations.

  17. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action. PMID:26379135

  18. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.

  19. Affect and psychiatric symptoms in a veteran polytrauma clinic.

    PubMed

    Kraal, A Zarina; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Pangilinan, Percival H; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2015-02-01

    Although the relationship between negative affect and psychiatric symptoms has been well-demonstrated in research, less is known about positive affect relative to negative affect, and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms, especially among veterans. This study examined how levels of positive and negative affect are associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were collected in a veteran polytrauma clinic; analyses were conducted using data from 94 veterans (87 males) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis. Results demonstrate that positive and negative affect were separate dimensions and that both were independently related to each symptom measure. After removing the contribution of negative affect from symptom reports, strong relationships remained between positive affect and psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, the magnitude of the associations for positive affect and for negative affect with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD were not impacted by a mTBI diagnosis. Altogether, findings suggest that both positive and negative affect should be uniquely considered when conceptualizing, assessing, and treating returning service members; in addition, positive affect may be an appropriate target of assessment and interventions of persons who have experienced polytrauma.

  20. [Symptoms profile of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Małyszczak, K; Sidorowicz, S; Łaczmański, T

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes symptoms of mixed depressive and anxiety disorder (ICD-10). The study was carried out in three medical dispensaries: two psychiatric (42 persons) and one primary care (62 persons). Patients with or without anxiety and depressive symptoms were included. Exclusion criteria was: psychoactive substance abuse, physical diseases affecting mental state, and mental disorders other than anxiety or mood disorders. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men in mean age of 41.1 years) were inquired with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and diagnostic questionnaire based on Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There was no pattern of symptoms specific for mixed disorder that could be a basis for operational criteria. The most frequent were symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), depression and dysthymia. The most specific symptoms, selected using discriminant analysis were: (1) difficulty in concentrating, (2) feeling mentally tense, (3) feeling of hopelessness or despair, (4) shortening of breath, (5) lowered mood, (6) feeling dizzy, unsteady, faint, or light headed; (7) early waking up, (8) nightmares, (9) dry mouth, (10) hot flushes or cold chills, (11) frequent tearfulness. The results contribute to the concept that mixed depression and anxiety disorder is closely related to generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). PMID:11842606

  1. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  2. Pathways from Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…

  3. Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

  4. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Clemente; Guo, Jennifer; Killory, Brendan; Danielson, Nathan; Vestal, Matthew; Berman, Rachel; Martin, Leisel; Gonzalez, Jose L.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Spann, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) has been recently linked to a number of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional disorders. Identification of affective disorders (anxiety and depression) presents unique challenges in pediatric populations, and successful early intervention may significantly improve long-term developmental outcomes. The current study examined the specific anxiety and depression symptoms CAE children experience, and explored the role of disease factors in the severity of their presentation. Forty-five subjects with CAE and 41 healthy matched controls, ages 6 to 16 participated in the study. The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) was completed by parents, and the Anxiety and Depression subscales were used to characterize problems. Item analysis within the subscales revealed that CAE children demonstrated higher rates of symptoms of anxiety (nervousness and thought rumination) and depression (sadness and crying), as well as more general psychosocial problems including isolation and low self-esteem. Disease duration, intractability, and medication effects were not associated with higher rates of affective problems in this limited patient sample. Screening CAE patients for comorbid psychiatric disorders early by focusing on specific symptom profiles unique to this population may enhance overall treatment and developmental outcomes. PMID:21635244

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Parenting Competence: An Analysis of 13 Regulatory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms that lead depressive symptoms to undermine parenting are poorly understood. This review examines cognitive, affective, and motivational processes thought to be responsible for the impact of depressive symptoms on parenting. We present a five-step, action-control model and review 152 studies relevant to 13 regulatory processes. Evidence…

  6. Emotion regulation predicts symptoms of depression over five years.

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Wirtz, Carolin M; Svaldi, Jennifer; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-06-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation have been identified as an important risk and maintaining factor for depression. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of emotion regulation on symptoms of depression. Moreover, we investigated which specific emotion regulation skills were associated with subsequent symptoms of depression. Participants were 116 individuals (78% women, average age 35.2 years) who registered for an online-based assessment of depression and its risk-factors and reported at least some symptoms of depression. Successful application of emotion regulation skills and depressive symptom severity were assessed twice over a 5-year period. We utilized cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether successful skills application would be negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptom severity. Cross-lagged panel analyses identified successful skills application as a significant predictor for depressive symptom severity even when controlling for the effects of initial symptoms of depression. A comparison of the effect sizes for different emotion regulation skills on subsequent depressive symptoms suggests that most of the skills included have similar predictive value. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the hypotheses that deficits in emotion regulation may contribute to the development of depression and that interventions systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills may help prevent and treat depressive symptoms.

  7. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  8. Evolution of depressive symptoms in Alzheimer disease: one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Garre-Olmo, J; López-Pousa, S; Vilalta-Franch, J; Turon-Estrada, A; Hernàndez-Ferràndiz, M; Lozano-Gallego, M; Fajardo-Tibau, C; Puig-Vidal, O; Morante-Muñoz, V; Cruz-Reina, M M

    2003-01-01

    The current longitudinal study analyzes the natural course of depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The goals were to identify the clinical and sociodemographic variables related to depressive symptoms, to assess the effect of depressive symptoms on the course of cognitive and functional impairment and on associated neuropsychiatric disorders, and to identify which factors are associated with remission, persistence, and emergence of depressive symptoms at 12 months. A sample of 150 patients with mild or moderate severity was assessed at baseline and at 12 months using the neuropsychologic battery Cambridge Cognitive Examination. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Rapid Disability Rating Scale were administered to the caregiver. Prevalence, persistence, and emergence of depressive symptoms at baseline were 51%, 55%, and 20%, respectively. Remission of depressive symptoms at 12 months leads to a decreased frequency of other noncognitive disorders and to a slight improvement in the assessment of global function. The presence of depressive symptoms does not affect the course of cognitive impairment at 12 months, and a psychiatric history of the patient and the number of depressive symptoms at baseline are risk factors for the emergence and persistence of depressive symptoms at 12 months.

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Zhong, Ning; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction.

  10. Dispositional Mindfulness, Spirituality, and Substance Use in Predicting Depressive Symptoms in a Treatment-Seeking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Gawrysiak, Michael J.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is imperative that research identifies factors related to depression among individuals in substance use treatment, as depression is associated with substance use relapse. Dispositional mindfulness and spirituality may bear an important role in the relationship between depression and substance use. Method Using preexisting patient medical records (N = 105), the current study investigated dispositional mindfulness and spirituality in relation to depressive symptom clusters (affective, cognitive, and physiological) among men in residential substance use treatment. The mean age of the sample was 41.03 (standard deviation = 10.75). Results Findings demonstrated that dispositional mindfulness and spirituality were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. After controlling for age, alcohol use, and drug use, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the depression clusters. Spirituality only remained associated with the cognitive depression cluster. Conclusion Mindfulness-based interventions may hold promise as an effective intervention for reducing substance use and concurrent depressive symptoms. PMID:25522300

  11. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  12. Mediationg Role of Mindfulness as a Trait Between Attachment Styles and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Linares, Leticia; Jauregui, Paula; Herrero-Fernández, David; Estévez, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Attachment styles and dysfunctional symptoms have been associated. This relationship could be affected by metacognitive capacity. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms, attachment styles, and metacognitive capacity. In addition, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms has been studied. A total of 505 participants recruited from the general population of the province of Bizkaia (Spain) completed questionnaires regarding depression, anxiety, mindfulness, decentering, and attachment. Results showed positive and significant relations between (a) dysfunctional symptoms and insecure attachment styles and (b) metacognitive capacity and secure attachment style. Additionally, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms was confirmed. Intervention in metacognitive abilities such as mindfulness could be a useful therapeutic tool for depressive symptoms.

  13. Prevalence of Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    To investigate significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. The presence of persistent symptoms varied by both race and sex. Results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to…

  14. The predictive value of somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms for cytokine changes in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Dannehl, Katharina; Rief, Winfried; Schwarz, Markus J; Hennings, Annika; Riemer, Sabine; Selberdinger, Verena; Stapf, Theresa; Euteneuer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Context Elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines have been hypothesized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Depression itself is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder. Current findings suggest that “cognitive” and “somatic” symptom dimensions are related to immune function in different ways. So far, little research has been done on the longitudinal aspects of inflammation in patients with major depression, especially with respect to different symptom dimensions of depression. Therefore, we investigated which aspects of depression may predict changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 over 4 weeks. Methods Forty-one patients with major depression diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum measurements of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks later. Psychometric measures included the assessment of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms during the last 7 days as well as somatic symptoms during the last 2 years. Results Patients with depression showed increased levels of TNF-alpha (P<0.05) compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that neither depressive nor somatic symptoms predict changes in proinflammatory cytokines in the whole sample of depressed patients. Moderation analyses and subsequent sex-stratified regression analyses indicated that higher somatoform symptoms during the last 2 years significantly predict an increase in TNF-alpha in women with major depression (P<0.05) but not in men. Exploratory analyses indicated that the stability of TNF-alpha and IL-6 (as indicated by intraclass correlation coefficients) over 4 weeks was high for TNF-alpha but lower for IL-6. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that a history of somatoform symptoms may be important for predicting future changes in TNF

  15. Getting out of Depression: Teens' Self-Help Interventions to Relieve Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Barker, Ellen C.

    2006-01-01

    Most depressed adolescents do not access medical care for symptoms, yet many improve without professional intervention. While several self-help interventions have empirical support, teens' non-directed efforts to reduce symptoms are not documented. We reviewed 14 depressed adolescents' reports of attempts to reduce depressive symptoms. Results…

  16. Genetic Moderators of the Impact of Physical Activity on Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Langaee, Taimour Y.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; King, Abby C.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Myers, Valerie; Manini, Todd M.; Pahor, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background Converging evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for both clinical depression and sub-threshold depressive symptoms; however, findings are not always consistent. These mixed results might reflect heterogeneity in response to physical activity, with some subgroups of individuals responding positively, but not others. Objectives 1) To examine the impact of genetic variation and sex on changes in depressive symptoms in older adults after a physical activity (PA) intervention, and 2) determine if PA differentially improves particular symptom dimensions of depression. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Four field centers (Cooper Institute, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh, and Wake Forest University). Participants 396 community-dwelling adults aged 70–89 years who participated in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P). Intervention 12-month PA intervention compared to an education control. Measurements Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes; 12-month change in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale total score, as well as scores on the depressed affect, somatic symptoms, and lack of positive affect subscales. Results Men randomized to the PA arm showed the greatest decreases in somatic symptoms, with a preferential benefit in male carriers of the BDNF Met allele. Symptoms of lack of positive affect decreased more in men compared to women, particularly in those possessing the 5-HTT L allele, but the effect did not differ by intervention arm. APOE status did not affect change in depressive symptoms. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that the impact of PA on depressive symptoms varies by genotype and sex, and that PA may mitigate somatic symptoms of depression more than other symptoms. The results suggest that a targeted approach to recommending PA therapy for

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  18. Altered Amygdala Connectivity in Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kihwan; Chapman, Sandra B.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Though depression has detrimental effects in TBI and network dysfunction is a “hallmark” of TBI and depression, there have not been any prior investigations of connectivity-based neuroimaging biomarkers for comorbid depression in TBI. We utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify altered amygdala connectivity in individuals with chronic TBI (8 years post-injury on average) exhibiting comorbid depressive symptoms (N = 31), relative to chronic TBI individuals having minimal depressive symptoms (N = 23). Connectivity analysis of these participant sub-groups revealed that the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group showed relative increases in amygdala connectivity primarily in the regions that are part of the salience, somatomotor, dorsal attention, and visual networks (pvoxel < 0.01, pcluster < 0.025). Relative increases in amygdala connectivity in the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group were also observed within areas of the limbic–cortical mood-regulating circuit (the left dorsomedial and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and thalamus) and the brainstem. Further analysis revealed that spatially dissociable patterns of correlation between amygdala connectivity and symptom severity according to subtypes (Cognitive and Affective) of depressive symptoms (pvoxel < 0.01, pcluster < 0.025). Taken together, these results suggest that amygdala connectivity may be a potentially effective neuroimaging biomarker for comorbid depressive symptoms in chronic TBI. PMID:26581959

  19. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term. PMID:26191980

  20. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term.

  1. Depression symptoms in movement disorders: comparing Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kimberly M; Okun, Michael S; Fernandez, Hubert F; Jacobson, Charles E; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Bowers, Dawn

    2007-04-15

    Depression is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and affects 30 to 50% of all patients. In contrast to the wealth of research on depression in PD, little is known about the occurrence of depression in other movement disorders. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether the high prevalence of depression symptoms seen in PD is also found in other movement disorders, by directly comparing rates of specific depression symptoms and depression severity across PD, dystonia, and essential tremor (ET). Three hundred and fifty-four patients with PD, 83 patients with dystonia, and 53 patients with ET completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We found no significant between-groups differences for depression severity, frequency, or endorsement of specific depression symptoms. Forty-eight percent of PD patients, 37.3% of dystonia patients, and 34% of ET patients were found to be at least mildly depressed (BDI score of 10 or higher). The most commonly endorsed symptoms were fatigability, difficulty with work, anhedonia, and sleep disturbance. Clinicians should be aware that depression is a frequent problem in dystonia and ET, in addition to PD, and inquire about depression symptoms in these patients so that they can be appropriately treated.

  2. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.

  3. Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

  4. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  5. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Norcini Pala, A; Steca, P; Bagrodia, R; Helpman, L; Colangeli, V; Viale, P; Wainberg, M L

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. This study sought to explore the patterns of somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms that characterize HIV-positive patients. Our specific aims were (1) to identify subtypes of depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive patients; and (2) to test the subtypes' difference on inflammatory and HIV disease progression biomarkers. HIV-positive men and women (N=102) with and without depressive symptoms were randomly selected from an Italian HIV clinic. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), viral load (VL), CD4+, Il-6, TNF-α, and monocytes were assessed. The three subtypes formed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patients with (1) severe cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms; (2) severe/moderate somatic symptoms; and (3) absent or low depressive symptoms. The subtype with severe/moderate somatic symptoms was characterized with elevated levels of Il-6 and monocytes. No difference on HIV progression biomarkers was found. The subtypes of depressive symptoms might help differentiating depressive symptoms from HIV- and inflammatory-related somatic symptoms. When present, cognitive-affective and/or somatic symptoms cause significant impairment to patients' lives and thus warrant further assessment and treatment.

  6. Depression Symptoms among Homeless Smokers: Effect of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cendrine; Rogers, Charles R.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is higher among homeless individuals than the general population. Homeless individuals are also more likely to have symptoms of depression. Depression symptoms may add to the burden of homelessness by increasing psychological distress and serve as a barrier to quitting smoking. Objectives The primary goal of this study was to assess the impact of depression symptoms on psychological distress in homeless smokers. The effect of depression symptoms on abstinence and the effect of Motivational Interviewing (MI) on cessation among smokers was also explored. Methods Homeless smokers (N=430) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were randomized to Motivational Interviewing (MI) or standard care (SC). Participants received nicotine replacement therapy and were followed for 26 weeks. Participants were categorized into a depression symptoms (DS) group or control group using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Between group differences of perceived stress, hopelessness, confidence, craving and abstinence were assessed at weeks 8 and 26. The interaction between depression symptoms (levels: DS and control) and the intervention (levels: MI and SC) was also assessed. Results Homeless smokers in the DS group reported higher levels of hopelessness, perceived stress, and craving. There was no effect of DS status on abstinence at week 8 or week 26. There was no significant interaction between depression symptoms (DS vs. Control) and the intervention (MI vs. SC). Conclusion Despite reporting greater psychological distress, homeless smokers with depression symptoms in this sample had abstinence levels similar to the control group. Future research should explore protective factors among depressed smokers. PMID:27267588

  7. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes.

  8. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes. PMID:26280589

  9. From loss to loneliness: The relationship between bereavement and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eiko I; Bockting, Claudi; Arjadi, Retha; Borsboom, Denny; Amshoff, Maximilian; Cramer, Angélique O J; Epskamp, Sacha; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Carr, Deborah; Stroebe, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    Spousal bereavement can cause a rise in depressive symptoms. This study empirically evaluates 2 competing explanations concerning how this causal effect is brought about: (a) a traditional latent variable explanation, in which loss triggers depression which then leads to symptoms; and (b) a novel network explanation, in which bereavement directly affects particular depression symptoms which then activate other symptoms. We used data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study and compared depressive symptomatology, assessed via the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), among those who lost their partner (N = 241) with a still-married control group (N = 274). We modeled the effect of partner loss on depressive symptoms either as an indirect effect through a latent variable, or as a direct effect in a network constructed through a causal search algorithm. Compared to the control group, widow(er)s' scores were significantly higher for symptoms of loneliness, sadness, depressed mood, and appetite loss, and significantly lower for happiness and enjoyed life. The effect of partner loss on these symptoms was not mediated by a latent variable. The network model indicated that bereavement mainly affected loneliness, which in turn activated other depressive symptoms. The direct effects of spousal loss on particular symptoms are inconsistent with the predictions of latent variable models, but can be explained from a network perspective. The findings support a growing body of literature showing that specific adverse life events differentially affect depressive symptomatology, and suggest that future studies should examine interventions that directly target such symptoms. PMID:25730514

  10. The Differential Influence Of Life Stress On Individual Symptoms Of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Eiko I.; Nesse, Randolph M.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Life stress consistently increases the incidence of major depression. Recent evidence has shown that individual symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) differ in important dimensions such as their genetic and etiological background, but the impact of stress on individual MDD symptoms is not known. Here we assess whether stress affects depression symptoms differentially. Method We used the chronic stress of medical internship to examine changes of the nine DSM-5 criterion symptoms for depression in 3,021 interns assessed prior to and throughout internship. Results All nine depression symptoms increased in response to stress (all p < 0.001), on average by 173%. Symptom increases differed substantially from each other (p < 0.001), with psychomotor problems (289%) and interest loss (217%) showing the largest increases, and suicidal ideation (146%) and sleep problems (52%) the smallest. Symptoms also differed in their severities under stress (p < 0.001): fatigue, appetite problems and sleep problems were most prevalent, psychomotor problems and suicidal ideation were least prevalent. Conclusion Stress differentially affects the DSM-5 depressive symptoms. Analyses of individual symptoms reveal important insights obfuscated by sum-scores. PMID:25650176

  11. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  12. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  13. A prospective study of fitness, fatness, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Becofsky, Katie M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness.

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Disordered Eating among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…

  15. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Children's Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  17. Assessing Secondary Control and Its Association with Youth Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; Francis, Sarah E.; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research has linked youth depression symptoms to low levels of perceived control, using measures that reflect "primary control" (i.e., influencing objective conditions to make them fit one's wishes). We hypothesized that depressive symptoms are also linked to low levels of "secondary control" (i.e., influencing the psychological impact…

  18. Monthly Instability in Early Adolescent Friendship Networks and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alessandra; Poulin, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the relation between perceived friendship instability and depressive symptoms, (2) the directionality of this link, and (3) whether the relation between friendship instability and depressive symptoms would differ according to specific friendship status (best and secondary friendships) and contexts (school, non-school, and…

  19. Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation…

  20. Depression and burnout symptoms among Air Force family medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Varner, Derrick F; Foutch, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of depression and burnout symptoms among family medicine providers on active duty in the US Air Force. Results demonstrated that 84% of those surveyed scored positive for degrees of depression symptoms; only sex differences were significant. PMID:24758978

  1. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  2. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Munson, Michelle R; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th birthdays. Depression was assessed with the Depression Outcomes Module and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Data best fit a model of three trajectory classes, describing young people (1) maintaining low levels of depressive symptoms (never depressed class, 78%), (2) with increasing symptoms (increasing class, 6%), and (3) with decreasing symptoms (decreasing class, 15%). The increasing depression group was mostly male youths who were working or in school; the decreasing class was mostly highly maltreated female youths exiting the foster care system from residential care, with low levels of employment, and in school. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  3. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  4. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18–34), middle (35–54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results Discrimination was significantly related to depressive symptoms for men ages 35 to 54 and mastery was found to be protective against depressive symptoms for all men. Compared to African American men in the young and late adult groups, discrimination remained a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms for men in the middle group once mastery was included. Implications Findings demonstrate the distinct differences in the influence of discrimination on depressive symptoms among adult African American males and the need for future research that explores the correlates of mental health across age groups. Implications for social work research and practice with African American men are discussed. PMID:24436576

  5. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  6. An IRT Analysis of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.

  7. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (≥ 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  8. Childhood psychological maltreatment subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Eckenrode, John

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26105164

  9. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of maternal and paternal warmth on depression symptoms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio, Victoria; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel A

    2016-08-30

    The main aim of this study is to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived affection of mothers and fathers separately on the self-reported symptoms of children's depression. Data were obtained from a 3-wave study of 535 families with children (41.3% boys) aged 9-15 years of age. Structural equation models were performed to test different models. Significant effects of mothers' and fathers' affection on depression symptomatology over the three years were found. The longitudinal effects of parental warmth on the child's depression symptoms were mediated over time by the previous levels of the mother's and father's warmth. The presence of parental warmth can lessen the severity of depression symptoms, especially when paternal and maternal warmth are applied consistently over a long period of time. These results were invariant across the child's sex. Treatments for childhood depression should take place over extended periods of time including both fathers and mothers. PMID:27262265

  10. PTSD, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in African American women: a mediated model.

    PubMed

    Carr, Erika R; Woods, Amanda M; Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Sutton, Carla; Wittenauer, Justine; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    Although research has shown positive associations among post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation, the nature of these relations is unclear, especially in African American women. This study examined the associations among these comorbid psychological difficulties in a sample of 136 low-income, African American women. Specifically, the goal of this investigation was to ascertain if overall depressive symptoms, as well as both the cognitive-affective and somatic components of depression, mediated the PTSD-suicidal ideation link. Results from bootstrapping analyses revealed that overall depressive symptoms and the cognitive-affective components of depression, but not the somatic components, mediated the PTSD-suicidal ideation link. PMID:22802144

  11. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of maternal and paternal warmth on depression symptoms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio, Victoria; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel A

    2016-08-30

    The main aim of this study is to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived affection of mothers and fathers separately on the self-reported symptoms of children's depression. Data were obtained from a 3-wave study of 535 families with children (41.3% boys) aged 9-15 years of age. Structural equation models were performed to test different models. Significant effects of mothers' and fathers' affection on depression symptomatology over the three years were found. The longitudinal effects of parental warmth on the child's depression symptoms were mediated over time by the previous levels of the mother's and father's warmth. The presence of parental warmth can lessen the severity of depression symptoms, especially when paternal and maternal warmth are applied consistently over a long period of time. These results were invariant across the child's sex. Treatments for childhood depression should take place over extended periods of time including both fathers and mothers.

  12. The relation of weight change to depressive symptoms in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656

  13. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  14. Depressive symptoms and spiritual wellbeing in asymptomatic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Mills, Paul J; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J; Redwine, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ± 10.5). Approximately 32 % of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting fewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p < 0.02), less fatigue (p < 0.001), better sleep (p < 0.04), and more spiritual wellbeing (p < 0.01) (overall model F = 26.6, p < 0.001, adjusted R square = 0.629). Further analyses indicated that the meaning (p < 0.01) and peace (p < 0.01) subscales, but not the faith (p = 0.332) subscale, of spiritual wellbeing were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at increasing spiritual wellbeing in patients lives, and specifically meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure. PMID:25533643

  15. Disentangling the prospective relations between maladaptive cognitions and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    LaGrange, Beth; Cole, David A; Jacquez, Farrah; Ciesla, Jeff; Dallaire, Danielle; Pineda, Ashley; Truss, Alanna; Weitlauf, Amy; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Felton, Julia

    2011-08-01

    In a four-wave, cohort-longitudinal design with a community sample of 515 children and adolescents (grades 2 through 9), this study examined the longitudinal structure of and prospective interrelations between maladaptive cognitions and depressive symptoms. Multigroup structural equation modeling generated four major findings. First, the longitudinal structures of maladaptive cognitions and depressive symptoms consist of a single time-invariant factor and a series of time-varying factors. Second, evidence supported a model in which depressive symptoms predicted negative cognitions but not the reverse. Third, the time-invariant components of cognition and depression were highly correlated. Fourth, the strength of the depression-to-cognition relation increased with age. Implications regarding the mechanisms underlying clinical interventions with depressed children are discussed.

  16. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.

  17. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  19. Suicidal Ideation among Racial/Ethnic Minorities: Moderating Effects of Rumination and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Cheref, Soumia; Lane, Robert; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Gadol, Erin; Miranda, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Among emerging adults and college students, racial and ethnic minorities experience greater risk for suicidal ideation and behavior than their White counterparts. Research has identified numerous cognitive risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, they have not been well studied among racial and ethnic minorities. The present study examined the association between these factors (brooding rumination, reflective rumination, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms) and suicidal ideation, among 690 Black, Latino, and biracial college students. Among all groups, hopelessness was positively associated with suicidal ideation. Brooding was negatively associated with suicidal ideation, after adjusting for reflection and hopelessness, although only at low levels of depressive symptoms. Black race/ethnicity and Latino race/ethnicity, compared with biracial race/ethnicity, each separately interacted with reflection to predict lower levels of suicidal ideation at moderate to high levels of reflection. Furthermore, Latino race/ethnicity, compared with biracial race/ethnicity, interacted with both reflection and depressive symptoms, such that reflection was negatively associated with suicidal ideation among Latino individuals reporting depressive symptoms above the 39th percentile. Biracial race/ethnicity, compared with monoracial race/ethnicity, also interacted with reflection and depressive symptoms, with reflection associated with greater amounts of suicidal ideation at depressive symptom levels above the 39th percentile. Our findings suggest reflective rumination differentially affects racial and ethnic groups and should be considered in conjunction with depressive symptoms among Latino and biracial individuals in suicide risk assessment and treatment. PMID:25111544

  20. Depressive symptoms associated with dabigatran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Gul; Enez Darcin, Asli; Saglam, Esra; Gogcegoz Gul, Isil

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have reported that depression and anxiety are very common in atrial fibrillation due to impaired quality of life. Dabigatran is an anti-aggregation agent used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. In terms of drug interactions during treatment with dabigatran, patients suffering from minor depression are reported to be a population at risk. This report is about a 68-year-old man whose depressive symptoms were aggravated after taking dabigatran for atrial fibrillation. The case is discussed in terms of his aggravated depressive symptoms and the interaction between his prescription medications.

  1. Depressive symptoms associated with dabigatran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Gul; Enez Darcin, Asli; Saglam, Esra; Gogcegoz Gul, Isil

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have reported that depression and anxiety are very common in atrial fibrillation due to impaired quality of life. Dabigatran is an anti-aggregation agent used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. In terms of drug interactions during treatment with dabigatran, patients suffering from minor depression are reported to be a population at risk. This report is about a 68-year-old man whose depressive symptoms were aggravated after taking dabigatran for atrial fibrillation. The case is discussed in terms of his aggravated depressive symptoms and the interaction between his prescription medications. PMID:25515766

  2. Depressive Symptoms, Race, and Circulating C-Reactive Protein: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sheldon; DiLillo, Vicki G.; Lewis, Cora E.; Kiefe, Catarina; Whooley, Mary; Matthews, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the prospective association of depressive symptoms with circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and determine the direction of that association. Methods Using data from 2544 healthy participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (ages 33–45, 55% female, 42% black), we examined the prospective association of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), with circulating CRP five years later. Results Depressive symptoms at CARDIA Year 15 predicted CRP at Year 20, independent of demographic characteristics, biological and medical risk factors, health behaviors, and Year 15 CRP. This association, however, was conditional upon race such that the increase in CRP with increasing depressive symptoms was present in blacks but not whites. In neither blacks nor whites did Year 15 CRP predict Year 20 depressive symptoms. Among black participants, when examined in separate analyses, higher scores on the depressed affect and somatic symptoms subscales of the CES-D, and lower scores on the positive affect subscale were associated with greater Year 20 CRP. The interpersonal problems subscale was unrelated to CRP. When all four subscale scores were entered simultaneously in the same model, black participants' scores on the positive affect and somatic symptoms subscales emerged as independent predictors of Year 20 CRP whereas the depressed affect and interpersonal problems subscales did not. Conclusions Depressive symptoms may be more closely linked to inflammation in blacks than in whites. PMID:20668285

  3. Characteristics of mothers with depressive symptoms outside the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the deleterious effects of maternal depression on child outcomes. Knowledge of characteristics of these mothers is incomplete, as most studies utilize small samples or limit investigation to the postpartum period. Utilizing data from a nationally representative sample of 7,211 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 (SF-12) was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, and the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems. In multivariate analyses, maternal unemployment (AOR 1.76, 95 % CI 1.31-2.35); living with smokers (AOR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.94); poor maternal physical health (AOR 2.31; 95 % CI 1.81-2.94); living with children with behavioral or emotional problems (AOR 2.95, 95 % CI 2.30-3.96); and paternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.11, 95 % CI 1.97-13.25) each were independently associated with increased rates of maternal depressive symptoms. This paper is the first we are aware of to use a nationally representative sample to investigate characteristics associated with maternal depressive symptoms and found that maternal unemployment, living with smokers, poor maternal physical health, having children with behavioral or emotional problems, and paternal depressive symptoms are each independently associated with maternal depressive symptoms. In these data, paternal depressive symptoms are associated with the greatest risk of mothers exhibiting depressive symptoms, a finding that we believe has never before been shown.

  4. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Relan, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29%) whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72%) based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33%) and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%). The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0%) and among females was anxious mood (92.85%). Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27366712

  5. Genetic Heterogeneity in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in Response to Victimization.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adolescents (3,263 observations) in Grades 8 to 12 (56% female; 47% Black, 46% White). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess whether victimization predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later, beyond baseline trajectories for depressive symptoms. We modeled the interactive effects of peer victimization with three genetic polymorphisms (on 5-HTTLPR, DRD2 TaqIA, and BDNF Val66Met) on depressive symptoms. Although victimization predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect of victimization. Val alleles, associated with higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) functioning, predicted more sensitivity to victimization. Neither DRD2 TaqIA, a marker associated with dopaminergic functioning, nor 5-HTTLPR, a marker associated with serotonin activity, was associated with sensitivity to victimization. The social stress of peer victimization triggers depressive symptoms most strongly in individuals who are homozygous for the Val allele on the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism. This polymorphism has been linked with sensitivity to social defeat in animal models. Future research should explore behavioral, cognitive, and emotional explanations of the effects of BDNF Val/Met on responsivity to victimization.

  6. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  7. Paternal Psychopathology and Maternal Depressive Symptom Trajectory During the First Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Gary O.; Hunter, Sharon K.; Ross, Randal G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers’ psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression. PMID:25478124

  8. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    PubMed

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms in young adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Wagner, E H; Grimson, R C; Miller, F T

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 junior high school students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. In 384 usable symptom scales, item-scale correlations (most were above .50), inter-item correlations, coefficient alpha (.85), and patterns of reported symptoms were reasonable. Persistent symptoms were reported more often by Blacks, especially Black males. Prevalence of persistent symptoms in Whites was quite close to reported figures for adults, ranging from 1 per cent to 15 per cent in adolescent males and 2 per cent to 13 per cent in adolescent females. Adolescents reported persistent vegetative symptoms less often and psychosocial symptoms more often. Reports of symptoms without regard to duration were much more frequent in the adolescents, ranging from 18 per cent to 76 per cent in White males, 34 per cent to 76 per cent in White and Black females, and 41 per cent to 85 per cent in Black males. The results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to measure depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Transient symptoms reported by adolescents probably reflect their stage of development, but persistent symptoms are likely to have social psychiatric importance. PMID:6625033

  10. Control when it counts: Change in executive control under stress predicts depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Meghan E; Joormann, Jutta

    2015-08-01

    Individual differences in the ability to regulate affect following stressful life events have been associated with an increased risk for experiencing depression symptoms. Research further suggests that emotion regulation may depend on executive control which, in turn, has been shown to decline following stress exposure. Whether individual differences in stress-induced change in executive control predict depression symptoms, however, remains unknown. The current study examined whether trait executive control as well as stress-induced change in executive control predicts depression symptoms during a stressful time of life. The current study recruited 43 individuals during their first year of college. Participants completed an executive control task before and after a laboratory stress induction. Participants reported baseline depression symptoms during the laboratory session and follow-up depression symptoms during the final weeks of the semester. Results demonstrate that stress-induced change in executive control predicted an increase in depression symptoms at the end of the semester. The findings suggest that individual differences in the degree of decline in executive control following stress exposure may be a key factor in explaining why some individuals are vulnerable to depression during a stressful time of life. PMID:26098731

  11. Control when it counts: Change in executive control under stress predicts depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Meghan E; Joormann, Jutta

    2015-08-01

    Individual differences in the ability to regulate affect following stressful life events have been associated with an increased risk for experiencing depression symptoms. Research further suggests that emotion regulation may depend on executive control which, in turn, has been shown to decline following stress exposure. Whether individual differences in stress-induced change in executive control predict depression symptoms, however, remains unknown. The current study examined whether trait executive control as well as stress-induced change in executive control predicts depression symptoms during a stressful time of life. The current study recruited 43 individuals during their first year of college. Participants completed an executive control task before and after a laboratory stress induction. Participants reported baseline depression symptoms during the laboratory session and follow-up depression symptoms during the final weeks of the semester. Results demonstrate that stress-induced change in executive control predicted an increase in depression symptoms at the end of the semester. The findings suggest that individual differences in the degree of decline in executive control following stress exposure may be a key factor in explaining why some individuals are vulnerable to depression during a stressful time of life.

  12. Optimistic Outlook Regarding Maternity Protects Against Depressive Symptoms Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Thalia K.; Williams, Katherine E.; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Methods 98 pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through three months postpartum. Results We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. Conclusions We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated

  13. The Effects of Parental Depression and Parenting Practices on Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Control in Urban Youth with Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A.; Kolmodin, Karen; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships between parental depressive symptoms, affective and instrumental parenting practices, youth depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a diverse, urban sample of adolescents with diabetes. Methods Sixty-one parents and youth aged 10–17 completed self-report questionnaires. HbA1c assays were obtained to assess metabolic control. Path analysis was used to test a model where parenting variables mediated the relationship between parental and youth depressive symptoms and had effects on metabolic control. Results Parental depressive symptoms had a significant indirect effect on youth depressive symptoms through parental involvement. Youth depressive symptoms were significantly related to metabolic control. While instrumental aspects of parenting such as monitoring or discipline were unrelated to youth depressive symptoms, parental depression had a significant indirect effect on metabolic control through parental monitoring. Conclusions The presence of parental depressive symptoms influences both youth depression and poor metabolic control through problematic parenting practices such as low involvement and monitoring. PMID:19710249

  14. Participation in Learning and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of research on relationships between depression and participation in learning using data from a large sample of older adults. The objective was to establish whether learning can reduce the risk of depression. Data were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a nationally-representative sample of…

  15. Bullying, Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 2,088 Norwegian eighth-graders found that both bullies and victims had higher scores on measures of suicidal thoughts. Victims had significantly higher scores on depressive thoughts. Whether bullies, victims, or neutral, girls had significantly higher scores than boys on both suicidal and depressive thoughts. (Contains 48 references.)…

  16. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832). Results indicated that marital conflict directly led to increases in depression and functional impairment and indirectly led to a rise in depression via functional impairment. Overall, findings suggest marital conflict is a significant risk factor for psychological and physical health among midlife and older adults. PMID:18698378

  17. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents of South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanraj, Rani; Subbaiah, Karunanidhi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents studying in schools in Chennai. Settings and Design: The study was a school based cross-sectional survey in which data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII. Material: Beck Depression Inventory…

  18. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  19. Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…

  20. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  1. Weekend work and depressive symptoms among Korean employees.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kong, Jung-Ok; Jang, Tae-Won; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan; Kim, Inah

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between weekend work and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of Korean employees. Subjects were 29 171 employees of companies in Korea. Data were obtained as part of the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey. Depressive symptoms were measured as a score of ≤7 on the World Health Organization Well-being Index. The association between weekend work and depressive symptoms was quantified using logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic and work-related factors including the number of hours worked per week and stratified by gender. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in employees who reported working at least one weekend day in the past month than in employees who reported working no weekend days in the past month. After controlling for confounders, including the number of hours worked per week, 1-4 days of weekend work in the past month (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.36 [1.18-1.57] in males and 1.32 [1.12-1.58] in females) and >4 days of weekend work in the past month (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.45 [1.19-1.78] in males and 1.36 [1.07-1.73] in females) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Weekend work was related with a significant increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Korean workers. PMID:25290039

  2. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  3. Base Rates of Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: An Individual Symptom Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmann, Sebastian; Gierk, Benjamin; Murray, Alexandra M.; Scholl, Arne; Lehmann, Marco; Löwe, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression is common in coronary heart disease (CHD) but challenging to diagnose. Instead of focusing on the overall diagnosis of depression, base rates of depressive symptoms could facilitate screening and management of psychopathology in CHD. The present study investigates the frequency of individual depressive symptoms in CHD and their impact on cardiac and subjective health. Methods In total, 1337 in- and outpatients with CHD were screened for depressive symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at three different cardiac treatment sites. Tables stratified by age and gender were designed to illustrate base rates of depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical data were conducted to test associations between individual depressive symptoms and quality of life as well impairment caused angina pectoris and dyspnea. Results During the last 14 days, more than half of patients reported a loss of energy (74.9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 70.6–79.2), sleeping problems (69.4%, 95% CI: 64.9–74.0), loss of interest (55.7%, 95% CI: 50.8–60.7). In contrast, psychomotor change (25.6%, 95%CI: 21.3–30.0), feelings of failure (21.9%, 95%CI: 17.7–26.0), suicidal ideations (14.1%, 95%CI: 10.7–17.6) were less frequently reported. Depending on the outcome, only particular depressive symptoms were highly associated with low quality of life and impairment caused by angina pectoris and dyspnea. Loss of energy was the only depressive symptom that reliably predicted all three outcomes. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in CHD are frequent but vary widely in terms of frequency. Findings underline the differential effects of individual depressive symptoms on cardiac health. Presented base rates of depressive symptoms offer clinicians a new way to judge the severity of individual depressive symptoms and to communicate individual PHQ-9 profiles with patients with respect to gender, age, cardiac

  4. Depressive symptoms and sleep: a population-based polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Laura Siqueira; Castro, Juliana; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Quarantini, Lucas Castro; Kauati, Adriana; Mello, Luiz Eugenio; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-12-30

    The goals of the present study were to determine the prevalence of depression in the adult population of Sao Paulo, Brazil and to explore the relationship among sociodemographic, physical and psychological factors, sleep-related symptoms and polysomnography parameters. Participants of a cross-sectional study (N = 1101) were administered questionnaires and submitted to polysomnography. A score > 20 in the Beck Depression Inventory was used to describe depression. Results revealed that the prevalence of depression was 10.9%. Estimates were higher in women and were significantly higher among housewives, non-workers and individuals with lower education and income. A combination of sleep-related symptoms and impaired quality of life was 2.5 times more frequent among depressed than non-depressed. Co-morbid insomnia and anxiety were positively associated to depressive symptomatology. There were no alterations in the polysomnography parameters, in either group. The occurrence of sleep apnea with values on the apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 was similar and frequent in both groups (around 30%). The findings suggest that depressive symptoms were associated with low education, low income, severe comorbid symptomatology, and impaired quality of life. Considering the high prevalence of sleep apnea, these results point to potential social and financial burdens associated with the depressive symptomatology and various sleep diagnoses.

  5. Associations of Parent–Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9–15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptoms. Linear Mixed Models analyses controlling for the alternate parent and child symptoms indicated that both parent and child depressive symptoms and parent and child anxious symptoms were positively associated. Parental depressive symptoms were not positively associated with child anxious symptoms, and parental anxious symptoms were not positively associated with child depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence for positive specific links between parent and child development of same-syndrome, but not cross-syndrome, symptoms when a caregiver has a history of depression. PMID:25844031

  6. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  7. Genetic predictors of depressive symptoms in the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Erar, Bahar; Peter, Inga; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Anderson, Andrea; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies find elevated depressive symptoms among individuals with type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether genetic loci previously associated with depressive symptoms predict depressive symptoms among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or change in depressive symptoms during behavioral weight loss. Methods The Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip and Cardiometabochip were characterized in 2,118 overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses focused on baseline Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and depressive symptom change at one year. Results Of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six loci, three a priori SNPs in two loci (Chr5: rs60271; LBR: rs2230419, rs1011319) were associated with baseline BDI scores, but in the opposite direction of prior research. In joint analysis of 90,003 IBC and Cardiometabochip SNPs, rs1543654 in the region of KCNE1 predicted change in BDI scores at year 1 in DSE (beta= −1.05, SE=0.21, p=6.9 × 10−7) at the level of chip-wide significance, while also showing a nominal association with baseline BDI (beta=0.35, SE=0.16, p=0.026). Adjustment for antidepressant medication and/or limiting analyses to Non-Hispanic White individuals did not meaningfully alter results. Conclusions Previously reported genetic associations with depressive symptoms did not replicate in this cohort of overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. We identified KCNE1 as a potential novel locus associated with depressive symptoms. PMID:26489030

  8. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  9. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the

  10. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  11. Cognitive Function in Heart Failure is Associated with Nonsomatic Symptoms of Depression but Not Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Schaefer, Julie T.; Fulcher, Michael J.; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph D.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) have high rates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been associated with greater cognitive impairments in HF; however, it is not known whether particular clusters of depressive symptoms are more detrimental to cognition than others. Objective To identify whether somatic and/or nonsomatic depressive symptom clusters were associated with cognitive function in persons with HF. Methods Participants were 326 HF patients (40.5% female, 26.7% race-ethnicity, aged 68.6±9.7 years). Depressive symptoms were measured using a depression questionnaire commonly used in medical populations: the Patient Health Questionnatire-9 (PHQ-9). Somatic and Nonsomatic subscales scores were created using previous factor analytic results. A neuropsychological battery tested attention, executive function, and memory. Composites were created using averages of age-adjusted scaled scores. Regressions adjusting for demographic and clinical factors were conducted. Results Regressions revealed that PHQ-9 Total was associated with Attention (β=−.14, p=.008) and Executive Function (β=−.17, p=.001). When analyzed separately, the Nonsomatic subscale – but not the Somatic symptoms subscale (ps ≥.092) – was associated with Attention scores (β=−.15, p=.004) and Memory (β=−.11, p=.044). Both Nonsomatic (β=−.18, p<.001) and Somatic symptoms (β=−.11, p=.048) were related to Executive Function. When included together, only the Nonsomatic symptom cluster was associated with Attention (β=−.15, p=.020) and Executive Function (β=−.19, p=.003). Conclusions Greater overall depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer performance on multiple cognitive domains, an effect driven primarily by the nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Clinical Implications These findings suggest that screening explicitly for nonsomatic depressive symptoms may be warranted and that the mechanisms underlying the

  12. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  13. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  14. Sexual Orientation Identity Change and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912

  15. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity.

  16. [Acute pharmacotherapy for anxiety symptoms in patients with depression].

    PubMed

    Quante, A

    2015-03-01

    Patients with depression often also present symptoms of anxiety. First-line pharmacotherapy of comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety is often a combination therapy of an antidepressant agent, which is combined with benzodiazepines. However, benzodiazepines pose the drawbacks of being associated with cognitive and motor impairments and hold a significant risk for dependence. For some patients, benzodiazepines are contraindicated or patients refuse to take them. Therefore, alternative therapy strategies for the acute treatment of anxiety symptoms in depressed patients are urgently needed. A selective Medline/Pubmed search with focus on acute pharmacological treatment strategies for anxiety and agitation in depressed patients was undertaken. In the light of the paucity of studies in this field, positive effects could be assumed for quetiapine, olanzapine, olanzapine-fluoxetine combination, pregabaline and silexan.

  17. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912

  18. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. PMID:27348804

  19. Neural Reward Processing Mediates the Relationship between Insomnia Symptoms and Depression in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Keenan, Kate E.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that insomnia may disrupt reward-related brain function—a potentially important factor in the development of depressive disorder. Adolescence may be a period during which such disruption is especially problematic given the rise in the incidence of insomnia and ongoing development of neural systems that support reward processing. The present study uses longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that disruption of neural reward processing is a mechanism by which insomnia symptoms—including nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS) and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)—contribute to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Participants were 123 adolescent girls and their caregivers from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. NIS and NRS were assessed annually from ages 9 to 13 years. Girls completed a monetary reward task during a functional MRI scan at age 16 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 16 and 17 years. Multivariable regression tested the prospective associations between NIS and NRS, neural response during reward anticipation, and the mean number of depressive symptoms (omitting sleep problems). Results: NRS, but not NIS, during early adolescence was positively associated with late adolescent dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) response to reward anticipation and depressive symptoms. DMPFC response mediated the relationship between early adolescent NRS and late adolescent depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results suggest that NRS may contribute to depression by disrupting reward processing via altered activity in a region of prefrontal cortex involved in affective control. The results also support the mechanistic differentiation of NIS and NRS. Citation: Casement MD, Keenan KE, Hipwell AE, Guyer AE, Forbes EE. Neural reward processing mediates the relationship between insomnia symptoms and depression in adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(2):439–447

  20. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations.

  1. Temperament and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Mediation by Rumination and Moderation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraeten, Katrien; Vasey, Michael W.; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of…

  2. Depressive Symptoms During Pregnancy: Impact on Neuroendocrine and Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Sheila; Lopez, Juan F.; McDonough, Susan; MacKenzie, Michael J.; Flynn, Heather; Neal, Charles R.; Gahagan, Sheila; Volling, Brenda; Kaciroti, Niko; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the interplay of maternal depressive symptoms on the infant limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (LHPA) and neurological development. Design Pregnant women were monitored for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at 28, 32, and 37 weeks of gestation and at delivery. A mixture growth curve analysis divided the women into three risk groups: low/stable, intermediate, and high/increasing depression based on BDI scores. The infant neuroendocrine system was examined using cord blood for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measurements. Two week old infants were examined using Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Results Infants born to women of the high/increasing depression group had significant ACTH elevation at birth. On NNNS examination, these infants were more hypotonic and habituated to auditory and visual stimuli. Conclusion When compared to non-depressed women, maternal depressive symptoms, even in the absence of major depressive disorder, appeared to facilitate a different developmental pathway for the infant LHPA and early neurological development. PMID:21035873

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting practices 3-months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Balbierz, Amy; Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Wang, Jason J; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, we examined the association between postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting practices among a diverse group of mothers. We examined the association between safety practices (back sleep position, car seat use, smoke alarm), feeding practices (breastfeeding, infant intake of cereal, juice, water), and health care practices (routine well child and Emergency Room (ER) visits) with 3-month postpartum depressive symptoms assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS ≥10). Fifty-one percent of mothers were black or Latina, 33 % had Medicaid, and 30 % were foreign born. Depressed mothers were less likely to have their infant use back sleep position (60 vs. 79 %, p < .001), always use a car seat (67 vs. 84 %, p < .001), more likely to feed their infants water, juice, or cereal (36 vs. 25 %, p = .04 respectively), and to bring their babies for ER visits (26 vs. 16 %, p = .03) as compared with non-depressed mothers. In multivariable model, depressed mothers remained less likely to have their infant use the back sleep position, to use a car seat, and to have a working smoke alarm in the home. Findings suggest the need to intervene early among mothers with depressive symptoms and reinforce positive parenting practices. PMID:25374288

  4. Depressive symptoms, negative urgency and substance use initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Raina D.; Farrahi, Layla; Glazier, Shannon; Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies show depressive symptoms are associated with substance use in adolescents, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. This study investigated negative urgency – the disposition to rash action during emotional states – as a factor explaining relations between depressive symptoms and use of several substances. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 476 adolescents (mean age 14.5 years) completed self-report surveys. Regression models and products of coefficient analyses examined the overall relation of depressive symptoms to substance use and negative urgency as a statistical mediator of this association Results Depression levels associated with increased likelihood of lifetime use of cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, inhalants, prescription painkillers, and any substance. Relations between depression levels and lifetime use of alcohol, inhalants, and any substance were accounted for (i.e., statistically mediated) by negative urgency. In adolescents endorsing lifetime use, depression levels associated with younger age of first use of other forms of tobacco and alcohol as well as use frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and composite frequency. Negative urgency accounted for the covariance between depression level and age of first use of alcohol, but did not for other forms of tobacco or frequency of use of any substances. Conclusions Depression levels are associated with lifetime use of a variety of substances in early adolescence and targeting this risk factor with preventive efforts may be useful in reducing risk. Negative urgency may be an important target for interventions aimed at alcohol and inhalant use. PMID:25280962

  5. Depressive symptoms among Jordanian youth: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-02-01

    This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community.

  6. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  7. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  8. Risk Factors for Prenatal Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Pekow, Penelope; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior studies of risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy are sparse and the majority have focused on non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US and have the highest birth rates. Methods We examined associations between pre and early pregnancy factors and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy among 921 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, an ongoing cohort of pregnant Puerto Rican and Dominican women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (mean=13 weeks gestation) by bilingual interviewers who also collected data on sociodemographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Results A total of 30% of participants were classified as having depressive symptoms (EPDS scores >12) with mean+SD scores of 9.28+5.99. Higher levels of education (college/graduate school vs. < high school: RR=0.60, 95% CI 0.41–0.86), household income (>$30,000 vs. <$15,000 per year: RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.55–0.92), and living with a spouse/partner (0.80; 95% CI 0.63–1.00) were independently associated with lower risk of depressive symptoms. There was the suggestion that failure to discontinue cigarette smoking with the onset of pregnancy (RR=1.32; 95% CI 0.97–1.71) and English language preference (RR=1.33; 95% CI 0.96–1.70) were associated with higher risk. Single marital status, second generation in the U.S., and higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in univariate analyses, but were attenuated after adjustment for other risk factors. Conclusions Findings in the largest, fastest-growing ethnic minority group can inform intervention studies targeting Hispanic women at risk of depression in pregnancy. PMID:20824317

  9. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Iranian experience.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Zahra; Shakiba, Mansoor; Narouie, Behzad; Mladkova, Nikol; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Khosravi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders including depression represent clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recognition of depression in SLE patients is of utmost importance since it is treatable and can be of fatal consequences if unrecognized. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in SLE patients in terms of age, gender, disease duration and severity, and duration of steroid treatment in SLE patients. Eighty-five SLE patients (77 women, 8 men) with verified SLE diagnosis completed Beck's depression inventory, a self-reported measure of depression. Clinical data on disease and treatment were obtained from patient files. In total, 60% of patients achieved scores indicating depression. The most common depressive symptoms in participants were fatigue and weakness (88.2%), irritability (82.3%), sadness (77.6%), and somatic preoccupation (76.4%), while the least common symptoms were weight loss (34.1%), low level of energy (28.2%), and suicide ideation (10.5%). There was a significant difference between the disease activity and the severity of depression (P = 0.0001). Our findings show higher prevalence of depression in our sample in comparison with previous studies, suggesting that the prevalence of depression varies across different populations. Severity of depression increases with more severe disease course.

  10. Symptoms of depression and successful drug court completion.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natasha S; Trinidad, Jonathan R; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark C

    2013-12-01

    The majority of drug abusing offenders who need substance abuse treatment do not receive it. Although interventions like drug court increase the probability of offender success, little is known about how co-occurring psychological symptoms impact drug court treatment outcomes. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that co-occurring psychological symptoms would have a significant relationship with successful drug court completion. Using a sample of suburban drug court enrollees (n = 122), multivariate logistic regression was conducted with successful drug court completion as the outcome variable. Predictor variables included symptom counts of depression, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, generalized anxiety, and social phobia. Results indicated that participants with fewer symptoms of depression were more likely to successfully complete drug court than participants with more symptoms. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that symptoms of depression are related to poorer outcomes for drug court enrollees. Accordingly, drug courts need to address participants' symptoms of depression to maximize success.

  11. Depressive Symptom Clusters and 5-Year Incidence of Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jesse C.; Zielke, Desiree J.; Hawkins, Misty A.W.; Williams, David R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knox, Sarah S.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Because depression is a multidimensional construct and few studies have compared the relative importance of its facets in predicting cardiovascular risk, we evaluated the utility of depressive symptom clusters in predicting the 5-year incidence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results Participants were 2,171 middle-aged adults (58% female, 43% black) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who were free of cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptom clusters (z scores) were measured by questionnaires in 2000–2001, and CAC was measured by electron beam computed tomography in 2000–2001 and 2005–2006. There were 243 (11%) cases of incident CAC, defined as the absence of CAC at baseline and the presence of CAC at follow-up. Total depressive symptoms (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.33, p = .03) and the depressed affect cluster (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03–1.33, p = .02) predicted incident CAC; however, the somatic, interpersonal distress, low positive affect, and pessimism clusters did not. The depressed affect-incident CAC relationship was independent of age, sex, race, education, and antidepressant use; was similar across gender and racial groups; and was partially accounted for by tobacco use and mean arterial pressure. Conclusions In contrast to recent results indicating that the somatic cluster is the most predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, we found that the prospective association between depressive symptoms and incident CAC was driven by the depressed affect cluster. Our findings raise the possibility that there may not be one facet of depression that is the most cardiotoxic across all contexts. PMID:22711275

  12. Possible Relationships between Depressive Symptoms and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Heath, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five students (average age of 127 months) were tested using the WRAT-3 reading and arithmetic subtests, the Self-Perception Profile for Children with Learning Disabilities (SPPLD) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). One year later they were again tested with the same instruments. The authors hypothesised that…

  13. Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale" (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents…

  14. Factors Affecting Depression During Pregnancy and the Correlation Between Social Support and Pregnancy Depression

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Songul; Yesilcicek Calik, Kiymet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women are seriously subjected to psychiatric diseases during pregnancy and depression is the most prevailing one among these diseases. There is a relation between the social support and depression in pregnancy whose predisposing factors are genetic, psychological, biological, environmental, and hormonal. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression symptoms, and its risk factors. Also it studied the correlation between social support and pregnancy depression. Patients and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 266 pregnant women selected by simple random method from all pregnant women admitted at the Maternity Hospital of Trabzon, Turkey from May 21 to June 13, 2008. The data were collected with a questionnaire form, the Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS). Results: The mean BDI score of the pregnant women was 11.12 ± 6.65. According to the BDI, 46.2% of the pregnant women had no depression symptoms, 34.59% of them had mild, 13.91% had moderate, and 4.89% had severe level of depression symptoms. It was found that such factors as the educational level of the pregnant women and their husbands, having an undesired pregnancy, suffering from a chronic disease before pregnancy, presence of pregnancy-related problems, having a child with disability or having relatives whose children had disability, and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors affecting the severity of the depression symptoms and these results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the mean MSPSS score was 67.89 ± 14.26 and it was found that the pregnant women got the highest social support from their husbands. It was found that there was a significant correlation between BDI and MSPSS total score and its subscale scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to this study, one-fifth of pregnant women were found to experience depressive

  15. Changes in Depressive Symptoms over 0–9 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Scott; McGovern, Patricia; Miner, Michael; Center, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate mothers' changes in prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms over 0–9 months postpartum and determine which symptoms best distinguish depressed from nondepressed women. Methods This was a prospective study of English-literate mothers of newborns, recruited from four family medicine clinics and three pediatric clinics. Mothers completed surveys at 0–1, 2, 4, 6, and 9 months postpartum, and surveys included demographic characteristics, a two-question depression screen, the 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and other health and work characteristics. Results There were 506 participants (33% response rate), and 112 (22.1%) had a positive PHQ-9 (score ≥10) at some time within the first 9 months after delivery. The proportion of women with a positive PHQ-9 was greatest at 0–1 month (12.5%), then fell to between 5.0% and 7.1% at 2–6 months, and rose again to 10.2% at 9 months postpartum. Most of the PHQ-9 symptoms differentiated well between depressed and nondepressed women; items that were less discriminating were abnormal sleep, abnormal appetite/eating, and fatigue. Assessment of possible predictors of a change from negative to positive PHQ-9 between 6 and 9 months postpartum revealed only one significant predictor: prior history of depression. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in this sample were most frequent at 0–1 month and 9 months postpartum. Most PHQ-9 items differentiated well between depressed and nondepressed mothers; these findings support the use of the PHQ-9 for PPD screening. Future research is needed to confirm our observed secondary peak in depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum and to investigate possible causes. PMID:21351876

  16. Relationships of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Topolewska-Wochowska, Aleksandra; Serafin, Piotr; Sadowska-Mazuryk, Joanna; Pupek-Pyzioł, Julia; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms as well as high levels of impulsivity are subjects of special interest in alcohol dependence, as these factors are considered to influence the course of this disorder. However, until now mutual relationships between impulsivity and depression have not been investigated thoroughly in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods By means of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and stop-signal task, levels of impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. The stop-signal task was used as a manipulation-free method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsiveness, and the BIS-11 is a self report measure of global as well as cognitive impulsivity. Patients were also asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The results were analyzed in order to examine relationships between impulsiveness and depressive symptoms. Results Statistical analyses revealed significant associations between impulsiveness and severity of depressive symptoms. Individuals with higher scores on the BDI were more impulsive on the BIS-11, whereas patients with higher scores on the BHS were more impulsive on both the stop-signal task and BIS-11. The strongest correlations were found with the attention impulsivity subscale of BIS-11. Adjusting for other variables, a linear regression analysis revealed that cognitive impulsivity was the strongest predictor of depression severity. Limitations The main limitation of the study is a not fully representative sample, with exclusion of patients with active mood disorders Conclusions The results indicate a strong association between depressive symptoms and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and suggest an important distinction between hopelessness and other depressive symptoms. PMID:22030134

  17. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless men on parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.

  18. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136

  19. STUDY OF CORRELATION OF INTENSITY OF SYMPTOMS WITH STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS IN DEPRESSED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Mahatme, S.S.; Dhavale, H.S.; Patkar, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 60 patients suffering from “Depression” attending the Psychiatry outpatient clinic in a general hospital were studied. The intensity of symptoms, and life stress events for 12 months prior to episode were obtained and compared on the basis of sex of patient. The findings of the study indicate that, the depressed patients had the severity of symptomatology positively correlated with the severity of stress. Thus with the increase in stress, the severity of symptoms would be on increase. The findings also indicated the distribution of more physical and affective symptoms in depressed females and more of behavioural symptoms in depressed males. It was seen that occurrence of undesirable life events which could be specific for Indian culture were perceived more than desirable events by the sample. PMID:21927402

  20. Distribution of Total Depressive Symptoms Scores and Each Depressive Symptom Item in a Sample of Japanese Employees

    PubMed Central

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukaw, Toshiaki A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. Methods We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20–59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: “rarely,” “some,” “much,” and “most of the time.” The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. Results The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30–59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30–59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at “some.” The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from “some” to “most” followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. Conclusions The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items

  1. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  2. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  3. Clinical Inquiries: Does exercise alleviate symptoms of depression?

    PubMed

    Gill, Alan; Womack, Rosalind; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Yes. Exercise reduces patient-perceived symptoms of depression when used as monotherapy (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [RCTs] with significant heterogeneity). It relieves symptoms as effectively as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or pharmacologic anti-depressant therapy (SOR: B, meta-analysis) and more effectively than bright light therapy (SOR: B, meta-analysis). Resistance exercise and mixed exercise (resistance and aerobic) work better than aerobic exercise alone (SOR: B, meta-analysis). High-frequency exercise is more effective than low-frequency exercise (SOR: B, small RCT). "Mindful" exercise, which has a meditative focus, such as tai chi and yoga, also reduces symptoms of depression (SOR: B, systematic review of RCTs).

  4. Associations between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…

  5. Predicting Difficulties in Youth's Friendships: Are Anxiety Symptoms as Damaging as Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Carlson, Wendy; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Smith, Rhiannon R.; Swenson, Lance P.

    2011-01-01

    Youth's friendships serve important functions in development; however, internalizing symptoms may undermine these relationships. Two studies are presented that examine the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with friendship adjustment. Study 1 tested concurrent effects and Study 2 tested prospective effects over 6 months. Like past…

  6. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population.

  7. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms: Close Relationships as Social Context and Influence

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals’ ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals’ ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals’ ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships—and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships— influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals’ own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. PMID:26479366

  8. Italian neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.

  9. Gender differences in depressive symptoms among older Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A

    2011-01-01

    Despite consistent reports over many years of a greater prevalence of depression among women, mechanisms underlying the gender difference remain unclear. Mechanisms relevant to immigrant elderly populations are virtually unexplored. The present study examined gender variations in depressive symptoms using a community sample of 230 older Korean American immigrants (M(age) = 69.8; standard deviation = 7.05) in Florida. We were interested in examining not only mean differences but gender differences in the impact of demographic variables (age, marital status, and education), health constraints (chronic conditions and functional disability), and personal resources (sense of control, social network, and acculturation) on depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous literature, women scored higher on depressive symptoms than men. In a hierarchical regression model, women and those with more chronic conditions, greater functional disability, and lower sense of control were found to have more depressive symptoms. The interaction of gender-by-chronic conditions was found to be significant, and further analysis indicated that the association of chronic conditions with mental well-being was stronger for women. The findings suggest that among older Korean immigrants, women are at particular risk of declining psychological well-being in the face of physical health problems and call attention to the need for interventions designed to promote their physical and mental health.

  10. Physical Fitness and Depressive Symptoms during Army Basic Combat Training

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Shannon K.; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Wigfall, Lisa T.; Reynolds, Alexandria M.; Muraca, Stephanie T.; Glover, Saundra H.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Sui, Xuemei; Beets, Michael W.; Durstine, J. Larry; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health-related problems are a significant cause of attrition during Basic Combat Training (BCT). Evidence in civilian populations suggests that physical fitness is associated with psychological benefits in civilians, but little is known about the association between physical fitness and psychological adjustment during BCT. Methods This study prospectively examined the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in 300 BCT soldiers from May to July, 2012 at Fort Jackson, Columbia, SC. Soldiers completed a baseline Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and survey within one week of arriving at BCT, and an end of cycle survey after eight weeks of BCT. Soldiers were assigned to the “high” fitness category if they had a passing score on the standard APFT of greater than or equal to 180 points out of 300 points. Soldiers scoring less than 180 points on the APFT were assigned to the “ low” fitness category. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results In multivariate analyses, adjusting for baseline demographics, self-reported sleep prior to BCT, BCT confidence, Army identification, and depressive symptoms, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 60% lower for soldiers in the high fitness category (odds ratio, OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.19–0.84), compared to soldiers in the low fitness category. Conclusions Analogous to other positive outcomes of soldier fitness, improvement of soldier physical fitness prior to BCT might improve soldiers' psychological health outcomes. PMID:24870581

  11. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  12. CBT for children with depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of  ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  13. Impaired decision making and delayed memory are related with anxiety and depressive symptoms in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Iris; Santos, Alicia; Valassi, Elena; Pires, Patricia; Webb, Susan M; Resmini, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p < 0.05) and more anxiety and depressive symptoms (p < 0.05) than controls. In the IGT, acromegalic patients presented an altered decision-making strategy compared to controls, choosing a lower number of the safer cards (p < 0.05) and higher number of the riskier cards (p < 0.05). Moreover, multiple correlations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and performance in memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors.

  14. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  15. Mothers' depressive symptoms predict both increased and reduced negative reactivity: aversion sensitivity and the regulation of emotion.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior.

  16. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  17. Early Manifestations of Childhood Depression: Influences of Infant Temperament and Parental Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bateman, Alison E.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, 83 parents of infants between 3 and 12 months completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, infant temperament, and maternal depression. When these children were at least 18 months of age, parents completed follow-up questionnaires assessing toddler temperament and depression-like symptoms. We were…

  18. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  19. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2008-01-01

    Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential for helpful longer-term effects

  20. Sleep Patterns and Symptoms of Depression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Peggy R.; Girgenti, Alicia A.; Mills, Maura J.

    2009-01-01

    College students have long been considered a population particularly affected by sleep difficulties. Previous studies have confirmed individuals with sleep disturbances may be at risk for development of depression. This study provides evidence in support of the hypothesis that sleep and specific aspects of depression are related. 147 students…

  1. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER.

    PubMed

    Houle, Jason N; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-07-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald's theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald's model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt.

  2. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650

  3. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

  4. Psychic and somatic symptoms of depression among young adults, institutionalized aged and noninstitutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    Zemore, R; Eames, N

    1979-09-01

    Beck Depression Inventory scores were obtained from 48 elderly who had been residing in homes for the aged for more than one year, 31 elderly residing in the community and waiting to enter an old-age home, and 424 young adults enrolled in a fist-year psychology course. The residents of old-age homes reported no more symptoms of depression than the waiting-list controls, a finding that provides no support for the hypothesis that the institional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Both the institutionalized and noninstitutionalized aged reported more somatic symptoms of depression than the young adults, but no greater cognitive or affective symptoms of depression. These results were interpreted as providing no support for the widely belief that the aged are more depressed than any other age group. Finally, it was argued that somatic complaints can be valid indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account.

  5. Should Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms be Considered within the Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Aguado, Jaume; Dueñas, Héctor; Peng, Xiaomei; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only). An additional second-order CFA was also conducted to examine an association between retained factors and the overall “depressive symptoms” factor. In addition, Spearman’s correlation was used to assess levels of correlation between retained factors and depression severity as well as quality of life. Results: Both EFA and CFA suggested and validated a four-factor solution, which included a pain factor. The other three factors identified were a mood/cognitive factor, a sleep disturbance factor, and an appetite/weight disturbance factor. All four factors were significantly associated with the overall factor of depression. They were also highly correlated to depression severity and quality of life (p<0.001 for all). The levels of correlations with the pain factor were generally greater than those with the appetite/weight factor and similar to those with the sleep factor. Conclusion: It may be reasonable to consider PPS within a broad spectrum of depressive symptoms. At least, they should be routinely assessed in patients with depression. Further research is warranted to validate these preliminary findings. PMID:25870649

  6. The association between depressive symptoms and mortality among older participants in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area-Piedmont Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fredman, L; Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Blazer, D G; James, S A; Kleinbaum, D G; Yankaskas, B

    1989-07-01

    The association between depression and two-year mortality risk was assessed in 1,606 elderly community participants in the 1982-83 Epidemiologic Catchment Area-Piedmont Health Survey. Two depression measures were formed from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) depressive symptom items. Neither measure was associated with mortality in univariate or multiple logistic regression analyses. The adjusted relative risk of mortality comparing the lowest to highest levels of a three-level depression variable was 0.9 (95% confidence interval = 0.5-1.4). Similar results were obtained with other versions of the depression variables, with each depressive symptom category, and within sex, chronic disease, widowhood status, and age groups. These results indicate that depression does not increase mortality in elderly adults, but the short follow-up, sample characteristics, and operationalization of depression may have affected this association.

  7. Mood symptoms, cognition, and everyday functioning: in major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D

    2011-10-01

    People with depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia manifest considerable cognitive deficits and impairments in everyday functional outcomes. The severity of current mood symptoms is associated with the severity of cognitive deficits in people with unipolar and bipolar disorder, but impairments are clearly still present in cases with minimal current mood symptoms. In people with schizophrenia, depression is less strongly associated with cognitive deficits on a cross-sectional basis, and some evidence suggests that depression and cognitive impairments are inversely related. Furthermore, in schizophrenia, mood symptoms seem to affect everyday functioning in a way that is unassociated with the severity of deficits in cognition and functional capacity. In contrast, in bipolar disorder, mood symptoms seem to affect real-world functioning through an adverse effect on the ability to perform critical functional skills. In both mood disorders and schizophrenia, depression appears to impact the motivation to perform potentially reinforcing acts, possibly through the induction of anhedonia. Clearly, depression has a major adverse impact on everyday functioning in all variants of severe mental illness, and improving its recognition (in the case of schizophrenia) and management has the potential to reduce the adverse impact of severe mental illness on everyday functioning. Reducing disability has the potential to have positive impacts in multiple objective and subjective aspects of functioning in severe mental illness.

  8. Frequency and Quality of Social Networking Among Young Adults: Associations With Depressive Symptoms, Rumination, and Corumination.

    PubMed

    Davila, Joanne; Hershenberg, Rachel; Feinstein, Brian A; Gorman, Kaitlyn; Bhatia, Vickie; Starr, Lisa R

    2012-04-01

    Two studies examined associations between social networking and depressive symptoms among youth. In Study 1, 384 participants (68% female; mean age = 20.22 years, SD = 2.90) were surveyed. In Study 2, 334 participants (62% female; M age = 19.44 years, SD = 2.05) were surveyed initially and 3 weeks later. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with quality of social networking interactions, not quantity. There was some evidence that depressive rumination moderated associations, and both depressive rumination and corumination were associated with aspects of social networking usage and quality. Implications for understanding circumstances that increase social networking, as well as resulting negative interactions and negative affect are discussed.

  9. The (In)Significance of Race and Discrimination among Latino Youth: The Case of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Giovani; Rivera, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing population of Latinos in the United States, there is little research that explores how discrimination affects the mental health of Latino youth along racial lines. In this paper we ask two closely related questions. First, do black Latino youth have higher or lower symptoms of depression than nonblack Latinos? Second, is the relationship between race and depression among Latino youth buffered by discrimination stress? Results from the Transitions Study show that black Latino youth have significantly higher symptoms of depression than nonblack Latinos. The relationship between race and depression depends on daily—but not on lifetime—experiences of discrimination. The combined effect of race and discrimination holds in the face of a wide range of measures of stress, including major lifetime events, recent life events, and chronic stressors. These findings encourage future research that considers the mental health effects of racial variation among Latinos. PMID:23559683

  10. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  11. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  12. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic Women in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Vermeesch, Amber L.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19–52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression. PMID:23858067

  13. Predicting Children's Depressive Symptoms from Community and Individual Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Cole, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; LaGrange, Beth; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy S.

    2008-01-01

    Community, demographic, familial, and personal risk factors of childhood depressive symptoms were examined from an ecological theoretical approach using hierarchical linear modeling. Individual-level data were collected from an ethnically diverse (73% African-American) community sample of 197 children and their parents; community-level data were…

  14. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. PMID:20371142

  15. When Caregiving Ends: The Course of Depressive Symptoms after Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This study describes depressive symptoms among caregivers following bereavement and connects these trajectories to earlier features of caregiving using life course and stress process theory. Data are from a six-wave longitudinal survey (five years) of spouses and adult children caring for someone with Alzheimer's Disease. The analytic subsample (N…

  16. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  17. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  18. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Seeking Intentions in Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie Joy; Rickwood, Debra; Deane, Frank Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Whether the help-negation effect as demonstrated for suicidal thoughts was also evident for depressive symptoms was investigated in three studies of young people from diverse urban areas. The studies involved a large sample of younger high school students (years 7-10), a sample of older high school students (years 8-12), and first year university…

  20. Trajectories of Overweight and their Association with Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential for a developmental approach to reveal new insights into the well-documented link between weight and depressive symptoms. Methods Latent class analysis identified multiple trajectories of overweight from 24 months to 15 years in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). Structural equation models then used these classes to predict depressive symptoms at age 15. Results Five latent classes captured continuity and change in weight from early childhood into middle adolescence. Controlling for current weight, stably overweight girls tended to have the most depressive symptoms, but popularity and positive image appeared to buffer against some of the risks that girls faced from being stably overweight or becoming overweight in early to middle childhood. Notably, boys’ longitudinal weight patterns were not associated with their depressive symptoms in adolescence. Conclusions Weight histories, controlling for current weight, are important for understanding the psychological experience of overweight, especially when such histories are considered in relation to other aspects of psychosocial functioning. PMID:25603419

  1. Bullying and Symptoms of Depression in Chilean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Lila C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the association between bullying and symptoms of depression among middle school students in Chile. Methods: Secondary data analysis of Chile's 2004 Global School-Based Health Survey. Results: A total of 8131 middle school students participated in the study. Forty-seven percent of students reported…

  2. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  3. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  4. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  5. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  6. Social Support, Traumatic Events, and Depressive Symptoms among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…

  7. Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

  8. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients. PMID:26101683

  9. Understanding the somatic consequences of depression: biological mechanisms and the role of depression symptom profile.

    PubMed

    Penninx, Brenda W J H; Milaneschi, Yuri; Lamers, Femke; Vogelzangs, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder worldwide. The burden of disease for depression goes beyond functioning and quality of life and extends to somatic health. Depression has been shown to subsequently increase the risk of, for example, cardiovascular, stroke, diabetes and obesity morbidity. These somatic consequences could partly be due to metabolic, immuno-inflammatory, autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulations which have been suggested to be more often present among depressed patients. Evidence linking depression to metabolic syndrome abnormalities indicates that depression is especially associated with its obesity-related components (for example, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia). In addition, systemic inflammation and hyperactivity of the HPA-axis have been consistently observed among depressed patients. Slightly less consistent observations are for autonomic dysregulation among depressed patients. The heterogeneity of the depression concept seems to play a differentiating role: metabolic syndrome and inflammation up-regulations appear more specific to the atypical depression subtype, whereas hypercortisolemia appears more specific for melancholic depression. This review finishes with potential treatment implications for the downward spiral in which different depressive symptom profiles and biological dysregulations may impact on each other and interact with somatic health decline. PMID:23672628

  10. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  11. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smojver-Ažić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Aim To gain insight into the relations between protective/risk family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls. Method A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1191 secondary school students (617 girls and 574 boys) aged from 14 to 19 years, with a median of 16, from all secondary schools in the Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia in January and February 2010. Students reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions about the relationship with their mother and father, family activities, and parents’ conflict resolution strategies. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the effects of family supportive and harmful interactions on depressive symptoms in girls and boys. Results Depressive symptoms were reported often and very often by 19.1% of girls and 15.8% of boys. Girls’ assessment of the family relations was significantly more positive than boys’, including the assessment of family activities, constructive family conflict resolution, or father’s and mother’s warmth and affection. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the examined family variables accounted for 16.3% of the variance of depressive symptoms in boys and for 17.2% in girls. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a difference in the relation of family variables and depressive symptoms between boys and girls. Depressive symptoms in girls were more linked to the lack of protective family factors (9.9% of the explained variance in girls vs 5.5% in boys), while depressive symptoms in boys were more linked to the existence of harmful family factors (10.8% of the explained variance in boys vs 7.3% in girls). Conclusion Family activities and the father's warmth and affection have a higher significance for girls than for boys, while destructive parental conflict and the mother's aggression and hostility are equally significant for both girls and boys. These results indicate the targets for

  12. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across the birth of a child: associations with toddler emotional development.

    PubMed

    Guyon-Harris, Katherine; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Lauterbach, Dean; Janisse, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common and impacts the physical and psychological well-being of those who experience it. One area of particular significance is the course of maternal depression across time, including the differential effects of depression trajectories during the perinatal period on early child development. The current study explored trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy through 2 years postpartum and their relation to toddler emotional development. Participants included 120 primarily low-income, ethnically diverse women and their toddlers. Depression was assessed during pregnancy, at 3 months postpartum, and at 1 and 2 years postpartum. Toddler emotional development was assessed at age 2 via video observations and mother report. Results indicated a four-class model that best fits the data: low-decreasing (47.5 %), stable-low (22.5 %), stable-moderate (21.7 %), and increasing (8.3 %) trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms. Women in the increasing group reported significantly more toddler social and emotional problems at age 2 than women in all other groups, and women in the stable-moderate group reported significantly more toddler social and emotional problems at age 2 than women in the stable-low group. No associations between trajectories and observed toddler affect expression were found. Results highlight variable courses of depressive symptoms for women across the birth of a child as well as the importance of reducing depression for the benefit of both mother and child. It is important for clinicians working with pregnant and postpartum mothers to assess for depressive symptoms over time and not just at a single time point. PMID:26184834

  13. Work and home stress: associations with anxiety and depression symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, L.-B.; Blumenthal, J. A.; Watkins, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. Aims To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. Methods In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30–60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Results Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Conclusions Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. PMID:25589707

  14. [More than every tenth person have symptoms of seasonal affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2011-11-21

    Seasonal affective disorder is a syndrome of classical depressive symptoms such as reduced energy, initiative and mood combined with atypical symptoms of increased appetite, weight and sleep duration. The symptoms recur each winter and disappear again in spring or early summer. The prevalence ranges from 1% to 10% in Scandinavian populations. Reduced light exposure, melatonergic and serotonergic disturbances are suggested pathogenetic factors. Light therapy offers convincing effect with minimal adverse effects and remains first-line treatment along with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  15. Buddhist group therapy for diabetes patients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Wongtakee, Wiwat; Thongyot, Sawitta

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Buddhist group therapy on patients with type 2 diabetes who had depressive symptoms. A quasi-experimental design study using a control group with matching technique was conducted. After informed consent was obtained, the "Nine questions for assessing depressive disorder symptom" (Isan language) was used to determine the patient's condition. A total of 62 patients with type 2 diabetes who had depressive symptoms were assigned to either the experimental group (n = 32) or the control group (n = 32). Patients in the experimental group were divided further into four groups (8 patients per group) and attended the Buddhist group therapy. The intervention consisted of a weekly Buddhist group gathering lasting 2 hours for 6 weeks plus home meditation practices. Patients in the control group received treatment as usual. Both groups received standard physician treatment, including medication. Physicians did not know who was in either the control or experimental groups. Results show that 6 months after the intervention, 65.6% and 100% of patients in the control group and experimental group, respectively, returned to normal level. The intention-to-treat analysis, which included two participants in the experimental group lost follow-up, yielded a small reduction in the number of patients who returned to normal level (93.8%). With intention-to-treat analysis, the relative risk on depressive symptoms between the experimental and control groups was 6.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-30.6). Qualitative data from the experimental group supported that there were therapeutic group factors involved. However, patients realized the truth of being oneself and also accepted their current living condition. In conclusion, this program is effective in reducing depressive symptoms.

  16. Total serum cholesterol, atherogenic indices and their longitudinal association with depressive symptoms among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2015-01-01

    Serum cholesterol, both total and lipoprotein fractions, has been associated with mid- and late-life depression. Using longitudinal data on a large and ethnically diverse sample of urban adults, the associations of serum lipid profile measured by high or low total cholesterol (TC; >200 mg dl−1; <160 mg dl−1) and by atherogenic indices, namely high total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol relative to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with change in total and domain-specific depressive symptoms over time were examined. Findings were compared by sex. (Hypothesis 1) In addition, baseline depressive symptoms as predictors for longitudinal change in lipid profile trajectory were tested. (Hypothesis 2) Mixed-effects regression analyses stratified by sex was used. Sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (Men: n=826 ; n'=1319; Women: n=1099 ; n'=1817); Hypothesis 2 (Men: n=738; n'=1230; Women: n=964; n'=1678). As hypothesized, a higher level of atherogenic indices was linked to faster increase in depressive symptom scores, particularly depressed affect and interpersonal problems, though this relationship was found only among women. Among men a U-shaped relationship between baseline TC and longitudinal increase in somatic complaints and a direct link between low TC and longitudinal putative improvement in positive affect was found. On excluding statin users among women, low TC was associated with slower increase in depressed affect over time, whereas high TC was associated with faster increase in interpersonal problems. In summary, atherogenic indices were directly linked to faster increase in depressive symptoms among women only. More studies are needed to explain these sex-specific associations. PMID:25734511

  17. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran.

  18. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran. PMID:27294798

  19. The Influence of Caregiver Depressive Symptoms on Proxy Report of Youth Depressive Symptoms: A Test of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the depression-distortion hypothesis in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Methods In a sample of 187 youth with type 1 diabetes, caregivers completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI): parent proxy report. Youth completed the CDI. To test whether caregiver depressive symptoms (CES-D) moderated the proxy report of youth depressive symptoms (CDI:P), the CDI, CES-D, and their interactions were entered as predictors in to a regression analysis. Results The regression was significant, F (8,178) = 9.26, p <.0001, R2 =.29, and all three variables were significant predictors. Post-hoc probing of the interaction showed that caregivers with high CES-D scores reported high levels of youth depressive symptoms at both high and low levels of youth-reported depressive symptoms. In contrast, caregivers with low CES-D scores reported similar levels as the youth. Conclusions These results support the depression-distortion hypothesis in a pediatric chronic disease sample. PMID:18776211

  20. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  1. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms. PMID:24323201

  2. Supplemental private health insurance and depressive symptoms in older married couples.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung Oh; Townsend, Aloen L; Miller, Baila; Rovine, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Stress process theory is applied to examine lack of supplemental private health insurance as a risk factor for depressive symptomatology among older married couples covered by Medicare. Dyadic data from 130 African-American couples and 1,429 White couples in the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old Survey were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Lack of supplemental insurance is operationalized at the household level in terms of neither spouse covered, one spouse covered, or both spouses covered. Controlling for covariates at both individual and couple levels, supplemental insurance has significant impact on depression, but the pattern differs by race. White couples report the highest depression when neither spouse is covered by private health insurance; African-American couples report the highest depression when only one spouse is covered. Results suggest lack of supplemental private health insurance coverage is a stressor that significantly affects depressive symptoms. PMID:16320444

  3. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  4. Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Does Type of Social Relationship Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Joshua P.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The nature of interpersonal relationships, whether supportive or critical, may affect the association between health status and mental health outcomes. We examined the potential moderating effects of social support, as a buffer, and family criticism, as an exacerbating factor, on the association between illness burden, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Methods Our sample of 735 older adults, aged 65 and older, was recruited from internal and family medicine primary care offices. Trained interviewers administered the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Duke Social Support Inventory, and Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale. Physician-rated assessments of health, including the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale were also completed. Results Linear multivariable hierarchical regression results indicate that social interaction was a significant buffer, weakening the association between illness burden and depressive symptoms, whereas perceived social support buffered the relationship between functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Family criticism and instrumental social support were not significant moderators. Conclusions Type of medical dysfunction, whether illness or impairment, may require different therapeutic and supportive approaches. Enhancement of perceived social support, for those who are impaired, and encouragement of social interactions, for those who are ill, may be important intervention targets for treatment of depressive symptoms in older adult primary care patients. PMID:22495689

  5. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents’ appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions of their child’s reciprocal affection and responsiveness, frequency of physical punishment, and child externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided ratings of externalizing behavior at T2. Structural equation modeling revealed that parents’ negative attributions mediated positive relations between their depressive symptoms and frequency of physical punishment for both fathers and mothers. More frequent physical punishment, in turn, predicted increased child externalizing behavior at T2. In future research, transactional mechanisms underlying effects of clinical depression on child conduct problems should be explored at multiple stages of development. For parents showing depressive symptoms, restructuring distorted perceptions about their children’s behavior may be an important component of intervention programs. PMID:21947616

  6. The latent symptom structure of the Beck depression inventory: second edition in Latina pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa A; de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy represents a unique period of time when women are at an increased risk of developing depression. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression symptomology, its psychometric properties and underlying factor structures have not been determined for antenatal women and among Latinas. The current study evaluated the latent symptom structure of the BDI-II in a community-based sample of Latina pregnant women (N = 217) identified to be at high risk for depression. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify underlying salient individual item loadings for two- and three-factor models. Confirmatory factor analyses then examined several different indices to determine the best model fit. Examination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supports a three-factor oblique structure of the BDI-II composed of Cognitive-Affective, Somatic, and Pregnancy Symptoms. The three-factor model provides clinicians with the ability to target specific constellations of depressive symptoms instead of relying on the BDI-II total score that represents the overall severity of depression in this population. PMID:23929560

  7. Reappraisal of the interplay between psychosis and depression symptoms in the pathogenesis of psychotic syndromes: results from a twenty-year prospective community study.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Haker, Helene; Stulz, Niklaus; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2011-02-01

    The interplay of psychotic and affective symptoms is a crucial challenge in understanding the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this study, we analyzed the interplay between two subclinical psychosis symptoms dimensions, and one depression symptoms dimension, using longitudinal data from Zurich. The Zurich study started in 1979 with a representative sample of 591 participants who were aged 20/21. Follow-up interviews were conducted at age 23, 28, 30, 35, and 41. The psychiatric symptoms were assessed with a semi-structured interview and the SCL 90-R. In this study, we analyzed three SCL-90-R subscales: the depression symptoms dimension and two distinct symptoms dimensions of subclinical psychosis, one representing a schizophrenia nuclear symptom dimension, the other representing a schizotypal symptoms dimension. Modeling was done with hybrid latent growth models, thereby including simultaneous and cross-lagged effects. The interplay between the two subclinical psychosis symptoms dimensions and the depression symptoms dimension includes several intertwined pathways. The schizotypal symptoms dimension has strong direct effects on the schizophrenia nuclear symptoms dimension, but also on the depression symptoms dimension. The latter has for its part an effect on the schizophrenia nuclear symptoms dimension. The main driving force within the dynamic interplay between depression and psychosis symptoms is a schizotypal symptoms dimension, which represents social and interpersonal deficiencies, ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoid ideation, and odd behavior. It does not only directly influence subclinical nuclear schizophrenia symptoms but also the symptoms of depression. PMID:20625755

  8. Reappraisal of the interplay between psychosis and depression symptoms in the pathogenesis of psychotic syndromes: results from a twenty-year prospective community study

    PubMed Central

    Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Haker, Helene; Stulz, Niklaus; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of psychotic and affective symptoms is a crucial challenge in understanding the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this study, we analyzed the interplay between two subclinical psychosis symptoms dimensions, and one depression symptoms dimension, using longitudinal data from Zurich. The Zurich study started in 1979 with a representative sample of 591 participants who were aged 20/21. Follow-up interviews were conducted at age 23, 28, 30, 35, and 41. The psychiatric symptoms were assessed with a semi-structured interview and the SCL 90-R. In this study, we analyzed three SCL-90-R subscales: the depression symptoms dimension and two distinct symptoms dimensions of subclinical psychosis, one representing a schizophrenia nuclear symptom dimension, the other representing a schizotypal symptoms dimension. Modeling was done with hybrid latent growth models, thereby including simultaneous and cross-lagged effects. The interplay between the two subclinical psychosis symptoms dimensions and the depression symptoms dimension includes several intertwined pathways. The schizotypal symptoms dimension has strong direct effects on the schizophrenia nuclear symptoms dimension, but also on the depression symptoms dimension. The latter has for its part an effect on the schizophrenia nuclear symptoms dimension. The main driving force within the dynamic interplay between depression and psychosis symptoms is a schizotypal symptoms dimension, which represents social and interpersonal deficiencies, ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoid ideation, and odd behavior. It does not only directly influence subclinical nuclear schizophrenia symptoms but also the symptoms of depression. PMID:20625755

  9. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies.

  10. Acculturative stress negatively impacts maternal depressive symptoms in Mexican-American women during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Aleman, Brenda; Flores, Ana-Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexican-American women exhibit high rates of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms relative to the general population. Though pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women experience cultural stressors such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination that may contribute to elevated depressive symptoms, the contribution of these socio-cultural correlates to depressive symptomology is unknown. Method Ninety-eight pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital clinic during their first trimester. Women completed surveys about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, general perceived stress, and maternal depressive symptoms as well as the potential protective factor of Mexican cultural values. Results Women who experienced greater acculturative and perceived stress, but not perceived discrimination or acculturation, reported significantly elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Also, women who experienced greater acculturative stress identified with a mixture of Mexican and American cultural values. However, only the Mexican cultural value of respect was protective against maternal depressive symptoms while adhering to the Anglo value of independence and self-reliance was a risk factor. Limitations A limitation in the study is the cross-sectional and descriptive self-report nature of the work, underscoring the need for additional research. Moreover, physiological measures of stress were not analyzed in the current study. Conclusions Results point to acculturative stress, above other cultural stressors, as a potential intervention target in culturally competent obstetric care. These findings have implications for maternal mental health treatment during pregnancy, which likely affects maternal-fetal programming and may favorably affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:25699668

  11. Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Douglas A.; Ramos, Marco A.; Bansal, Narinder; Khan, Rida; Guille, Constance; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Sen, Srijan

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Physicians in training are at high risk for depression. However, the estimated prevalence of this disorder varies substantially between studies. OBJECTIVE To provide a summary estimate of depression or depressive symptom prevalence among resident physicians. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO for studies with information on the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians published between January 1963 and September 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess for depression or depressive symptoms. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Information on study characteristics and depression or depressive symptom prevalence was extracted independently by 2 trained investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Point or period prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms as assessed by structured interview or validated questionnaire. RESULTS Data were extracted from 31 cross-sectional studies (9447 individuals) and 23 longitudinal studies (8113 individuals). Three studies used clinical interviews and 51 used self-report instruments. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 28.8% (4969/17 560 individuals, 95% CI, 25.3%-32.5%), with high between-study heterogeneity (Q = 1247, τ2 = 0.39, I2 = 95.8%, P < .001). Prevalence estimates ranged from 20.9% for the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire with a cutoff of 10 or more (741/3577 individuals, 95% CI, 17.5%-24.7%, Q = 14.4, τ2 = 0.04, I2 = 79.2%) to 43.2% for the 2-item PRIME-MD (1349/2891 individuals, 95% CI, 37.6%-49.0%, Q = 45.6, τ2 = 0.09, I2 = 84.6%). There was an increased prevalence with increasing calendar year (slope = 0.5% increase per year, adjusted for assessment modality

  12. Symptoms of depression and smoking behaviors following treatment with transdermal nicotine patch.

    PubMed

    Schnoll, Robert A; Leone, Frank T; Hitsman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Subscales from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CESD), assessed prior to treatment, were examined as predictors of withdrawal, craving, and affect during the first week of abstinence, as well as smoking abstinence during the first week of abstinence and at the end of treatment. The negative affect and somatic features CESD subscales were related to higher levels of nicotine withdrawal. The relationship between the interpersonal disturbance CESD subscale and nicotine withdrawal approached significance. This study suggests the need to examine novel psychological mechanisms that may account for the relationship between depression symptoms and smoking cessation.

  13. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  14. Work gets unfair for the depressed: cross-lagged relations between organizational justice perceptions and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jessica; Bliese, Paul D; Lang, Jonas W B; Adler, Amy B

    2011-05-01

    The organizational justice literature has consistently documented substantial correlations between organizational justice and employee depression. Existing theoretical literature suggests this relationship occurs because perceptions of organizational (in)justice lead to subsequent psychological health problems. Building on recent research on the affective nature of justice perceptions, in the present research we broaden this perspective by arguing there are also theoretical arguments for a reverse effect whereby psychological health problems influence perceptions of organizational justice. To contrast both theoretical perspectives, we test longitudinal lagged effects between organizational justice perceptions (i.e., distributive justice, interactional justice, interpersonal justice, informational justice, and procedural justice) and employee depressive symptoms using structural equation modeling. Analyses of 3 samples from different military contexts (N₁ = 625, N₂ = 134, N₃ = 550) revealed evidence of depressive symptoms leading to subsequent organizational justice perceptions. In contrast, the opposite effects of organizational justice perceptions on depressive symptoms were not significant for any of the justice dimensions. The findings have broad implications for theoretical perspectives on psychological health and organizational justice perceptions.

  15. Family, religion, and depressive symptoms in caregivers of disabled elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zunzunegui, M. V.; Beland, F.; Llacer, A.; Keller, I.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explain the variations in depressive symptomatology among primary caregivers of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled elderly and to evaluate the role of family and religiosity on the mental health consequences of caregiving in Spain. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: City of Leganes in the metropolitan area of Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All caregivers of a representative sample of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled persons, aged 65 and over were approached. The response rate was 85% (n = 194). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. MAIN RESULTS: Controlling for caregivers' income, education, health status, and caregiving stress, religiosity was associated with more depressive symptoms among children caregivers while for spouses the association was negative. Emotional support was negatively associated with depression, but instrumental support was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptomatology is frequent among Spanish caregivers of disabled elderly. This study concludes that religiosity and family emotional support play an important part in the mental health of Spanish caregivers. The role of religiosity may be different according to kinship tie and needs further investigation.   PMID:10396484

  16. Associations of Parent-Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms when a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…

  17. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lynne A.

    Mothers of young children are at risk for depressive symptoms due to their gender and status as parents of young children. Accordingly, this study undertook to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a sample of 196 mothers of 5- and 6-year-old children; to identify sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among these women; and…

  19. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  20. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  1. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  2. Are Sensory Processing Features Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Boys with an ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.; Mills, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The association between Sensory Processing Features (SPF) and depressive symptoms was investigated at two levels in 150 young males (6-18 years) with an ASD. First, a significant correlation was found between SPF and total depressive symptom scores. Second, different aspects of SPF significantly predicted different depressive symptom factors, with…

  3. Experimental investigation of the effects of naturalistic dieting on bulimic symptoms: moderating effects of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Katherine; Stice, Eric; Tristan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Prospective studies suggest that dieting increases risk for bulimic symptoms, but experimental trials indicate dieting reduces bulimic symptoms. However, these experiments may be unrepresentative of real-world weight loss dieting. In addition, the fact that most dieters do not develop eating disorders suggests moderating factors may be important. Accordingly, we randomly assigned 157 female intermittent dieters to either diet as they usually do for weight loss or eat as they normally do when not dieting for 4 weeks. Naturalistic dieting halted the weight gain shown by controls, but did not result in significant weight loss. Although there was no main effect of the dieting manipulation on bulimic symptoms, moderation analyses indicated that naturalistic dieting decreased bulimic symptoms among participants with initially low depressive symptoms. Results suggest that self-initiated weight loss dieting is not particularly effective, which appears to explain several discrepancies in the literature. Additionally, depressive symptoms may be an important determinant of bulimic symptoms that eclipses the effects of naturalistic dieting on this outcome. PMID:17662503

  4. Religious Involvement, Gratitude, and Change in Depressive Symptoms Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Three hypotheses are evaluated in this study. The first predicts that feelings of gratitude will offset (i.e., moderate) the deleterious effects of chronic financial strain on depressive symptoms over time. The second hypothesis specifies that people who go to church more often will be more likely to feel grateful. The third hypothesis predicts that individuals with a strong sense of God-mediated control will also feel more grateful. Data from a nationwide longitudinal study of older adults in the United States (N = 818) provide support for all three hypotheses. The data suggest that the effects of ongoing economic difficulty on depressive symptoms are especially pronounced for older people who are less grateful. But in contrast, persistent financial difficulties fail to exert a statistically significant effect on depressive symptoms over time for older individuals who are especially grateful. The results further reveal that more frequent church attendance and stronger God-mediated control beliefs are associated with positive changes in gratitude over time. PMID:20333271

  5. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression. PMID:23105161

  6. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.

  7. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression.

  8. The Association between Dietary Intake of Folate and Physical Activity with Psychological Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms among Students from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yary, Teymoor

    2013-01-01

    Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B6, B9, and B12 and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores) and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints. PMID:24324965

  9. Can you feel the beat? Interoceptive awareness is an interactive function of anxiety- and depression-specific symptom dimensions.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Stefanovitch, Iolanta; Evans, Davy; Oliver, Clare; Hawkins, Amy; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Delineating the differential effects of anxiety versus depression on patterns of information processing has proved challenging. The tripartite model of mood disorders (Clark & Watson, 1991) suggests that one way forward is to adopt a dimensional rather than categorical approach, making it possible to explore the main and interaction effects of depression- and anxiety-specific symptoms on a given cognitive-affective process. Here we examined how the interplay of anxiety-specific arousal and depression-specific anhedonia symptoms in the same individuals relate to interoceptive (bodily) awareness. 113 participants with varying levels of mood disorder symptoms completed a heartbeat perception task to assess interoceptive accuracy. Superior interoception was associated with anxiety-specific arousal symptoms, and this relationship held when controlling for depression-specific anhedonia symptoms and shared general distress symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between anhedonia and arousal. As anhedonia symptoms increased in severity, the relationship between arousal and interoceptive accuracy became less strong. These results further validate the tripartite framework, help clarify the mixed existing literature on interoception in mood disorders, and suggest that considering the unique and interactive effects of different symptom dimensions is a useful strategy to help identify the cognitive-affective profiles associated with anxiety and depression. PMID:20692645

  10. Occupational Stress, Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Bank Employees: The Role of Psychological Capital.

    PubMed

    Kan, Dan; Yu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-16

    Although depression is a major problem affecting the physical and mental health of the occupational population worldwide, little research is available among bank employees. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of occupational stress and work-family conflict on depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was performed from May to June in 2013 in Liaoning province, China. The effort-reward imbalance (ERB) scale, the work-family conflict scale, the PsyCap questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were completed by 1546 employees in state-owned banks. A total of 1239 effective respondents (467 men and 772 women) became our subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to explore the effects of extrinsic effort, reward, overcommitment, work-family conflict, and PsyCap on depressive symptoms. The mediating role of PsyCap was examined using Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean score of depressive symptoms was 18.4 (SD = 7.6) among the Chinese bank employees. Extrinsic effort, overcommitment and work-family conflict were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Reward and PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. The significant mediating roles of PsyCap in the associations of extrinsic effort (a*b = 0.046, BCa 95% CI: 0.029, 0.066) and reward (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.065, -0.030) with depressive symptoms were revealed. There is a high level of depressive symptoms among Chinese bank employees. PsyCap partially mediates the effects of extrinsic effort and reward on depressive symptoms. Investing in PsyCap may provide new approaches to improve mental health among Chinese bank employees.

  11. Occupational Stress, Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Bank Employees: The Role of Psychological Capital.

    PubMed

    Kan, Dan; Yu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Although depression is a major problem affecting the physical and mental health of the occupational population worldwide, little research is available among bank employees. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of occupational stress and work-family conflict on depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was performed from May to June in 2013 in Liaoning province, China. The effort-reward imbalance (ERB) scale, the work-family conflict scale, the PsyCap questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were completed by 1546 employees in state-owned banks. A total of 1239 effective respondents (467 men and 772 women) became our subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to explore the effects of extrinsic effort, reward, overcommitment, work-family conflict, and PsyCap on depressive symptoms. The mediating role of PsyCap was examined using Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean score of depressive symptoms was 18.4 (SD = 7.6) among the Chinese bank employees. Extrinsic effort, overcommitment and work-family conflict were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Reward and PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. The significant mediating roles of PsyCap in the associations of extrinsic effort (a*b = 0.046, BCa 95% CI: 0.029, 0.066) and reward (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.065, -0.030) with depressive symptoms were revealed. There is a high level of depressive symptoms among Chinese bank employees. PsyCap partially mediates the effects of extrinsic effort and reward on depressive symptoms. Investing in PsyCap may provide new approaches to improve mental health among Chinese bank employees. PMID:26784215

  12. Occupational Stress, Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Bank Employees: The Role of Psychological Capital

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Dan; Yu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Although depression is a major problem affecting the physical and mental health of the occupational population worldwide, little research is available among bank employees. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of occupational stress and work-family conflict on depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was performed from May to June in 2013 in Liaoning province, China. The effort-reward imbalance (ERB) scale, the work-family conflict scale, the PsyCap questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were completed by 1546 employees in state-owned banks. A total of 1239 effective respondents (467 men and 772 women) became our subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to explore the effects of extrinsic effort, reward, overcommitment, work-family conflict, and PsyCap on depressive symptoms. The mediating role of PsyCap was examined using Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean score of depressive symptoms was 18.4 (SD = 7.6) among the Chinese bank employees. Extrinsic effort, overcommitment and work-family conflict were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Reward and PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. The significant mediating roles of PsyCap in the associations of extrinsic effort (a*b = 0.046, BCa 95% CI: 0.029, 0.066) and reward (a*b = −0.047, BCa 95% CI: −0.065, −0.030) with depressive symptoms were revealed. There is a high level of depressive symptoms among Chinese bank employees. PsyCap partially mediates the effects of extrinsic effort and reward on depressive symptoms. Investing in PsyCap may provide new approaches to improve mental health among Chinese bank employees. PMID:26784215

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Aghajani, Motahareh; Sahimi-Izadian, Elaheh; Hosseini-Araghi, Negin; Khorgami, Zhamak

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mood disorders are prevalent in hospitalized patients. However, risk factors for early diagnosis have not been studied exclusively in surgical patients. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression and anxiety symptoms in surgical patients. Methods We included 392 surgical patients in this prospective cross-sectional study, which took place between June 2011 and June 2012. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for symptoms of depression and anxiety at weekly interviews. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early (the day after admission) and late (one week or more) in-hospital psychiatry symptoms. Results Depression and anxiety symptoms increased from the time of admission toward longer hospital stay. Scores obtained in the second and third weeks of admission were associated with the need for surgery while HADS in the third week was associated with lack of familial support and being under the poverty line (p < 0.050). Regression model analysis showed that early depression was associated with female gender, and early anxiety was inversely affected by female gender and protected by higher education level. A history of mood disorder was a risk factor. Later anxiety was also associated with longer hospital stay. Conclusions Depression and anxiety symptoms are a major concern in surgical patients especially in females and those with a history of mood disorders or lower educational level. Patients with a longer hospital stay, in particular, those with underlying diseases, postoperative complications, lack of familial support, and the need for reoperation were also at increased risk. PMID:27162587

  14. Volunteering and depressive symptoms among residents in a continuing care retirement community.

    PubMed

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.

  15. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms After Birth for Latinas Who Are Overweight or Obese

    PubMed Central

    Records, Kathie; Keller, Colleen; Coonrod, Dean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Todd, Michael; Belyea, Michael; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Permana, Paska; Vega Lopez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Depression symptoms and overweight/obesity are common concerns during childbearing. Both conditions are associated with poor outcomes at birth and can have long-lasting consequences. Predictors of depressive symptoms among overweight and obese low-income and ethnically diverse women are not known. Data are from the Madres para la Salud trial with 139 postpartum Latinas. Depressive symptoms during a prior pregnancy were positively related while social support and moderate intensity physical activity were negatively related to depressive symptoms after birth. Social support and physical activity may be effective interventions, particularly for women who have experienced depressive symptoms in a prior pregnancy. PMID:25383619

  16. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society. PMID:25769109

  17. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society.

  18. Stressful Events During Pregnancy and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Hafsatou; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard J.; Fox, Matthew P.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the influence of perinatal stressors on the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and help-seeking for PDS using surveillance data can inform service provision and improve health outcomes. Methods: We used Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MA-PRAMS) 2007–2010 data to evaluate associations between selected perinatal stressors and PDS and with subsequent help-seeking behaviors. We categorized 12 stressors into 4 groups: partner, traumatic, financial, and emotional. We defined PDS as reporting “always” or “often” to any depressive symptoms on PRAMS Phase 5, or to a composite score ≥10 on PRAMS Phase 6 depression questions, compared with women reporting “sometimes,” “rarely” or “never” to all depressive symptoms. The median response time to MA-PRAMS survey was 3.2 months (interquartile range, 2.9–4.0 months). We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using modified Poisson regression models, controlling for socioeconomic status indicators, pregnancy intention and prior mental health visits. Results: Among 5,395 participants, 58% reported ≥1 stressor (partner=26%, traumatic=16%, financial=29% and emotional=30%). Reporting of ≥1 stressor was associated with increased prevalence of PDS (PR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98). The strongest association was observed for partner stress (PR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.51–2.38). Thirty-eight percent of mothers with PDS sought help. Mothers with partner-related stressors were less likely to seek help, compared with mothers with other grouped stressors. Conclusions: Women who reported perinatal common stressors—particularly partner-related stressors—had an increased prevalence of PDS. These data suggest that women should be routinely screened during pregnancy for a range of stressors and encouraged to seek help for PDS. PMID:25751609

  19. Bupropion pre-treatment of endotoxin-induced depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    DellaGioia, Nicole; Devine, Lesley; Pittman, Brian; Hannestad, Jonas

    2013-07-01

    Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines may play a role in depression. Depressive symptoms can be induced in humans with administration of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin), which activates the innate immune system and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. We previously found that pre-treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced LPS-induced fatigue and anhedonia. This is a follow-up study to determine whether LPS-induced symptoms could be reduced by pre-treatment with bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 10 healthy subjects received intravenous LPS (0.8 ng/kg) after oral pre-treatment with bupropion (75 mg twice a day) or placebo for 7 days. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), and a visual analog scale (VAS) were used to measure depressive symptoms. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were measured with electrochemiluminescence assays. The results of this study, which must be considered preliminary, showed that LPS administration was associated with (1) increase in serum levels of all cytokines and chemokines assayed; (2) increase in total MADRS score, mostly due to items 7 (lassitude) and 8 (anhedonia); (3) increase in fatigue; (4) decrease in vigor; and (5) decrease in social interest. Bupropion pre-treatment had no statistically significant effect on the innate immune response to LPS or on LPS-induced behavioral changes, suggesting that 1-week pre-treatment with bupropion does not inhibit LPS-induced fatigue and anhedonia, contrary to what was found previously with citalopram.

  20. Posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in β-endorphin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Matic, Gordana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Spiric, Zeljko

    2015-08-01

    A disturbed beta-endorphin system can be a part of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression allostasis. Study subjects (N=392) included those with PTSD and/or (stress-induced) depression, and healthy controls with and without traumas. The aim of the study was to examine the network of relations centered around plasma beta-endorphin. The network included anxiety (as a personality trait), traumatic events, pain, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, and three clusters of PTSD symptoms: intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Beta-endorphin was represented by individual mean from 13 time points (BEmean), reflecting the total amount of the peripherally secreted hormone, and the coefficient of variation (BEvar), calculated as the ratio of standard deviation to the mean, reflecting the hormone׳s dynamics. BEvar correlated with all other variables, BEmean had no correlations. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine all interrelations (including their directions) of BEvar and the state/trait variables in the context of their entirety. The model revealed that hyperarousal and anxiety were the only direct agents of peripheral beta-endorphin fluctuations, mediating the effects of other variables. Traumatic events and intrusions act on BEvar via hyperarousal, while depressive symptoms, avoidance, and pain act via anxiety. Hyperarousal should be emphasized as the main agent not only because its effect on BEvar is larger than that of anxiety, but also because it increases anxiety itself (via avoidance and pain). All influences on BEvar are positive and they indicate long-term (sensitizing) effects (as opposed to direct stimulation, for example, by acute pain, anger, etc.). Relations apart from beta-endorphin are also discussed. PMID:25917294

  1. Cognition-related brain networks underpin the symptoms of unipolar depression: Evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Genevieve; Jackson, Graeme; Wilson, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    This systematic review sources the latest neuroimaging evidence for the role of cognition-related brain networks in depression, and relates their abnormal functioning to symptoms of the disorder. Using theoretically informed and rigorous inclusion criteria, we integrate findings from 59 functional neuroimaging studies of adults with unipolar depression using a narrative approach. Results demonstrate that two distinct neurocognitive networks, the autobiographic memory network (AMN) and the cognitive control network (CCN), are central to the symptomatology of depression. Specifically, hyperactivity of the introspective AMN is linked to pathological brooding, self-blame, rumination. Anticorrelated under-engagement of the CCN is associated with indecisiveness, negative automatic thoughts, poor concentration, distorted cognitive processing. Downstream effects of this imbalance include reduced regulation of networks linked to the vegetative and affective symptoms of depression. The configurations of these networks can change between individuals and over time, plausibly accounting for both the variable presentation of depressive disorders and their fluctuating course. Framing depression as a disorder of neurocognitive networks directly links neurobiology to psychiatric practice, aiding researchers and clinicians alike.

  2. Cognition-related brain networks underpin the symptoms of unipolar depression: Evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Genevieve; Jackson, Graeme; Wilson, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    This systematic review sources the latest neuroimaging evidence for the role of cognition-related brain networks in depression, and relates their abnormal functioning to symptoms of the disorder. Using theoretically informed and rigorous inclusion criteria, we integrate findings from 59 functional neuroimaging studies of adults with unipolar depression using a narrative approach. Results demonstrate that two distinct neurocognitive networks, the autobiographic memory network (AMN) and the cognitive control network (CCN), are central to the symptomatology of depression. Specifically, hyperactivity of the introspective AMN is linked to pathological brooding, self-blame, rumination. Anticorrelated under-engagement of the CCN is associated with indecisiveness, negative automatic thoughts, poor concentration, distorted cognitive processing. Downstream effects of this imbalance include reduced regulation of networks linked to the vegetative and affective symptoms of depression. The configurations of these networks can change between individuals and over time, plausibly accounting for both the variable presentation of depressive disorders and their fluctuating course. Framing depression as a disorder of neurocognitive networks directly links neurobiology to psychiatric practice, aiding researchers and clinicians alike. PMID:26562681

  3. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    PubMed

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations.

  4. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life.

  5. The Symptom Cluster of Sleep, Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients: Severity of the Problem and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Lavinia; Rissling, Michelle; Liu, Lianqi; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Insomnia is a significant problem in breast cancer patients, affecting between 20% to 70% of newly diagnosed or recently treated cancer patients. Pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression are also common conditions in breast cancer and often co-occur with insomnia in symptom clusters, exacerbating one another, and decreasing quality of life (QOL). There have been no clinical trials of drugs for sleep in cancer. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapies on the other hand, have shown some of the most positive results in alleviating the distressing symptoms that often accompany the breast cancer experience, but even these studies have not targeted the symptom cluster. Pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological treatments need to be explored. It might be that a combined pharmacological and behavioral treatment is most efficacious. In short, substantially more research is needed to fully understand and treat the symptom cluster of insomnia, fatigue, pain, depression and anxiety in breast cancer. PMID:22140397

  6. Negative symptoms: A review of schizophrenia, melancholic depression and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Winograd-Gurvich, C; Fitzgerald, P B; Georgiou-Karistianis, N; Bradshaw, J L; White, O B

    2006-10-16

    Negative symptoms generally refer to a reduction in normal functioning. In schizophrenia they encompass apathy, anhedonia, flat affect, avolition, social withdrawal and, on some accounts, psychomotor retardation. Negative symptoms have been identified in other psychiatric disorders, including melancholic depression, and also in neurological disorders, such Parkinson's disease. Achieving a better understanding of negative symptoms constitutes a priority in mental health. Primarily, negative symptoms represent an unrelenting, intractable and disabling feature for patients, often amounting to a severe burden on families, carers and the patients themselves. Identifying and understanding subgroups within disorders may also contribute to the clinical care and scientific understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature on negative symptoms in schizophrenia and explore the idea that negative symptoms may play an important role not only in other psychiatric disorders such as melancholic depression, but also in neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. In each disorder negative symptoms manifest with similar motor and cognitive impairments and are associated with comparable neuropathological and biochemical findings, possibly reflecting analogous impairments in the functioning of frontostriatal-limbic circuits.

  7. Akinesia: a syndrome common to parkinsonism, retarded depression, and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bermanzohn, P C; Siris, S G

    1992-01-01

    A distinct hypokinetic syndrome appears to exist across several different neuropsychiatric diagnoses, involving (1) slowed motor activity with difficulty initiating and sustaining behaviors, (2) anhedonia with depressed mood and reduced affective range, and (3) cognitive impairment. Specifically, three well-recognized states--parkinsonism, retarded depression, and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia--prominently feature the components of this syndrome, and reduced dopamine turnover in the brain has been hypothesized to play a part in the pathophysiology of each. While aspects of this conceptualization remain controversial, it generates testable hypotheses that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of these states.

  8. The characteristics of depressive symptoms in medical students during medical education and training: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Baldassin, Sergio; Alves, Tânia Correa de Toledo Ferraz; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nogueira Martins, Luiz Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical education and training can contribute to the development of depressive symptoms that might lead to possible academic and professional consequences. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms among 481 medical students (79.8% of the total who matriculated). Methods The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and cluster analyses were used in order to better describe the characteristics of depressive symptoms. Medical education and training in Brazil is divided into basic (1st and 2nd years), intermediate (3rd and 4th years), and internship (5th and 6th years) periods. The study organized each item from the BDI into the following three clusters: affective, cognitive, and somatic. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey corrected for multiple comparisons. Results There were 184 (38.2%) students with depressive symptoms (BDI > 9). The internship period resulted in the highest BDI scores in comparison to both the basic (p < .001) and intermediate (p < .001) periods. Affective, cognitive, and somatic clusters were significantly higher in the internship period. An exploratory analysis of possible risk factors showed that females (p = .020) not having a parent who practiced medicine (p = .016), and the internship period (p = .001) were factors for the development of depressive symptoms. Conclusion There is a high prevalence towards depressive symptoms among medical students, particularly females, in the internship level, mainly involving the somatic and affective clusters, and not having a parent who practiced medicine. The active assessment of these students in evaluating their depressive symptoms is important in order to prevent the development of co-morbidities and suicide risk. PMID:19077227

  9. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  10. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=−0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  11. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=-0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  12. Negative thinking: a key factor in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charoensuk, Sukjai

    2007-01-01

    Negative thinking, self-esteem, parental bonding, and everyday stressors are factors related to depressive symptoms in studies conducted in the United States, but they have been rarely explored in Thailand. An understanding of factors influencing depressive symptoms in Thai youth will lead to the development of interventions to decrease depressive symptoms among this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and negative thinking on depressive symptoms among Thai adolescents. A random sample of 812 high school students in Chon Buri, Thailand, participated in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms varied from 20-21% depending on the measures used. Negative thinking was the best predictor of depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Negative thinking also mediated the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, and self-esteem on depressive symptoms. PMID:17130007

  13. IPS multicentric study: Functional somatic symptoms in depression

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Kalita, Kamal; Dalal, P. K.; Rao, G. P.; Chadda, R. K.; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Bang, Govind; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, P. K.; Kathuria, Puneet; Thirunavukarasu, M; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Harish, T.; Shah, Nilesh; Deka, Kamla

    2013-01-01

    Background: As a pilot project, Indian Psychiatric Society conducted the first multicentric study involving diverse settings from teaching institutions in public and private sectors and even privately run psychiatric clinics. Aim of the Study: To study the typology of functional somatic complaints (FSC) in patients with first episode depression. Materials and Methods: A total of 741 patients from 16 centers across the country participated in the study. They were assessed on Bradford Somatic Symptom inventory for FSC, Beck Depression Inventory for severity of depression, and Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale- anxiety index (CPRS-AI) for anxiety symptoms. Results: The mean age of the study sample was 38.23 years (SD-11.52). There was equal gender distribution (male - 49.8% vs. females 50.2%). Majority of the patients were married (74.5%), Hindus (57%), and from nuclear family (68.2%). A little over half of the patients were from urban background (52.9%). The mean duration of illness at the time of assessment was 25.55 months. Most of the patients (77%) had more than 10 FSCs, with 39.7% having more than 20 FSCs as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory. The more common FSC as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory were lack of energy (weakness) much of the time (76.2%), severe headache (74%) and feeling tired when not working (71%), pain in legs (64%), aware of palpitations (59.5%), head feeling heavy (59.4%), aches and pains all over the body (55.5%), mouth or throat getting dry (55.2%), pain or tension in neck and shoulder (54%), head feeling hot or burning (54%), and darkness or mist in front of the eyes (49.1%). The prevalence and typology of FSCs is to a certain extent influenced by the sociodemographic variables and severity of depression. Conclusion: Functional somatic symptoms are highly prevalent in Indian depressed patients and hence deserve more attention while diagnosing depression in Indian setting. PMID:23441051

  14. The Effect of Social Isolation on Depressive Symptoms Varies by Neighborhood Characteristics: A Study of an Urban Sample of Women with Pre-School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; O'Campo, Patricia; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Muntaner, Carles

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how individual characteristics, social isolation, and neighborhood context affect depressive symptoms in a socio-economically diverse population of women with young children. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 261 mothers from 68 neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1998 and 2000. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  15. Effects of Paroxetine CR on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nourse, Rosemary; Wasser, Thomas E.; Krulewicz, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Previous research reports higher rates of depression in Hispanic women than Caucasian or African American women. The effectiveness and tolerability of paroxetine CR (controlled release) was examined in women of Hispanic heritage with depression or anxiety. Methods: Thirty-six Hispanic female patients 18 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression or generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis with an initial Hamilton Depression Rating scale (17 item) Ž20 or Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale Ž18 measuring no less than 4 on the Clinical Global Impression Severity scale received paroxetine CR (12.5–50mg/day) for 29 weeks of open label treatment. Analysis was conducted using repeated measures methodology. Results: Significant symptom reduction was observed on all scales. Mean dose was 31.7mg. The side effect of sexual dysfunction (17%) appeared most frequently but did not cause any patients to cease study participation. Conclusions: Paroxetine CR was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in this population. PMID:21103179

  16. Contingency management improves outcomes in cocaine-dependent outpatients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.

  17. Mothers’ Differentiation and Depressive Symptoms among Adult Children

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Suitor, J. Jill; Pardo, Seth; Henderson, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Parents’ differentiation has been linked to negative psychological and behavioral outcomes in children, adolescents, and young adults. This line of research, however, has not been extended to families in later life. In this article, we use data from 671 mother-child dyads in 275 families in the greater Boston area to explore whether mothers’ differentiation among their children is related to psychological well-being among offspring. We examined actual and perceived maternal differentiation in the domains of closeness, expectations for care, and conflict. We hypothesized that depressive symptoms would be higher when mothers differentiated among their children and when adult children perceived differentiation. Although the specific patterns varied somewhat by mothers’ and children's reports, the findings indicated that across all three domains, maternal differentiation was related to higher depression scores. PMID:20607119

  18. The influence of stress and social support on depressive symptoms in mothers with young children.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Jennifer I; Martinson, Melissa L; Bledsoe-Mansori, Sarah E; Bellamy, Jennifer L

    2012-12-01

    Limited research has examined the associations of stress, social support, and depression among mothers with young children over time. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk and protective factors for maternal depression given that depression can be cyclical and may affect women through the early years of their children's development. This study examined the relationships among stress, social support, and depressive symptoms in a national sample of low-income urban American women with young children. A secondary data analysis of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national longitudinal panel study of nearly 5000 births across 20 cities with populations of 200,000 or more in the United States, was conducted. The analytic sample included all mothers (N = 3675) who completed assessments at baseline through year 5 of the study between 1998 and 2005. Multivariate models using generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the probability of being depressed as a function of stress-related risk factors, social support factors, and sociodemographic variables. The rate of depression each year ranged from 15% to 21%. The results suggest that stress related to economic hardship, parenting, and poor physical health increases the risk of depression among low-income urban mothers with young children. Instrumental and partner support were found to be potential protective factors in reducing the negative effects of stress, but only to a certain degree. Future efforts are needed to strengthen social support and mitigate chronic stressors that contribute to mental health problems in low-income communities.

  19. Multi-domain models of risk factors for depression and anxiety symptoms in preschoolers: evidence for common and specific factors.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Joyce; Lavigne, John V; Gouze, Karen R; LeBailly, Susan A; Bryant, Fred B

    2013-07-01

    Relatively few studies have examined multiple pathways by which risk factors from different domains are related to symptoms of anxiety and depression in young children; even fewer have assessed risks for these symptoms specifically, rather than for internalizing symptoms in general. We examined a theoretically- and empirically-based model of variables associated with these symptom types in a diverse community sample of 796 4-year-olds (391 boys, 405 girls) that included factors from the following domains: contextual (SES, stress and family conflict); parent characteristics (parental depression); parenting (support/engagement, hostility and scaffolding); and child characteristics including negative affect (NA) effortful control (EC) sensory regulation (SR), inhibitory control (IC) and attachment. We also compared the models to determine which variables contribute to a common correlates of symptoms of anxiety or depression, and which correlates differentiate between those symptom types. In the best-fitting model for these symptom types (a) SES, stress and conflict had indirect effects on both symptom types via long-chain paths; (b) caregiver depression had direct effects and indirect ones (mediated through parenting and child effortful control) on both symptom types; (c) parenting had direct and indirect effects (via temperament and SR); and temperament had direct effects on both symptom types. These data provide evidence of common risk factors, as well as indicate some specific pathways/mediators for the different symptom types. EC was related to anxiety, but not depression symptoms, suggesting that strategies to improve child EC may be particularly effective for treatment of anxiety symptoms in young children.

  20. Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy and self-compassion in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p < 0.001) in depressive symptoms was predicted by the combination of age, education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.

  1. [The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Simone Camargo; dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms) and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning). The correlation coefficient of Pearson's, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %). Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms. PMID:24676110

  2. Toward scientific equity for the prevention of depression and depressive symptoms in vulnerable youth.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Beardslee, William; Bernal, Guillermo; Brincks, Ahnalee; Cruden, Gracelyn; Howe, George; Murry, Velma; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-07-01

    Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for "scientific equity," or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity.

  3. Associations between chronotype, sleep quality, suicidality, and depressive symptoms in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2010-10-01

    Research interest concerning associations between sleep characteristics and suicidality in psychopathology has been growing. However, possible linkages of suicidality to sleep characteristics in terms of sleep quality and chronotypes among depressive patients have not been well documented. In the current study, the authors investigated the possible effects of sleep quality and chronotype on the severity of depressive symptoms and suicide risk in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls. The study was conducted on 80 patients clinically diagnosed with major depression and 80 healthy subjects who were demographically matched with the patient group. All participants completed a questionnaire package containing self-report measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), and subjects were interviewed with the suicidality section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results are as follows: (a) logistic regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and depression symptom severity significantly predicted onset of major depression; (b) morningness-type circadian rhythm may play as a significant relief factor after onset of major depression; (c) sleep variables of chronotype and sleep quality did not significantly predict suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms in the major depression group; and (d) suicide ideation and poor sleep quality were antecedents of depression symptom severity in patients with major depression, and in healthy controls. Findings are discussed under the theoretical assumptions concerning possible relations between chronotype, sleep quality, depression, and suicidality. PMID:20969525

  4. Depressive Symptoms and the Experience of Pleasure in Daily Life: An Exploration of Associations in Early and Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-07-01

    Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.

  5. The moderation of an early intervention program for anxiety and depression by specific psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Smith, Phillip N; Hohmeister, Holly C; Joiner, Thomas E

    2009-04-01

    The current study examined the influence of a number of psychological factors on the effectiveness of an early intervention program targeting anxiety and depression in a non-clinical sample of college students. The early intervention program comprised elements of the cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (McCullough, 2000) delivered in a 2-hour computer-based educational program. Participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, and general distress prior to the intervention program and then again 8 weeks later. Additionally, participants were assessed for past major depression, sleep related difficulties, a number of anxiety disorders, and suicide ideation. Moderation of the effectiveness of the early intervention program by these factors depended on the dependent variable of interest, specifically: the effectiveness of the intervention program on symptoms of depression was moderated by insomnia; symptoms of anxiety by past post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and specific phobia as well as sleep problems related to nightmares; and symptoms of general negative affect by social phobia and suicide ideation. Implications are discussed. PMID:19229947

  6. The Moderation of an Early Intervention Program for Anxiety and Depression by Specific Psychological Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Smith, Phillip N.; Hohmeister, Holly C.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of a number of psychological factors on the effectiveness of an early intervention program targeting anxiety and depression in a non-clinical sample of college students. The program was influenced by the Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (McCullough, 2000) delivered in a two-hour computer-based educational program. Participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, and general distress prior to the prevention program and then again eight weeks later. Additionally, participants were assessed for past Major Depression, sleep related difficulties, a number of Anxiety Disorders, and suicide ideation. Moderation of the effectiveness of the early intervention program by these factors depended on the dependent variable of interest. Specifically, the effectiveness of the intervention program on symptoms of depression was moderated by insomnia; symptoms of anxiety by past Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Specific Phobia as well as sleep problems related to nightmares; and symptoms of general negative affect by Social Phobia and suicide ideation. Implications are discussed. PMID:19229947

  7. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p < 0.001. Mediating effects were also observed such that chronic physical illness resulted in increases in symptoms of maternal depression and family dysfunction, leading to declines in child self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.

  8. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p < 0.001. Mediating effects were also observed such that chronic physical illness resulted in increases in symptoms of maternal depression and family dysfunction, leading to declines in child self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children. PMID:24938212

  9. Social Comparison Processes and Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between social comparison processes and depressive symptoms in 36 participants (34 males and two females) aged 10 to 16 years with Asperger syndrome. Participants completed the Social Comparison Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with the…

  10. Relations between Suicidal Ideation and Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms in High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…

  11. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  12. Maternal Age and Depressive Symptoms in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, depressive symptoms of 2,011 European-American, African-American, and Latina low-income mothers at approximately 14 months after birth of the child were examined. Maternal age was used as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Overall, 31.9% of mothers were classified as depressed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression…

  13. The Utilization of Exercise to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…

  14. Underlying Mechanisms in the Relationship between Africentric Worldview and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines underlying mechanisms in the relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms. Participants were 112 African American young adults. An Africentric worldview buffered the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms…

  15. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  16. Organizational and Individual Conditions Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Nursing Home Residents over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…

  17. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  18. Dopamine, Depressive Symptoms and Decision-Making: The Relationship between Spontaneous Eyeblink Rate and Depressive Symptoms Predicts Iowa Gambling Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Norris, Dominique D.; Worthy, Darrell A.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology has been associated with alterations in decision-making, although conclusions have been mixed with depressed individuals showing impairments in some contexts, but advantages in others. The dopaminergic system may link depressive symptoms with decision-making performance. We assessed the role of striatal dopamine D2 receptor density, using spontaneous eyeblink rate, in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision-making performance in a large undergraduate sample that had not been screened for mental illness (N=104). Regression results revealed that eyeblink rate moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and advantageous decisions on the IGT in which individuals with more depressive symptomatology and high blink rates (higher striatal dopamine D2 receptor density) performed better on the task. Computational modeling results demonstrated that depressive symptoms alone were associated with enhanced loss aversive behavior, while individuals with high blink rates and elevated depressive symptoms tended to persevere in selecting options that led to net gains (avoiding options with net losses). These findings suggest that variation in striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in individuals with depressive symptoms may contribute to differences in decision-making behavior. PMID:26383904

  19. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention.

  20. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  1. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use ‘reverse translation’ to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24467454

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Associations with Longitudinal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Hood, Korey K.

    2010-01-01

    Associations between depressive symptoms, blood glucose monitoring (BGM) frequency, and glycemic control (A1c values) were examined in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Increased depressive symptoms were associated with lower BGM frequency and higher A1c values. Symptoms of ineffectiveness and negative mood were most commonly endorsed, representing targets for clinical interventions. PMID:20451278

  3. Self-Report of Depressive Symptoms in Low Back Pain Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisson, James; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…

  4. A Latent Class Analysis of Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms in Nonreferred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Injured Children: Functional Impairment and Depression Symptoms in a Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L.; Cirilli, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents who have experienced an acute single-incident trauma, associations between PTSD symptom clusters and functional impairment, and the specificity of PTSD symptoms in relation to depression and general distress. Method: Examined…

  6. Late-life depression symptom profiles are differentially associated with immunometabolic functioning.

    PubMed

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Stek, Max L; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests immune and metabolic dysregulation among depressed persons, possibly restricted to specific subgroups. This study explores the association between depressive disorders and characteristics with immunometabolic functioning among older persons. Data are from the baseline assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons, including 131 non-depressed and 358 depressed (6-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder) persons (60-93 years). Immune (C-reactive protein, interleukin [IL]-6) and metabolic (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose) factors were measured. Depression characteristics included severity, age of onset, symptom profile (atypical/melancholic) and antidepressant use. Depressed persons showed lower IL-6 levels compared with non-depressed persons. Depressed persons, except those with atypical depression, had lower waist circumference, lower glucose levels and scored lower on an overall index including all immunometabolic factors. Low waist circumference was more pronounced among those with less severe depression and those with a later age of onset, whom also had lower blood pressure levels. Atypical depression was associated with higher triglyceride levels. Antidepressant use was not clearly associated with immunometabolic functioning. To conclude, contrary to our expectations, we found overall immunometabolic downregulation in older depressed persons, in particular among those with less severe symptoms and those with late-life onset. However, persons with atypical depression presented with metabolic upregulation compared with other depressed persons. Taking depression symptom profiles into account is important when examining biological dysregulation in late-life depression.

  7. The Interplay of Genetics, Behavior, and Pain with Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Klinedinst, N. Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Dorsey, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Study: About 25% of older adults suffer from depressive symptoms. Commonly studied candidate genes associated with depression include those that influence serotonin (SLC6A4), dopamine (COMT), or neuroplasticity (BDNF, NTRK3). However, the majority of candidate gene studies do not consider the interplay of genetics, demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and how they jointly contribute to depressive symptoms among older adults. The purpose of this study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design and methods: In this descriptive study, demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, volunteering, physical activity, pain, and fear of falling) were obtained via interview of 114 residents in a continuing care retirement community. Peripheral whole blood was collected for DNA extraction. We examined common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the aforementioned genes using path analyses. Results: SNPs in the NTRK3 gene, pain, physical activity, and fear of falling were directly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults. Those who had polymorphisms in the NTRK3 gene, pain, fear of falling, and were less physically active were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. None of the SNPs in SLC6A4, COMT, or BDNF genes were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Implications: Our use of a path analysis to examine a biopsychosocial model of depressive symptoms provided the opportunity to describe a comprehensive clinical picture of older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. Thus, interventions could be implemented to identify older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:26055783

  8. Anxiety, depression, and HIV symptoms among persons living with HIV/AIDS: the role of hazardous drinking.

    PubMed

    Garey, Lorra; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Sharp, Carla; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J; Gonzalez, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous drinking is common among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and associated with numerous negative health consequences. Despite the well-established negative effects of hazardous drinking among PLWHA, scholarly work has neglected to explore the role of such drinking in regard to anxiety/depressive symptoms and HIV symptom expression. The current study investigated associations between hazardous drinking and anxiety/depressive symptoms and HIV symptoms among PLWHA. Participants (n = 94; 88.3% male; Mage = 48.55; SD = 9.15) included PLWHA recruited from AIDS service organizations in the northeast. Hazardous drinking was significantly associated with anxiety/depressive symptoms and HIV symptom expression above and beyond the variance accounted for by sex, race, recruitment site, and CD4 T-Cell count, as well as other cognitive-affective variables (emotion dysregulation, distress intolerance, and anxiety sensitivity). The present results provide empirical support that hazardous drinking is indeed related to depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as HIV symptom distress and that this effect is not attributable to other factors commonly related to both alcohol use problems and emotional distress among PLWHA. Results highlight the importance of alcohol interventions for excessive drinking specifically tailored for PLWHA to facilitate better mental and physical health adjustment.

  9. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  10. Differential associations of depressive symptom dimensions with cardio-vascular disease in the community: results from the Gutenberg health study.

    PubMed

    Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Wild, Philipp S; Münzel, Thomas; Ojeda, Francisco M; Zeller, Tanja; Schnabel, Renate B; Lackner, Karl; Blettner, Maria; Zwiener, Isabella; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-01-01

    A current model suggested that the somatic symptom dimension accounts for the adverse effect of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). In order to test this model we sought to determine in a large population-based sample how symptom dimensions of depression are associated with CHD, biomarkers and traditional risk factors. The associations of cognitive and somatic symptom dimensions of depression with CHD, risk factors, endothelial function, and biomarkers of inflammation and myocardial stress were analyzed cross-sectionally in a sample of n = 5000 Mid-Europeans aged 35-74 years from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Only the somatic symptom dimension of depression was associated with CHD, biomarkers (inflammation, vascular function) and cardio-vascular risk factors. When multivariable adjustment was applied by demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the weak associations of the somatic symptom dimension with the biomarkers disappeared. However, the associations of the somatic symptom dimension with CHD, myocardial infarction, obesity, dyslipidemia and family history of myocardial infarction remained. Both dimensions of depression were independently associated with a previous diagnosis of depression and distressed personality (type D). Thus, our results partly confirm current models: Somatic, but not cognitive-affective symptom dimensions are responsible for the association between depression and CHD, inflammation, vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. However, our findings challenge the assumptions that somatic depression might be due to inflammation or vascular dysfunction as consequence of progressed atherosclerotic disease. They rather emphasize a close interplay with life-style factors and with a family history of MI. PMID:23967272

  11. Functional communication as a predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Curran, J L; Datto, G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents.

  12. Postnatal depression among Bahraini women: prevalence of symptoms and psychosocial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Al Dallal, F H; Grant, I N

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of postnatal depression in Bahrain is unknown and screening for known risk factors does not take place. This study estimated the prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among a random sample of Bahraini women attending primary health care centres with their babies for the 8-week child check-up. The Arabic version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used with a cut-off score of > or = 12 for depression. The prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms among 237 mothers was 37.1%. No significant relationships were identified between depression symptoms and any of demographic variables or pregnancy/birth characteristics studied. However, several psychosocial risk factors were significantly associated with postnatal depression and, after multiple regression analysis, a history of depressive symptoms and perceived lack of support from the husband remained significant factors. Further studies that include diagnostic assessments are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, L A; Russell, J; Downs, M A; Petterson, J S

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed levels of depressive symptomatology in a household probability sample of Alaskan Native (N = 188) and Euro-American (N = 371) residents of 13 communities in Alaska. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in both the association between depressive symptomatology and exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts, and in the role of family support as a moderator of exposure to this technological disaster. Level of exposure was significantly associated with mean Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores in both Natives (p less than .05) and Euro-Americans (p less than .01). Both ethnic groups also reported significant declines in traditional relations with increasing levels of exposure (p less than .001). However, Natives had a significantly higher mean Exposure Index score than Euro-Americans and were more likely to report working on cleanup activities, damage to commercial fisheries, and effects of the spill on subsistence activities. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reported participation in cleanup activities and other forms of contact with the oil in Natives, and reported damage to commercial fisheries, use of affected areas, and residence in a community in geographic proximity to the spill in Euro-Americans. Perceived family support was not directly associated with depressive symptoms in either ethnic group, but did serve to buffer the effects of exposure on depressive symptoms in Euro-Americans. The results suggest that cultural differences play an important role in determining the psychosocial impacts of a technological disaster, particularly with respect to exposure, appraisal of an event as stressful, perceived family support as a moderator of stress, and expression of depressive symptomatology. PMID:1583472

  14. Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, L A; Russell, J; Downs, M A; Petterson, J S

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed levels of depressive symptomatology in a household probability sample of Alaskan Native (N = 188) and Euro-American (N = 371) residents of 13 communities in Alaska. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in both the association between depressive symptomatology and exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts, and in the role of family support as a moderator of exposure to this technological disaster. Level of exposure was significantly associated with mean Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores in both Natives (p less than .05) and Euro-Americans (p less than .01). Both ethnic groups also reported significant declines in traditional relations with increasing levels of exposure (p less than .001). However, Natives had a significantly higher mean Exposure Index score than Euro-Americans and were more likely to report working on cleanup activities, damage to commercial fisheries, and effects of the spill on subsistence activities. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reported participation in cleanup activities and other forms of contact with the oil in Natives, and reported damage to commercial fisheries, use of affected areas, and residence in a community in geographic proximity to the spill in Euro-Americans. Perceived family support was not directly associated with depressive symptoms in either ethnic group, but did serve to buffer the effects of exposure on depressive symptoms in Euro-Americans. The results suggest that cultural differences play an important role in determining the psychosocial impacts of a technological disaster, particularly with respect to exposure, appraisal of an event as stressful, perceived family support as a moderator of stress, and expression of depressive symptomatology.

  15. Prenatal predictors of postpartum depression and postpartum depressive symptoms in Mexican mothers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lara, María Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies on the predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in Latin America are scarce, which is a matter of importance, since the significance of PPD risk factors may vary according to the level of development of a country, the types of measurement and the time periods assessed. This study identifies the prenatal predictors for PPD (diagnostic interview) and postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS) (self-report scale) in Mexican mothers at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Two hundred and ten women were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and various risk factor scales. Univariate logistic regressions showed that social support, marital satisfaction, life events, a history of psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, the traditional female role, previous miscarriages/termination of pregnancy and unplanned/unwanted pregnancy were significant predictors for both PPD and PPDS at both assessment times in the postpartum. Education, age, marital status, income, occupation, parity, C-section and resilience were significant for only one of the measurements and/or at just one assessment time. General findings replicate a high- and low-income country observed psychosocial risk profile and confirm a sociodemographic and obstetric profile of vulnerability that is more prevalent in resource-constrained countries. PPD constitutes a high burden for new mothers, particularly for those living in low-middle-income countries who face social disadvantages (such as low educational attainment and income).

  16. Adolescent Weight and Depressive Symptoms: For Whom is Weight a Burden?*

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Houle, Jason N.; Martin, Molly A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent weight and depressive symptoms are serious population health concerns in their own right and as they relate to each other. This study asks whether relationships between weight and depressive symptoms vary by sex and race/ethnicity because both shape experiences of weight and psychological distress. Methods Results are based on multivariate analyses of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data. Results There are no associations between adolescent girls’ weight and depressive symptoms, but these associations vary considerably among boys. Underweight is associated with depressive symptoms among all boys and subpopulations of White and Hispanic boys. Among Hispanic boys, those who are overweight (versus normal weight) have a lower probability of reporting depressive symptoms. Finally, among normal weight boys, Hispanics and Blacks are more likely to report depressive symptoms than Whites. Conclusions Findings are a reminder that understanding population health issues sometimes requires a focus on subpopulations, not simply the population as a whole. PMID:23585698

  17. Longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-04-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence.

  18. Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.

  19. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood (N = 1, 273) while controlling for time-stable and time-varying correlates. Results show temporal changes in depressive symptoms, such that increases in depressive symptoms correspond to IPV exposure. While prior work has theorized that certain populations may be at increased psychological vulnerability from IPV, results indicate that both perpetration and victimization are associated with increases in depressive symptoms for both men and women and irrespective of whether IPV exposure occurred in adolescence or young adulthood. Cumulative exposure to IPV does not appear to increase depressive symptoms beyond the effect observed for the most recent IPV exposure, but physical maltreatment by a parent does appear to diminish the effect of IPV perpetration on depressive symptoms for a small subset of the sample. PMID:24578395

  20. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families.

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-02-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father - child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms.

  1. Interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Ryan J; Fresco, David M

    2016-10-01

    Awareness of the body (i.e., interoceptive awareness) and self-referential thought represent two distinct, yet habitually integrated aspects of self. A recent neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety incorporates the connections between increased but low fidelity afferent interoceptive input with self-referential and belief-based states. A deeper understanding of how self-referential processes are integrated with interoceptive processes may ultimately aid in our understanding of altered, maladaptive views of the self - a shared experience of individuals with mood and anxiety disorders. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine how negative self-referential processing (i.e., brooding rumination) relates to interoception in the context of affective psychopathology. Undergraduate students (N = 82) completed an interoception task (heartbeat counting) in addition to self-reported measures of rumination and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated an interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety-related distress. Specifically, high levels of brooding rumination coupled with low levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with the highest levels of depression and anxiety-related distress, whereas low levels of brooding rumination coupled with high levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety-related distress. The findings provide further support for the conceptualization of anxiety and depression as conditions involving the integration of interoceptive processes and negative self-referential processes.

  2. Interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Ryan J; Fresco, David M

    2016-10-01

    Awareness of the body (i.e., interoceptive awareness) and self-referential thought represent two distinct, yet habitually integrated aspects of self. A recent neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety incorporates the connections between increased but low fidelity afferent interoceptive input with self-referential and belief-based states. A deeper understanding of how self-referential processes are integrated with interoceptive processes may ultimately aid in our understanding of altered, maladaptive views of the self - a shared experience of individuals with mood and anxiety disorders. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine how negative self-referential processing (i.e., brooding rumination) relates to interoception in the context of affective psychopathology. Undergraduate students (N = 82) completed an interoception task (heartbeat counting) in addition to self-reported measures of rumination and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated an interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety-related distress. Specifically, high levels of brooding rumination coupled with low levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with the highest levels of depression and anxiety-related distress, whereas low levels of brooding rumination coupled with high levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety-related distress. The findings provide further support for the conceptualization of anxiety and depression as conditions involving the integration of interoceptive processes and negative self-referential processes. PMID:27567108

  3. The Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem and Optimism on the Relationship between Quality of Life and Depressive Symptoms of Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the mediating effects of the internal psychological factors of self-esteem and optimism on the relationship between breast cancer patients' quality of life in terms of symptoms and functioning and depressive symptoms. Methods The study centered on 384 breast cancer patients who had within a 24-month period received diagnosis of 0-4 stage cancer and had medical treatment. To achieve the study's purpose, the study made use of EORTC QLQ BR23, CES-D, and the Self-Esteem and Optimism Scales. Results Findings revealed that breast cancer patients' quality of life was negatively impacted by self-esteem and optimism, and that self-esteem and optimism impacted negatively on depressive symptoms. Analyses showed that when breast cancer patients' quality of life affects depressive symptoms, the full mediation effect of self-esteem was statistically significant. Also, findings revealed there to be a significant partial mediation effect due to optimism. Conclusion Study findings demonstrated that enhancing self-esteem is crucial in the psychological intervention of depressive symptoms because self-esteem functioned as the main causal factor accounting for all variation when breast cancer patients' quality of life affected depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that optimism is also vital to psychological intervention because it functioned as partial cause of heightened depressive symptoms when breast cancer patients' quality of life affected depressive symptoms. PMID:25395975

  4. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  5. Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B

    2012-09-01

    To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies.

  6. Sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms in healthy postpartum women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Thomas, Karen A

    2012-06-01

    In this pilot study we examined the relationship between objective and subjective sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms in 22 healthy primiparous postpartum women within 3 months after delivery. We found that none of the women in our study had clinically significant depression scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; nonetheless, a variable duration of night-time sleep from night to night during the 7-day monitoring period and reported awakening too early were significantly correlated with increased depressive symptoms. Results suggest that first-time mothers who complain of irregular night-time sleep duration and waking up too early should be screened and evaluated for potential postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:22431157

  7. The Role of Social Relationships in the Association between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Laura K; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Granillo, M Teresa; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    While research has established that depression interferes with academic achievement, less is understood about the processes by which social relationships may buffer the relationship between depression and academic outcomes. In this study we examined the role of positive relationships in the school, family and peer contexts in the association between depressive symptoms and academic achievement among 894 adolescents aged 12-17 years living in Santiago, Chile. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of academic achievement; parental monitoring, school belonging, positive mother relationships, and having academically inclined peers moderated this relationship, though some interactions differed by sex and age. Implications for promoting the academic success of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms are discussed.

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with depressive symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Tracy; Blackmon, Karen; McDonald, Carrie R.; Carlson, Chad; Barr, William B.; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben; DuBois, Jonathan; French, Jacqueline; Halgren, Eric; Thesen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Depression in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is highly prevalent and carries significant morbidity and mortality. Its neural basis is poorly understood. We used quantitative, surface-based MRI analysis to correlate brain morphometry with severity of depressive symptoms in 38 TLE patients and 45 controls. Increasing severity of depressive symptoms was associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) thinning in controls, but with OFC thickening in TLE patients. These results demonstrate distinct neuroanatomical substrates for depression with and without TLE, and suggest a unique role for OFC – a limbic region for emotional processing strongly interconnected with medial temporal structures – in TLE-related depressive symptoms. PMID:22099527

  9. Risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Ukrainian children.

    PubMed

    Drabick, Deborah A G; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gadow, Kenneth D; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2006-06-01

    Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction. Results indicated that poor mother-child communication was related to conduct problems and depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. In addition, conduct problems and depression were associated with attention problems for boys and with low marital satisfaction for girls. Emotional lability was related specifically to conduct problems, and maternal punishment was related specifically to depressive symptoms.

  10. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) across groups.

    PubMed

    Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions. PMID:24533075

  11. Emotionally biased cognitive processes: the weakest link predicts prospective changes in depressive symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Jonas; Duyck, Wouter; Koster, Ernst H W

    2015-01-01

    Emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory are predictive of future depressive symptoms. It remains unknown, however, how these biased cognitive processes interact to predict depressive symptom levels in the long-term. In the present study, we tested the predictive value of two integrative approaches to model relations between multiple biased cognitive processes, namely the additive (i.e., cognitive processes have a cumulative effect) vs. the weakest link (i.e., the dominant pathogenic process is important) model. We also tested whether these integrative models interacted with perceived stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptom severity. At Time 1, participants completed measures of depressive symptom severity and emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory. At Time 2, one year later, participants were reassessed to determine depressive symptom levels and perceived stress. Results revealed that the weakest link model had incremental validity over the additive model in predicting prospective changes in depressive symptoms, though both models explained a significant proportion of variance in the change in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. None of the integrative models interacted with perceived stress to predict changes in depressive symptomatology. These findings suggest that the best cognitive marker of the evolution in depressive symptoms is the cognitive process that is dominantly biased toward negative material, which operates independent from experienced stress. This highlights the importance of considering idiographic cognitive profiles with multiple cognitive processes for understanding and modifying effects of cognitive biases in depression.

  12. The association of needlestick injury with depressive symptoms among first-year medical residents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Sakata, Yumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Miyajima, Eriko; Watanabe, Mitsuyasu; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2007-12-01

    Depressive symptoms among medical residents are common. The objective of this study was to determine the association of depressive symptoms with needlestick injury among first-year medical residents (so-called "intern"). We conducted a prospective cohort study among 107 medical residents in 14 training hospitals. The baseline survey was conducted in August 2005 and the follow-up survey was conducted in March 2006. Depressive symptoms were based on the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were examined using logistic regression analysis. For medical residents without depressive symptoms at the baseline survey, needlestick injury events were associated with depressive symptoms at the follow-up survey (corrected odds ratio [cOR]=2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.70). Because it was not possible to determine when the medical residents developed depressive symptoms, it is not possible to definitely determine causality between needlestick injury and depressive symptoms, although these findings are suggestive. Therefore, it would seem prudent to suggest the provision of mental health services to medical residents sustaining a needlestick injury since this may be helpful in identifying and treating depression.

  13. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  14. Intimate Partner Victimization, Poor Relationship Quality, and Depressive Symptoms during Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276

  15. Depressive Symptoms, Religious Coping, and Cigarette Smoking Among Post-secondary Vocational Students

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Karissa D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with increased levels of cigarette smoking, yet not every individual experiencing depressive symptoms smokes. This study examined whether religious coping moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on past 30-day cigarette use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 963 post-secondary vocational students (46.8% women; mean age = 25 years). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of cigarette smoking (quantity-frequency measure of cigarette use) for female students, whereas positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of smoking for female students. Consistent with religious coping theory and as expected, negative religious coping moderated the depressive symptoms-smoking relationship such that negative religious coping exacerbated the impact of depressive symptoms on cigarette smoking among females. Positive religious coping also moderated the depressive symptoms-cigarette smoking relationship for females. However, contrary to expectations, high levels of positive religious coping exacerbated the likelihood of cigarette smoking among females with high levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, neither depressive symptoms nor positive or negative religious coping contributed to the likelihood of males’ smoking. Study limitations and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed. PMID:23276324

  16. Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Technology-Dependent Children

    PubMed Central

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed. PMID:26309171

  17. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  18. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  19. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PMID:24798817

  20. Depressive symptoms, religious coping, and cigarette smoking among post-secondary vocational students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Loukas, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with increased levels of cigarette smoking, yet not every individual experiencing depressive symptoms smokes. This study examined whether religious coping moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on past 30-day cigarette use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 963 postsecondary vocational students (46.8% women; mean age = 25 years). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of cigarette smoking (quantity-frequency measure of cigarette use) for female students, whereas positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of smoking for female students. Consistent with religious coping theory and as expected, negative religious coping moderated the depressive symptoms-smoking relationship such that negative religious coping exacerbated the impact of depressive symptoms on cigarette smoking among females. Positive religious coping also moderated the depressive symptoms-cigarette smoking relationship for females. However, contrary to expectations, high levels of positive religious coping exacerbated the likelihood of cigarette smoking among females with high levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, neither depressive symptoms nor positive or negative religious coping contributed to the likelihood of males' smoking. Study limitations and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.

  1. Acculturation and depressive symptoms in latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Oanh L.; Geller, Sue; He, Emily; González, Hector M.; Hinton, Ladson

    2014-01-01

    Background Caregiving for older adults is a growing public health concern because of the negative psychological effects it has on caregivers. Despite the growing Latino caregiver population, little is known regarding how the effects of acculturation on caregiver depressive symptoms might vary by caregiver age. This study aimed to examine the relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms in Latino caregivers, and to test whether this relationship was moderated by age. Methods Ninety-four Latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults with and without dementia were identified through an ongoing epidemiological cohort study. Caregivers were interviewed in their homes, in either Spanish or English. A Poisson regression was used to analyze the caregiver characteristics associated with caregiver depressive symptoms. Results Language acculturation was positively associated with caregiver depressive symptoms, as was age, female gender, and being married or living with someone. Those with excellent or good health and who had spent more than one year caregiving had lower depressive symptoms. Finally, the positive relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms was increased in older caregivers. Conclusions Language acculturation appears to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms in Latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults. The relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms is complex such that caregiver age and health status further nuance this relationship. Future research should explore the independent and interactive effects of these variables on depressive symptoms. PMID:24717691

  2. Smoking Abstinence and Depressive Symptoms Modulate the Executive Control System During Emotional Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Froeliger, Brett; Modlin, Leslie A.; Kozink, Rachel V.; Wang, Lihong; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking abstinence disrupts affective and cognitive processes. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effects of smoking abstinence on emotional information processing (EIP). Methods Smokers (n=17) and nonsmokers (n=18) underwent fMRI while performing an emotional distractor oddball task in which rare targets were presented following negative and neutral task-irrelevant distractors. Smokers completed two sessions: once following 24-hr abstinence and once while satiated. The abstinent versus satiated states were compared by evaluating responses to distractor images and to targets following each distractor valence within frontal executive and limbic brain regions. Regression analyses were done to investigate whether self-reported negative affect influences brain response to images and targets. Exploratory regression analyses examined relations between baseline depressive symptoms and smoking state on brain function. Results Smoking state affected response to target detection in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). During satiety, activation was greater in response to targets following negative versus neutral distractors; following abstinence, the reverse was observed. Withdrawal-related negative affect was associated with right insula activation to negative images. Finally, depression symptoms were associated with abstinence-induced hypoactive response to negative emotional distractors and task-relevant targets following negative distractors in frontal brain regions. Conclusions Neural processes related to novelty detection/attention in the right IFG may be disrupted by smoking abstinence and negative stimuli. Reactivity to emotional stimuli and the interfering effects on cognition are moderated by the magnitude of smoking state-dependent negative affect and baseline depressive symptoms. PMID:22081878

  3. Environmental enrichment ameliorates depressive-like symptoms in young rats bred for learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    Richter, S Helene; Zeuch, Benjamin; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of major depression is known to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In the current study, we therefore set out to investigate depressive-like behavior and its modification by environmental enrichment using rats bred for 'learned helplessness'. 45 males of congenitally helpless (cLH, n=22) and non-helpless (cNLH, n=23) rats of two different generations were used to systematically investigate differential effects of environmental enrichment on learned helpless behavior, anhedonic-like behavior (sweetened condensed milk consumption) and spontaneous behavior in the home cage. While enrichment was found to reduce learned helpless behavior in 14 weeks old, but not 28 weeks old cLH rats, it did not affect the consumption of sweetened condensed milk. Regarding the home cage behavior, no consistent changes between rats of different strains, housing conditions, and ages were observed. We could thus demonstrate that a genetic predisposition for learned helplessness may interact with environmental conditions in mediating some, but not all depressive-like symptoms in congenitally learned helpless rats. However, future efforts are needed to isolate the differential benefits of environmental factors in mediating the different depression-related symptoms.

  4. Neighborhood Social Resources and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kari A; Hirsch, Jana A; August, Carmella; Mair, Christina; Sanchez, Brisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-06-01

    The ways in which a neighborhood environment may affect depression and depressive symptoms have not been thoroughly explored. This study used longitudinal data from 5475 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to investigate associations of time-varying depressive symptoms between 2000 and 2012 (measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) with survey-based measures of neighborhood safety and social cohesion (both individual-level perceptions and neighborhood-level aggregates) and densities of social engagement destinations. Linear mixed models were used to examine associations of baseline cross-sectional associations and cumulative exposures with changes over time in CES-D. Econometric fixed effects models were utilized to investigate associations of within-person changes in neighborhood exposures with within-person changes in CES-D. Adjusting for relevant covariates, higher safety and social cohesion and greater density of social engagement destinations were associated with lower CES-D at baseline. Greater cumulative exposure to these features was not associated with progression of CES-D over 10 years. Within-person increases in safety and in social cohesion were associated with decreases in CES-D, although associations with cohesion were not statistically significant. Social elements of neighborhoods should be considered by community planners and public health practitioners to achieve optimal mental health.

  5. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  6. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  7. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Latina/o Adolescents of Immigrant Parents.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William D; LeBrón, Alana M W; Graham, Louis F; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is associated with negative mental health outcomes for Latina/o adolescents. While Latino/a adolescents experience discrimination from a number of sources and across contexts, little research considers how the source of discrimination and the context in which it occurs affect mental health outcomes among Latina/o children of immigrants. We examined the association between source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source, and school ethnic context with depressive symptoms for Latina/o adolescents of immigrant parents. Using multilevel linear regression with time-varying covariates, we regressed depressive symptoms on source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source of discrimination, and school percent Latina/o. Discrimination from teachers (β = 0.06, p < .05), students (β = 0.05, p < .05), Cubans (β = 0.19, p < .001), and Latinas/os (β = 0.19, p < .001) were positively associated with depressive symptoms. These associations were not moderated by school percent Latina/o. The findings indicate a need to reduce discrimination to improve Latina/o adolescents' mental health.

  8. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms.

  9. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  10. The Relationship Between Borderline Personality Disorder and Major Depression in Later Life: Acute Versus Temperamental Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Galione, Janine N.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A recent issue in the personality disorder field is the prevalence and course of Axis II symptoms in later life. Focusing on the presentation of personality disorder criteria over time may have some utility in exploring the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depression in older adults. Temperamental personality symptoms are relatively resistant to change but tend to be nonspecific to disorders, while acute symptoms remit relatively quickly. We predicted that temperamental BPD symptoms would be positively correlated with a history of depression and did not expect to find a relationship between major depression and acute BPD symptoms. Method One thousand six hundred and thirty participants between the ages of 55 and 64 were recruited to participate in a community-based longitudinal study representative of the St. Louis area. Participants completed a battery of assessments at baseline, including diagnostic interviews for all ten personality disorders and major depressive disorder. Results Temperamental and acute BPD symptoms were significantly correlated with a history of major depression. After adjustments were made for the effects of temperamental symptoms on depression, acute symptoms were no longer correlated with a history of depression. As predicted, temperamental symptoms remained significantly related to depression, even after controlling for the effects of acute symptoms. BPD acute symptoms showed a unique negative correlation with the amount of time following remission from a depressive episode. Conclusions Overall, this study supports associations between major depression and borderline personality in older adults. The findings indicate that a history of major depression is primarily related to stable BPD symptoms related to emotional distress, which are more prevalent in older adults compared to acute features. PMID:23567384

  11. Depressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace J.; Lu, Po H.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Wu, Stephanie; Nguyen, Ken; Teng, Edmond; Leow, Alex D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bartzokis, George; Thompson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression has been associated with higher conversion rates from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may be a potential clinical marker of prodromal AD that can be used to identify individuals with MCI who are most likely to progress to AD. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we examined the longitudinal neuroanatomical changes associated with depressive symptoms in MCI. Methods 243 MCI subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who had brain MRI scans at baseline and 2-year follow-up were classified into depressed (DEP, n=44), non-depressed with other neuropsychiatric symptoms (OTHER, n=93), and no-symptom (NOSYMP, n=106) groups based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). TBM was used to create individual 3D-maps of 2-year brain changes that were compared between groups. Results DEP subjects had more frontal (p=0.024), parietal (p=0.030), and temporal (p=0.038) white matter atrophy than NOSYMP subjects. A subset of DEP subjects whose depressive symptoms persisted over 2-years also had higher conversion to AD and more decline on measures of global cognition, language abilities, and executive functioning compared to stable NOSYMP subjects. OTHER and NOSYMP groups exhibited no differences in rates of atrophy. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in MCI subjects were associated with greater atrophy in AD-affected regions, increased cognitive decline, and higher rates of conversion to AD. Depression in individuals with MCI may be associated with underlying neuropathological changes including prodromal AD. Thus, assessment of depressive symptoms may be a potentially useful clinical marker in identifying MCI patients who are most likely to progress to AD. PMID:22322105

  12. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding. PMID:26787123

  13. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.

  14. Neighborhood disadvantage, network social capital, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Haines, Valerie A; Beggs, John J; Hurlbert, Jeanne S

    2011-03-01

    Research on why neighborhood disadvantage matters for health focuses on the capacity of neighborhoods to regulate residents' behavior through informal social control. The authors extend this research by conducting a multilevel analysis of data from a 1995 telephone survey of 497 residents of 32 neighborhoods in a U.S. city. The authors find that network social capital mediates the contextual effect of neighborhood disadvantage on depressive symptoms and that health effects of network social capital persist when perceived neighborhood disorder, a standard indicator of low informal social control, is controlled for. The findings demonstrate the value of a conceptualization and measurement of network social capital that (1) considers ties that transcend neighborhood boundaries, (2) investigates health benefits of network social capital in the forms of closure and embedded support resources and range and embedded instrumental resources, and (3) uses network data on specific network members with strong and weak ties to respondents.

  15. Co-occurrence of anemia, marginal vitamin B6, and folate status and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Yi-Ping; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Guei, Yu-Shu; Lin, Bi-Fong; Wei, Ien-Lan; Yang, Feili Lo; Liaw, Yung-Po; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Chen, Wei J

    2012-09-01

    Although nutrient deficiencies are thought to play roles in the development of depression, observational studies have yielded inconsistent results. This study aimed to investigate whether multiple marginal nutrient deficiencies are associated with symptoms of depression in community-dwelling older Taiwanese. Data from 1371 elderly adults recruited from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan was used in this study. Depressive symptom scores on depressed mood and emotions affecting daily life were derived from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, plasma vitamins B(6), B(12), and folate concentration, and erythrocyte transketolase and glutathione reductase activation coefficients were measured. After adjusting for age, gender, cognitive function, physical activity, disease history, and medication in the multivariate analysis, anemia, and marginal B(6) deficiency were significantly associated with the presence of depression symptoms, respectively. In addition, co-occurrence of vitamin B(6) with low folate level and co-occurrence of anemia either with low vitamin B(6) or with folate level were all associated with the depressive mood and with depressive emotions defined by SF-36 (odds ratios [OR] in the range of 2.32-7.13, all P values ≤.05). The magnitude of the ORs is larger when the number of deficiencies increased. Elderly people with coexisting marginal deficiencies of nutrients involved in the S-adenosylmethionine and hemoglobin production were more likely to experience depressed mood and emotion that affect daily activity. Examining status of these nutrients is worthy of consideration for older adults with depressed symptoms.

  16. Donepezil delays progression to AD in MCI subjects with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lu, P H.; Edland, S D.; Teng, E; Tingus, K; Petersen, R C.; Cummings, J L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of depression predicts higher rate of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and whether donepezil treatment beneficially affect this relationship. Methods: The study sample was composed of 756 participants with aMCI from the 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study drug trial of donepezil and vitamin E. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptoms at baseline and participants were followed either to the end of study or to the primary endpoint of progression to probable or possible AD. Results: Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age at baseline, gender, apolipoprotein genotype, and NYU paragraph delayed recall score, showed that higher BDI scores were associated with progression to AD (p = 0.03). The sample was stratified into depressed (BDI score ≥10; n = 208) and nondepressed (BDI <10; n = 548) groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that among the depressed subjects, the proportion progressing to AD was lower for the donepezil group than the combined vitamin E and placebo groups at 1.7 years (p = 0.023), at 2.2 years (p = 0.025), and remained marginally lower at 2.7 years (p = 0.070). The survival curves among the three treatment groups did not differ within the nondepressed participants. Conclusions: Results suggest that depression is predictive of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD) and treatment with donepezil delayed progression to AD among depressed subjects with aMCI. Donepezil appears to modulate the increased risk of AD conferred by the presence of depressive symptoms. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; ADCS = Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study; aMCI = amnestic mild cognitive impairment; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; ChEI = cholinesterase inhibitors; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

  17. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:26107805

  18. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.

  19. Long-term Effects of Fathers’ Depressed Mood on Youth Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Ben T.; Wu, Ed Y.; Martin, Monica J.; Gelardi, Kristina L.; Shirley Chan, Sut Yee; Conger, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    While an accumulating body of research has documented increased risk for psychopathology among children of depressed fathers, most studies have used cross-sectional design and little is known about offspring outcomes beyond childhood. Using prospective data from a community sample (N = 395), we found that paternal depressive symptoms when children were in early adolescence (age 13) predicted offspring depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 21, controlling for baseline youth symptoms, maternal depressive symptoms, and other known correlates of internalizing problems in early adulthood. Associations were not moderated by maternal depressive symptoms or child gender. These results suggest that the unique and long-term effects of paternal depression on children's risk for mood disorders may persist into adulthood. PMID:25750495

  20. Depressive symptoms and social support among people living with HIV in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Caihong; Ruan, Ye; Li, Xianhong; Fennie, Kristopher; Williams, Ann B

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and poor treatment outcomes. Our study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in PLWH in one Chinese province. Data were collected from 496 PLWH between July 2009 and July 2010 at two HIV treatment sites in Hunan Province, China. Sixty-two percent (n = 309) of participants scored 16 or more on the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale, indicating moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms. Independent predictors of depressive symptoms included active heroin use, lack of a stable job, female gender, and limited social support. These data suggest that interventions addressing depressive symptoms should be included in HIV care programs provided by the Chinese government, with a special focus on PLWH who are heroin users, female, unemployed, or socially isolated.

  1. Factors of Depressive Symptoms Among Elementary, Middle, and High School Students.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the individual, family, friends, and school profiles of depressed children during the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study aimed to describe the evolution of factors associated with depressive symptoms among elementary, middle, and high school students. This was a secondary analytic study using three datasets of a cohort of Korean children or adolescents. Children or adolescents with depressed symptoms reported lower self-esteem, peer attachment, academic performance, and adaptability in school. Other risk factors for depressive symptoms that included gender, obesity, family conflict, and with whom they discussed personal issues showed different patterns from the elementary school years to high school years. A sex difference (female>male) of depressive symptoms was evident only among high school students. Influences including individuals, family, friends, and school factors for adolescents varied depending upon school years. Understanding the correlates/risk factors could guide the screening and management of depressive symptoms. PMID:27256933

  2. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.

  3. Peer dislike and victimisation in pathways from ADHD symptoms to depression.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunima; Hartman, Catharina A; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2015-08-01

    The following hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal, population-based study: (1) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with peer dislike and victimisation; (2) Peer dislike and victimisation increase the risk for subsequent depression; and (3) The effect of ADHD symptoms on depression is partly mediated through peer dislike and victimisation. Gender differences in mediating pathways through peer dislike and victimisation to depression were additionally explored. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self Report (YSR) and Teacher's Checklist of Pathology (TCP) assessed ADHD symptoms in 728 adolescents. Peer nominations were used to assess peer dislike and victimisation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess depression. Effects of peer dislike, victimisation, and ADHD symptoms on depression were modelled using Cox regression. ADHD symptoms were associated with peer dislike (rs = 0.17, p < 0.001) and victimisation (rs = 0.11, p = 0.001). Dislike, victimisation, and ADHD symptoms increased risk for depression. Risk for depression associated with victimisation and ADHD symptoms reduced with time. Dislike and victimisation mediated 7 % of the effect of ADHD symptoms on depression. Pathways through dislike and victimisation were present in girls but not in boys. Peer dislike and victimisation explain, to a limited extent, the prospective association between ADHD and depression, particularly in girls. PMID:25348085

  4. Disentangling the link between depressive symptoms and plasma oxytocin in men: The role of brooding rumination.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    The links between plasma oxytocin and depression are controversial, ranging from negative to positive associations. The present study was conducted to reconcile those conflicting findings; amongst the features of depression, we considered rumination and hypothesised that rumination would function as moderator between depressive symptoms and oxytocin. Seventy five clinically normal adult male volunteers were assessed for depressive characteristics by means of the Ruminative Responses Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory-II; plasma oxytocin was measured by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The results demonstrate that high depressive symptoms were negatively associated with oxytocin concentrations at high rumination levels while such an association did not exist at low levels of rumination. The present findings suggest there are complex associations between oxytocin and brooding rumination, the latter being an important feature among depressive symptoms observed in clinically normal individuals. This complexity can underlie the current lack of consensus on the role of oxytocin in depression.

  5. Depressive symptoms in third-grade teachers: relations to classroom quality and student achievement.

    PubMed

    McLean, Leigh; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, Mage  = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students' fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. teachers' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. The findings point to the importance of teachers' mental health, with implications for policy and practice.

  6. Cortical Amyloid β Deposition and Current Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia. PMID:26400248

  7. Cortical Amyloid β Deposition and Current Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.

  8. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and

  9. Nightmares in Patients With Psychosis: The Relation With Sleep, Psychotic, Affective, and Cognitive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sheaves, Bryony; Onwumere, Juliana; Keen, Nadine; Stahl, Daniel; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of nightmares in people with psychosis and to describe the link between nightmares and sleep quality, psychotic, affective, and cognitive symptoms. Methods: Forty participants with psychotic symptoms completed an assessment of nightmares, sleep quality, positive symptoms of psychosis, affect, posttraumatic stress, social functioning, and working memory. Results: Among the patients, 55% reported weekly distressing nightmares. Experience of more frequent nightmares was related to poorer sleep quality and sleep efficiency. More distressing nightmares were positively associated with greater delusional severity, depression, anxiety, stress, and difficulties with working memory. Conclusions: Nightmares might be common in those with psychosis and are associated with increased day- and nighttime impairment. Future research should investigate treatments for nightmares, for people presenting with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26454557

  10. Postnatal Depression Symptoms are Associated with Increased Diarrhea among Infants of HIV-Positive Ghanaian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Okronipa, Harriet E.T.; Marquis, Grace S.; Lartey, Anna; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is linked to increased prevalence of depression which may affect maternal caregiving practices and place young infants at increased risk of illness. We examined the incidence and days ill with diarrhea among infants of HIV positive (HIV-P), HIV negative (HIV-N), and unknown HIV status (HIV-U) women, and determined if symptoms of maternal postnatal depression (PND) modulated the risk of diarrhea. Pregnant women (n=492) were recruited from 3 antenatal clinics; mothers and infants were followed for 12 mo postpartum. Diarrheal incidence was 0.6 episodes/100-d at risk. More HIV-P than HIV-N and HIV-U women tended to report PND symptoms (P=0.09). PND symptoms increased the risk of infantile diarrhea only for HIV-P and HIV-U but not HIV-N women (interaction term, P=0.02). Health care providers should be aware of the increased risk of infantile diarrhea when both maternal HIV and PND symptoms are present and take preventive action to reduce morbidity. PMID:22331392

  11. Individual Variations in Nucleus Accumbens Responses Associated with Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Misaki, Masaya; Suzuki, Hideo; Savitz, Jonathan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal reward-related responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been reported for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. However, variability exists in the reported results, which could be due to heterogeneity in neuropathology of depression. To parse the heterogeneity of MDD we investigated variation of NAcc responses to gain and loss anticipations using fMRI. We found NAcc responses to monetary gain and loss were significantly variable across subjects in both MDD and healthy control (HC) groups. The variations were seen as a hyperactive response subtype that showed elevated activation to the anticipation of both gain and loss, an intermediate response with greater activation to gain than loss, and a suppressed-activity with reduced activation to both gain and loss compared to a non-monetary condition. While these response variability were seen in both MDD and HC subjects, specific symptoms were significantly associated with the right NAcc variation in MDD. Both the hyper- and suppressed-activity subtypes of MDD patients had severe suicidal ideation and anhedonia symptoms. The intermediate subjects had less severity in these symptoms. These results suggest that differing propensities in reward responsiveness in the NAcc may affect the development of specific symptoms in MDD. PMID:26880358

  12. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248

  13. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ2 test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248

  14. The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David; Demyttenaere, Koen; Janka, Zoltan; Aarre, Trond; Bourin, Michel; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Stahl, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Despite significant advances in pharmacologic therapy of depression over the past two decades, a substantial proportion of patients fail to respond or experience only partial response to serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants, resulting in chronic functional impairment. There appears to be a pattern of symptoms that are inadequately addressed by serotonergic antidepressants - loss of pleasure, loss of interest, fatigue and loss of energy. These symptoms are key to the maintenance of drive and motivation. Although these symptoms are variously defined, they are consistent with the concept of ;decreased positive affect'. Positive affect subsumes a broad range of positive mood states, including feelings of happiness (joy), interest, energy, enthusiasm, alertness and self-confidence. Although preliminary, there is evidence to suggest that antidepressants that enhance noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity may afford a therapeutic advantage over serotonergic antidepressants in the treatment of symptoms associated with a reduction in positive affect. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic agents, including the dual acting norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitors, have demonstrated antidepressant activity in the absence of serotonergic function, showing similar efficacy to both tricyclic and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants. Moreover, the norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitor bupropion has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of energy, pleasure and interest in patients with depression with predominant baseline symptoms of decreased pleasure, interest and energy. Focusing treatment on the predominant or driving symptomatology for an individual patient with major depression could potentially improve rates of response and remission.

  15. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  16. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE.

  17. An Examination of Horace Wells' Life as a Manifestation of Major Depressive and Seasonal Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ramon F; Desai, Sukumar P

    2016-01-01

    Horace Wells was a Hartford, Connecticut, dentist whose practice flourished because of his clinical skills. He had an imaginative mind that propelled him to the forefront in several aspects of dentistry. Unfortunately, he suffered a recurrent "illness" that began in the winter and resolved in the spring. These symptoms were compatible with both major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder as a qualifier. Wells' introduction of nitrous oxide as an anesthetic was also associated with self-inhalation. This led to periods of hypomania, followed by depression. With the progression to ether, then chloroform, there was an episode of mania in January 1848, followed by depression and suicide.

  18. [Negative symptoms, depression, anxiety and alexithymia in DSM III-R schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions, and a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotions. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The aims of this study were: first to establish some correlations between alexithymia and some symptoms of schizophrenia, and second to estimate the intensity of alexithymia in negative versus positive and undifferentiated schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients were assessed by one trained psychiatrist (IN) using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Depressive Retardation Rating Scale (DRRS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). In the total sample, the mean score of BIQ was 4.79 +/- 1.68 (mean +/- SD). Significant correlations were found between alexithymia and blunted affect (r = 0.376; p < 0.05), poverty of speech (r = 0.471; p < 0.01), anxiety (r = 0.370; p < 0.05), total score of DRRS (r = 0.370; p < 0.05), and motor subscore of DRRS (r = 0.429; p < 0.05). The patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia had significantly higher total scores in alexithymia (p < 0.05), blunted affect (p < 0

  19. Understanding the Relationship Between Co-occurring PTSD and MDD: Symptom Severity and Affect

    PubMed Central

    Post, Loren M.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Youngstrom, Eric; Feeny, Norah C.

    2011-01-01

    How to best understand theoretically the nature of the relationship between co-occurring PTSD and MDD (PTSD+MDD) is unclear. In a sample of 173 individuals with chronic PTSD, we examined whether the data were more consistent with current co-occurring MDD as a separate construct or as a marker of posttraumatic stress severity, and whether the relationship between PTSD and MDD is a function of shared symptom clusters and affect components. Results showed that the more severe depressive symptoms found in PTSD+MDD as compared to PTSD remained after controlling for PTSD symptom severity. Additionally, depressive symptom severity significantly predicted co-occurring MDD even when controlling for PTSD severity. In comparison to PTSD, PTSD+MDD had elevated dysphoria and re-experiencing – but not avoidance and hyperarousal – PTSD symptom cluster scores, higher levels of negative affect, and lower levels of positive affect. These findings provide support for PTSD and MDD as two distinct constructs with overlapping distress components. PMID:21899984

  20. The influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Na; Sun, Jinkai; Li, Chao; Lei, Xibing; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale) was the major methodology used to evaluate anxiety and depression, and the MSPSS (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) to evaluate the social support level. Among patients with silicosis, 99.1% had anxiety symptoms, and 86.1% had depression symptoms. Meanwhile, the social support significantly influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study suggested that patients with silicosis presented more anxiety and depression symptoms, while the social support levels of the patients were relatively low. The influence of social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis implied that improving the level of social support and the effective symptomatic treatment might alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms and improve physical and mental status.

  1. Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.464, p ≤ 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (β = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia.

  2. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Penn Resiliency Program's Effect on Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunwasser, Steven M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Kim, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a group cognitive-behavioral intervention, is effective in targeting depressive symptoms in youths. We identified 17 controlled evaluations of PRP (N = 2,498) in which depressive symptoms had been measured via an online search of PsycInfo, Medline, ERIC, and…

  3. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  4. Longitudinal Associations among Youth Depressive Symptoms, Peer Victimization, and Low Peer Acceptance: An Interpersonal Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation was conducted to explicate the network of associations between depressive symptoms and peer difficulties among 486 fourth through sixth graders (M = 9.93 years). Parent and teacher reports of depressive symptoms; peer, self, and teacher reports of victimization; and peer reports of peer acceptance were obtained. A…

  5. A Value Model for Depressive Symptoms and Hopelessness among University Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilican, F. Isil; Yapici, Asim; Kutlu, M. Oguz

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine which values predicted depressive symptoms and hopelessness in Turkey. While it was hypothesized that values emphasizing universalism, benevolence, conformity, security, tradition, spirituality, self-direction, and achievement would predict lower levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness, those values emphasizing…

  6. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing (TD) children or parents of children with other developmental disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent sleep as factors associated with depressive symptoms in parents of children with…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Negative Expectations and Perceptions of Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Palvi; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Tamminen, Tuula; Salmelin, Raili

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of children's problems. One hundred and nineteen mother-child dyads were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy for almost 10 years. Depressive symptoms and background factors of the mothers and the anticipated/perceived…

  8. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Dysfunctional Cognitions, and Infant Night Waking: The Role of Maternal Nighttime Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…

  9. Self-Mutilation and Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andover, Margaret S.; Pepper, Carolyn M.; Ryabchenko, Karen A.; Orrico, Elizabeth G.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between self-mutilation and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a nonclinical population. Self-mutilators reported significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did the control group. When the group of self-mutilators was divided into individuals who cut themselves and…

  10. Depressive Symptoms among College Students: An Assessment of the Influence of Environmental Factors on Retention Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudric, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Depressive symptoms among college students have major implications for higher education institutions across the country. First-year college students are particularly susceptible to the various impacts that the college experience may produce during the transitional first year of college. The effects of depressive symptoms among college students in…

  11. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Tracy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of…

  12. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  13. Peer Victimisation and Depressive Symptoms: Can Specific Coping Strategies Buffer the Negative Impact of Cybervictimisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machmutow, Katja; Perren, Sonja; Sticca, Fabio; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether cybervictimisation is an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms over and beyond traditional victimisation in adolescents. Furthermore, it explored whether certain coping strategies moderate the impact of cybervictimisation on depressive symptoms. A total of 765 Swiss seventh graders (mean age at…

  14. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  15. Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

  16. Depressive Symptoms among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Gender and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…

  17. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

  18. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  19. Atomoxetine Alone or Combined with Fluoxetine for Treating ADHD with Comorbid Depressive or Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…

  20. Distinguishing Symptoms of Grief and Depression in a Cohort of Advanced Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…

  1. Longitudinal Trajectories of Self-System Processes and Depressive Symptoms among Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2006-01-01

    This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6--11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated…

  2. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  3. Relationship between Spirituality and Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Individuals Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, E. Gail; Green, Diane; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between spirituality and believing in God's presence and depressive symptoms among 160 inpatient individuals who abuse substances. Findings indicated that both spirituality and believing in God's presence were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, whereby spirituality was inversely related to…

  4. Depressive Symptoms Following Coping with Peer Aggression: The Moderating Role of Negative Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D.; Agoston, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which children cope with peer aggression may determine their subsequent adjustment, but different forms of coping may be more or less effective for particular children. This research examined whether the contribution of children’s coping to subsequent depressive symptoms was contingent on children’s temperament (i.e., level of negative emotionality; NE) and gender. Children (N = 235, 102 boys, 133 girls, M = 7.94 years, SD = .33) reported on exposure to peer victimization. Parents rated children’s NE and depressive symptoms, and teachers rated children’s coping. For girls with high NE, problem solving protected against depressive symptoms whereas seeking retaliation heightened risk for depressive symptoms. Advice seeking protected children with low NE against depressive symptoms whereas ignoring protected children with high NE against depressive symptoms. Humor predicted fewer depressive symptoms in boys with high NE but more depressive symptoms in boys with low NE. This research helps to elucidate individual differences in the effects of coping on adjustment, and has implications for interventions aimed at reducing risk resulting from exposure to peer aggression. PMID:24043360

  5. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…

  6. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  7. Minority Stress, Perceived Bicultural Competence, and Depressive Symptoms among Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Botello-Zamarron, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Based on biculturalism theory (LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993), the present study examined the direct effect of perceived bicultural competence (PBC) on depressive symptoms, and PBC as a potential coping resource to moderate the association between minority stress and depressive symptoms. Participants were 167 Asian American, African…

  8. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  9. Peer Social Preference and Depressive Symptoms of Children in Italy and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Capanna, Cristina; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of low social preference in relation to subsequent depressive symptoms, with particular attention to prior depressive symptoms, prior and concurrent aggression, mutual friendships, and peer victimization. Italian children (N = 288) were followed from grade 6 through grade 8, and American children (N = 585) were…

  10. Applying Prevention and Positive Youth Development Theory to Predict Depressive Symptoms among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Goddard, H. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of depressive symptoms among adolescents using concepts drawn from two theoretical models that underlie popular youth-focused programs. Specifically, we assessed the degree to which family-level risk factors increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms, and the degree to which community and/or…

  11. Disentangling the Effects of Depression Symptoms and Adult Attachment on Emotional Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Angela M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Sauer, Eric M.; Florczak, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in…

  12. Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

  13. A Prospective Study Investigating the Links among Classroom Environment, School Connectedness, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.

    2014-01-01

    School connectedness and classroom environment have both been strongly linked to depressive symptoms, but their interrelation is unclear. We tested whether school connectedness mediated the link between classroom environment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 504 Australian seventh-and eighth-grade students completed the Classroom Environment…

  14. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  15. Night Waking in 6-Month-Old Infants and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…

  16. Teacher Support Mediates Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations between Temperament and Mild Depressive Symptoms in Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz Rudasill, Kathleen; Pössel, Patrick; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Niehaus, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The combination of changes occurring at the transition to middle school may be a catalyst for the onset of depressive symptoms, yet teacher support at this transition is protective. Research points to certain temperamental traits as risk factors for developing depressive symptoms. This study examines student reports of teacher support and teacher…

  17. Development and Validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…

  18. Teachers' Ratings of Social Competence of Children with High Versus Low Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Farhana; Morgan, Sam B.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationship between children's self-ratings of depressive symptoms and teachers' ratings of the children's situational social competence. Results show that teachers rated those children who reported high levels of depressive symptoms as having more problems in social competence when compared to children who reported low levels of…

  19. Nonparent Adult Social Support and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Cannon, Shannon; Pasch, Lauri A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The notion that nonparent social support buffers the impact of parent depressive symptoms and substance use on adolescent depressive symptoms was tested in 142 Mexican American and 148 European American families with 12- through 15-year-old adolescents. Parent risk factors and adolescent nonparent adult social support were measured at baseline;…

  20. Academic Pathways between Attention Problems and Depressive Symptoms among Urban African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the pathways between attention problems and depressive symptoms, particularly the role of academic incompetence, among a community sample of urban African American children. Results supported the hypothesized path models from inattention to depressive symptoms for girls and boys. Academic performance in the spring of…