Science.gov

Sample records for affect development time

  1. Atrazine exposure affects longevity, development time and body size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sarah R; Fiumera, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine is the one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States and non-target organisms may encounter it in the environment. Atrazine is known to affect male reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates but less is known about its effects on other fitness traits. Here we assessed the effects of five different chronic exposure levels on a variety of fitness traits in Drosophila melanogaster. We measured male and female longevity, development time, proportion pupated, proportion emerged, body size, female mating rate, fertility and fecundity. Atrazine exposure decreased the proportion pupated, the proportion emerged and adult survival. Development time was also affected by atrazine and exposed flies pupated and emerged earlier than controls. Although development time was accelerated, body size was actually larger in some of the exposures. Atrazine exposure had no effect on female mating rate and the effects on female fertility and fecundity were only observed in one of the two independent experimental blocks. Many of the traits showed non-monotonic dose response curves, where the intermediate concentrations showed the largest effects. Overall this study shows that atrazine influences a variety of life history traits in the model genetic system, D. melanogaster, and future studies should aim to identify the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:27317622

  2. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to differentiate Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle.

    PubMed

    Moré, Gastón; Schares, Susann; Maksimov, Aline; Conraths, Franz J; Venturini, María C; Schares, Gereon

    2013-10-18

    Cattle are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis hominis which use canids, felids or primates as definitive hosts (DH), respectively, and in addition of Sarcocystis sinensis from which the DH is unknown. The aims of the present study were to develop and optimize a multiplex real time PCR for a sensitive and specific differentiation of Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle and to estimate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. The 18S rRNA genes from individual sarcocysts were amplified and cloned to serve as controls. For the amplification of bovine Sarcocystis spp. a total of 3 primers were used in combination with specific individual probes. Each assay was evaluated and optimized individually and subsequently combined in a multiplex assay (BovSarcoMultiplex real time PCR). The analytical specificity of the multiplex assay was assessed using 5 ng of DNA of heterologous Sarcocystis spp. and other apicomplexan parasites, and no positive reactions were observed other than for the species the PCR targeted. The analytical sensitivity ranged between 0.0125 and 0.125 fg of plasmid DNA (equivalent to the DNA of 2-20 plasmid DNA copies) or resembling DNA of 0.1-0.3 bradyzoites. A total of 380 DNA loin samples from Argentina were tested and 313, 29, 14 and 2 were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta and S. hominis, respectively. S. sinensis was the most prevalent species among thick walled Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. Mixed infections were detected in 8.9% of all samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the BovSarcoMultiplex real time PCR relative to previous microscopic examination for thin and thick-walled cyst were 91.5% and 41.7%, 36.3% and 95.9% respectively. Improved DNA extraction methods may allow to further increase the specific and sensitive detection of Sarcocystis spp. in meat samples. PMID:23680541

  3. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening. PMID:18039047

  4. Juvenile Green Frog (Rana clamitans) Predatory Ability not Affected by Exposure to Carbaryl at Different Times During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melanie J.; Kleinhenz, Peter; Boone, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Larval exposure to pesticides can occur at different times during development, and can negatively impact amphibian fitness. We examined the effects of larval green frog (Rana clamitans) exposure to carbaryl at 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks of development on juvenile predatory ability. We did not find evidence that predatory ability was affected by exposure to carbaryl, which suggests that carbaryl does not have latent effects on the predatory performance of green frogs in subsequent life stages. PMID:21462236

  5. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  6. Endogenous and exogenous estrogens during embryonic development affect timing of hatch and growth in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Cruze, Lori; Roark, Alison M; Rolland, Gabrielle; Younas, Mona; Stacy, Nicole; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect length of gestation and body mass and size of offspring. However, the dose, timing, and duration of exposure as well as sex and strain of the experimental animals determine the direction and magnitude of these effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a one-time embryonic exposure to either 17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1.4 days earlier than vehicle-treated (control) alligators, suggesting that estrogenic chemicals hasten hatching in these animals. We assessed growth rates, growth allometry, and body condition for 21 weeks after hatching and found that BPA-treated alligators grew more quickly shortly after hatching but more slowly thereafter compared to control alligators. Conversely, E2-treated alligators grew more slowly shortly after hatching but more quickly thereafter compared to control alligators. As a result of differences in growth rate, BPA-treated alligators were heavier, longer, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were similar in size and leaner than control alligators at age 21 weeks. Biochemical analytes were examined at the end of the 21-week study to assess overall metabolic condition. We found that E2-treated alligators had significantly higher circulating plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides than control alligators while BPA-treated alligators had blood profiles comparable to control alligators. Our results provide important insights into the effects of exogenous estrogens on morphology and metabolism in an oviparous, semi-aquatic reptile. PMID:25687799

  7. Current Research in Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Janet

    1985-01-01

    Current research concerning affective development in infants and children is selectively reviewed. The focus of findings and discussion is on three general and related topics: (1) expression of emotion and affective interaction in infancy; (2) socialization and regulation of emotion; (3) comprehension of emotions and empathy with others by…

  8. [Development of the affect system].

    PubMed

    Moser, U; Von Zeppelin, I

    1996-01-01

    The authors show that the development of the affect system commences with affects of an exclusively communicative nature. These regulate the relationship between subject and object. On a different plane they also provide information on the feeling of self deriving from the interaction. Affect is seen throughout as a special kind of information. One section of the article is given over to intensity regulation and early affect defenses. The development of cognitive processes leads to the integration of affect systems and cognitive structures. In the pre-conceptual concretistic phase, fantasies change the object relation in such a way as to make unpleasant affects disappear. Only at a later stage do fantasies acquire the capacity to deal with affects. Ultimately, the affect system is grounded on an invariant relationship feeling. On a variety of different levels it displays the features typical of situation theory and the theory of the representational world, thus making it possible to entertain complex object relations. In this process the various planes of the affect system are retained and practised. Finally, the authors discuss the consequences of their remarks for the understanding of psychic disturbances and the therapies brought to bear on them. PMID:8584745

  9. Affective Development in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grootenboer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be an increasing requirement for university courses and programs to develop students' affective qualities (beliefs, values, dispositions and attitudes). This study explored the ways academics determined what the desirable qualities were for their particular disciplines and the pedagogical strategies and approaches they used to…

  10. Hold it! Memory affects attentional dwell time.

    PubMed

    Parks, Emily L; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2008-12-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this effect depended on the ongoing memory context. Specifically, items that were unique in terms of memory status demanded more resources, as measured by a protracted AB. The present findings suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of memory's effects on attention can be obtained by accounting for an item's memorial context, as well as its individual item memory strength. Our results provide new evidence that item memory and memory context play a significant role in the temporal allocation of attention. PMID:19001579

  11. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  12. Timing of eclosion affects diapause development, fat body consumption and longevity in Osmia lignaria, a univoltine, adult-wintering solitary bee.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jordi; Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P

    2010-12-01

    Most insects from temperate areas enter diapause ahead of winter. Species diapausing in a feeding stage and accumulating metabolic reserves during permissive pre-wintering conditions are expected to enter diapause shortly before the onset of winter. In contrast, species diapausing in a non-feeding stage are expected to lower their metabolism as soon as possible to avoid excessive consumption of metabolic reserves. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a non-feeding adult within its cocoon, but previous studies show important weight losses and increased winter mortality in populations pre-wintered for extended periods. We measured respiration rates to assess diapause initiation and maintenance during pre-wintering, and tested whether timing of adult eclosion affected fitness by measuring fat body depletion, winter mortality and post-winter longevity. We worked with different cohorts of a population reared under natural conditions, and manipulated pre-wintering duration in a population reared under artificial conditions. In agreement with our expectation, O. lignaria lower their metabolic rates within a few days of adult eclosion, but nonetheless suffer strong weight loss during pre-wintering. Early developing individuals suffer greater weight loss and fat body depletion, and have short post-winter longevity. Although, we found no differences in winter mortality among treatments, our results indicate that increased mortality may occur in years with late winter arrivals. We discuss fundamental ecophysiological differences between adult and prepupal diapause within the Megachilidae, and hypothesize that species wintering as adults will be more negatively affected by a situation of extended summers under a scenario of global warming. PMID:20816851

  13. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  14. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  15. Reading Enjoyment and Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reporting on Reading, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The articles in this publication offer ideas for developing enjoyment of reading in children. Among the topics discussed are the following: the need for teachers and parents to build children's self-esteem through increasing their experiences of success, their expectations of success, and the value they place on reading; methods for increasing…

  16. The Development of a Developmental, Annotated Time Line for Learning Disabled High School Students Planning To Attend College. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ellen

    An annotated time line to help learning disabled high school students and their families plan for and choose an appropriate college was developed. A review of the literature concerning the transition of learning disabled students from high school to college is presented as are results of interviews with college learning disability specialists,…

  17. Information superhighway: Issues affecting development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    Technological advances in the transmission of voice, video, and data are fostering fundamental changes in the telecommunications industry. For example, large local telephone companies plan to offer video services in competition with cable and broadcast television, while cable television companies plan to offer local telephone service over their wires in competition with the local telephone companies. The administration believes that these technological changes provide the opportunity to develop an 'Information Superhighway' that could provide every element of society with ready access to data, voice, and video communications. Concurrently, the Congress is considering sweeping changes to telecommunications regulations to keep pace with this dynamic industry. GAO prepared this report to serve as an overview of three key issues that decisionmakers may face as they deliberate telecommunications legislation; it focuses on three pivotal issues they face in formulating new telecommunications legislation: (1) managing the transition to a more competitive local telecommunications marketplace; (2) ensuring that all consumers have access to affordable telecommunications as competition develops; and (3) ensuring that the Information Superhighway provides adequate security, privacy, reliability, and interoperability.

  18. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  20. Writing Direction Affects How People Map Space Onto Time

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Benjamin K.; Chan Lau, Ting Ting

    2012-01-01

    What determines which spatial axis people use to represent time? We investigate effects of writing direction. English, like Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, is written left to right and then top to bottom. But in Taiwan, characters are written predominantly top to bottom and then right to left. Because being a fluent reader–writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one’s writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time in terms of space. In a behavioral experiment, we had native speakers of English, Mandarin Chinese from mainland China, and Mandarin Chinese from Taiwan place sets of cards in temporal order. These cards depicted stages of development of plants and animals, for instance: tadpole, froglet, frog. Results showed that English speakers always represented time as moving from left to right (LR). Mainland Chinese participants trended in the same direction, but a small portion laid the cards out from top to bottom. Taiwanese participants were just as likely to depict time as moving from LR as from top to bottom, with a large minority depicting it as moving from right to left. Native writing system affects how people represent time spatially. PMID:22514546

  1. Overexpression of PhEXPA1 increases cell size, modifies cell wall polymer composition and affects the timing of axillary meristem development in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Dal Santo, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; de Groot, Peter; Sordo, Sara; Citterio, Sandra; Monti, Francesca; Pezzotti, Mario

    2011-08-01

    • Expansins are cell wall proteins required for cell enlargement and cell wall loosening during many developmental processes. The involvement of the Petunia hybrida expansin A1 (PhEXPA1) gene in cell expansion, the control of organ size and cell wall polysaccharide composition was investigated by overexpressing PhEXPA1 in petunia plants. • PhEXPA1 promoter activity was evaluated using a promoter-GUS assay and the protein's subcellular localization was established by expressing a PhEXPA1-GFP fusion protein. PhEXPA1 was overexpressed in transgenic plants using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical analysis were used for the quantitative analysis of cell wall polymers. • The GUS and GFP assays demonstrated that PhEXPA1 is present in the cell walls of expanding tissues. The constitutive overexpression of PhEXPA1 significantly affected expansin activity and organ size, leading to changes in the architecture of petunia plants by initiating premature axillary meristem outgrowth. Moreover, a significant change in cell wall polymer composition in the petal limbs of transgenic plants was observed. • These results support a role for expansins in the determination of organ shape, in lateral branching, and in the variation of cell wall polymer composition, probably reflecting a complex role in cell wall metabolism. PMID:21534969

  2. Factors Affecting the Quality of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Larry O.

    A review of the literature concerning the effectiveness and quality of staff development programs focuses on factors that affect the success of such programs. These factors include: individual concerns, training activities, applications, qualifications of consultants, scheduling, strategies, facilities, feedback, collaboration, and outcomes. It is…

  3. Affective Dimensions of Adult Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durgunoglu, Aydin Y.

    To investigate affective dimensions of adult literacy development more systematically, researchers conducted a qualitative comparative analysis of four women participating in an adult literacy program in Istanbul, Turkey. The contrastive study chose two participants who completed the course; each was matched with a participant who had dropped out.…

  4. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  5. Time-Varying Affective Response for Humanoid Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkina, Lilia; Arkin, Ronald C.; Lee, Jamee K.; Jung, Hyunryong

    This paper describes the design of a complex time-varying affective architecture. It is an expansion of the TAME architecture (traits, attitudes, moods, and emotions) as applied to humanoid robotics. It particular it is intended to promote effective human-robot interaction by conveying the robot’s affective state to the user in an easy-to-interpret manner.

  6. Protective measures, personal experience, and the affective psychology of time.

    PubMed

    Peters, E; Kunreuther, H; Sagara, N; Slovic, P; Schley, D R

    2012-12-01

    We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases. However, and consistent with prior literature, the cognitive mechanism underlying this time-neglect-with-affect-richness effect seemed to be the greater use of the affect heuristic in the shorter term than the longer term. Study 2 results demonstrated that prior experience with having been burglarized amplified the interactive effect of time and affect. Greater deliberation did not attenuate this effect as hypothesized whether deliberation was measured through numeracy or manipulated through instructions. The results of Study 3 indicated that few participants are able to calculate correctly the risk numbers necessary to take time into account. Two possible solutions to encourage more purchases of protective measures in the long term are discussed. PMID:22548249

  7. Noninertial coordinate time: A new concept affecting time standards, time transfers, and clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    Relativity compensations must be made in precise and accurate measurements whenever an observer is accelerated. Although many believe the Earth-centered frame is sufficiently inertial, accelerations of the Earth, as evidenced by the tides, prove that it is technically a noninertial system for even an Earth-based observer. Using the constant speed of light, a set of fixed remote clocks in an inertial frame can be synchronized to a fixed master clock transmitting its time in that frame. The time on the remote clock defines the coordinate time at that coordinate position. However, the synchronization procedure for an accelerated frame is affected, because the distance between the master and remote clocks is altered due to the acceleration of the remote clock toward or away from the master clock during the transmission interval. An exact metric that converts observations from noninertial frames to inertial frames was recently derived. Using this metric with other physical relationships, a new concept of noninertial coordinate time is defined. This noninertial coordinate time includes all relativity compensations. This new issue raises several timekeeping issues, such as proper time standards, time transfer process, and clock synchronization, all in a noninertial frame such as Earth.

  8. How Does Calibration Timing and Seasonality Affect Item Parameter Estimates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Continuously administered examination programs, particularly credentialing programs that require graduation from educational programs, often experience seasonality where distributions of examine ability may differ over time. Such seasonality may affect the quality of important statistical processes, such as item response theory (IRT) item…

  9. The Relationship of Negative Affect and Thought: Time Series Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Amy; And Others

    In recent years, the relationship between moods and thoughts has been the focus of much theorizing and some empirical work. A study was undertaken to examine the intraindividual relationship between negative affect and negative thoughts using a Box-Jenkins time series analysis. College students (N=33) completed a measure of negative mood and…

  10. [Does childhood obesity affect sexual development?].

    PubMed

    Wagner, I V; Sergeyev, E; Dittrich, K; Gesing, J; Neef, M; Adler, M; Geserick, M; Pfäffle, R W; Körner, A; Kiess, W

    2013-04-01

    The process of pubertal development is only partly understood and is influenced by many different factors. During the twentieth century there was a general trend toward earlier pubertal development. Fat mass is thought to be a major inducer of puberty. Owing to the rising epidemic of childhood obesity, the relationship between body composition in children and the rate and timing of puberty needs to be investigated. Some studies suggest that central obesity is associated with an earlier onset of pubertal development. Rapid weight gain in early life is linked to advanced puberty in both sexes. A clear correlation exists between increasing body mass index (BMI) and earlier pubertal development in girls. In boys the data are controversial: The majority of studies propose that there is an earlier puberty and voice break in obese boys, but some studies show the opposite. There are several factors and mechanisms that seem to link obesity and puberty, for example, leptin, adipocytokines, and gut peptides. Important players include genetic variation and environmental factors (e.g., endocrine-disrupting chemicals). This article presents the latest studies and evidence on this topic, underlining the inconsistencies in the data and, therefore, the need for further research in this area. PMID:23529595

  11. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-15

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos.

  12. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  13. Identifying the critical climatic time window that affects trait expression.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Identifying the critical time window during which climatic drivers affect the expression of phenological, behavioral, and demographic traits is crucial for predicting the impact of climate change on trait and population dynamics. Two widely used associative methods exist to identify critical climatic periods: sliding-window models and recursive operators in which the memory of past weather fades over time. Both approaches have different strong points, which we combine here into a single method. Our method uses flexible functions to differentially weight past weather, which can reflect competing hypotheses about time lags and the relative importance of recent and past weather for trait expression. Using a 22-year data set, we illustrate that the climatic window identified by our new method explains more of the phenological variation in a sexually selected trait than existing approaches. Our new method thus helps to better identify the critical time window and the causes of trait response to environmental variability. PMID:21508615

  14. Do waiting times affect health outcomes? Evidence from coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Moscelli, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Luigi; Tonei, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Long waiting times for non-emergency services are a feature of several publicly-funded health systems. A key policy concern is that long waiting times may worsen health outcomes: when patients receive treatment, their health condition may have deteriorated and health gains reduced. This study investigates whether patients in need of coronary bypass with longer waiting times are associated with poorer health outcomes in the English National Health Service over 2000-2010. Exploiting information from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), we measure health outcomes with in-hospital mortality and 28-day emergency readmission following discharge. Our results, obtained combining hospital fixed effects and instrumental variable methods, find no evidence of waiting times being associated with higher in-hospital mortality and weak association between waiting times and emergency readmission following a surgery. The results inform the debate on the relative merits of different types of rationing in healthcare systems. They are to some extent supportive of waiting times as an acceptable rationing mechanism, although further research is required to explore whether long waiting times affect other aspects of individuals' life. PMID:27299977

  15. Goal regulation across time: the effects of feedback and affect.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Judge, Timothy A

    2005-05-01

    This research focused on the processes individuals use to regulate their goals across time. Two studies examined goal regulation following task performance with 6 samples of participants in a series of 8-trial task performance experiments. The experiments involved: (a) 3 task types, (b) 2 goal types, and (c) actual or manipulated performance feedback referring to the focal participant's own performance or to the participant's performance compared with others' performance. Applying multilevel methods, the authors examined (a) how performance feedback influences subsequent goals within individuals across both negative and positive performance feedback ranges, and (b) the mediating role of affect in explaining the relationship between feedback and subsequent goal setting. Results showed that participants adjusted their goals downwardly following negative feedback and created positive goal-performance discrepancies by raising their goals following positive feedback. In each sample, affect mediated substantial proportions of the feedback-goals relationship within individuals. PMID:15910142

  16. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  17. Comparisons of HIV-Affected and Non-HIV-Affected Families Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W. Scott; Best, Karin; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study compares HIV-affected families and their non-HIV-affected neighbors’ behavioral health outcomes and family conflict. To compare two groups from the same neighborhoods at four points over 18 months, mothers with HIV (MLH) (N=167) and their school-age children (age 6 to 20) were recruited from clinical care settings in Los Angeles, CA and neighborhood control mothers (NCM) without HIV (N=204) were recruited from modal neighborhoods. In addition, children living at home who were 12 years and older were recruited. We assessed parenting behaviors, family conflict, mental health, sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV-related health behaviors over time. MLH perceived greater economic insecurity at baseline, less employment, and involvement in romantic relationships. MLH reported more emotional distress and substance use than NCM. MLH, however, reported lowered HIV transmission risk. The random regressions indicated that MLH exhibited higher levels and became significantly less depressed and less anxious over time than their non-HIV-affected neighbors. MLH also reported less initial family violence and conflict reasoning than NCM; violence decreased and conflict increased over time for MLH relative to NCM. Children of MLH decreased their marijuana use but hard drug users of MLH increased their risk, over time, compared to children of NCM. Moreover, children of MLH reported more internalizing behaviors than children of NCM. Even when compared to other families living in the same economically disadvantaged communities, MLH and their children continue to face challenges surrounding family conflict, and key behavioral health outcomes, especially with respect to substance use and mental health outcomes. These families, however, show much resilience and MLH report lowered levels of HIV transmission risk, their children report no greater levels of HIV transmission risk and levels of family violence were lower than reported by families in the same neighborhoods

  18. Cognition and Affect in Early Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Gillian D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Using Vygotsky's theory of development, explores the significance of storytelling and dramatization activities on the intellectual and emotional development of preschool children. Results indicate that dramatizing of children's stories enhances the storytelling of preschool children and, thus, influences their literacy development. (DST)

  19. Factors that affect stabilisation times of canine spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E; Boden, L A; Ramsey, I K

    2016-07-23

    The objective of this retrospective study was to examine factors that may have affected the stabilisation times of 50 dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism that were being treated with fludrocortisone acetate, with particular emphasis on dosing frequency and the concurrent use of prednisolone. Stabilisation was defined as an absence of clinical signs with a sodium:potassium ratio >27:1 and both electrolyte concentrations within a laboratory reference range. It was found that the median time till stabilisation was three months. The frequency of fludrocortisone treatment (once, twice or changed from once to twice a day) had no effect on the stabilisation time. The two groups of dogs that were started and stabilised on once a day or twice a day dosing had a median stabilisation time of two months. However, dogs that failed to stabilise on once a day dosing of fludrocortisone and were then changed onto twice a day dosing then stabilised a median of one month later. Concurrent use of prednisolone resulted in significantly faster stabilisation times. It was concluded that dogs with hypoadrenocorticism should be continued on prednisolone therapy until they are stabilised. If a dog is failing to stabilise on once a day fludrocortisone acetate, a change to twice a day administration could be considered. PMID:27269282

  20. Irrigation timing and volume affects growth of container grown maples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container nursery production requires large inputs of water and nutrients but frequently irrigation inputs exceed plant demand and lack application precision or are not applied at optimal times for plant production. The results from this research can assist producers in developing irrigation manage...

  1. Temperature affects Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of temperature on several life history parameters of small hive beetles (SHB),Aethina tumida, were investigated under laboratory conditions. Our results showed that the development, body size and weight of SHB were dependent on temperature. Exposure of beetles to a lower (room) temperatu...

  2. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  3. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  4. Development Cycle Time Simulation for Civil Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitz, William; Berardino, Frank; Golaszewski, Richard; Johnson, Jesse

    2001-01-01

    Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) will be one of the major factors affecting the future of the civil aerospace industry. This focus is the end reflection of the level of competition in the commercial large carrier aircraft industry. Aircraft manufacturer must minimize costs and pass a portion of those savings onto buyers. CTR is one strategy used to move the manufacturing firm down the cost curve. The current NASA Airframe Development Cycle Time Reduction Goal is 50% by year 2022. This goal is not achievable based on the program analysis done by the LMI/GRA team. This may mean that the current roster of NASA CTR programs needs to be reexamined or that the program technology progress factors, as determined by the NASA experts, were understated. Programs that duplicate the reductions of others should be replaced with non-duplicative programs. In addition, new programs targeting a specific part of the cycle can be developed.

  5. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12–14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19–25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  6. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  7. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA).

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  8. The Development of the Meta-Affective Trait Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…

  9. Teaching Affective Skills to Residents in Decreased Instruction Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Elizabeth B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study to determine whether affective skills could be taught to residents in a family practice center without placing arduous constraints on their schedules is described. Residents at the University of Louisville Department of Family Practice were videotaped during a regular patient visit and then scheduled for review sessions. (MLW)

  10. Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

    2009-01-01

    During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

  11. Temperature and curing time affect composite sorption and solubility

    PubMed Central

    de CASTRO, Fabrício Luscino Alves; CAMPOS, Bruno Barbosa; BRUNO, Kely Firmino; REGES, Rogério Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of temperature and curing time on composite sorption and solubility. Material and Methods: Seventy five specimens (8x2 mm) were prepared using a commercial composite resin (ICE, SDI). Three temperatures (10º C, 25º C and 60º C) and five curing times (5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s and 60 s) were evaluated. The specimens were weighed on an analytical balance three times: A: before storage (M1); B: 7 days after storage (M2); C: 7 days after storage plus 1 day of drying (M3). The storage solution consisted of 75% alcohol/25% water. Sorption and solubility were calculated using these three weights and specimen dimensions. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests (α=5%). Results: The results showed that time, temperature and their interaction influenced the sorption and solubility of the composite (p<0.05). At 60º C, the composite sorption showed an inverse relationship with the curing time (p<0.05). The composite cured for 5 s showed higher sorption for the 40 s or 60 s curing times when compared with all temperatures (p<0.05). Curing times of 20 s and 40 s showed similar sorption data for all temperatures (p>0.05). The 60º C composite temperature led to lower values of sorption for all curing times when compared with the 10º C temperature (p<0.05). The same results were found when comparing 10º C and 25º C (p<0.05), except that the 20 s and 40 s curing times behaved similarly (p>0.05). Solubility was similar at 40 s and 60 s for all temperatures (p>0.05), but was higher at 10º C than at 60º C for all curing times (p<0.05). When the composite was cured at 25º C, similar solubility values were found when comparing the 5 s and 10 s or 20 s and 40 s curing times (p>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, higher temperatures or longer curing times led to lower sorption and solubility values for the composite tested; however, this trend was only significant in specific combinations of temperature and

  12. Mutations in the clk-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans affect developmental and behavioral timing

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Boutis, P.; Hekimi, S.

    1995-03-01

    We have identified three allelic, maternal-effect mutations that affect developmental and behavioral timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. They result in a mean lengthening of embryonic and postembryonic development, the cell cycle period and life span, as well as the periods of the defecation, swimming and pumping cycles. These mutants also display a number of additional phenotypes related to timing. For example, the variability in the length of embryonic development is several times larger in the mutants than in the wild type, resulting in the occasional production of mutant embryos developing more rapidly than the most rapidly developing wild-type embryos. In addition, the duration of embryonic development of the mutants, but not of the wild type, depends on the temperature at which their parents were raised. Finally, individual variations in the severity of distinct mutant phenotypes are correlated in a counterintuitive way. For example, the animals with the shortest embryonic development have the longest defecation cycle and those with the longest embryonic development have the shortest defecation cycle. Most of the features affected by these mutations are believed to be controlled by biological clocks, and we therefore call the gene defined by these mutations clk-1, for {open_quotes}abnormal function of biological clocks.{close_quotes} 52 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. How Bad Receiver Coordinates Can Affect GPS Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadsey, H.

    1996-01-01

    Many sources of error are possible when the Global Positioning System (GPS) is used for time comparisons. Some of these errors have been listed by Lewandowski. Because of the complexity of the system, an error source could have more than one effect. This paper will present theoretical and observational results by offsetting a receiver's coordinates. The calculations show how an error as small as three meters in any direction can result in a timing error of more than 10 nanoseconds. The GPS receiver must be surveyed to better than 0.2 meter accuracy for the timing error to be sub-nanosecond.

  14. An anatomy of old-age disability: Time use, affect and experienced utility.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; Ingenhaag, Michael; Maurer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Complementing the commonly used concepts of evaluative wellbeing and decision utility, emotional wellbeing and experienced utility are important welfare criteria to assess individuals' subjective wellbeing, especially for valuing health and disability. Yet, almost all empirical evidences on the link between disability and experienced wellbeing come from developed countries. This paper studies the relationship between old-age disability and experienced utility in five low- and middle-income countries. Using data on individual time use and activity-specific affective experiences from an abbreviated version of the Day Reconstruction Method, we document a strong negative association between disability and experienced utility. These differences in experienced utility by disability status are exclusively due to worse activity-specific affective experiences among persons with disabilities. By contrast, disability-related differences in time use provide small compensating effects. Interventions or technologies that facilitate daily life hold most promise to improve experienced utility among persons with disabilities in the developing world. PMID:26496227

  15. Developing products on Internet time.

    PubMed

    Iansiti, M; MacCormack, A

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the World Wide Web has provided one of the most challenging environments for product development in recent history. The market needs that a product is meant to satisfy and the technologies required to satisfy them can change radically--even as the product is under development. In response to such factors, companies have had to modify the traditional product-development process, in which design implementation begins only once a product's concept has been determined in its entirety. In place of that traditional approach, they have pioneered a flexible product-development process that allows designers to continue to define and shape products even after implementation has begun. This innovation enables Internet companies to incorporate rapidly evolving customer requirements and changing technologies into their designs until the last possible moment before a product is introduced to the market. Flexible product development has been most fully realized in the Internet environment because of the turbulence found there, but the foundations for it exist in a wide range of industries where the need for responsiveness is paramount. When technology, product features, and competitive conditions are predictable or evolve slowly, a traditional development process works well. But when new competitors and technologies appear overnight, when standards and regulations are in flux, and when a company's entire customer base can easily switch to other suppliers, businesses don't need a development process that resists change--they need one that embraces it. PMID:10170327

  16. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food. PMID:25028315

  17. Does bipolar electrocoagulation time affect vessel weld strength?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J D; Morris, D L

    1991-01-01

    The value of the bipolar electrocoagulator in the haemostasis of bleeding ulcers is controversial. We have therefore investigated the effect of different coagulation times on vessel weld strength achieved by the bipolar device. Welds were then made in vessels of known diameter using a standard 10F endoscopic haemostatic probe at coagulation times of two and 20 seconds. The intravascular temperature achieved at each time was measured. Vessel weld strength achieved by bipolar electrocoagulation was much greater at 20 seconds (approximately twice that at two seconds) and was highly significantly greater at all vessel diameters. There was a gradual reduction in weld strength with increasing vessel diameter, an effect that was seen for both two and 20 seconds of electrocoagulation. Intravascular temperature was significantly higher at 20 seconds than at two seconds. We conclude that vessel weld strength is related to coagulation time and that any future studies comparing the bipolar electrocoagulator with other haemostatic devices should use longer periods of bipolar electrocoagulation and record the coagulation time in order to optimise the clinical value of the device. PMID:1864540

  18. Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

  19. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  20. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  1. Processing Time Shifts Affects the Execution of Motor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Andrea J.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether time shifts in text comprehension are represented spatially. Participants read sentences involving past or future events and made sensibility judgment responses in one of two ways: (1) moving toward or away from their body and (2) pressing the toward or away buttons without moving. Previous work suggests that spatial…

  2. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing.

    PubMed

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Muñoz-Viana, Rafael; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Trejo-Arellano, Minerva S; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Köhler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  3. Perceptual Grouping Affects Pitch Judgments across Time and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchert, Elizabeth M. O.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared…

  4. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian G; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S; Andersen, Emil; Back, Silja K; Lansner, Jon; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Nielsen, Anna P; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2016-10-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls. Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory. PMID:26401886

  5. Factors affecting larval tick feeding success: host, density and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ectoparasites rely on blood feeding to sustain activity, support development and produce offspring. Blood feeding is also a route for transmission of diverse vector-borne pathogens. The likelihood of successfully feeding is thus an important aspect of ectoparasite population dynamics and...

  6. Reaction time in gait initiation depends on the time available for affective processing.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Thierry; Chapus, Carole Ferrel

    2015-11-16

    Previous studies have reported that reaction time in gait initiation was affected by emotion eliciting pictures. This study examined the effect of a change in the delay between image onset and the imperative "go" on reaction time. From a standing posture, 19 young adults had to walk (several steps) toward pleasant or unpleasant images in two conditions. In the short condition, the word "go" appeared 500ms after image onset and participants were instructed to initiate gait as soon as possible after the word go appeared. In the long condition, the same procedure was used but the word "go" appeared 3000ms after image onset. Results demonstrated that motor responses were faster for pleasant pictures than unpleasant ones in the short condition. In contrast, no significant difference was found between both categories of pictures in the long condition. Moreover, we found that self ratings of valence of unpleasant pictures were less unpleasant in the long condition than in the short one whereas there was no difference for pleasant pictures between both conditions. This result reflected a change in the affective significance of unpleasant pictures in the long condition. We also found in the long condition, that the body was inclined forward and to the stance limb during the standing posture and importantly with a similar extent for pleasant and unpleasant pictures. This change clearly reflected a facilitation of the gait initiation process. Overall, results suggested that this gait facilitation when confronted to unpleasant pictures resulted from emotional regulation processes enabling to reappraise these pictures and to override the initial avoidance tendency that they caused. PMID:26455865

  7. Product development cycle time reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farran, Robin

    1992-05-01

    We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

  8. Whole transcriptome data analysis of zebrafish mutants affecting muscle development.

    PubMed

    Armant, Olivier; Gourain, Victor; Etard, Christelle; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Formation of the contractile myofibril of the skeletal muscle is a complex process which when perturbed leads to muscular dystrophy. Herein, we provide a mRNAseq dataset on three different zebrafish mutants affecting muscle organization during embryogenesis. These comprise the myosin folding chaperone unc45b (unc45b-/-), heat shock protein 90aa1.1 (hsp90aa1.1-/-) and the acetylcholine esterase (ache-/-) gene. The transcriptome analysis was performed in duplicate experiments at 72 h post-fertilization (hpf) for all three mutants, with two additional times of development (24 hpf and 48 hpf) for unc45b-/-. A total of 20 samples were analyzed by hierarchical clustering for differential gene expression. The data from this study support the observation made in Etard et al. (2015) [1] (http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-015-0825-8) that a failure to fold myosin activates a unique transcriptional program in the skeletal muscles that is different from that induced in stressed muscle cells. PMID:27274534

  9. Affect development as a need to preserve homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Aslıhan; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Ünsalver, Barış Önen

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we aim to present our hypothesis about the neural development of affect. According to this view, affect develops at a multi-layered process, and as a mediator between drives, emotion and cognition. This development is parallel to the evolution of the brain from reptiles to mammals. There are five steps in this process: (1) Because of the various environmental challenges, changes in the autonomic nervous system occur and homeostasis becomes destabilized; (2) Drives arise from the destabilized homeostasis; (3) Drives trigger the neural basis of the basic emotional systems; (4) These basic emotions evolve into affect to find the particular object to invest the emotional energy; and (5) In the final stage, cognition is added to increase the possibility of identifying a particular object. In this paper, we will summarize the rationale behind this view, which is based on neuroscientific proofs, such as evolution of autonomic nervous system, neural basis the raw affective states, the interaction between affect and cognition, related brain areas, related neurotransmitters, as well as some clinical examples. PMID:26762485

  10. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  11. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  12. Development and validation of the Affective Self Rating Scale for manic, depressive, and mixed affective states.

    PubMed

    Adler, Mats; Liberg, Benny; Andersson, Stig; Isacsson, Göran; Hetta, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    Most rating scales for affective disorders measure either depressive or hypomanic/manic symptoms and there are few scales for hypomania/mania in a self-rating format. We wanted to develop and validate a self-rating scale for comprehensive assessment of depressive, manic/hypomanic and mixed affective states. We developed an 18-item self-rating scale starting with the DSM-IV criteria for depression and mania, with subscales for depression and mania. The scale was evaluated on 61 patients with a diagnosis of affective disorder, predominantly bipolar disorder type I, using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hypomania Interview Guide-Clinical version (HIGH-C) and Clinical Global Impression scale, modified for bipolar patients (CGI-BP) as reference scales. Internal consistency of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the depression subscale and 0.91 for the mania subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients (two-tailed) between the depression subscale and MADRS was 0.74 (P<0.01) and between mania subscale and HIGH-C 0.80 (P<0.01). A rotated factor analysis of the scale supported the separation of symptoms in the mania and depression subscale. We established that the self-rating scales sensitivity to identify mixed states, with combined cut-offs on the MADRS and HIGH-C as reference, was 0.90 with a specificity of 0.71. The study shows that the Affective Self Rating Scale is highly correlated with ratings of established interview scales for depression and mania and that it may aid the detection of mixed affective states. PMID:18569776

  13. Perceptual grouping affects pitch judgments across time and frequency.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Elizabeth M O; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared listeners' ability to detect differences in F0 between pairs of sequential or simultaneous tones that were filtered into separate, nonoverlapping spectral regions. The timbre differences induced by filtering led to poor F0 discrimination in the sequential, but not the simultaneous, conditions. Temporal overlap of the two tones was not sufficient to produce good performance; instead performance appeared to depend on the two tones being integrated into the same perceptual object. The results confirm the difficulty of comparing the pitches of sequential sounds with different timbres and suggest that, for simultaneous sounds, pitch differences may be detected through a decrease in perceptual fusion rather than an explicit coding and comparison of the underlying F0s. PMID:21077719

  14. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  15. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

  16. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022... affecting timely completion of the contract work. 3052.222-70 Section 3052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR)...

  17. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strikes or...

  18. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strikes or...

  19. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Strikes or...

  20. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strikes or...

  1. When Does Time Matter? Maternal Employment, Children's Time With Parents, and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better “quality” of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers’ education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and childcare. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development. PMID:25280840

  2. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development. PMID:25280840

  3. Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training can affect the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants. 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics were recorded while the infants were exposed to slow and fast horizontal forward (Fw) and backward (Bw) displacements of the platform. After the first session the parents of nine infants trained their child's sitting balance daily. 3. At the youngest age, when none of the infants could sit independently, the muscle activation patterns were direction specific and showed a large variation. This variation decreased with increasing age, resulting in selection of the most complete responses. Training facilitated response selection both during Fw and Bw translations. This suggests a training effect on the first level of the central pattern generator (CPG) model of postural control. 4. Training also affected the development of response modulation during Fw translations. It accelerated the development of: (1) the ability to modulate EMG amplitude with respect to platform velocity and initial sitting position, (2) antagonist activity and (3) a distal onset of the response. These findings point to a training effect on the second level of the CPG model of postural adjustments. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8735713

  4. Bone development in black ducks as affected by dietary toxaphene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehrle, P.M.; Finley, M.T.; Ludke, J.L.; Mayer, F.L.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    Black ducks, Anas rubripes, were exposed to dietary toxaphene concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 μg/g of food for 90 days prior to laying and through the reproductive season. Toxaphene did not affect reproduction or survival, but reduced growth and impaired backbone development in ducklings. Collagen, the organic matrix of bone, was decreased significantly in cervical vertebrae of ducklings fed 50 μg/g, and calcium conentrations increased in vertebrae of ducklings fed 10 or 50 μg/g. The effects of toxaphene were observed only in female ducklings. In contrast to effects on vertebrae, toxaphene exposure did not alter tibia development. Toxaphene residues in carcasses of these ducklings averaged slightly less than the dietary levels.

  5. Beneficial Microbes Affect Endogenous Mechanisms Controlling Root Development.

    PubMed

    Verbon, Eline H; Liberman, Louisa M

    2016-03-01

    Plants have incredible developmental plasticity, enabling them to respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. Among these conditions is the presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the soil. Recent studies show that PGPR affect Arabidopsis thaliana root growth and development by modulating cell division and differentiation in the primary root and influencing lateral root development. These effects lead to dramatic changes in root system architecture that significantly impact aboveground plant growth. Thus, PGPR may promote shoot growth via their effect on root developmental programs. This review focuses on contextualizing root developmental changes elicited by PGPR in light of our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and root developmental biology. PMID:26875056

  6. Development of Coordination in Time Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Wallot, Sebastian; Gresham, Lori J.; Kloos, Heidi; Riley, Michael A.; Shockley, Kevin; Van Orden, Guy

    2014-01-01

    How to best characterize cognitive development? The claim put forward in this article is that development is the improvement of a kind of coordination among a variety of factors. To determine the development of coordination in a cognitive task, children between 4 and 12 years of age and adults participated in a time estimation task: They had to…

  7. Mfn2 Affects Embryo Development via Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Xiang, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    Background Growth factors, energy sources, and mitochondrial function strongly affect embryo growth and development in vitro. The biological role and prospective significance of the mitofusin gene Mfn2 in the development of preimplantation embryos remain poorly understood. Our goal is to profile the role of Mfn2 in mouse embryos and determine the underlying mechanism of Mfn2 function in embryo development. Methods We transfected Mfn2-siRNA into 2-cell fertilized eggs and then examined the expression of Mfn2, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and the apoptosis-promoting protein Bax by Western blot. Additionally, we determined the blastocyst formation rate and measured ATP levels, mtDNA levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and apoptosis in all of the embryos. Results The results indicate that the Mfn2 and Bcl-2 levels were markedly decreased, whereas Bax levels were increased in the T group (embryos transfected with Mfn2-siRNA) compared with the C group (embryos transfected with control-siRNA). The blastocyst formation rate was significantly decreased in the T group. The ATP content and the relative amounts of mtDNA and cDNA in the T group were significantly reduced compared with the C group. In the T group, ΔΨm and Ca2+ levels were reduced, and the number of apoptotic cells was increased. Conclusion Low in vitro expression of Mfn2 attenuates the blastocyst formation rate and cleavage speed in mouse zygotes and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, as confirmed by the ATP and mtDNA levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Mfn2 deficiency induced apoptosis through the Bcl-2/Bax and Ca2+ pathways. These findings indicate that Mfn2 could affect preimplantation embryo development through mitochondrial function and cellular apoptosis. PMID:25978725

  8. Predator density and timing of arrival affect reef fish community assembly.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Geange, Shane W; Hanson, Kate M; Bolker, Benjamin M

    2013-05-01

    Most empirical studies of predation use simple experimental approaches to quantify the effects of predators on prey (e.g., using constant densities of predators, such as ambient vs. zero). However, predator densities vary in time, and these effects may not be well represented by studies that use constant predator densities. Although studies have independently examined the importance of predator density, temporal variability, and timing of arrival (i.e., early or late relative to prey), the relative contribution of these different predator regimes on prey abundance, diversity, and composition remains poorly understood. The hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), a carnivorous coral reef fish, exhibits substantial variability in patch occupancy, density, and timing of arrival to natural reefs. Our field experiments demonstrated that effects of hawkfish on prey abundance depended on both hawkfish density and the timing of their arrival, but not on variability in hawkfish density. Relative to treatments without hawkfish, hawkfish presence reduced prey abundance by 50%. This effect increased with a doubling of hawkfish density (an additional 33% reduction), and when hawkfish arrived later during community development (a 34% reduction). Hawkfish did not affect within-patch diversity (species richness), but they increased between-patch diversity (beta) based on species incidence (22%), and caused shifts in species composition. Our results suggest that the timing of predator arrival can be as important as predator density in modifying prey abundance and community composition. PMID:23858646

  9. When Time Flies: How Abstract and Concrete Mental Construal Affect the Perception of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jochim; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Time is experienced as passing more quickly the more changes happen in a situation. The present research tested the idea that time perception depends on the level of construal of the situation. Building on previous research showing that concrete rather than abstract mental construal causes people to perceive more variations in a given situation,…

  10. Rhizosphere microbiome assemblage is affected by plant development

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Badri, Dayakar V; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    There is a concerted understanding of the ability of root exudates to influence the structure of rhizosphere microbial communities. However, our knowledge of the connection between plant development, root exudation and microbiome assemblage is limited. Here, we analyzed the structure of the rhizospheric bacterial community associated with Arabidopsis at four time points corresponding to distinct stages of plant development: seedling, vegetative, bolting and flowering. Overall, there were no significant differences in bacterial community structure, but we observed that the microbial community at the seedling stage was distinct from the other developmental time points. At a closer level, phylum such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and specific genera within those phyla followed distinct patterns associated with plant development and root exudation. These results suggested that the plant can select a subset of microbes at different stages of development, presumably for specific functions. Accordingly, metatranscriptomics analysis of the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that 81 unique transcripts were significantly (P<0.05) expressed at different stages of plant development. For instance, genes involved in streptomycin synthesis were significantly induced at bolting and flowering stages, presumably for disease suppression. We surmise that plants secrete blends of compounds and specific phytochemicals in the root exudates that are differentially produced at distinct stages of development to help orchestrate rhizosphere microbiome assemblage. PMID:24196324

  11. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

  12. Sensory activity affects sensory axon development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Peckol, E L; Zallen, J A; Yarrow, J C; Bargmann, C I

    1999-05-01

    The simple nervous system of the nematode C. elegans consists of 302 neurons with highly reproducible morphologies, suggesting a hard-wired program of axon guidance. Surprisingly, we show here that sensory activity shapes sensory axon morphology in C. elegans. A class of mutants with deformed sensory cilia at their dendrite endings have extra axon branches, suggesting that sensory deprivation disrupts axon outgrowth. Mutations that alter calcium channels or membrane potential cause similar defects. Cell-specific perturbations of sensory activity can cause cell-autonomous changes in axon morphology. Although the sensory axons initially reach their targets in the embryo, the mutations that alter sensory activity cause extra axon growth late in development. Thus, perturbations of activity affect the maintenance of sensory axon morphology after an initial pattern of innervation is established. This system provides a genetically tractable model for identifying molecular mechanisms linking neuronal activity to nervous system structure. PMID:10101123

  13. Bisphosphonates and time to osteonecrosis development.

    PubMed

    Palaska, Pinelopi Kleio; Cartsos, Vassiliki; Zavras, Athanasios I

    2009-11-01

    Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) is a complication of long-term bisphosphonate (BP) use. Given the beneficial effects of BP on bone quality in patients with cancer or osteoporosis, it is of great importance to understand the risk as it relates to time to event or cumulative dose until the onset of disease. Because there is no information on the lowest toxic dose from clinical trials, here we report on a review of 71 case series published since 2003. We calculated the weighted mean time to event, as well as the minimum reported time and dose for zoledronate, pamidronate, and oral bisphosphonates. The mean time to BONJ after zoledronate treatment was calculated at 1.8 years and the minimum was 10 months; after pamidronate, the mean time was 2.8 years and the minimum was 1.5 years; and after oral BP therapy, the mean time was 4.6 years and the minimum was 3 years. Zoledronic acid seems to be the most potent among the nitrogen-containing BPs. Factors that seem to affect BONJ and time to event were invasive dental procedures and other comorbid factors such as advanced age, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, use of corticosteroids, vitamin D deficiency, and more. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disease requires further research. PMID:19897878

  14. Intron Delays and Transcriptional Timing during Development

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, Ian A.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    The time taken to transcribe most metazoan genes is significant because of the substantial length of introns. Developmentally regulated gene networks, where timing and dynamic patterns of expression are critical, may be particularly sensitive to intron delays. We revisit and comment on a perspective last presented by Thummel 16 years ago: transcriptional delays may contribute to timing mechanisms during development. We discuss the presence of intron delays in genetic networks. We consider how delays can impact particular moments during development, which mechanistic attributes of transcription can influence them, how they can be modeled, and how they can be studied using recent technological advances as well as classical genetics. PMID:18331713

  15. Measuring time during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Patrick L; Deneke, Victoria E; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In most metazoans, embryonic development is orchestrated by a precise series of cellular behaviors. Understanding how such events are regulated to achieve a stereotypical temporal progression is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. In this review, we argue that studying the regulation of the cell cycle in early embryonic development will reveal novel principles of how embryos accurately measure time. We will discuss the strategies that have emerged from studying early development of Drosophila embryos. By comparing the development of flies to that of other metazoans, we will highlight both conserved and alternative mechanisms to generate precision during embryonic development. PMID:26994526

  16. Spaceflight affects postnatal development of the aortic wall in rats.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; O-ishi, Hirotaka; Katahira, Kiyoaki; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  17. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  18. Time flies: time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Susan N.; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  19. Time flies: Time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Susan N; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-10-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  20. Time Devours Things: How Impulsivity and Time Affect Temporal Decisions in Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G.; Bonini, Nicolao

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

  1. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  2. Real-Time Sensor Validation System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1998-01-01

    Real-time sensor validation improves process monitoring and control system dependability by ensuring data integrity through automated detection of sensor data failures. The NASA Lewis Research Center, Expert Microsystems, and Intelligent Software Associates have developed an innovative sensor validation system that can automatically detect automated sensor failures in real-time for all types of mission-critical systems. This system consists of a sensor validation network development system and a real-time kernel. The network development system provides tools that enable systems engineers to automatically generate software that can be embedded within an application. The sensor validation methodology captured by these tools can be scaled to validate any number of sensors, and permits users to specify system sensitivity. The resulting software reliably detects all types of sensor data failures.

  3. Examining Correlates of Part-Time Faculty Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Samantha Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Changes in a multitude of factors including the economy, student enrollment, university goals and policies, and the available talent pool have created an imbalance in the supply and demand for qualified part-time faculty. The unmet demand has prompted university leaders to seek an understanding of part-time faculty affective commitment, job…

  4. Automated real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  5. [Development of real-time CT fluoroscopy].

    PubMed

    Katada, K; Anno, H; Takeshita, G; Ogura, Y; Koga, S; Ida, Y; Nonomura, K; Kanno, T; Ohashi, A; Sata, S

    1994-10-25

    A new CT system that permits real-time monitoring of CT images was developed. Phantom and volunteer studies revealed that the images were displayed at a rate of six per second with a delay time of 0.83 second with clinically sufficient resolution (256 x 256) using the newly developed fast image processor and partial-reconstruction algorithm. The clinical trial of stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematoma was successful. The initial trial with CT fluoroscopy revealed potential usefulness of the system in biopsy and other CT-guided interventions. PMID:9261196

  6. Exogenous retroelement integration in sperm and embryos affects preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Kitsou, C; Lazaros, L; Bellou, S; Vartholomatos, G; Sakaloglou, P; Hatzi, E; Markoula, S; Zikopoulos, K; Tzavaras, T; Georgiou, I

    2016-09-01

    Retroelement transcripts are present in male and female gametes, where they are typically regulated by methylation, noncoding RNAs and transcription factors. Such transcripts are required for occurrence of retrotransposition events, while failure of retrotransposition control may exert negative effects on cellular function and proliferation. In order to investigate the occurrence of retrotransposition events in mouse epididymal spermatozoa and to address the impact of uncontrolled retroelement RNA expression in early preimplantation embryos, we performed in vitro fertilization experiments using spermatozoa preincubated with plasmid vectors containing the human retroelements LINE-1, HERVK-10 or the mouse retroelement VL30, tagged with an enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) gene-based cassette. Retrotransposition events in mouse spermatozoa and embryos were detected using PCR, FACS analysis and confocal microscopy. Our findings show that: (i) sperm cell incorporates exogenous retroelements and favors retrotransposition events, (ii) the inhibition of spermatozoa reverse transcriptase can decrease the retrotransposition frequency in sperm cells, (iii) spermatozoa can transfer exogenous human or mouse retroelements to the oocyte during fertilization and (iv) retroelement RNA overexpression affects embryo morphology and impairs preimplantation development. These findings suggest that the integration of exogenous retroelements in the sperm genome, as well as their transfer into the mouse oocyte, could give rise to new retrotransposition events and genetic alterations in mouse spermatozoa and embryos. PMID:27450800

  7. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Robert; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Albrecht, Andrea; van Bebber, Frauke; Berger, Andrea; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Dahm, Ralf; Dekens, Marcus PS; Dooley, Christopher; Elli, Alexandra F; Gehring, Ines; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Glaser, Stefanie; Holley, Scott; Huber, Matthias; Kerr, Andy; Kirn, Anette; Knirsch, Martina; Konantz, Martina; Küchler, Axel M; Maderspacher, Florian; Neuhauss, Stephan C; Nicolson, Teresa; Ober, Elke A; Praeg, Elke; Ray, Russell; Rentzsch, Brit; Rick, Jens M; Rief, Eva; Schauerte, Heike E; Schepp, Carsten P; Schönberger, Ulrike; Schonthaler, Helia B; Seiler, Christoph; Sidi, Samuel; Söllner, Christian; Wehner, Anja; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations. PMID:17212827

  8. Factors affecting epilepsy development and epilepsy prognosis in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Mert, Gulen Gul; Incecik, Faruk; Altunbasak, Sakir; Herguner, Ozlem; Mert, Mustafa Kurthan; Kiris, Nurcihan; Unal, Ilker

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted between November 2006 and October 2009 to determine the factors predicting the presence and prognosis of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy. We enrolled 2 groups of patients: 42 with cerebral palsy in group 1 and 56 patients with cerebral palsy and epilepsy in group 2. The subjects in group 2 were considered to have good epilepsy prognosis if they were free of seizures for the previous year; otherwise they were considered to have poor epilepsy prognosis. In group 2, neonatal epilepsy, family history of epilepsy, and moderate to severe mental retardation were significantly higher than in group 1 (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, neonatal seizures, epileptic activity as measured by electroencephalography, and polytherapy were found to be predictors of poor epilepsy prognosis. Additionally, the need for long-term medication to control seizures unfavorably affects prognosis. In logistic regression analysis, neonatal seizure and interictal epileptic activity in electroencephalography were found to be independent predictors of poor epilepsy outcome. In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age reduces the success of epilepsy treatment. Neonatal seizures, family history of epilepsy, and mental retardation were found to be important and independent predictors of development of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy. PMID:21763948

  9. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet during the 35-d trial period. The effect on FCR became less apparent when the birds got older. FOS and MOS supplementation reduced the pancreas weight as a percentage of BW, with an effect similar to that of the antibiotic, at 35 d of age. Birds given MOS tended to have a heavier bursa (p = 0.164) and lower spleen/bursa weight ratio (p = 0.102) at 35 d of age. MOS and Zn-bacitracin showed a clear improvement on flock uniformity, compared to FOS. The mortality rate was not affected by FOS or MOS. PMID:25049713

  10. Effecting Affect: Developing a Positive Attitude to Primary Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Len; Hurst, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Most adults' attitudes to mathematics come from their experiences of mathematics in school when they were children. Children's mathematical worlds are complex places containing both cognitive and affective elements. One cannot ignore the affective domain if one wishes to understand children's mathematical learning. Teacher education students…

  11. Interferometer real time control development for SIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Charles E.

    2003-02-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) for the Space Interferometry Mission will build on the real time core interferometer control technology under development at JPL since the mid 1990s, with heritage from the ground based MKII and Palomar Testbed Interferometer projects developed in the late '80s and early '90s. The core software and electronics technology for SIM interferometer real time control is successfully operating on several SIM technology demonstration testbeds, including the Real-time Interferometer Control System Testbed, System Testbed-3, and the Microarcsecond Metrology testbed. This paper provides an overview of the architecture, design, integration, and test of the SIM flight interferometer real time control to meet challenging flight system requirements for the high processor throughput, low-latency interconnect, and precise synchronization to support microarcsecond-level astrometric measurements for greater than five years at 1 AU in Earth-trailing orbit. The electronics and software architecture of the interferometer real time control core and its adaptation to a flight design concept are described. Control loops for pointing and pathlength control within each of four flight interferometers and for coordination of control and data across interferometers are illustrated. The nature of onboard data processing to fit average downlink rates while retaining post-processed astrometric measurement precision and accuracy is also addressed. Interferometer flight software will be developed using a software simulation environment incorporating models of the metrology and starlight sensors and actuators to close the real time control loops. RTC flight software and instrument flight electronics will in turn be integrated utilizing the same simulation architecture for metrology and starlight component models to close real time control loops and verify RTC functionality and performance prior to delivery to flight interferometer system integration at Lockheed Martin

  12. Physical Development: Taking Time for Physical Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses children's physical development through physical play. Here, the author gives ways to incorporate opportunities for physical play. For infants, time for play may have to revolve around nap schedules. This may mean allowing for different wake-sleep cycles for different infants. Teachers can divide the infants into groups so…

  13. Factors Affecting Time to Bony Union of Femoral Subtrochanteric Fractures Treated with Intramedullary Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yoon; Yoo, Jin-Hee; Chung, Sung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the factors affecting the bone union time and the occurrence of nonunion after intramedullary nailing of subtrochanteric femoral fractures in adults. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 31 patients (22 men and 9 women) who had undergone femoral intramedullary nailing at least 1 year post-operatively and analyzed the bone union time, nonunion rates, and factors that affected the bone union time according to the fracture classification (AO and Fielding classifications), comminution of the medial cortex, reduction method, and additional cerclage wiring. Results The average union time was 26.4 weeks. There were no differences in the bone union time according to the fracture classification, reduction method, or additional cerclage wiring. Significant differences were found in the bone union time between the medial cortex comminution and non-comminution groups. A relatively strong positive correlation was detected between the degree of post-operative displacement and the bone union time. Nonunion occurred in three cases and there was no failure of implants. Conclusion The bone union time was not affected by the reduction method nor additional cerclage wiring in intramedullary nailing of subtrochanteric femur fractures. Comminution of the medial cortex and the degree of the postoperative displacement of fractures contributed to the delayed time of union.

  14. Encoding and decoding time in neural development.

    PubMed

    Toma, Kenichi; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Hanashima, Carina

    2016-01-01

    The development of a multicellular organism involves time-dependent changes in molecular and cellular states; therefore 'time' is an indispensable mathematical parameter of ontogenesis. Regardless of their inextricable relationship, there is a limited number of events for which the output of developmental phenomena primarily uses temporal cues that are generated through multilevel interactions between molecules, cells, and tissues. In this review, we focus on neural stem cells, which serve as a faithful decoder of temporal cues to transmit biological information and generate specific output in the developing nervous system. We further explore the identity of the temporal information that is encoded in neural development, and how this information is decoded into various cellular fate decisions. PMID:26748623

  15. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol. PMID:25076484

  16. A Look at Recent Legal Developments Affecting Residential Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reviews court decisions concerning search and seizure, intervisitation between sexes, canvassing and solicitation, and damage assessments. College administrators must rely on fairness, ethics and sound educational philosophies in the design of policies affecting residence halls. (JAC)

  17. Does bilingual experience affect early visual perceptual development?

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Christina; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Tsang, Tawny; Johnson, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Visual attention and perception develop rapidly during the first few months after birth, and these behaviors are critical components in the development of language and cognitive abilities. Here we ask how early bilingual experiences might lead to differences in visual attention and perception. Experiments 1–3 investigated the looking behavior of monolingual and bilingual infants when presented with social (Experiment 1), mixed (Experiment 2), or non-social (Experiment 3) stimuli. In each of these experiments, infants' dwell times (DT) and number of fixations to areas of interest (AOIs) were analyzed, giving a sense of where the infants looked. To examine how the infants looked at the stimuli in a more global sense, Experiment 4 combined and analyzed the saccade data collected in Experiments 1–3. There were no significant differences between monolingual and bilingual infants' DTs, AOI fixations, or saccade characteristics (specifically, frequency, and amplitude) in any of the experiments. These results suggest that monolingual and bilingual infants process their visual environments similarly, supporting the idea that the substantial cognitive differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in early childhood are more related to active vocabulary production than perception of the environment. PMID:25566116

  18. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  19. Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

  20. Multilevel factor analysis of smokers' real-time negative affect ratings while quitting.

    PubMed

    Bold, Krysten W; Witkiewitz, Katie; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is a serious public health problem, and accurate real-time assessment of risk factors associated with smoking is critical to understanding smoking relapse. Negative affect is often described as a critical risk factor related to smoking relapse, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have been widely used to study real-time relations between negative affect and smoking. However, the factor structure of momentary negative affect ratings is unknown. The current investigation examined the multilevel factor structure and internal consistency of an EMA measure of negative affect. Daily assessments were collected for 1 week prequit and 3 weeks postquit from 113 adult daily smokers receiving nicotine replacement therapy and counseling to quit smoking. Results supported a 2-factor model with correlated but distinct agitation and distress factors, rather than a single-factor model of negative affect. The agitation factor was indicated by these items: impatient, tense/anxious, restless. The distress factor was indicated by these items: sad/depressed, upset, distressed. The 2-factor model had acceptable model fit and consistent factor loadings across 3 separate cessation phases: prequit, postquit with recent smoking, and postquit without recent smoking. The 2 factors were highly correlated, showed good internal consistency, and showed strong associations with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Agitation was more strongly related to urge to smoke, and distress was more strongly related to recent stress. This study provides support for a 2-factor model of an EMA measure of negative affect and highlights distinct facets that may be useful for future investigations of affect and smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27536999

  1. Seasonal time and frequency of switchgrass harvest affects biomass yield and feedstock quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal time of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) harvest affects both yield and feedstock quality and there is interest in reducing harvest frequency to improve wildlife habitat value when using Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land for biomass production. A field study in central Pennsylvania c...

  2. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strikes or...

  3. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strikes or...

  4. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strikes or...

  5. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strikes or...

  6. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strikes or...

  7. Affect Regulation Training (ART) for Alcohol Use Disorders: Development of a Novel Intervention for Negative Affect Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Coffey, Scott F.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Gudleski, Gregory; Bole, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this Stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called Affect Regulation Training (ART), which could be added to enhance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (Stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N = 77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (Stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT + ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT + HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT + ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT + ART when compared to CBT + HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers. PMID:23876455

  8. Maternal Stress and Affect Influence Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Hawkins, Melissa; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Pressman, Eva K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated associations between maternal psychological and fetal neurobehavioral functioning with data provided at 24, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. Found that fetuses of women who were more affectively intense, appraised their lives as more stressful, and reported more pregnancy-specific hassles were more active across gestation. Fetuses of women…

  9. Child Studies through Fantasy: Cognitive-Affective Patterns in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Rosalind

    This book presents a study of cognitive-affective interdependence as shown in children's fantasy behavior. The systems of Piaget and Freud are the foundation of analysis. The study data consist of approximately one hundred verbatim recordings of the dramatic play of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (in groups or alone) collected by trained teachers in a…

  10. The First Four Months: Development of Affect, Cognition, and Synchrony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Andrea; And Others

    The relationship between affective responsiveness, synchrony of mother/infant interaction, and developmental status was examined in 32 normal infants (eight infants each at the ages of 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks). Data were collected in infants' homes and included (1) naturalistic mother/infant play; (2) presentation of auditory, tactile, visual, and…

  11. Perinatal Depression Influences on Infant Negative Affectivity: Timing, Severity, and Co-Morbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Matthew H.; Goodman, Sherryl H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that antenatal depression predicts infants’ negative affectivity, albeit with variable effect sizes. With a prospective longitudinal design, we sought to explain that variability by addressing questions about timing of the depression across pregnancy and the early postpartum, the role of high symptom levels relative to diagnosed depression, comorbidity with anxiety, and the potential mediating role of neuroendocrine functioning. Primiparous women (n = 77) with histories of depression prior to pregnancy were assessed for cortisol levels monthly beginning by mid-pregnancy. Depression symptom levels and diagnostic status were similarly assessed monthly in pregnancy and also until infants reached three months of age, when mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire – Revised to measure infant negative affectivity. Antenatal depression symptoms and infant negative affectivity were positively associated (r = .39). Controlling for depression symptom levels in other trimesters, only second trimester depression symptoms predicted higher infant negative affectivity (β = .44). With postpartum depression symptom levels in the model, only antenatal depression symptoms predicted infant negative affectivity (β = .45). In the context of depression, neither antenatal anxiety symptoms nor anxiety disorder diagnosis were associated with infant NA scores. The hypothesized role of elevated maternal cortisol as a mechanism for the association between antenatal depression and infant NA was not supported. Our findings contribute to efforts to more precisely identify infants of perinatally depressed mothers who are at greater risk for elevated negative affectivity, suggesting a window of vulnerability in mid pregnancy and the need for further study of potential mechanisms. PMID:25459792

  12. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports. PMID:22565523

  13. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Heather S.; Howard, Aaron F.; Weiss, Martha R.

    2016-01-01

    Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult) affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt) did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage. PMID:27058038

  14. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  15. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  16. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  17. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities. PMID:25537752

  18. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  19. Collaborative Development: A New Culture Affects an Old Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Jim; Ruzicka, Terry

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, the Registrar's Office and the Division of Information Technology (DoIT) apply a collaborative development process to joint projects. This model differs from a "waterfall" model in that technical and functional staff work closely to develop requirements, prototypes, and the product throughout its life…

  20. Development of a Behavioral Affective Relationship Scale for Encounter Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Zarle, Thomas

    The paper outlines several studies over a two-year period to develop a self-report and observer-rating measure of sensitivity/encounter group outcome. The initial form of the scale was taken from McMillan (1971) who developed a measure of 16 categories of group outcome; McMillan's work indicated the scale had high reliability. Subsequent study…

  1. The workshop on energy development issues affecting Appalachia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, B.L.; Jelen, V.F.; Waldman, M.; Evans, J.; Bovee, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop involving representatives of private industries, government agencies and public interest groups that was held in January of 1979 to raise and discuss issues related to Appalachian energy development.

  2. THE WORKSHOP ON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT ISSUES AFFECTING APPALACHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of a workshop involving representatives of private industries, government agencies and public interest groups that was held in January of 1979 to raise and discuss issues related to Appalachian energy development.

  3. Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.; Eid, Michael; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances). PMID:23420604

  4. Design Factors Affecting the Reaction Time for Identifying Toilet Signs: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Sie, Cai-Cin

    2016-04-01

    This study focused on the manner in which design factors affect the reaction time for identifying toilet signs. Taiwanese university students and staff members (50 men, 50 women; M age = 23.5 year, SD = 5.7) participated in the study. The 36 toilet signs were modified on three factors (six presenting styles, two figure-ground exchanges, and three colors), and the reaction time data of all participants were collected when the signs were presented in a simulation onscreen. Participants were quickest when reading Chinese text, followed by graphics and English texts. The findings also showed that men and women had different reaction times across various design combinations. These findings can serve as a reference for practically designing toilet signs, since design factors can lead to difficulties with comprehension based on reaction time measurements. PMID:27166339

  5. Affective valence facilitates spatial detection on vertical axis: shorter time strengthens effect

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Huang, Yanli; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Wenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Affective concepts can be described in terms of space, which is known as the valence-space metaphor. Previous studies have not investigated either the specifics of this metaphor on the transverse and vertical axes or the time course of this metaphoric association. With Chinese participants, we used a spatial cue task to study the valence-space metaphor on the transverse (left-and-right; Experiment 1A) and vertical (upper-and-lower; Experiment 1B) axes. After being shown an affective word and asked to keep it in mind, the participants were given a spatial target detection task. The results revealed that the metaphoric association was only found on the vertical axis. More specifically, keeping a positive word in mind facilitated the detection of the upper target, but no such effect was found in the detection of the lower target. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, we manipulated the duration of time (100, 500, and 1000 ms) between the offset of the affective word and the onset of the spatial target (i.e., interstimulus intervals, ISI), to test the dynamic time course of the valence-space metaphor on the vertical axis. The results showed that when ISI was 100 ms, keeping a positive word in mind facilitated the detection of the upper target and keeping a negative word in mind facilitated the detection of the lower target. However, when the ISI was 500 or 1000 ms, keeping a positive word in mind facilitated the detection of the upper target and no such effect was found in the detection of the lower target, indicating that ISI might be important in the valence-space metaphoric association. In sum, we found that the processing of affective valence activated the vertical spatial axis but not the transverse axis. Further, the association might be modulated by ISI, indicating that it may be related to attention allocation. PMID:25852599

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting the timing capabilities of the MC3858 sprytron

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.; Barclay, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The switch delay time of the MC3858 sprytron was measured using a test matrix consisting of 36 different trigger circuit configurations. The test matrix allowed the measurement of switch delay times for peak trigger voltages ranging from 47 V to 1340 V and for stored trigger energies ranging from 0.023 mJ to 2.7 mJ. The average switch delay time was independent of peak trigger voltage above approximately 800 V. Similarly, the average switch delay was independent of trigger stored energy above approximately 0.5 mJ. Below these saturation values, the average switch delay increases rapidly with decreasing trigger voltage or esergy. In contrast to the average switch delay time, the shot-to-shot variability in switch delay time does not appear to be strongly affected by peak trigger voltage as long as the trigger voltage is groater than 100 V. Below 100 V, the variability in switch delay time rises rapidly due to failure of the trigger to undergo immediate high voltage breakdown when trigger voltage is applied. The effect of an abnormally-high-resistance trigger probe on switch delay time was also investigated. It was found that a high-resistance probe behaved as a second overvoltage gap in the trigger circuit. Operation with a peak trigger voltage greater than the breakdown voltage of this second gap yielded delay times comparable to operation with a normal trigger. Operation with a peak trigger voltage less than the breakdown voltage of this second gap increased the switch delay time by an amount comparable to the time required to ramp the trigger circuit output up to the breakdown voltage of the second gap. Finally, the effect that varying the bias voltage applied to the sprytron has on switch delay time was measured. The switch delay time did not appear to depend on bias voltage for bias voltages between 725 V and 2420 V.

  7. Surface wind observations affected by agricultural development over Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songjun; Tang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Xuezhen; Xu, Di; Kou, Lihang

    2016-05-01

    Meteorological stations in Northwest China are surrounded by large proportions of cultivated land. The relations between the change of surface wind speed and the cultivated land fractions (CF) within a 4 km radius at 135 meteorological stations over arid Northwest China are investigated. Stations with larger CF experienced larger declines in surface wind speed from 1960 to 2007. Compared with the wind speed variation in the Tibetan Plateau where agricultural development is negligible, stations with low CF show similar variation, whereas the wind speed at stations with large CF illustrates a sharp decrease in the 1970s–1980s, during which irrigated agriculture developed rapidly. The observed wind speed at the station surrounded by irrigated fields in the Jingtai Irrigation District, shows a rapid wind speed decrease during the same period when the irrigated area expanded. By contrast, rapid wind decrease is not observed at a nearby station with minimal influence of agricultural development.

  8. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    SciTech Connect

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  9. Professional Development: Designing for the Cognitive and Affective Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Iain

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically reflects on the pedagogical approach underlying a professional development course in eLearning. The aim of the course was to teach faculty based eLearning officers the necessary practical and theoretical skills to fulfil their roles in supporting Faculties with eLearning initiatives. Whilst the course was successful--judged…

  10. Factors Affecting Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between factors (internal [personal] and external [environmental]) and teachers' participation in professional development (PD) programs in Turkey. The researcher employed a survey design, using a multiple-stage sampling method, selecting 30 out of 66 elementary schools in the Center…

  11. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing.

    PubMed

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-12-01

    Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans. Eye contact with others is present from birth, and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6-10 and 12-16 months. Face scanning and gaze following were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6-10 and 12-16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults' eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual's specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  12. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based materials derived from pine trees, such as processed whole pine tree (WPT), can be a viable option for producers looking to offset pine bark or peatmoss usage in container substrates. Reduced root development of stem cuttings rooted in WPT compared with pine bark (PB) has been observed, b...

  13. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  14. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  15. Does prenatal stress affect the motoric development of rat pups?

    PubMed

    Patin, V; Vincent, A; Lordi, B; Caston, J

    2004-04-19

    Pregnant rats were exposed to an acute or a repeated stress (presence of a cat) either at the 10th or the 14th gestational day, and the development of their offspring was studied during the first 2 weeks of life. Motor development was measured by different tests: rooting reflex, vibrissae placing response, righting reflex, negative geotaxis. Other landmarks such as eye opening and spontaneous locomotor activity were also recorded. The results showed that, except for the rooting reflex which was most often enhanced (while not significantly) in prenatally stressed rats, the development of the vibrissae placing response, the righting reflex and the negative geotaxis behavior was delayed in the offspring of dams stressed at the 10th gestational day and not (or almost not) in the offspring of dams stressed at the 14th gestational day, the delay being more severe when the prenatal stress was repeated than when it was acutely administered. The spontaneous motor activity was also altered in repeatedly prenatally stressed rats, whatever the day of pregnancy when it was administered, while it was unaffected in acutely prenatally stressed animals. The delay in motor reflexes development was interpreted as alterations in maturation of nervous structures sustaining motor skills, while permanent decrease of spontaneous motor activity was explained by emotional and motivational alterations due to prenatal stress. PMID:15063088

  16. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  17. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing

    PubMed Central

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans [1, 2, 3]. Eye contact with others is present from birth [4], and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication [5, 6, 7]. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6–10 and 12–16 months. Face scanning [8] and gaze following [7, 9] were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors [10] and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development [11] were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6–10 and 12–16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults’ eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual’s specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  18. How Volatilities Nonlocal in Time Affect the Price Dynamics in Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  19. State-based metacognition: how time of day affects the accuracy of metamemory.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of research on how stimulus characteristics and encoding conditions affect metamemory, and how those effects either do or do not mirror effects on memory, there is little research on whether and how characteristics of participants' states-like mood, fatigue, or hunger-affect metamemory. The present study examined whether metamemory ability fluctuates with time of day. Specifically, we evaluated whether learners can successfully account for the effects of time of day on their memory, and whether metacognitive monitoring is more accurate at an individual's optimal time of day. Young adults studied and recalled lists of words in both the morning and the afternoon, providing various metamemory judgements during each test session. We replicated the finding that young participants recalled more words in the afternoon than in the morning. Prior to study, participants did not predict superior recall in the afternoon, but they did after they had an opportunity to study the list (but before the test on that material). We also found that item-by-item predictions were more accurate in the afternoon, suggesting that self-regulated learning might benefit from being scheduled during times of day that accord with individuals' peak arousal. PMID:23742008

  20. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  1. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines.

    PubMed

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  2. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  3. Does overall reinforcer rate affect discrimination of time-based contingencies?

    PubMed

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Blumhardt, Luca; Elliffe, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Overall reinforcer rate appears to affect choice. The mechanism for such an effect is uncertain, but may relate to reinforcer rate changing the discrimination of the relation between stimuli and reinforcers. We assessed whether a quantitative model based on a stimulus-control approach could be used to account for the effects of overall reinforcer rate on choice under changing time-based contingencies. On a two-key concurrent schedule, the likely availability of a reinforcer reversed when a fixed time had elapsed since the last reinforcer, and the overall reinforcer rate was varied across conditions. Changes in the overall reinforcer rate produced a change in response bias, and some indication of a change in discrimination. These changes in bias and discrimination always occurred quickly, usually within the first session of a condition. The stimulus-control approach provided an excellent account of the data, suggesting that changes in overall reinforcer rate affect choice because they alter the frequency of reinforcers obtained at different times, or in different stimulus contexts, and thus change the discriminated relation between stimuli and reinforcers. These findings support the notion that temporal and spatial discriminations can be understood in terms of discrimination of reinforcers across time and space. PMID:27151836

  4. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    PubMed

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  5. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  6. Amphetamine affects the start of responding in the peak interval timing task.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathleen M; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D

    2007-02-22

    In this paper we investigate how amphetamine affects performance in a PI task by comparing two analyses of responding during peak trials. After training on 24 s fixed interval (FI-24) with 96 s peak trials, rats were given amphetamine for 4 consecutive days at doses of .5 and 1.0 mg/kg. Responses during peak trials were fitted with a Gaussian distribution to estimate the expected time of reinforcement from the peak time. A single trials analysis was also performed to determine the start time and stop time of the transition into and out of a high rate of responding on each peak trial. Amphetamine significantly decreased peak times as measured with the Gaussian curve fitting. However, in the single trials analysis, animals initiated responding significantly earlier, but did not stop responding earlier. Thus, fitting a Gaussian to the average performance across trials sometimes provides a different characterization of the timing process than does analyzing the start and stop of responding on individual trials. In the current experiment, the latter approach provided a more precise characterization of the effects of amphetamine on response timing. PMID:17222991

  7. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  8. Development of a Japanese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Katsuyuki; Katsuma, Risa; Sakai, Akiko

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children originally developed in 1999 by Laurent, et al. was adapted for use in Japan. In Study 1, a total of 763 children in Grades 4 to 6 completed this Schedule, and 103 of them completed it again about three months later. Principal factor analysis with promax rotation identified two factors, positive and negative affect, in the Japanese version, whose alphas (over .80) and test-retest correlations (over .50) were sufficient to indicate internal consistency and stability over time. In Study 2, a total of 328 children completed the Japanese version, the Depression Self-rating Scale for Children, and the Trait Form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Intercorrelations showed convergent and discriminant validity using these self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Overall these data support the reliability and validity of this Japanese version. PMID:17153825

  9. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    transition region between fresh and saline water, captured the occurrence of strong precipitation event on the Hudson river as indicated by reduced water column salinity levels in the water column. Despite the large influx of freshwater and suspended solids originating as precipitation runoff, tidal forces dominated the net water transport and coincident suspended particle load. Such information is crucial to track the particle-driven contaminant movement in the water column. Both the FRVP and MRUP have been deployed in an active Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls Superfund site to characterize the fundamental sediment transport mechanisms affecting remedial dredging operations. A potential application of this monitoring system is in the development of an adaptive remedial operation, where activity would be adjusted to maintain conditions within threshold limits based on real time environmental observations. Further, observational REON data can be integrated with water quality and hydrodynamic models that can be used to evaluate episodic events and their subsequent impacts to the Hudson River.

  10. Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Affects Hippocampal Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noorlander, Cornelle W.; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V. S.; de Vries, Willem B.; Derks, Jan B.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function. PMID:24465645

  11. Community history affects the predictability of microbial ecosystem development

    PubMed Central

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Strathdee, Fiona; Spears, Bryan M; Cates, Michael E; Allen, Rosalind J; Free, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate crucial biogeochemical, biomedical and biotechnological processes, yet our understanding of their assembly, and our ability to control its outcome, remain poor. Existing evidence presents conflicting views on whether microbial ecosystem assembly is predictable, or inherently unpredictable. We address this issue using a well-controlled laboratory model system, in which source microbial communities colonize a pristine environment to form complex, nutrient-cycling ecosystems. When the source communities colonize a novel environment, final community composition and function (as measured by redox potential) are unpredictable, although a signature of the community's previous history is maintained. However, when the source communities are pre-conditioned to their new habitat, community development is more reproducible. This situation contrasts with some studies of communities of macro-organisms, where strong selection under novel environmental conditions leads to reproducible community structure, whereas communities under weaker selection show more variability. Our results suggest that the microbial rare biosphere may have an important role in the predictability of microbial community development, and that pre-conditioning may help to reduce unpredictability in the design of microbial communities for biotechnological applications. PMID:23985743

  12. Development of a diagnosis index of tropical cyclones affecting the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi

    2016-06-01

    This study has developed the index for diagnosis on possibility that tropical cyclones (TCs) affect Korean Peninsula. This index is closely related to the strength of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which is calculated as a difference in meridional wind between at the highest correlation area (around Korean Peninsula) and at the lowest correlation area (sea southeast of Japan) through a correlation analysis between TC frequency that affects Korean Peninsula and 500 hPa meridional wind. In low frequency years that selected from Korea affecting TC index, anomalous northeasterly is strengthened from Korea to the South China Sea because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to northwest of Korean Peninsula. Thus, TCs tend to move westward from the sea east of the Philippines to the mainland China. On the other hand, in high frequency years, anomalous southwesterly serves as steering flow that more TCs move toward Korean Peninsula because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to sea east of Japan. Consequently, this study suggests that if this index is calculated using real time 500 hPa meridional winds that forecasted by dynamic models during the movement of TCs, the possibility that TCs approach Korean Peninsula can be diagnosed in real time.

  13. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  14. 48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071 Section 335.071 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting....

  15. Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112

  16. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; Koç, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Patients of four endoscopists at similar experience levels were retrospectively identified and categorized into the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy before colonoscopy group (group 1) or the colonoscopy only group (group 2). The demographics, clinical data and the time to achieve cecal intubation for each patient were analyzed. The mean time to achieve cecal intubation in the first group that included 319 cases was 8.4 ± 0.93 minutes and the mean time in the second group that included 1672 cases was 8.56 ± 1.16 minutes. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was also no significant difference between the Group 1 and Group 2 when compared according to which of the four endoscopists performed the procedures. Performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to colonoscopy did not affect the time to achieve cecal intubation. Considering that performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to the colonoscopy is more advantageous in terms of patient comfort and analgesic requirement, beginning to BE with it seems more favorable. PMID:23936601

  17. Alterations in affective behavior during the time course of alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Karadayian, Analía G; Busso, María J; Feleder, Carlos; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-09-15

    Alcohol hangover is a temporary state described as the unpleasant next-day effects after binge-like drinking. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. Affective behavior is impaired during the acute phase of alcohol intoxication; however, no reports indicate if similar effects are observed during withdrawal. The aim of this work was to study the time-extension and possible fluctuations in affective behavior during a hangover episode. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8g/kg BW) (hangover group). Anxiety, fear-related behavior and despair phenotype were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2h up to 20h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Also, anhedonia signs and pain perception disabilities were studied. Mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior during 4h and 14h after hangover onset when evaluated by the elevated-plus maze and open field test respectively (p<0.05). Fear-related behavior was detected in hangover animals by the increase of freezing and decrease of line crossings and rearing frequency during 16h after hangover onset (p<0.001). Depression signs were found in hangover mice during 14h (p<0.05). Hangover mice showed a significant decrease in pain perception when tested by tail immersion test at the beginning of hangover (p<0.05). Our findings demonstrate a time-extension between 14 and 16h for hangover affective impairments. This study shows the long lasting effects of hangover over the phase of ethanol intoxication. PMID:23850352

  18. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  19. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  20. Does Time Affect Patient Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life After Reduction Mammoplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Wess A.; Homel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A total of 62,611 patients with breast hypertrophy underwent breast reduction surgery in 2013 in the United States to improve their symptoms and health-related quality of life. While multiple studies utilizing various outcome instruments demonstrate the efficacy of reductive surgery, it is presently unknown how the postoperative course affects patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life as measured by the BREAST-Q. Our objective was to determine the temporal relationship of patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life after reduction mammoplasty. Methods: Patients prospectively completed the BREAST-Q reduction mammoplasty module at 3 time points during their treatment: preoperatively, at less than 3 months postoperatively, and at more than 3 months (<12 months) postoperatively. A single surgeon (N.P.P.) performed all of the breast reduction procedures. Results: Each time point contained 20 questionnaires. Mean preoperative BREAST-Q scores were significantly lower than scores at the less than 3-month postoperative time point for the scales Satisfaction With Breasts, Psychosocial Well-being, Sexual Well-being, and Physical Well-being (P < .001). There was no significant difference in BREAST-Q scores between the postoperative time points in these measures. Conclusion: Breast reduction surgery offers a vast improvement in patients’ satisfaction and health-related quality of life that is maintained throughout the postoperative period. These findings can assist surgeons in managing patient expectations after reduction mammoplasty and help improve the probability of obtaining prior authorization for insurance coverage. PMID:26819650

  1. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage. PMID:10552497

  2. Development of an IUE Time Series Browser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    2005-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite operated successfully for more than 17 years. Its archive of more than 100,000 science exposures is widely acknowledged as an invaluable scientific resource that will not be duplicated in the foreseeable future. We have searched this archive for objects which were observed 10 or more times with the same spectral dispersion and wavelength coverage over the lifetime of IUE. Using this definition of a time series, we find that roughly half of the science exposures are members of such time series. This paper describes a WEB-based IUE time series browser which enables the user to visually inspect the repeated observations for variability and to examine each member spectrum individually. Further, if the researcher determines that a specific data set is worthy of further investigation, it can be easily downloaded for further, detailed analysis.

  3. Timing of Maternal Immunization Affects Immunological and Behavioral Outcomes of Adult Offspring in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, and behavior. Common environmental pathogens can induce maternal immune responses and affect subsequent development of offspring. There are likely sensitive periods during pregnancy when animals are particularly vulnerable to environmental disruption. Here we characterize the effects of maternal immunization across pregnancy and postpartum on offspring physiology and behavior in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters were injected with the antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (1) prior to pairing with a male (premating), (2) at separation (postmating), (3) at midpregnancy, or (4) after birth (lactation). Maternal food intake, body mass, and immunity were monitored throughout gestation, and litters were measured weekly for growth until adulthood when social behavior, hormone concentrations, and immune responses were determined. We found that immunizations altered maternal immunity throughout pregnancy and lactation. The effects of maternal treatment differed between male and female offspring. Aggressive behavior was enhanced in offspring of both sexes born to mothers treated postmating and thus early in pregnancy relative to other stages. In contrast, maternal treatment and maternal stage differentially affected innate immunity in males and females. Offspring cortisol, however, was unaffected by maternal treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that maternal immunization affects offspring physiology and behavior in a time-dependent and sex-specific manner. More broadly, these findings contribute to our understanding of the effects of maternal immune activation, whether it be from environmental exposure or immunization, on immunological and behavioral responses of offspring. PMID:27320639

  4. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  5. Buying Time for Teachers' Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Ada Beth; Ruopp, Faye Nisonoff

    1993-01-01

    Middle School Math Project at Education Development Center in Newton, Massachusetts, puts industry representatives into classroom to free teachers for professional development and to show students real-life applications of science and math. Although the program is no magic bullet for achieving teacher professionalism, this innovative approach buys…

  6. Time frames for geothermal project development

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, David W.

    2001-04-17

    Geothermal development can generally be broken down into distinct phases: Exploration and Leasing; Project Development And Feasibility Studies; Well Field Development; Project Finance, Construction and Start-up Operations; and Commercial Operations. Each phase represents different levels of cost and risk and different types of management teams that are needed to assess and manage the project and associated risk. Orderly transitions of management at each major phase are needed. Exploration programs are largely science based, the primary focus of the science based investigations should be to: secure the lease position, and develop sufficient information to identify and characterize an economical geothermal resource. Project development specialists build on the exploration data to: pull together a project design, develop a detailed cost estimate; prepare an environmental assessment; and collect all data needed for project financing. Construction specialist build from the development phase to: develop detailed engineering, procure equipment and materials, schedule and manage the facilities construction programs, and start and test the power plant. Operations specialists take over from construction during start-up and are responsible for sustainable and reliable operations of the resource and power generation equipment over the life of the project.

  7. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  8. Cell position during larval development affects postdiapause development in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Kemp, William P

    2014-08-01

    Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes, and other specialty crops. M. rotundata females are gregarious, nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks, where they construct a linear series of brood cells. Because of the physical layout of the nest, the age of the larvae within the nest and the microenvironment the individual larvae experience will vary. These interacting factors along with other maternal inputs affect the resulting phenotypes of the nest mates. To further our understanding of in-nest physiology, gender and developmental rates were examined in relationship to cell position within the nest. Eighty-two percent of the females were located within the first three cells, those furthest from the nest entrance. For those individuals developing in cells located in the deepest half of the nest, the sex of the previous bee had a significant effect on the female decision of the gender of the following nest mate. Removing the prepupae from the nest and rearing them under identical conditions demonstrated that position within the nest during larval development had a significant effect on the postdiapause developmental rates, with males whose larval development occurred deeper in the nest developing more slowly than those toward the entrance. No positional effect on postdiapause developmental rates was noted for the females. The cell position effect on male postdiapause developmental rate demonstrates that postdiapause development is not a rigid physiological mechanism uniform in all individuals, but is a dynamic plastic process shaped by past environmental conditions. PMID:24914676

  9. Design of a sediment data-collection program in Kansas as affected by time trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Data collection programs need to be re-examined periodically in order to insure their usefulness, efficiency, and applicability. The possibility of time trends in sediment concentration, in particular, makes the examination with new statistical techniques desirable. After adjusting sediment concentrations for their relation to streamflow rates and by using a seasonal adaptation of Kendall 's nonparametric statistical test, time trends of flow-adjusted concentrations were detected for 11 of the 38 sediment records tested that were not affected by large reservoirs. Ten of the 11 trends were toward smaller concentrations; only 1 was toward larger concentrations. Of the apparent trends that were not statistically significant (0.05 level) using data available, nearly all were toward smaller concentrations. Because the reason for the lack of statistical significance of an apparent trend may be inadequacy of data rather than absence of trend and because of the prevalence of apparent trends in one direction, the assumption was made that a time trend may be present at any station. This assumption can significantly affect the design of a sediment data collection program. Sudden decreases (step trends) in flow-adjusted sediment concentrations were found at all stations that were short distances downstream from large reservoirs and that had adequate data for a seasonal adaptation of Wilcoxon 's nonparametric statistical test. Examination of sediment records in the 1984 data collection program of the Kansas Water Office indicated 13 stations that can be discontinued temporarily because data are now adequate. Data collection could be resumed in 1992 when new data may be needed because of possible time trends. New data are needed at eight previously operated stations where existing data may be inadequate or misleading because of time trends. Operational changes may be needed at some stations, such as hiring contract observers or installing automatic pumping samplers. Implementing

  10. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, Cristian; Díaz, Nelson F.; Gomez, Gilda; López, María Eugenia; Iturra, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map. PMID:22888302

  11. How task complexity and stimulus modality affect motor execution: target accuracy, response timing and hesitations.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; MacMahon, Clare; Ball, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Elite sports players are characterized by the ability to produce successful outcomes while attending to changing environmental conditions. Few studies have assessed whether the perceptual environment affects motor skill execution. To test the effect of changing task complexity and stimulus conditions, the authors examined response times and target accuracy of 12 elite Australian football players using a passing-based laboratory test. Data were assessed using mixed modeling and chi-square analyses. No differences were found in target accuracy for changes in complexity or stimulus condition. Decision, movement and total disposal time increased with complexity and decision hesitations were greater when distractions were present. Decision, movement and disposal time were faster for auditory in comparison to visual signals, and when free to choose, players passed more frequently to auditory rather than visual targets. These results provide perspective on how basic motor control processes such as reaction and response to stimuli are influenced in a complex motor skill. Findings suggest auditory stimuli should be included in decision-making studies and may be an important part of a decision-training environment. PMID:25584721

  12. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  13. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  14. The effect of self-affirmation in nonthreatening persuasion domains: timing affects the process.

    PubMed

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E; Gallardo, Ismael; DeMarree, Kenneth G

    2007-11-01

    Most research on self-affirmation and persuasion has argued that self-affirmation buffers the self against the threat posed by a persuasive message; thus, it increases the likelihood that participants will respond to the message favorably. Little research, in contrast, has looked at the effects of self-affirmation on persuasive messages that are not threatening to the self. This research examines mechanisms that can operate under these conditions. Consistent with the idea that self-affirmation affects confidence, the article shows that self-affirmation can decrease information processing when induced prior to message reception (Experiment 1) and can increase the use of self-generated thoughts in response to a persuasive message when induced after message reception (Experiment 2). In addition, Experiment 3 manipulates the timing of self-affirmation to replicate both effects and Experiment 4 provides direct evidence for the impact of self-affirmation on confidence. PMID:17933742

  15. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  16. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  17. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-02-22

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  18. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  19. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea. PMID:26613545

  20. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    PubMed

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P < 0.05). The Peleg model was predicted well the kinetic of split chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in Peleg rate constant (K1) and Peleg capacity constant (K2) at all temperatures except for K1 at 25 °C. The discrepancy for K1 was in relation to permeability characteristics of split chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures. PMID:26604418

  1. Time-based patterning in development

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Oscillating gene expression is a mechanism of patterning during development in both plants and animals. In vertebrates, oscillating gene expression establishes the musculoskeletal precursors (somites), while in plant roots it establishes the position of future organs (lateral roots). Both mechanisms constitute a specialized type of biological clock that converts temporal information into precise spatial patterns. Similarities, differences, and their functionality in organisms that evolved independently are discussed. PMID:21826283

  2. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  3. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.

    2008-08-07

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the {sup 238}U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning.

  4. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents.

    PubMed

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to investigate correlations between the developmental trajectories of adolescents' (N = 497) empathic dispositions and trajectories of their conflict behaviors towards both parents. There were some similarities between the associations of both empathy dimensions with conflict behaviors. Both empathy dimensions were associated with reduced conflict escalation with mothers, and increased problem solving with both parents. However, these associations were consistently stronger for perspective taking than for empathic concern. Furthermore, higher levels of compliance with mothers in early adolescence were uniquely associated with over-time increasing empathic concern. Perspective taking was uniquely associated with decreased withdrawal from conflicts. Perspective taking thus appears to be more strongly associated with a pattern of constructive conflict behaviors. PMID:26760479

  5. Induced Autoimmunity against Gonadal Proteins Affects Gonadal Development in Juvenile Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Presslauer, Christopher; Nagasawa, Kazue; Dahle, Dalia; Babiak, Joanna; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Babiak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf), growth differentiation factor (Gdf9), and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75), all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329) were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik) pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a straightforward potential

  6. Fully developed turbulence and complex time singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombre, T.; Gagne, Y.; Hopfinger, E.

    The hypothesis of Frisch and Morf (1981), relating intermittent bursts observed in high-pass-filtered turbulent-flow data to complex time singularities in the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, is tested experimentally. Velocity signals filtered at high-pass frequency 1 kHz and low-pass frequency 6 kHz are recorded for 7 min at sampling frequency 20 kHz in a flow of mean velocity 6.1 m/s, with mesh length d = 7.5 cm, observation point x/d = 40, R sub lambda = 67, dissipation length eta = 0.5 mm, and Kolmogorov frequency fK = about 2 kHz. The results are presented in graphs, and it is shown that the exponential behavior of the energy spectrum settles well before fK, the spectra of individual bursts having exponential behavior and delta(asterisk) values consistent with the Frisch-Morf hypothesis, at least for high-amplitude events.

  7. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  8. Affections in Learning Situations: A Study of an Entrepreneurship Skills Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…

  9. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables

    PubMed Central

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; Trost, Wiebke J.

    2014-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

  10. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    PubMed

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

  11. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development?

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R

    2011-06-01

    fed MR. Significant positive Pearson correlations were found between small intestine and reticulorumen weights as well as between activity of brush border lactase, maltase, aminopeptidase A, and aminopeptidase N and reticulorumen weight. Different liquid feeds affect small intestine development, animal growth, solid feed intake and metabolic status of calves and this effect can indirectly influence the development of forestomachs. PMID:21605770

  12. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness. PMID:26388812

  13. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results. PMID:26165674

  14. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. PMID:26340855

  15. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  16. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Zabel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  17. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  18. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t. PMID:1637599

  19. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  20. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  1. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues from sprouting vegetation and the consequent abundance of invertebrate prey, although dependent on temperature, may provide supplementary environmental cues per se. This hypothesis was investigated in breeding pairs of great tits kept in outdoor aviaries. In spring, experimental pairs were provided with access to leafing birch branches and caterpillars as a visual food cue, while control pairs were provided with non-leafing branches. Observations were made on the onset of laying and on concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at regular intervals to monitor changes in reproductive function. The onset of egg laying was not advanced by the presence of leafing branches and caterpillars. LH concentrations increased during the course of the study, but phenological cues did not affect plasma LH levels in females and males. Early spring vegetation, such as the leafing of birch branches, and the appearance of caterpillar prey do not appear to play a significant role in fine-tuning the onset of egg laying in great tits. PMID:21993796

  2. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  3. Time to Learn, Time to Develop? Change Processes in Three Schools with Weak National Time Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyroos, Mikaela

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses change of time use and time allocation in three schools participating in a Swedish five-year national experiment in which State regulation of teaching time was weakened. Participating schools could freely decide how to use and distribute teaching time. The experiment was launched at a late stage in a 25-year decentralisation…

  4. Different immunological responses to early-life antibiotic exposure affecting autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youjia; Jin, Ping; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-08-01

    Environmental factors clearly influence the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease. We have studied gut microbiota as important environmental agents that could affect the initiation or progression of type 1 diabetes especially in the prenatal period. We used neomycin, targeting mainly Gram negative or vancomycin, targeting mainly Gram positive bacteria, to treat pregnant NOD mothers and to study autoimmune diabetes development in their offspring. Neomycin-treated offspring were protected from diabetes, while vancomycin-treated offspring had accelerated diabetes development, and both antibiotics caused distinctly different shifts in gut microbiota composition compared with the offspring from untreated control mice. Our study demonstrated that neomycin treatment of pregnant mothers leads to generation of immune-tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the offspring and these APCs had reduced specific autoantigen-presenting function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the protection from diabetes mediated by tolerogenic APCs was vertically transmissible to the second generation. In contrast, more diabetogenic inflammatory T cells were found in the lymphoid organs of the offspring from the vancomycin-treated pregnant mothers. This change however was not transmitted to the second generation. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to antibiotic influenced gut bacterial composition at the earliest time point in life and is critical for consequent education of the immune system. As different bacteria can induce different immune responses, understanding these differences and how to generate self-tolerogenic APCs could be important for developing new therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:27178773

  5. Exposure to Sevoflurane Affects the Development of Parvalbumin Interneurons in the Main Olfactory Bulb in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Jing; Cai, Guohong; Lu, Rui; Sun, Tingting; Luo, Tingting; Wu, Shengxi; Ling, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB). The number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB were impaired by exposure to sevoflurane at PD7. However, exposure to sevoflurane at PD10 had no effect on calcium-binding protein expression or the number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. These results suggest that exposing neonatal mice to sevoflurane during a critical period of olfactory development affects the development of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. PMID:27445710

  6. The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

  7. Warming affects hatching time and early season survival of eastern tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Lill, John T

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is disrupting species interactions by altering the timing of phenological events such as budburst for plants and hatching for insects. We combined field observations with laboratory manipulations to investigate the consequences of climate warming on the phenology and performance of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum). We evaluated the effects of warmer winter and spring regimes on caterpillar hatching patterns and starvation endurance, traits likely to be under selection in populations experiencing phenological asynchrony, using individuals from two different populations (Washington, DC, and Roswell, GA). We also quantified the proximate and extended fitness effects of early food deprivation and recorded spring phenology of local caterpillars and their host plants. In addition, we conducted laboratory assays to determine if caterpillars are using plant chemical cues to fine-tune their hatching times. Warmer winter temperatures induced earlier hatching and caterpillars from GA survived starvation for periods that were 30% longer than caterpillars from DC. Warmer spring regimes reduced the starvation endurance of caterpillars overwintering in the wild but not in the laboratory. Early starvation dramatically reduced hatchling survival; however, surviving caterpillars did not show detrimental effects on pupal mass or development time. In the field, hatching preceded budburst in both 2013 and 2014 and the period of optimal foliage quality was 2 weeks shorter in 2013. Hatching time was unaffected by exposure to plant volatiles. Overall, we found that warmer temperatures can trigger late-season asynchrony by accelerating plant phenology and caterpillars from different populations exhibit differential abilities to cope with environmental unreliability. PMID:26093630

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of time-series genes profiling to explore key genes affected by age in fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Hao; Xie, Jingjing; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Lu, Hua

    2014-06-01

    The present study was aimed to explore possible key genes and bioprocess affected by age during fracture healing. GSE589, GSE592 and GSE1371 were downloaded from gene expression omnibus database. The time-series genes of three age levels rats were firstly identified with hclust function in R. Then functional and pathway enrichment analysis for selected time-series genes were performed. Finally, the VennDiagram package of R language was used to screen overlapping n time-series genes. The expression changes of time-series genes in the rats of three age levels were classified into two types: one was higher expressed at 0 day, decreased at 3 day to 2 week, and increased from 4 to 6 week; the other was the opposite. Functional and pathways enrichment analysis showed that 12 time-series genes of adult and old rats were significantly involved in ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression changes of 11 genes were consistent with time axis, 10 genes were up-regulated at 3 days after fracture, and increased slowly in 6 week, while Itga2b was down-regulated. The functions of 106 overlapping genes were all associated with growth and development of bone after fracture. The key genes in ECM-receptor interaction pathway including Spp1, Ibsp, Tnn and Col3a1 have been reported to be related to fracture in literatures. The difference during fracture healing in three age levels rats is mainly related to age. The Spp1, Ibsp, Tnn and Col3a1 are possible potential age-related genes and ECM-receptor interaction pathway is the potential age-related process during fracture healing. PMID:24627361

  9. The timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation affects responses to platform translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavacka, F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We compared the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation applied at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 s prior to a backward platform translation on postural responses. The effect of the galvanic stimulation was largest on the final equilibrium position of the center of pressure (CoP). The largest effects occurred for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-period, when the dynamic CoP pressure changes in response to both the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation coincided. The shift in the final equilibrium position was also larger than the sum of the shifts for the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation alone for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-periods. The initial rate of change of the CoP response to the platform translation was not significantly affected in any condition. Changes in the peak CoP position could be accounted for by local interaction of CoP velocity changes induced by the galvanic and translation responses alone, but the changes in final equilibrium position could only be accounted for by a change in global body orientation. These findings suggest that the contribution of vestibulospinal information is greatest during the dynamic phase of the postural response, and that the vestibular system contributes most to the later components of the postural response, particularly to the final equilibrium position. These findings suggest that a nonlinear interaction between the vestibular signal induced by the galvanic current and the sensory stimuli produced by the platform translation occurs when the two stimuli are presented within 1 s, during the dynamic phase of the postural response to the galvanic stimulus. When presented at greater separations in time, the stimuli appear to be treated as independent events, such that no interaction occurs. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Current developments affecting future availability of oil and gas in the free world

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1981-03-17

    This review focuses on developments during the last 18 months likely to affect the availability of oil and gas in coming decades. These developments include new discoveries (Hibernia, Beaufort Sea, Ivory Coast, the Western and Eastern Overthrust Belts, and the Gulf of Suez). They also include new energy policies of both producer and consumer nations that will ultimately affect supply. New policies and a rapidly increasing domestic demand may stabilize Mexico's exports at their present level, even if production reaches 4 to 5 million barrels per day (b/d). Canada's new policy toward foreign oil companies operating within her borders may well stifle exploration and investment in both oil and tar sand deposits. OPEC contract and pricing schemes are profoundly altering distribution systems and markets. OPEC plans to allocate oil arbitrarily in times of shortage could disrupt the industrial world. Inability to reassign oil contracted for from OPEC nations is forcing buyers to increase storage capacity. The oil inventories reported are not equivalent to availability, since 50 to 90% is essentially unavailable. Thus, stock equivalent to 110 days of imports may include only a few weeks of primary usable stocks. Only Sweden and South Africa have federally owned oil reserves that could meet demand for periods of months or years. Natural gas from the USSR will probably comprise 30% of Western Europe's total supply in the 1990s, if plans to import gas from the Yamal Peninsula come to fruition. Soviet gas is seen as an acceptable alternative to undependable OPEC oil supplies and similarly unreliable gas supplies from North Africa. However, the proposed, increased dependency on the USSR may add a new dimension to Soviet and Western European politics.

  11. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  12. Examining the Role of Time and Language Type in Reading Development for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Joseph; Bolt, Sara; Decker, Dawn; Muyskens, Paul; Marston, Doug

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of English reading achievement among English Language Learners (ELLs) and to determine whether the time that an ELL's family was in the United States and the type of native language spoken affected their reading development. Participants were 300 third-grade ELLs from two different native…

  13. Should We Sacrifice Class Time for Professional Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podulka, Michelle; Witort, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Should teachers sacrifice class time for professional development? Two authors present their arguments to this question. The first author contends that teachers should definitely use class time for professional development. Technology is changing and growing all the time, and it is their job to prepare students for the world they will inherit.…

  14. Compensatory growth strategies are affected by the strength of environmental time constraints in anuran larvae.

    PubMed

    Orizaola, Germán; Dahl, Emma; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    Organisms normally grow at a sub-maximal rate. After experiencing a period of arrested growth, individuals often show compensatory growth responses by modifying their life-history, behaviour and physiology. However, the strength of compensatory responses may vary across broad geographic scales as populations differ in their exposition to varying time constraints. We examined differences in compensatory growth strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) populations from southern and northern Sweden. Tadpoles from four populations were reared in the laboratory and exposed to low temperature to evaluate the patterns and mechanisms of compensatory growth responses. We determined tadpoles' growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency during the compensation period. In the absence of arrested growth conditions, tadpoles from all the populations showed similar (size-corrected) growth rates, food intake and growth efficiency. After being exposed to low temperature for 1 week, only larvae from the northern populations increased growth rates by increasing both food intake and growth efficiency. These geographic differences in compensatory growth mechanisms suggest that the strategies for recovering after a period of growth deprivation may depend on the strength of time constraints faced by the populations. Due to the costs of fast growth, only populations exposed to the strong time constraints are prone to develop fast recovering strategies in order to metamorphose before conditions deteriorate. Understanding how organisms balance the cost and benefits of growth strategies may help in forecasting the impact of fluctuating environmental conditions on life-history strategies of populations likely to be exposed to increasing environmental variation in the future. PMID:23996230

  15. Factors Affecting the Turnover of Different Groups of Part-Time Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Jenell L.; Martin, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Past research on employee attitudes and behavior has focused mainly on full-time employees. When part-time employees have been studied, the research has concentrated on the differences between full-time and part-time employees. Recent research has suggested that part-time employees should not be viewed as a single, undifferentiated group. Instead…

  16. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  17. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  18. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  19. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  20. The Relationship Between Affective and Cognitive Development in Down's Syndrome Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Sroufe, L. Alan

    Examined was the association between affective and cognitive development in 14 Down's Syndrome infants (4- to 8-months-old). Mothers administered a series of 30 laughter items each month, and experimenters gave the Uzgiris-Hunt scales of cognitive development at 13 and 16 months, and the Bayley scales and Infant Behavior Record at 16 months.…

  1. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  2. Developing Connections for Affective Regulation: Age-Related Changes in Emotional Brain Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of affective arousal is a critical aspect of children's social and cognitive development. However, few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in the development of this aspect of "hot" executive functioning. This process has been conceptualized as involving prefrontal control of the amygdala. Here, using functional…

  3. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida’s Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and subsequently assessed the experimental effects of the time-limited welfare policy on this group as compared to an otherwise comparable group of single-mother welfare-recipient families. For the families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit, FTP had few effects. FTP decreased mothers’ depressive symptoms, and mothers in the FTP group reported higher levels of children’s school achievement. There were no effects on parenting behavior or mothers’ reports of children’s social-emotional outcomes. PMID:19271826

  4. Losing the safety net: how a time-limited welfare policy affects families at risk of reaching time limits.

    PubMed

    Morris, Pamela A; Hendra, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and subsequently assessed the experimental effects of the time-limited welfare policy on this group as compared to an otherwise comparable group of single-mother welfare-recipient families. For the families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit, FTP had few effects. FTP decreased mothers' depressive symptoms, and mothers in the FTP group reported higher levels of children's school achievement. There were no effects on parenting behavior or mothers' reports of children's social-emotional outcomes. PMID:19271826

  5. Wait Time for Counseling Affecting Perceived Stigma and Attitude toward the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Stein, Alexander; Casper, Steven; Chessler, Marcy; Beverly, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 99 undergraduates in counseling was divided into two groups based on wait time from triage to intake, "less wait time" (up to two weeks) versus "more wait time" (at least two weeks). The less wait time group showed "higher willingness to recommend the university," "higher institutional…

  6. Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes

  7. Variation in timing of ossification affects inferred heterochrony of cranial bones in Lissamphibia.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Christopher A; Jorgensen, Michael; Tulenko, Frank; Harrington, Sean

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary origin of Lissamphibia likely involved heterochrony, as demonstrated by the biphasic lifestyles of most extant orders, differences between Anura (with tadpole-to-froglet metamorphosis) and Urodela (which lack strongly defined metamorphosis), and the appearance of direct development among separate lineages of frogs. Patterns in the timing of appearance of skeletal elements (i.e., ossification sequence data) represent a possible source of information for understanding the origin of Lissamphibia, and with the advent of analytical methods to directly optimize these data onto known phylogenies, there has been a renewed interest in assessing the role of changes in these developmental events. However, little attention has been given to the potential impact of variation in ossification sequence data--this is particularly surprising given that different criteria for collecting these data have been employed. Herein, new and previously published ossification data are compiled and all pairs of data for same-species comparisons are selected. Analyses are run to assess the impact of using data that were collected by different methodologies: (1) wild- versus lab-raised animals; (2) different criteria for recognizing timing of ossification; and (3) randomly selecting ossification sequences for species from which multiple studies have been published, but for which the data were collected by different criteria. Parsimov-based genetic inference is utilized to map ossification sequence data onto an existing phylogeny to reconstruct ancestral sequences of ossification and infer instances of heterochrony. All analyses succeeded in optimizing sequence data on internal nodes and instances of heterochrony were identified. However, among all analyses little congruence was found in reconstructed ancestral sequences or among inferred instances of heterochrony. These results indicate a high degree of variation in timing of ossification, and suggest a cautionary note about use

  8. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  9. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  10. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

  11. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption. PMID:24482210

  12. Virtual Characters: Visual Realism Affects Response Time and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibuma, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates agent research with a neurocognitive technique to study how character faces affect cognitive processing. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) was used to study face processing during simple decision-making tasks. Twenty-five adults responded to facial expressions (fear/neutral) presented in three designs…

  13. How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of…

  14. Factors Affecting Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction in the Colorado Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    How do part-time faculty members in community colleges view their roles? Data from part-time faculty responses regarding their experiences in higher education vary. Valadez and Antony (2001) analyzed data from 6,811 part-time faculty collected from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 1992-1993 National Survey of Postsecondary…

  15. Student and Institutional Variables that Affect Time to Degree Completion of Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Iris Killian

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigated student and institutional variables associated with timely degree completion of the associate degree by community college students. Along with increased community college enrollments, time to degree has also increased. Three years (150% time or six semesters) currently stands as the community college standard for…

  16. Timing Is Affected by Demands in Memory Search but Not by Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Claudette; Schweickert, Richard; Gaudreault, Remi; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that timing and tasks involving executive control processes might require the same attentional resources. This should lead to interference when timing and executive tasks are executed concurrently. This study examined the interference between timing and task switching, an executive function. In 4 experiments, memory search…

  17. miRNAs affect the development of hepatocellular carcinoma via dysregulation of their biogenesis and expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not fully understood, which has affected the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC and the survival time of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved small, non-coding RNAs, which regulate the expression of various genes post-transcriptionally. Emerging evidence indicates that the key enzymes involved in the miRNA biosynthesis pathway and some tumor-specific miRNAs are widely deregulated or upregulated in HCC and closely associated with the occurrence and development of various cancers, including HCC. Early studies have shown that miRNAs have critical roles in HCC progression by targeting many critical protein-coding genes, thereby contributing to the promotion of cell proliferation; the avoidance of apoptosis, inducing via angiogenesis; and the activation of invasion and metastasis pathways. Experimental data indicate that discovery of increasing numbers of aberrantly expressed miRNAs has opened up a new field for investigating the molecular mechanism of HCC progression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about the roles and validated targets of miRNAs in the above pathways that are known to be hallmarks of HCC, and we also describe the influence of genetic variations in miRNA biosynthesis and genes. PMID:25012758

  18. REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTIPLE MAIZE PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This talk presents updates on the development of real-time PCR assays for two seedborne pathogens of maize, Pantoea (Erwinia) stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt, and Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, the causal agent of Diplodia ear rot. We developed primers and a real-time PCR p...

  19. Factors Affecting Female Participation in Education in Seven Developing Countries. Second Edition. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine

    Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries were examined through field visits to the following countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, India, Jamaica, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, and Vanuatu. In each country, researchers interviewed key personnel, consulted local documentation, and conducted two empirical surveys…

  20. Opinions of Primary School Science and Technology Teachers about Developing Students' Affective Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eristi, Bahadir; Tunca, Nihal

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the primary school secondary level science and technology teachers' opinions about developing students' affective competence. It was designed as a case study with qualitative research method. The participants of the study consisted of 19 science and technology teachers with at least five years of experience,…

  1. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  2. Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Lynda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

  3. Does Intellectual Disability Affect the Development of Dental Caries in Patients with Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the severity of intellectual disability is a factor that affects the development of dental cavities in patients with cerebral palsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 165 individuals who were selected from a physical rehabilitation center, a special public school and a regular public school. Of…

  4. Interest Groups and the Development of Federal Legislation Affecting Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harootyan, Robert A.

    Changes in the development of federal legislation affecting the elderly are analyzed in this study, which concentrates on the use of chronological and non-chronological eligibility criteria. Data for this research are contained in a computerized annotated index of federal legislation impacting on older Americans. The index covers seven major areas…

  5. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  6. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  7. Factors Affecting Work Force Development in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sredl, Henry J.

    Work force development in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC) is affected by sundry but interrelated factors. Included among these are the following: (1) the PRC's population of one billion people; (2) a recent history of political turmoil and violence, resulting in profound changes in national leadership and vacillation in national policy; (3)…

  8. Variables Affecting the Effects of Recasts on L2 Pronunciation Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how recasts can promote the L2 pronunciation development of word-initial /?/ by Japanese learners of English in relation to two developmental stages of English /?/ acquisition (i.e. change in second formant [F2] ? change in third formant [F3]) as well as four affecting variables (i.e. the amount of recasts and…

  9. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  10. A Sharing Experience: Development of a Group for Families Affected by HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Diane; Appleby, Sue

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment and development of a support group for the parents of children infected and/or affected by HIV infection. The group is hospital-based, meeting monthly since April 1992, facilitated by professionals but with a self-help and peer support emphasis. Explains the planning, setting, and running of the group. Identifies…

  11. The Federal Policy Landscape: A Look at How Legislation Affects Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islas, M. Rene

    2010-01-01

    Four years ago, Learning Forward established "affecting the policy context" as the first of five strategic priorities that would guide its efforts through 2011. Learning Forward believes that good policy promotes good practice and that laws and policies that promote and support effective professional development are needed to achieve the…

  12. On the Affective Challenges of Developing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jason K.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the affective challenges I experienced while attempting to develop a pedagogy of teacher education during my first three years in teacher preparation. Data were collected systematically over the course of the study in the form of written interpretive accounts of my experiences. Analysis of these accounts revealed how…

  13. Erroneous Knowledge of Results Affects Decision and Memory Processes on Timing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lawrence J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    On mental timing tasks, erroneous knowledge of results (KR) leads to incorrect performance accompanied by the subjective judgment of accurate performance. Using the start-stop technique (an analogue of the peak interval procedure) with both reproduction and production timing tasks, the authors analyze what processes erroneous KR alters. KR…

  14. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  15. Comparison of Affective Credit Attitude Scores and Credit Use of College Students at Two Points in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2002-01-01

    A study of 120 college students' use of credit in 1997 and 1999 showed that, during that time, 60 students graduated; 41 had more credit cards in 1999 than 1997; 62 had fewer; and 32 were repaying student loans. Affective credit attitude scores for those with four or more credit cards and for students who had graduated were lower in 1999 than in…

  16. Departmental Factors Affecting Time-to-Degree and Completion Rates of Doctoral Students at One Land-Grant Research Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Valero, Yaritza Ferrer

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed graduate students writing their dissertations and faculty members about factors influencing time-to-degree and completion rates in their departments. Complex findings indicated that factors related to financial support, degree requirements, departmental policies and practices, advising, and department climate affected these outcomes.…

  17. Language Development and Learning to Read: The Scientific Study of How Language Development Affects Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Research on reading has tried, and failed, to account for wide disparities in reading skill even among children taught by the same method. Why do some children learn to read easily and quickly while others, in the same classroom and taught by the same teacher, don't learn to read at all? In "Language Development and Learning to Read", Diane…

  18. The relationship between affective and cognitive development in Down's Syndrome infants.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, D; Sroufe, L A

    1976-12-01

    A close association between affective expression and cognitive development was demonstrated in a longitudinal study of 14 Down's syndrome infants. It was found that the Down's syndrome infants laughed to groups of stimulus items in the same order as did previous samples of normal infants. Although the process was delayed by several months, the retarded babies too laughed first at physically intrusive items and only later to items calling for greater cognitive sophistication. In addition, cognitive developmental status, assessed by the Bayley and Uzgiris-Hunt scales, paralleled and was predicted by the level of affective development. Predictive and concurrent correlations between Bayley mental scores and various indices of affectivity ranged from .68 to .92. There was striking individual consistency across affective, mental, and motor measures, suggesting the organized nature of retarded development. Finally, since Down's syndrome infants frequently smiled under conditions when normal babies would laugh, a role for tension production, in addition to cognitive factors, was suggested in accounting for the behavior of these infants. PMID:137105

  19. Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  20. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  1. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes-particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale-yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. PMID:25612628

  2. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration. PMID:21724950

  3. Parameters affecting image quality with Time-Resolved Optical Integrative Neutron (TRION) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Feldman, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Weierganz, M.; Brandis, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated by simulations and experimentally the parameters that affect image quality (contrast and spatial-resolution) of the fast neutron TRION detector. A scintillating fiber screen with 0.5×0.5 mm 2 square fibers, few centimeters thick, provides superior spatial-resolution to that of a slab scintillator of the same thickness. A detailed calculation of the neutron interaction processes that influence the point-spread function (PSF) in the scintillating screen has been performed using the GEANT 3.21 code. The calculations showed that neutron scattering within the screen accounts for a significant loss of image contrast. The factors that limit the spatial-resolution of the image are the cross-sectional scintillating-fiber dimensions within the screen and the spatial response of the image-intensifier. A deconvolution method has been applied for restoring the contrast and the spatial-resolution of the fast neutron image.

  4. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  5. Timing Carbohydrate Beverage Intake During Prolonged Moderate Intensity Exercise Does Not Affect Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    SCHWEITZER, GEORGE G.; SMITH, JOHN D.; LECHEMINANT, JAMES D.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate beverages consumed during long-term exercise have been shown to attenuate fatigue and improve performance; however, the optimal timing of ingestion is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if timing the carbohydrate ingestion (continual loading (CL), front-loading (FL), and end-loading (EL)) during prolonged exercise influenced exercise performance in competitive cyclists. Ten well-trained cyclists completed three separate exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer, each lasting 2 hours at an intensity of ~67% VO2 max, followed by a 15-minute “all out” time trial. In the CL trial, a carbohydrate beverage was ingested throughout the trial. In the FL trial, participants ingested a carbohydrate beverage during the first hour and a placebo beverage during the second hour. In the EL trial, a carbohydrate beverage was ingested during the second hour and a placebo during the first hour. The amount of carbohydrate consumed (75 g) was the same among conditions. The order of conditions was single-blinded, counterbalanced, and determined randomly. Performance was measured by the work output during the 15-minute performance ride. There were no differences in work output among the three conditions during the final time trial. In the first hour of exercise, peak venous blood glucose was highest in the FL condition. In the second hour, peak venous blood glucose was highest in the EL condition. Following the time trial, venous blood glucose levels were similar among CL, FL, and EL. Overall, the timing of carbohydrate beverage consumption during prolonged moderate intensity cycling did not alter cycling performance.

  6. Feeling backwards? How temporal order in speech affects the time course of vocal emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rigoulot, Simon; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Pell, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the time course for recognizing vocal expressions of basic emotion in speech varies significantly by emotion type, implying that listeners uncover acoustic evidence about emotions at different rates in speech (e.g., fear is recognized most quickly whereas happiness and disgust are recognized relatively slowly; Pell and Kotz, 2011). To investigate whether vocal emotion recognition is largely dictated by the amount of time listeners are exposed to speech or the position of critical emotional cues in the utterance, 40 English participants judged the meaning of emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterances presented in a gating paradigm, where utterances were gated as a function of their syllable structure in segments of increasing duration from the end of the utterance (i.e., gated syllable-by-syllable from the offset rather than the onset of the stimulus). Accuracy for detecting six target emotions in each gate condition and the mean identification point for each emotion in milliseconds were analyzed and compared to results from Pell and Kotz (2011). We again found significant emotion-specific differences in the time needed to accurately recognize emotions from speech prosody, and new evidence that utterance-final syllables tended to facilitate listeners' accuracy in many conditions when compared to utterance-initial syllables. The time needed to recognize fear, anger, sadness, and neutral from speech cues was not influenced by how utterances were gated, although happiness and disgust were recognized significantly faster when listeners heard the end of utterances first. Our data provide new clues about the relative time course for recognizing vocally-expressed emotions within the 400–1200 ms time window, while highlighting that emotion recognition from prosody can be shaped by the temporal properties of speech. PMID:23805115

  7. Fibrinolytic Therapy in CCU Instead of Emergency Ward: How It Affects Door to Needle Time?

    PubMed Central

    Zeraati, Fatemeh; Homayounfar, Shahram; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Khalili, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The door-to-needle-time (DNT) is considered a standard time for scheduling thrombolysis for acute ST-segment elevation of myocardial infarction and this time can be reduced by minimizing the delay in starting thrombolytic treatment once the patient has reached to the hospital. This study was carried out on a sample of Iranian patients with acute myocardial infarction to determine the DNT in those after changing schedule of thrombolysis during 8 years from emergency to coronary care unit (CCU). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on all consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction admitted to the emergency ward of Ekbatan Hospital in Hamadan, Iran, within 2011 and had an indication of fibrinolytic therapy, which 47 patients were finally indicated to receive streptokinase in the part of CCU. Results: The mean time interval between arrival at the hospital and electrocardiogram (ECG) assessment was 6.30 min, taking ECG and patient's admission was 21.6 min and transferring the patient from admission to CCU ward was 31.9. The time between transferring the patients to CCU ward and fibrinolytic administration order and the time between its ordering and infusion was 31.2 min and 14.0 min respectively. In sum, the DNT was estimated 84.48 ± 53.00 min ranged 30-325 min that was significantly more than standard DNT (P <0.01). Furthermore, DNT mean in this study is significantly more than a study conducted 8 years ago in the same hospital (P <0.01). Conclusions: The DNT is higher than the standard level and higher than the estimated level in the past. This shows that DNT was longer after transferring to CCU. PMID:24829715

  8. Course Development Cycle Time: A Framework for Continuous Process Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Erinn

    2003-01-01

    Details Edinboro University's efforts to reduce the extended cycle time required to develop new courses and programs. Describes a collaborative process improvement framework, illustrated data findings, the team's recommendations for improvement, and the outcomes of those recommendations. (EV)

  9. Dose administration time from before breakfast to before dinner affect thyroid hormone levels?

    PubMed Central

    Ala, Shahram; Akha, Ozra; Kashi, Zahra; Asgari, Hossein; Bahar, Adeleh; Sasanpour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Levothyroxine is commonly used in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine is often administered in the morning, on an empty stomach, to increase its absorption. However, many patients have trouble for taking levothyroxine in the morning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing administration time of levothyroxine from before breakfast to before dinner on serum levels of TSH and T4. Methods: Fifty hypothyroidism patients aged 18-75 years old were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups. Each group received two tablets per day blindly (one levothyroxine tablet and one placebo tablet) before breakfast and before dinner. After two months, the administration time for the tablets was changed for each group, and the new schedule was continued for a further two-month period. The serum TSH and T4 levels were measured before and after treatment in each group. Results: Changing the levothyroxine administration time, resulted in 1.47±0.51 µIU/mL increase in TSH level (P=0.001) and 0.35±1.05µg/dL decrease in T4 level (P=0.3). Conclusion: Changing the levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner minimally reduced the therapeutic efficacy of levothyroxine. PMID:26644879

  10. Does Big-Time Success in Football or Basketball Affect SAT Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Irvin B., III; Amato, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of academics and athletics (including football and basketball variables) on first-year college students' Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores at U.S. universities engaged in big-time intercollegiate sports. Academic variables rather than athletic success variables determine the level of average first-year students' SAT…

  11. How Do Mode and Timing of Follow-up Surveys Affect Evaluation Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundinya, Vikram; Klink, Jenna; Deming, Philip; Meyers, Andrew; Erb, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the analysis of evaluation methods used in a well-designed and comprehensive evaluation effort of a significant Extension program. The evaluation data collection methods were analyzed by questionnaire mode and timing of follow-up surveys. Response rates from the short- and long-term follow-ups and different questionnaire…

  12. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  13. How Work Affects Divorce: The Mediating Role of Financial and Time Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associated with spouses' working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband works on average fewer hours and the wife more…

  14. An examination of factors that could affect choice reaction time in histology technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.; Thornton, J.C.; Husmark, I.

    1989-01-01

    Histology technicians exposed to formaldehyde and solvents have symptoms and objective evidence of neurobehavioral impairment of memory, judgment, and equilibrium. Because reaction time has been prolonged in many groups of workers exposed to toxicants, choice reaction time was measured in 385 female formaldehyde and solvent-exposed histology technicians, and 79 unexposed female laboratory workers. Choice reaction time to a visual stimulus (CRT) is defined, for the purpose of this study, as the time required for discriminated cancellation of two different letters on a microcomputer screen by pressing the matching keys. Initial analysis showed that increases in age, years of cigarette smoking, and hours per day of formaldehyde exposure significantly lengthened CRT, but xylene-toluene exposure had no effect. Since duration of smoking and length of daily formaldehyde exposure were age related, multiple linear regression analysis of CRT was performed using them as independent variables. Increasing age was the only significant factor in lengthening CRT. However, in these female histology technicians, the second measurement one year later was 44 msec faster (p less than .04). The reason for improved performance is unclear, but it may be an effect of training encompassing familiarity, improved attention, or learning.

  15. Corn yield and nitrate loss in subsurface drainage affected by timing of anhydrous ammonia application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surprisingly little research has examined the corn yield, N use efficiency, and water quality implications of N fertilizer timing. We applied anhydrous ammonia either in the fall after harvest (F) at 196 kg ha-1, or in the spring before planting (PP) or as an early sidedress (SD) at rates of 168 kg ...

  16. Grazing initiation timing affects net rturn to dual-purpose wheat systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited experimental data are available to allow direct evaluation of the effects of grazing initiation timing on net returns to dual-purpose wheat systems. The objectives were to simulate the effect of grazing initiation dates on net returns to a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – cattle (Bos taurus) ...

  17. Streamwater transit time estimates affected by isotope transformations within the forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockinger, Michael; Bogena, Heye; Lücke, Andreas; Diekkrüger, Bernd; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotopes of water are often used as tracers of water movement at the catchment scale. Previous studies have mainly used tracer information of open precipitation (OP) to derive the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) models of streamflow emanating from forested catchments. However, rainfall passage through the forest canopy may alter the precipitation water tracer information due to evaporation, possibly leading to erroneous TTD estimates. Here we compare the effects of different precipitation tracer inputs for TTD modeling for a 0.39 km² forested headwater catchment in the Eifel region of Germany: throughfall (TF) measured for 19 months, OP and OP corrected by a constant factor to account for canopy influence (OPcorr). We used the 1.5 year long time series of weekly precipitation and stream isotope data to evaluate changes in stream isotope simulation and TTD results using the TRANSEP model. Stream isotope simulation results were improved with a maximum increase in Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.23 (0.44 to 0.67) when TF was used instead of OP. We found that TF influences on OP isotope composition had a significant effect on TTDs, with transit times decreasing by up to 27%. These results show the importance of accounting for canopy-induced isotope tracer changes in estimating streamwater transit time.

  18. Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Yoshan; Masello, Juan F; Cole, Theresa L; Calderon, Luciano; Munimanda, Gopi K; Thali, Marco R; Alderman, Rachael; Cuthbert, Richard J; Marin, Manuel; Massaro, Melanie; Navarro, Joan; Phillips, Richard A; Ryan, Peter G; Suazo, Cristián G; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in convergently evolved allele size classes, biasing measures of interspecific genetic differentiation. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to develop microsatellite markers from a shotgun genome sequence of the sub-Antarctic seabird, the thin-billed prion (Pachyptila belcheri), that we tested for cross-species amplification in other Pachyptila and related sub-Antarctic species. We found that heterozygosity decreased and the proportion of nonamplifying loci increased with phylogenetic distance from the target species. Surprisingly, we found that species trees estimated from interspecific FST provided better approximations of mtDNA relationships among the studied species than those estimated using DC , even though FST was more affected by null alleles. We observed a significantly nonlinear second order polynomial relationship between microsatellite and mtDNA distances. We propose that the loss of linearity with increasing mtDNA distance stems from an increasing proportion of homoplastic allele size classes that are identical in state, but not identical by descent. Therefore, despite high cross-species amplification success and high polymorphism among the closely related Pachyptila species, we caution against the use of microsatellites in phylogenetic inference among distantly related taxa. PMID:25594938

  19. A Pleiotropic Regulator, Frp, Affects Exopolysaccharide Synthesis, Biofilm Formation, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2006-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, and competence are important physiologic functions and virulence factors for Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we report the role of Frp, a transcriptional regulator, on the regulation of these traits crucial to pathogenesis. An Frp-deficient mutant showed decreased transcription of several genes important in virulence, including those encoding fructosyltransferase (Ftf), glucosyltransferase B (GtfB), and GtfC, by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of Ftf was decreased in the frp mutant, as assessed by Western blotting as well as by the activity assays. Frp deficiency also inhibited the production of GtfB in the presence of glucose and sucrose as well as the production of GtfC in the presence of glucose. As a consequence of the effects on GtfB and -C, sucrose-induced biofilm formation was decreased in the frp mutant. The expression of competence mediated by the competence-signaling peptide (CSP) system, as assessed by comC gene transcription, was attenuated in the frp mutant. As a result, the transformation efficiency was decreased in the frp mutant but was partially restored by adding synthetic CSP. Transcription of the frp gene was significantly increased in the frp mutant under all conditions tested, indicating that frp transcription is autoregulated. Furthermore, complementation of the frp gene in the frp mutant restored transcription of the affected genes to levels similar to those in the wild-type strain. These results suggest that Frp is a novel pleiotropic effector of multiple cellular functions and is involved in the modulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis, sucrose-dependent biofilm formation, and competence development. PMID:16861645

  20. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  1. Time Capture Tool (TimeCaT): Development of a Comprehensive Application to Support Data Capture for Time Motion Studies.

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert M.; Embi, Peter J.; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Time Motion Studies (TMS) have proved to be the gold standard method to measure and quantify clinical workflow, and have been widely used to assess the impact of health information systems implementation. Although there are tools available to conduct TMS, they provide different approaches for multitasking, interruptions, inter-observer reliability assessment and task taxonomy, making results across studies not comparable. We postulate that a significant contributing factor towards the standardization and spread of TMS would be the availability and spread of an accessible, scalable and dynamic tool. We present the development of a comprehensive Time Capture Tool (TimeCaT): a web application developed to support data capture for TMS. Ongoing and continuous development of TimeCaT includes the development and validation of a realistic inter-observer reliability scoring algorithm, the creation of an online clinical tasks ontology, and a novel quantitative workflow comparison method. PMID:23304332

  2. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  3. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring–summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus–host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus–host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems. PMID:26296067

  4. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-02-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring-summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus-host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus-host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems. PMID:26296067

  5. Intraindividual reaction time variability affects P300 amplitude rather than latency

    PubMed Central

    Ramchurn, Anusha; de Fockert, Jan W.; Mason, Luke; Darling, Stephen; Bunce, David

    2014-01-01

    The neural correlates of intraindividual response variability were investigated in a serial choice reaction time (CRT) task. Reaction times (RTs) from the faster and slower portions of the RT distribution for the task were separately aggregated and associated P300 event-related potentials computed. Independent behavioral measures of executive function and IQ were also recorded. Across frontal, fronto-central, central, centro-parietal and parietal scalp regions, P300 amplitudes were significantly greater for faster relative to slower behavioral responses. However, P300 peak amplitude latencies did not differ according to the speed of the behavioral RT. Importantly, controlling for select independent measures of executive function attenuated shared variance in P300 amplitude for faster and slower trials. The findings suggest that P300 amplitude rather than latency is associated with the speed of behavioral RTs, and the possibility that fluctuations in executive control underlie variability in speeded responding. PMID:25120458

  6. Catheter dwell time and diameter affect the recurrence rates after internal urethrotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yürük, Emrah; Yentur, Serhat; Çakır, Ömer Onur; Ertaş, Kasım; Şerefoğlu, Ege Can; Semerciöz, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cold-knife direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) is frequently used as the first-line treatment for urethral stricture disease. Although the steps of the procedure are defined in detail, the duration of catheterization and the diameter of the catheter to be used after the operation are not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of catheter dwell time and diameter on recurrence rates of urethral stricture disease after DVIU. Material and methods Data of 193 consecutive treatment naïve bulbar urethral stricture patients who underwent DVIU between January 2009 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient demographics and stricture characteristics were noted. Catheter dwell times were grouped as <5 and ≥5 days. The diameters of catheters used were 16, 18 and 22 Fr. The association between recurrence rates, catheter dwell times, and diameter were evaluated with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test, respectively. Results Overall 193 patients with a mean age of 64.51±12.99 (range: 17 to 85) years were enrolled in the study. Urethral stricture disease recurred in 45 (23.31%) patients within the first year after DVIU. Mean duration of catheterization was 7.47±4.03 and 4.79±1.94 days in patients with and without recurrences, respectively (p=0.0001). Catheter dwell times for ≥5 days were also associated with increased recurrence (p=0.0001). Of the patients with recurrent strictures, 16, 18 and 22Fr catheters were placed in 22.22%, 20% and 57.78% of the patients, respectively. Increased catheter diameter was also associated with higher recurrence rates (p=0.004). Conclusion Shortening the postoperative duration of catheterization and decreasing the catheter size may result in improved recurrence rates after DVIU. Further prospective randomized trials are necessary to confirm these findings.

  7. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  8. Whole Genome Duplication Affects Evolvability of Flowering Time in an Autotetraploid Plant

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sara L.; Husband, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome duplications have occurred recurrently throughout the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. The resulting genetic and phenotypic changes can influence physiological and ecological responses to the environment; however, the impact of genome copy number on evolvability has rarely been examined experimentally. Here, we evaluate the effect of genome duplication on the ability to respond to selection for early flowering time in lines drawn from naturally occurring diploid and autotetraploid populations of the plant Chamerion angustifolium (fireweed). We contrast this with the result of four generations of selection on synthesized neoautotetraploids, whose genic variability is similar to diploids but genome copy number is similar to autotetraploids. In addition, we examine correlated responses to selection in all three groups. Diploid and both extant tetraploid and neoautotetraploid lines responded to selection with significant reductions in time to flowering. Evolvability, measured as realized heritability, was significantly lower in extant tetraploids ( = 0.31) than diploids ( = 0.40). Neotetraploids exhibited the highest evolutionary response ( = 0.55). The rapid shift in flowering time in neotetraploids was associated with an increase in phenotypic variability across generations, but not with change in genome size or phenotypic correlations among traits. Our results suggest that whole genome duplications, without hybridization, may initially alter evolutionary rate, and that the dynamic nature of neoautopolyploids may contribute to the prevalence of polyploidy throughout eukaryotes. PMID:23028620

  9. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Zotarelli, L; Scholberg, J M; Dukes, M D; Muñoz-Carpena, R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns during the fall and spring to mimic short-term N uptake dynamics. Nitrogen was applied either 1, 3, or 7 d before a weekly leaching event, using KNO3 solution (total of 393 kg N ha(-1)). Residence times (tR) were tR-1, tR-3, and tR-7 d before weekly removal of residual soil N. Plant N uptake was calculated by comparing weekly N recovery from planted with non-planted columns. During the fall, N uptake values at 70 d after emergence were 59, 73, and 126 kg N ha(-1). During the spring, corresponding values were 54, 108, and 159 kg N ha(-1). A linear response of plant growth and yield to the tR was observed under cooler conditions, whereas a quadratic response occurred under warmer conditions. There was correlation between root length density and yield. It is concluded that increasing N fertilizer residence time, which is indicative of better irrigation practices, enhanced overall sweet corn growth, yield, N uptake, and FUE, consequently reduced the risk of N being leached below the root zone before complete N uptake. PMID:18453447

  10. Eye contact affects attention more than arousal as revealed by prospective time estimation.

    PubMed

    Jarick, Michelle; Laidlaw, Kaitlin E W; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Eye contact can both increase arousal and engage attention. Because these two changes impact time estimation differently, we were able to use a prospective time estimation task to assess the relative changes in arousal and attention during eye contact. Pairs of participants made a 1-minute prospective time estimate while sitting side-by-side and performing three different gaze trials: looking at the wall away from their partner (baseline/away trials), looking at their partner's profile (profile trials), or making eye contact with their partner (eye contact trials). We found that participants produced significantly longer estimates when they were engaged in eye contact, more so than when they looked at another person's profile or baseline. As research has shown that people produce shorter estimates during arousing events and longer estimates when attention is captured, we attribute this difference to the attention-demanding process of interacting with another person, via mutual eye contact, over and above any changes in arousal. PMID:27002959

  11. The time between intention and action affects the experience of action

    PubMed Central

    Vinding, Mikkel C.; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e., intentions for immediate actions) and delayed intentions (i.e., intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action). The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action. PMID:26150783

  12. Altered cytokine network in gestational diabetes mellitus affects maternal insulin and placental-fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Lauren; Belkacemi, Louiza

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by an altered inflammatory profile, compared to the non-pregnant state with an adequate balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines needed for normal development. Cytokines are small secreted proteins expressed mainly in immunocompetent cells in the reproductive system. From early developmental stages onward, the secretory activity of placenta cells clearly contributes to increase local as well as systemic levels of cytokines. The placental production of cytokines may affect mother and fetus independently. In turn because of this unique position at the maternal fetal interface, the placenta is also exposed to the regulatory influence of cytokines from maternal and fetal circulations, and hence, may be affected by changes in any of these. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an overall alteration of the cytokine network. This review discusses the changes that occur in cytokines post GDM and their negative effects on maternal insulin and placental-fetal development. PMID:27230834

  13. Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging. PMID:8138165

  14. Propagation container and timing of propagation affects growth and quality of oak seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the container effect and the timeline of seed propagation on germination and subsequent shoot and root development for container-grown oaks. Quercus nigra and Q. texana had equal or better growth and better root ratings when acorns were sown in Anderson t...

  15. No Time To Kill: Entrainment and Accelerating Courseware Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millington, Paula Crnkovich

    This paper examines the concept of time in multimedia, World Wide Web-based courseware development. The biological concept of entrainment (the alignment of rhythms within and between systems) to accelerate courseware development is explored. The discussion begins with the foundational concepts of entrainment from biological systems and social…

  16. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  17. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  18. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    PubMed

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  19. The Affect of the Thermosphere on Quiet-Time Plasmasphere Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NRL SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code[1] has shown that the plasmasphere undergoes diurnal oscillations[2] and that those oscillations are consistent with variations found in in situ IMAGE/RPI density measurements during a quiet-time refilling event, 2001 February 1-5[3]. The SAMI3 ionosphere code includes 7 ion species (H+,He+,O+,N+,O+2,N+2,NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e-. We include a Weimer potential at high latitudes, driven by the solar wind, and the self-consistent dynamo potential at mid-to-low latitudes, driven by specified winds, such as the HWM07 or HWM93 empirical model. During this quiet-time event, we find that the shape of the plasmasphere at any given time varies significantly with the wind model. In all cases, however, the diurnal oscillations persist and a similar degree of model-data agreement is found. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall, 2013, "Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3," Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 [2] Krall, J., and J. D. Huba, 2013, "SAMI3 simulation of plasmasphere refilling," Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2484-2488, doi:10.1002/GRL.50458 [3] Krall, J, J. D. Huba, R. E. Denton and T.-W. Wu', 2013, "Density oscillations during post-storm plasmasphere refilling: 2001 February 1-5," Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted Research supported by NRL base funds and NASA.

  20. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    PubMed Central

    Žarić, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Blomert, Leo; Bonte, Milene

    2015-01-01

    A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n = 17) followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0), the letter “a” was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200) it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1), dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN) window. After the training (T2), our results showed earlier (and enhanced) crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN) in the simultaneous condition (AV0) measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration. PMID:26157382

  1. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  2. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  3. Imaging Mouse Development with Confocal Time-Lapse Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowotschin, Sonja; Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The gene expression, signaling, and cellular dynamics driving mouse embryo development have emerged through embryology and genetic studies. However, since mouse development is a temporally regulated three-dimensional process, any insight needs to be placed in this context of real-time visualization. Live imaging using genetically encoded fluorescent protein reporters is pushing the envelope of our understanding by uncovering unprecedented insights into mouse development and leading to the formulation of quantitative accurate models. PMID:20691876

  4. Case for real-time systems development - Quo vadis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, Dona M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper focuses on the distinctive issues of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) products for the development of real-time systems. CASE technologies and associated standardization efforts are evolving from sets of conflicting interests. The majority of case products are intended for use in the development of management information systems. CASE products to support the development of large, complex real-time systems must provide additional capabilities. Generic concerns include the quality of the implementation of the required method for the phase of the system's development and whether the vendor is stable and committed to evolving the products in parallel with nonproprietary standards. The CASE market is undergoing considerable consolidation. The paper describes the major forces, cooperating entities, and remaining uncertainties that need to be weighed in near-term CASE procurements to limit risk of loss of investment in project time, trianing, and money.

  5. Vibrotactile timing: Are vibrotactile judgements of duration affected by repetitive stimulation?

    PubMed

    Jones, Luke A; Ogden, Ruth S

    2016-01-01

    Timing in the vibrotactile modality was explored. Previous research has shown that repetitive auditory stimulation (in the form of click-trains) and visual stimulation (in the form of flickers) can alter duration judgements in a manner consistent with a "speeding up" of an internal clock. In Experiments 1 and 2 we investigated whether repetitive vibrotactile stimulation in the form of vibration trains would also alter duration judgements of either vibrotactile stimuli or visual stimuli. Participants gave verbal estimates of the duration of vibrotactile and visual stimuli that were preceded either by five seconds of 5-Hz vibration trains, or, by a five-second period of no vibrotactile stimulation, the end of which was signalled by a single vibration pulse (control condition). The results showed that durations were overestimated in the vibrotactile train conditions relative to the control condition; however, the effects were not multiplicative (did not increase with increasing stimulus duration) and as such were not consistent with a speeding up of the internal clock, but rather with an additive attentional effect. An additional finding was that the slope of the vibrotactile psychometric (control condition) function was not significantly different from that of the visual (control condition) function, which replicates a finding from a previous cross-modal comparison of timing. PMID:25965268

  6. Trophallaxis in filled-crop honeybees (Apis mellifera L.): food-loading time affects unloading behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainselboim, A. J.; Farina, W. M.

    Honeybees ingested 50% w/w (1.8M) sucrose solution at a rate feeder offering either 16.5, 32.5 or 65 μl/min. While the time spent ingesting solution at the feeder decreased significantly with increasing flow of solution, bees attained maximum crop loads with this range of flows. Different parameters related to mouth-to-mouth food exchange (trophallaxis) showed important modulations as the offered flow of solution was incremented. Trophallactic transfer rate, i.e. the speed at which liquid food is transferred from donor to recipient bee, was found to increase along with increasing profitability at the rate feeder. In the present case, food source profitability could have been evaluated by foragers either by measuring the time invested in ingesting the solution, or by direct assessment of the flow rate of the feeder. Thus it seems that perception of profitability conditions at the food sourcesuffices for later representation in the hive through trophallactic contacts, independently of crop-filling state.

  7. Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean sea at ecological time scales.

    PubMed

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  8. Modifiable variables affecting interdialytic weight gain include dialysis time, frequency, and dialysate sodium.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Benjamin K A; Dixon, Stephanie N; Huang, Shi-Han S; Leitch, Rosemary E; Suri, Rita S; Chan, Christopher T; Lindsay, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and all-cause mortality. Dialysate sodium concentration may cause diffusion gradients with plasma sodium and influence subsequent IDWG. Dialysis time and frequency may also influence the outcomes of this Na(+) gradient; these have been overlooked. Our objective was to identify modifiable factors influencing IDWG. We performed a retrospective multivariable regression analyses of data from 86 home hemodialysis patients treated by hemodialysis modalities differing in frequency and session duration to determine factors involved that predict IDWG. Age, diabetic status, and residual renal function did not correlate with IDWG in the univariable analysis. However, using a combination of backwards selection and Akaike information criterion to build our model, we created an equation that predicted IDWG on the basis of serum albumin, age, patient sex, dialysis frequency, and the diffusive balance of sodium, represented by the product of the duration of dialysis and the patient plasma to dialysate Na(+) gradient. This equation was internally validated using bootstrapping, and externally validated in a temporally distinct patient population. We have created an equation to predict IDWG on the basis of independent factors readily available before a dialysis session. The modifiable factors include dialysis time and frequency, and dialysate sodium. Patient sex, age, and serum albumin are also correlated with IDWG. Further work is required to establish how improvements in IDWG influence cardiovascular and other clinical outcomes. PMID:23782770

  9. Seasonal timing of first rain storms affects rare plant population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in forecasting the ecological consequences of climate change is understanding the relative importance of changes to mean conditions vs. changes to discrete climatic events, such as storms, frosts, or droughts. Here we show that the first major storm of the growing season strongly influences the population dynamics of three rare and endangered annual plant species in a coastal California (USA) ecosystem. In a field experiment we used moisture barriers and water addition to manipulate the timing and temperature associated with first major rains of the season. The three focal species showed two- to fivefold variation in per capita population growth rates between the different storm treatments, comparable to variation found in a prior experiment imposing eightfold differences in season-long precipitation. Variation in germination was a major demographic driver of how two of three species responded to the first rains. For one of these species, the timing of the storm was the most critical determinant of its germination, while the other showed enhanced germination with colder storm temperatures. The role of temperature was further supported by laboratory trials showing enhanced germination in cooler treatments. Our work suggests that, because of species-specific cues for demographic transitions such as germination, changes to discrete climate events may be as, if not more, important than changes to season-long variables.

  10. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  11. Analyzing Factors Affecting Emergency Department Length of Stay-Using a Competing Risk-accelerated Failure Time Model.

    PubMed

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Te-Fa; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) is associated with ED crowding and related complications. Previous studies either analyzed single patient disposition groups or combined different endpoints as a whole. The aim of this study is to evaluate different effects of relevant factors affecting ED LOS among different patient disposition groups.This is a retrospective electronic data analysis. The ED LOS and relevant covariates of all patients between January 2013 and December 2013 were collected. A competing risk accelerated failure time model was used to compute endpoint type-specific time ratios (TRs) for ED LOS.A total of 149,472 patients was included for analysis with an overall medium ED LOS of 2.15 [interquartile range (IQR) = 6.51] hours. The medium LOS for discharged, admission, and mortality patients was 1.46 (IQR = 2.07), 11.3 (IQR = 33.2), and 7.53 (IQR = 28.0) hours, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age (TR = 1.012, P < 0.0001], higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 2.371, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (compared with adult nontrauma, TR = 3.084, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 2.712, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (compared with night shift, TR = 1.451, P < 0.0001) were associated with prolonged ED LOS in the discharged patient group. However, opposite results were noted for higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 0.532, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (TR = 0.375, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 0.852, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (TR = 0.88, P < 0.0001) in the admission patient group.Common influential factors such as age, patient entity, triage acuity level, or arrival time may have varying effects on different disposition groups of patients. These findings and the suggested model could be used for EDs to develop individually tailored approaches to minimize ED LOS and further improve ED crowding status

  12. Analyzing Factors Affecting Emergency Department Length of Stay—Using a Competing Risk-accelerated Failure Time Model

    PubMed Central

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Te-Fa; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) is associated with ED crowding and related complications. Previous studies either analyzed single patient disposition groups or combined different endpoints as a whole. The aim of this study is to evaluate different effects of relevant factors affecting ED LOS among different patient disposition groups. This is a retrospective electronic data analysis. The ED LOS and relevant covariates of all patients between January 2013 and December 2013 were collected. A competing risk accelerated failure time model was used to compute endpoint type-specific time ratios (TRs) for ED LOS. A total of 149,472 patients was included for analysis with an overall medium ED LOS of 2.15 [interquartile range (IQR) = 6.51] hours. The medium LOS for discharged, admission, and mortality patients was 1.46 (IQR = 2.07), 11.3 (IQR = 33.2), and 7.53 (IQR = 28.0) hours, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age (TR = 1.012, P < 0.0001], higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 2.371, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (compared with adult nontrauma, TR = 3.084, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 2.712, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (compared with night shift, TR = 1.451, P < 0.0001) were associated with prolonged ED LOS in the discharged patient group. However, opposite results were noted for higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 0.532, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (TR = 0.375, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 0.852, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (TR = 0.88, P < 0.0001) in the admission patient group. Common influential factors such as age, patient entity, triage acuity level, or arrival time may have varying effects on different disposition groups of patients. These findings and the suggested model could be used for EDs to develop individually tailored approaches to minimize ED LOS and further improve ED crowding

  13. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7+ somite development and directly increased HNK-1+ neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1+ neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development. PMID:25568339

  14. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  15. Can Chemicals in the Environment That Affect Hormone Function Disrupt Development?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hormones, including estrogens and androgens, regulate the expression of genes that play critical roles in guiding the development of organ systems in the embryo. Changes in either the amount or the timing of hormone exposure can lead to altered human development. For example, hum...

  16. Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Evoked Potentials and Self-Reported Gender in People Affected by Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Amy B.; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E.; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) – (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46, XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) – the male-typical pattern – than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD. PMID:25038289

  17. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD. PMID:25038289

  18. The Use of Narrative in Understanding how Cancer Affects Development: The Stories of One Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA SUNMI

    2010-01-01

    Although cancer disrupts development, the experience of having cancer is often understood using developmental theories that do not assume serious illness at an early age. This article presents a narrative analysis of one patient’s story of survivorship. She tells three interrelated stories: how others have reacted to her illness; her struggles to understand her illness; and how it has changed her priorities. Taken together, her stories comprise an account of how the experience has affected her development. Her story is an example of how individuals integrate unusual life events into their development. It suggests that focusing more on how unusual life experiences contribute to development may expand and enrich our understanding of developmental processes. PMID:21151860

  19. Development of a 10 picosecond time-of-flight Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Andrew G

    2010-03-18

    This Advanced Detector Research proposal presented a plan to develop an extremely fast time-of-flight detector for measuring the arrival time of beam protons scattered at small angles in high energy hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The proposed detectors employ a gas or quartz Cerenkov radiator which produce light when a proton passes through them, coupled to a micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) that converts the light to an electrical pulse. The very small jitter of the pulse time provided by the MCP-PMT, combined with downstream electronics that accurately measure the pulse time results in a time-of-flight measurement of unprecedented accuracy. This ADR proposal was extremely successful, culminating in the development of a 10 ps resolution time-of-flight system, about an order of magnitude better than any time-of-flight system previously deployed at a collider experiment. The primary areas of advance were the usage of new radiator geometries providing fast detector signals, using multiple measurements to obtain a superior system resolution, and development of an electronics readout system tuned to maintain the excellent timing afforded by the detector. Test beam and laser tests have improved the knowledge of MCP-PMT’s and enabled the evaluation of the new detector concepts. In addition to being a generally useful detector concept, these fast timing detectors are a major component of proposed upgrades to the LHC ATLAS and CMS detectors, and if deployed could significantly enhance the discovery potential of these detectors, including contributions to the measurement of the properties of the Higgs Boson. In addition to the potential for furthering fundamental understanding of nature, the knowledge gained on MCP-PMT’s could be useful in developing improved versions of these devices which have promise in diverse fields such as biological and medical imaging.

  20. Time changes in radiocesium concentration in aquatic systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Also detailed field monitoring has been condcuted in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. These monitoring includes, 1) Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use, 2) 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope, 3) Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water, 4)Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment, and 5)Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide

  1. Institutional Guidance of Affective Bonding: Moral Values Development in Brazilian Military Education.

    PubMed

    Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2016-09-01

    In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation. PMID:26960934

  2. Physical Activity, Menopause, and Quality of Life: The Role of Affect and Self-Worth across Time

    PubMed Central

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life, however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related quality of life (QOL) and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Design Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking, yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey two years following the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related quality of life. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity - quality of life relationship over time. Results At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (βs = .23 and −.52) and for symptoms also to decreased positive affect (β = −.47), and both physical self-worth (β = .34) and affect (β = .43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R2 = .775). Conclusions The findings support the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition. PMID:19169167

  3. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  4. Factors Affecting the Disposition of Research-Based Innovations in the Development of a Basal Reading Program: A Case Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wile, J. M.

    A study investigated how the beliefs of literacy scholars affect the development of basal reading programs, the roles literacy scholars play in the development of new reading programs, and some of the critical factors that affect the disposition of innovative ideas. Two literacy scholars who had actively collaborated on the development of separate…

  5. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  6. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  7. Socioeconomic status affects pulmonary hypertension disease severity at time of first evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Talwar, Ankoor; Kohn, Nina; Klinger, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases, leading to worse disease severity at initial presentation. There is a paucity of these data in the pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) population. We studied the association of SES, as measured by zip code–based median annual household income, with World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) at time of first evaluation in PHTN patients. All patients evaluated at our center with a right heart catheterization revealing a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg within 12 months of initial evaluation were considered for the study. Demographics, WHO-FC, and zip codes were obtained from retrospective chart analysis. The 2010 US census was used to obtain zip code–based annual median income. The income groups were divided into quartiles. Patients were categorized by their WHO-FC and zip code–derived median income. Similar analyses were conducted for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were analyzed in SAS, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. There were 228 PHTN patients (70 [30.7%] male, 158 [69.3%] female). As median income decreased, the FC at presentation increased, signifying higher disease severity (Spearman correlation: r = −0.161, P < 0.0515). This association between median income groups and WHO-FC at initial evaluation was significant (χ2 test: P < 0.0168). There were 116 PAH patients (32 [27.6%] male, 84 [72.4%] female). There was again a negative relationship between income and initial FC (Spearman correlation: r = −0.0307, P < 0.0007). A lower SES was associated with worse disease, as measured by WHO-FC. PMID:27252845

  8. Did FDA Decisionmaking Affect Anti-Psychotic Drug Prescribing in Children?: A Time-Trend Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Franklin, Jessica M.; Eddings, Wesley; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, many drugs are prescribed for non-FDA-approved (“off-label”) uses. If substantial evidence supports the efficacy and safety of off-label indications, manufacturers can pursue formal FDA approval through supplemental new drug applications (sNDAs). We evaluated the effect of FDA determinations on pediatric sNDAs for antipsychotic drugs on prescribing of these products in children. Methods Retrospective, segmented time-series analysis using new prescription claims during 2003–2012 for three atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone). FDA approved the sNDAs for pediatric use of olanzapine and quetiapine in December 2009, but did not approve the sNDA for pediatric use of ziprasidone. Results During the months before FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA, new prescriptions of olanzapine decreased for both children and adults. After FDA approval, the increase in prescribing trends was similar for both age groups (P = 0.47 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; P = 0.37 for other indications). Comparable decreases in use of quetiapine were observed between pediatrics and adults following FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.88; P = 0.63). Prescribing of ziprasidone decreased similarly for pediatric and adult patients after FDA non-approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.61; P = 0.79). Conclusions The FDA’s sNDA determinations relating to use of antipsychotics in children did not result in changes in use that favored the approved sNDAs and disfavored the unapproved sNDA. Improved communication may help translate the agency’s expert judgments to clinical practice. PMID:27032095

  9. Socioeconomic status affects pulmonary hypertension disease severity at time of first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Arunabh; Sahni, Sonu; Talwar, Ankoor; Kohn, Nina; Klinger, James R

    2016-06-01

    A low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases, leading to worse disease severity at initial presentation. There is a paucity of these data in the pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) population. We studied the association of SES, as measured by zip code-based median annual household income, with World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) at time of first evaluation in PHTN patients. All patients evaluated at our center with a right heart catheterization revealing a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg within 12 months of initial evaluation were considered for the study. Demographics, WHO-FC, and zip codes were obtained from retrospective chart analysis. The 2010 US census was used to obtain zip code-based annual median income. The income groups were divided into quartiles. Patients were categorized by their WHO-FC and zip code-derived median income. Similar analyses were conducted for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were analyzed in SAS, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. There were 228 PHTN patients (70 [30.7%] male, 158 [69.3%] female). As median income decreased, the FC at presentation increased, signifying higher disease severity (Spearman correlation: r = -0.161, P < 0.0515). This association between median income groups and WHO-FC at initial evaluation was significant (χ(2) test: P < 0.0168). There were 116 PAH patients (32 [27.6%] male, 84 [72.4%] female). There was again a negative relationship between income and initial FC (Spearman correlation: r = -0.0307, P < 0.0007). A lower SES was associated with worse disease, as measured by WHO-FC. PMID:27252845

  10. Length of time in tissue culture can affect the selected glyphosate resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Papanikou, Efstratia; Brotherton, Jeffrey E; Widholm, Jack M

    2004-02-01

    Usually, stepwise selection of plant suspension cultures with gradually increasing concentrations of the herbicide glyphosate results in the amplification of the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19) gene that leads to resistance by increasing EPSPS mRNA and enzyme activity. We show that glyphosate selection with newly initiated suspension cultures can produce resistant lines with resistance mechanisms other than gene amplification and that usually as the cultures age gene amplification becomes the predominant mechanism. Gene amplification did not occur in 3 lines selected from 5-month-old Datura innoxia Mill. cultures but did occur in all 10 lines selected after 52 months. Selection with Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) less than 5 months old produced 2 lines out of 24 with no EPSPS amplification while all 17 lines selected from older cultures contained amplified genes. Lines selected from the oldest culture (35 years) also exhibited amplification of several different genes, indicating the expression of different EPSPS genes or an enhanced gene amplification incidence. None of the 15 lines selected from 2 different 5-month-old Daucus carota L. (carrot) lines exhibited amplification while amplification led to the resistance of all 7 lines selected from one of the original carrot lines (DHL) after 3 years. However, the other line (Car4) was exceptional and produced only non-amplified lines (9 of 9) after 8 years in culture. These results show that plant tissue cultures change with time in culture and that several different new mechanisms can result in glyphosate resistance. PMID:14566562

  11. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  12. Racial Differences Affecting Night Time Blood Pressure Dipping Groups in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, LH; Elaine, Huang; Kong, RT

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm, with dipping of BP at night. However, little has been done to show how the dipping groups vary amongst the White and Asian population at different periods of the year. This study aims to examine the pattern of nocturnal dipping between the White and Asian population, as well as to compare it to the different timings of the year, between summer and winter. Methods Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor recordings were obtained from 220 patients, half were White patients obtained from Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland and half were Asian patients from National Heart Centre, Singapore during the summer period from May to June and the winter period from October to December. Results Both the Irish and Singaporeans exhibit a decrease in total number of reverse dipper from summer to winter. However, the redistribution of reverse dipper was mainly to the dippers in Singapore, while in Ireland it was to both the extreme dipper and dipper. Irish seasonal changes also resulted in an increase in nocturnal diastolic pressure (95% CI, 0.72 to 6.03, 3.37 mm Hg; p<0.05) and a change in the duration of dipping at night (95% CI, 0.045 to 1.01, 0.53 Hours; p<0.05). Conclusion Regardless of race or temperature, reverse dippers seem to decrease in winter. However, the racial differences dictate the redistribution of the fall in number of dippers. This has implications on how reverse dippers should be treated at different periods of the year. PMID:26989605

  13. cdk4 Deficiency Inhibits Skin Tumor Development but Does Not Affect Normal Keratinocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; LaCava, Margaret; Moons, David S.; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Conti, Claudio J.

    2002-01-01

    Most human tumors have mutations that result in deregulation of the cdk4/cyclin-Ink4-Rb pathway. Overexpression of D-type cyclins or cdk4 and inactivation of Ink4 inhibitors are common in human tumors. Conversely, lack of cyclin D1 expression results in significant reduction in mouse skin and mammary tumor development. However, complete elimination of tumor development was not observed in these models, suggesting that other cyclin/cdk complexes play an important role in tumorigenesis. Here we described the effects of cdk4 deficiency on mouse skin proliferation and tumor development. Cdk4 deficiency resulted in a 98% reduction in the number of tumors generated through the two-stage carcinogenesis model. The absence of cdk4 did not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation and both wild-type and cdk4 knockout epidermis are equally affected after topical treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. In similar fashion, cdk4 knockout keratinocytes proliferated well in an in vivo model of wound-induced proliferation. Biochemical studies in mouse epidermis showed that cdk6 activity increased twofold in cdk4-deficient mice compared to wild-type siblings. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches to inhibit cdk4 activity could provide a target to inhibit tumor development with minimal or no effect in normal tissue. PMID:12163365

  14. Factors affecting the coefficient of variation of stride time of the elderly without falling history: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Nakahara, Masami; Ikeda, Takuro; Okamoto, Ryuji; Kurosawa, Kazuo; Horikawa, Etuo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time in an exercise intervention for the elderly without falling history. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 42 elderly women who had participated in a care prevention program for 12 weeks. Stride time CV, motor function, movement ability, balance, Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) score, and Life-space Assessment (LSA) score before and after the intervention were examined for significant differences using the paired t-test. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the factors that changed in the stride time CV. [Results] There were significant differences in muscle strength, sit-and-reach flexibility, the one-leg standing time (eyes open), the maximum walking speed, local stability of trunk acceleration, The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-T), the MFES score, and the LSA score between the pre-intervention and post-intervention. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that improvement of quadriceps muscle strength, sit-and-reach flexibility, the one-leg standing time, TUG-T, local stability of trunk acceleration (vertical direction) and MFES score were independent variables explaining the reduction in stride time CV. [Conclusion] The results was suggested that it might be possible to reduce the stride time CV by improving strength, flexibility and dynamic balance, and reducing fear of falls through interventions. PMID:25995563

  15. Timing of neuron development in the rodent vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The timing of cell generation (onset and duration) in the developing rat vestibular and proprioceptive systems is investigated. The results clearly indicate a defined time-span for generation of all neurons in the central nervous system nuclei studied. This cytogenetic period in both vestibular and proprioceptive sensory nuclei is determined to occur during and immediately after placentation, a potentially critical period for spaceflight exposure due to alterations in maternal physiology.

  16. Development of optical fiber frequency and time distribution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultra stable optical fiber distribution systems for the dissemination of frequency and timing references is reported. The ultimate design goals for these systems are a frequency stability of 10 to the -17 power for tau or = 100 sec and time stability of + or - 0.1 ns for 1 year and operation over distances or = 30 km. A prototype system is reviewed and progress is discussed.

  17. The hydrology of northern peatlands as affected by biogenic gas: Current developments and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Siegel, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that accumulation and release of biogenic gas from northern peatlands may substantially affect future climate. Sudden release of free-phase gas bubbles into the atmosphere may preclude the conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the uppermost oxic layer of the peat, resulting in greater contribution of methane to the atmosphere than is currently estimated. The hydrology of these peatlands also affects and is affected by this process, especially when gas is released suddenly and episodically. Indirect hydrological evidence indicates that ebullitive gas releases are relatively frequent in some peatlands and time-averaged rates may be significantly greater than diffusive releases. Estimates of free-phase gas contained in peat have ranged from 0 to nearly 20% of the peat volume. Abrupt changes in the volume of gas may alter hydraulic gradients and movement of water and solutes in peat, which in turn could alter composition and fluxes of the gas. Peat surfaces also move vertically and horizontally in response to accumulation and release of free-phase gas. Future research should address the distribution, temporal variability, and relative significance of ebullition in peatlands and the consequent hydrological responses to these gas-emission events. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Real-time prediction of cell division timing in developing zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Satoshi; Akanuma, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sato, Yasuomi D; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    Combination of live-imaging and live-manipulation of developing embryos in vivo provides a useful tool to study developmental processes. Identification and selection of target cells for an in vivo live-manipulation are generally performed by experience- and knowledge-based decision-making of the observer. Computer-assisted live-prediction method would be an additional approach to facilitate the identification and selection of the appropriate target cells. Herein we report such a method using developing zebrafish embryos. We choose V2 neural progenitor cells in developing zebrafish embryo as their successive shape changes can be visualized in real-time in vivo. We developed a relatively simple mathematical method of describing cellular geometry of V2 cells to predict cell division-timing based on their successively changing shapes in vivo. Using quantitatively measured 4D live-imaging data, features of V2 cell-shape at each time point prior to division were extracted and a statistical model capturing the successive changes of the V2 cell-shape was developed. By applying sequential Bayesian inference method to the model, we successfully predicted division-timing of randomly selected individual V2 cells while the cell behavior was being live-imaged. This system could assist pre-selecting target cells desirable for real-time manipulation-thus, presenting a new opportunity for in vivo experimental systems. PMID:27597656

  19. Real-time prediction of cell division timing in developing zebrafish embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kozawa, Satoshi; Akanuma, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sato, Yasuomi D.; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of live-imaging and live-manipulation of developing embryos in vivo provides a useful tool to study developmental processes. Identification and selection of target cells for an in vivo live-manipulation are generally performed by experience- and knowledge-based decision-making of the observer. Computer-assisted live-prediction method would be an additional approach to facilitate the identification and selection of the appropriate target cells. Herein we report such a method using developing zebrafish embryos. We choose V2 neural progenitor cells in developing zebrafish embryo as their successive shape changes can be visualized in real-time in vivo. We developed a relatively simple mathematical method of describing cellular geometry of V2 cells to predict cell division-timing based on their successively changing shapes in vivo. Using quantitatively measured 4D live-imaging data, features of V2 cell-shape at each time point prior to division were extracted and a statistical model capturing the successive changes of the V2 cell-shape was developed. By applying sequential Bayesian inference method to the model, we successfully predicted division-timing of randomly selected individual V2 cells while the cell behavior was being live-imaged. This system could assist pre-selecting target cells desirable for real-time manipulation–thus, presenting a new opportunity for in vivo experimental systems. PMID:27597656

  20. Mechatronic objects for real-time control software development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Patrick F.; Horner, Jeremy W.

    1998-12-01

    The design of real-time control software for a mechatronic system must be effectively integrated with the system hardware in order to achieve useful qualitative benefits beyond basic functionality. The sought-after benefits include: rapid development, flexibility, maintainability, extensively, and reusability. In this work we focus upon the interface between the device drivers and the control software with the aim to properly design this interface to best realize the aforementioned benefits. The results of this fundamental research include the development of an easily manageable set of four C++ object classes following an object-oriented approach to software design. These Universal Mechatronic Objects (UMOs) are applicable to a wide spectrum of actuators including dc motors, stepper motors, and solenoids; and sensors including pressure sensors, microswitches, and encoders. UMOs encapsulate the interface between the electrical subsystem and the control subsystem, providing the control software developer with a powerful abstraction that facilitates the development of hardware-independent control code and providing the electrical subsystem developer with an effective abstraction that facilitates the development of application-independent device drivers. Objects which are intuitively related to hardware components of the mechatronic system can be declared using the UMOs early in the system development process to facilitate the rapid concurrent development of both the electrical and the control subsystems. Our UMOs were developed as part of a project to implement a real-time control system for a z-theta robotic manipulator. The z- theta manipulator is one component of the Minifactory project in the Microdynamic Systems Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University. The goals of this agile assembly project include the reduction of factory setup and changeover times, plug-and-play type modularity, and the reuse of its components. The application of UMOs to the manipulator

  1. SPL8, an SBP-box gene that affects pollen sac development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Unte, Ulrike S; Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Pesaresi, Paolo; Gandikota, Madhuri; Leister, Dario; Saedler, Heinz; Huijser, Peter

    2003-04-01

    SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-box genes (SBP-box genes) encode plant-specific proteins that share a highly conserved DNA binding domain, the SBP domain. Although likely to represent transcription factors, little is known about their role in development. In Arabidopsis, SBP-box genes constitute a structurally heterogeneous family of 16 members known as SPL genes. For one of these genes, SPL8, we isolated three independent transposon-tagged mutants, all of which exhibited a strong reduction in fertility. Microscopic analysis revealed that this reduced fertility is attributable primarily to abnormally developed microsporangia, which exhibit premeiotic abortion of the sporocytes. In addition to its role in microsporogenesis, the SPL8 knockout also seems to affect megasporogenesis, trichome formation on sepals, and stamen filament elongation. The SPL8 mutants described help to uncover the roles of SBP-box genes in plant development. PMID:12671094

  2. SPL8, an SBP-Box Gene That Affects Pollen Sac Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Unte, Ulrike S.; Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Pesaresi, Paolo; Gandikota, Madhuri; Leister, Dario; Saedler, Heinz; Huijser, Peter

    2003-01-01

    SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN–box genes (SBP-box genes) encode plant-specific proteins that share a highly conserved DNA binding domain, the SBP domain. Although likely to represent transcription factors, little is known about their role in development. In Arabidopsis, SBP-box genes constitute a structurally heterogeneous family of 16 members known as SPL genes. For one of these genes, SPL8, we isolated three independent transposon-tagged mutants, all of which exhibited a strong reduction in fertility. Microscopic analysis revealed that this reduced fertility is attributable primarily to abnormally developed microsporangia, which exhibit premeiotic abortion of the sporocytes. In addition to its role in microsporogenesis, the SPL8 knockout also seems to affect megasporogenesis, trichome formation on sepals, and stamen filament elongation. The SPL8 mutants described help to uncover the roles of SBP-box genes in plant development. PMID:12671094

  3. Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kong-Yan; Zuo, Guo-Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xing-Yao; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2016-06-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America coincided with a marked increase in microcephaly in newborns. However, the causal link between maternal ZIKV infection and malformation of the fetal brain has not been firmly established. Here we show a vertical transmission of ZIKV in mice and a marked effect on fetal brain development. We found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a contemporary ZIKV strain in pregnant mice led to the infection of radial glia cells (RGs) of dorsal ventricular zone of the fetuses, the primary neural progenitors responsible for cortex development, and caused a marked reduction of these cortex founder cells in the fetuses. Interestingly, the infected fetal mice exhibited a reduced cavity of lateral ventricles and a discernable decrease in surface areas of the cortex. This study thus supports the conclusion that vertically transmitted ZIKV affects fetal brain development and provides a valuable animal model for the evaluation of potential therapeutic or preventative strategies. PMID:27174054

  4. Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kong-Yan; Zuo, Guo-Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xing-Yao; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2016-01-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America coincided with a marked increase in microcephaly in newborns. However, the causal link between maternal ZIKV infection and malformation of the fetal brain has not been firmly established. Here we show a vertical transmission of ZIKV in mice and a marked effect on fetal brain development. We found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a contemporary ZIKV strain in pregnant mice led to the infection of radial glia cells (RGs) of dorsal ventricular zone of the fetuses, the primary neural progenitors responsible for cortex development, and caused a marked reduction of these cortex founder cells in the fetuses. Interestingly, the infected fetal mice exhibited a reduced cavity of lateral ventricles and a discernable decrease in surface areas of the cortex. This study thus supports the conclusion that vertically transmitted ZIKV affects fetal brain development and provides a valuable animal model for the evaluation of potential therapeutic or preventative strategies. PMID:27174054

  5. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, H.; Koshimura, S.; Imai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Namegaya, Y.; Nishimura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by visually interpreting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using Geographic Information System (GIS), and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses. From the developed fragility functions, we quantitatively understood the vulnerability of a coastal region in American Samoa characterized by steep terrains and ria coasts.

  6. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  7. Strategies for dealing with emergency department overcrowding: a one-year study on how bedside registration affects patient throughput times.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Kevin M; Shofer, Frances S; Abbuhl, Stephanie B

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the implementation of bedside registration would affect patient throughput times in an urban, academic emergency department. This was a before-and-after interventional study. An 8-month period before initiating bedside registration in November 2001 was compared to three subsequent 4-month intervals. Four times of day and three triage classifications were examined. Data were analyzed using a three-way analysis of covariance. There were 58,225 patient encounters analyzed. There was a significant difference in time from triage to room after bedside registration began (p < 0.0001). When examined by triage class, there were no differences in triage-to-room for emergent patients, a significant decrease for urgent patients initially and a significant decrease for non-urgent patients. Bedside registration by time of day initially reduced all four time-of-day periods but over the year they returned to pre-bedside registration levels, except for the morning period. Bedside registration decreased triage-to-room times for non-urgent patients and urgent patients initially, but this was not sustained at the end of 1 year. It had no effect on emergent patients who are routinely taken into the patient care area immediately. The sustainable effects of bedside registration were during the morning time when emergency department beds were available. PMID:17499684

  8. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. PMID:22050390

  9. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  10. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Konstantina; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Bryan, Glenn J; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  11. Development of photosynthetic biofilms affected by dissolved and sorbed copper in a eutrophic river.

    PubMed

    Barranguet, Christiane; Plans, Marc; van der Grinten, t Esther; Sinke, Jan J; Admiraal, Wim

    2002-09-01

    Photosynthetic biofilms are capable of immobilizing important concentrations of metals, therefore reducing bioavailability to organisms. But also metal pollution is believed to produce changes in the microalgal species composition of biofilms. We investigated the changes undergone by natural photosynthetic biofilms from the River Meuse, The Netherlands, under chronic copper (Cu) exposure. The suspended particles in the river water had only a minor effect on reduction of sorption and toxicity of Cu to algae. Biofilms accumulated Cu proportionally to the added concentration, also at the highest concentration used (9 microM Cu). The physiognomy of the biofilms was affected through the growth of the chain-forming diatom Melosira varians, changing from long filaments to short tufts, although species composition was not affected by the Cu exposure. The Cu decreased phosphate uptake and algal biomass measured as chl a, which degraded exponentially in time. Photosynthetic activity was always less sensitive than algal biomass; the photon yield decreased linearly in time. The protective and insulating role of the biofilm, supported by ongoing autotrophic activity, was indicated as essential in resisting metal toxicity. We discuss the hypothesis that the toxic effects of Cu progress almost independently of the species composition, counteracting ongoing growth, and conclude that autotrophic biofilms act as vertical heterogeneous units. Effective feedback mechanisms and density dependence explain several discrepancies observed earlier. PMID:12206437

  12. Factors Affecting the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    AKAGI, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle. PMID:25341701

  13. Development of fully Bayesian multiple-time-window source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Aoi, Shin

    2016-03-01

    In the estimation of spatiotemporal slip models, kinematic source inversions using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) and the multiple-time-window method have often been used. However, there are cases in which conventional ABIC-based source inversions do not work well in the determination of hyperparameters when a non-negative slip constraint is used. In order to overcome this problem, a new source inversion method was developed in this study. The new method introduces a fully Bayesian method into the kinematic multiple-time-window source inversion. The multiple-time-window method is one common way of parametrizing a source time function and is highly flexible in terms of the shape of the source time function. The probability distributions of model parameters and hyperparameters can be directly obtained by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. These probability distributions are useful for simply evaluating the uniqueness and reliability of the derived model, which is another advantage of a fully Bayesian method. This newly developed source inversion method was applied to the 2011 Ibaraki-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 7.9) to demonstrate its usefulness. It was demonstrated that the problem with using the conventional ABIC-based source inversion method for hyperparameter determination appeared in the spatiotemporal source inversion of this event and that the newly developed source inversion could overcome this problem.

  14. Teachers' Professional Lives and Continuing Professional Development in Changing Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan; Choi, Pik Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study about how teachers entering the profession at different times over the last five decades made sense of their professional lives and continuing professional development (CPD) experiences against the backdrop of the CPD policy infrastructure and wider educational context in Hong Kong. The life history method…

  15. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  16. Development affects in vitro vascular tone and calcium sensitivity in ovine cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Greg G; Osol, George J; Longo, Lawrence D

    2004-01-01

    We have shown recently that development from neonatal to adult life affects cerebrovascular tone of mouse cerebral arteries through endothelium-derived vasodilatory mechanisms. The current study tested the hypothesis that development from fetal to adult life affects cerebral artery vascular smooth muscle (VSM) [Ca2+]i sensitivity and tone through a mechanism partially dependent upon endothelium-dependent signalling. In pressurized resistance sized cerebral arteries (∼150 μm) from preterm (95 ± 2 days gestation (95 d)) and near-term (140 ± 2 days gestation (140 d)) fetuses, and non-pregnant adults, we measured vascular diameter (μm) and [Ca2+]i (nm) as a function of intravascular pressure. We repeated these studies in the presence of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; with l-NAME), cyclo-oxygenase (COX; with indomethacin) and endothelium removal (E–). Cerebrovasculature tone (E+) was greater in arteries from 95 d fetuses and adults compared to 140 d sheep. Ca2+ sensitivity was similar in 95 d fetuses and adults, but much lower in 140 d fetuses. Removal of endothelium resulted in a reduction in lumen diameter as a function of pressure (greater tone) in all treatment groups. [Ca2+]i sensitivity differences among groups were magnified after E–. NOS inhibition decreased diameter as a function of pressure in each age group, with a significant increase in [Ca2+]i to pressure ratio only in the 140 d fetuses. Indomethacin increased tone and increased [Ca2+]i in the 140 d fetuses, but not the other age groups. Development from near-term to adulthood uncovered an interaction between NOS- and COX-sensitive substances that functioned to modulate artery diameter but not [Ca2+]i. This study suggests that development is associated with significant alterations in cerebral vascular smooth muscle (VSM), endothelium, NOS and COX responses to intravascular pressure. We speculate that these changes have important implications in the regulation of cerebral blood flow in

  17. The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Barbara L

    2008-02-01

    Evolutionary and other functional accounts of the retina and its normal development highlight different aspects of control of its growth and form than genomic and mechanistic accounts. Discussing examples from opsin expression, developmental regulation of the eye's size and optical quality, regulation of eye size with respect to brain and body size, and the development of the fovea, these different aspects of control are contrasted. Contributions of mouse models, particularly with regard to relative timing of events in different species are reviewed, introducing a Web-based utility for exploration of timing issues (www.translatingtime.net). Variation at the individual level, in early experience, and also across species is an essential source of information to understand normal development and its pathologies. PMID:17692298

  18. Perinatal Environmental Exposures Affect Mammary Development, Function, and Cancer Risk in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Suzanne E.; Reed, Casey; Newbold, Retha R.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is an important transition that enables reproduction of mammalian species. Precocious puberty, specifically early thelarche (the appearance of breast “buds”), in girls of multiple ethnic backgrounds is a major health problem in the United States and other countries. The cause for a continued decrease in the age of breast development in girls is unknown, but environmental factors likely play a major role. Laboratory and epidemiological studies have identified several individual environmental factors that affect breast development, but further progress is needed. Current research needs include increased attention to and recording of prenatal and neonatal environmental exposures, testing of marketed chemicals for effects on the mammary gland, and understanding of the mammary gland–specific mechanisms that are altered by chemicals. Such research is required to halt the increasing trend toward puberty at earlier ages. PMID:22017681

  19. From infant affect expression to symbolic play: the coherence of development in Down syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Motti, F; Cicchetti, D; Sroufe, L A

    1983-10-01

    To examine further the coherence of development of a sample of Down syndrome children, assessments were made of the quality and level of play at age 3-5 years. It was found that, with corrections for mental age, the play of these children was similar to that of nonhandicapped children. Moreover, individual differences in the level and quality of play were strongly predicted from Bayley DQ scores obtained at age 2 and by several indexes of affective expressiveness including 1 obtained in the first year of life. This was despite limitations on the performance range represented in the subsample included in this follow-up study. Finally, the various aspects of play, as indexed by 5 separate scales, intercorrelated strongly, suggesting consistent individual differences in the play session itself. All of these findings point to the coherence of development of these children. In addition, it is suggested that early affective assessments are strong predictors of the later functioning of Down syndrome. PMID:6194942

  20. Teacher Factors Affecting the Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education in Kericho Municipality, Kericho County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutindi, Koech Zipporah; Chepngeno, Kabwos Rebecca; Jeruto, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Childhood education is crucial in the life of a child because it lays the foundation of intellectual and physical development. Concerns have been raised over the state of the ECDE programmes with regard to the negative teacher attitudes towards selection and use of instructional resources due to low remuneration, lack of time and demotivation. The…

  1. Developing Precision Pulsar Timing Capability for the DSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid A.; Kuiper, T. B.; Lazio, J.; Monroe, R.; Preston, R. A.; Spolaor, S.; Teitelbaum, L.; Trinh, J.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars are a class of radio pulsars with extremely stable rotations. The excellent timing stability of millisecond pulsars can be used to study a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. In particular, observations of a large sample of these pulsars can be used to detect the presence of low-frequency gravitational waves. We are currently developing a precision pulsar timing backend for the Deep Space Network (DSN), which will allow the use of short gaps in tracking schedules to observe and time pulses from an ensemble of millisecond pulsars. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) operates clusters of large dish antennas (up to 70-m in diameter), located roughly equi-distant around the Earth, for communication and tracking of deep-space spacecraft. The backend system will be capable of removing entirely the dispersive effects of propagation of radio waves through the interstellar medium in real-time. We will describe our development work, initial results, and prospects for pilot observations scheduled later this year. This research was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under the Research and Technology Development Program, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Early trauma and affect: the importance of the body for the development of the capacity to symbolize.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Hessel

    2014-11-01

    In this paper I aim to outline the importance of working clinically with affect when treating severely traumatized patients who have a limited capacity to symbolize. These patients, who suffer the loss of maternal care early in life, require the analyst to be closely attuned to the patient's distress through use of the countertransference and with significantly less attention paid to the transference. It is questionable whether we can speak of transference when there is limited capacity to form internal representations. The analyst's relationship with the patient is not necessarily used to make interpretations but, instead, the analyst's reverie functions therapeutically to develop awareness and containment of affect, first in the analyst's mind and, later, in the patient's, so that, in time, a relationship between the patient's mind and the body, as the first object, is made. In contrast to general object-relations theories, in which the first object is considered to be the breast or the mother, Ferrari (2004) proposes that the body is the first object in the emerging mind. Once a relationship between mind and body is established, symbolization becomes possible following the formation of internal representations of affective states in the mind, where previously there were few. Using Ferrari's body-mind model, two clinical case vignettes underline the need to use the countertransference with patients who suffered chronic developmental trauma in early childhood. PMID:25331507

  3. Ectopic expression of TAPETUM DETERMINANT1 affects ovule development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Wijeratne, Asela J; Tang, Chong; Zhang, Tianyu; Fenelon, Rebecca E; Owen, Heather A; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved to extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control growth, development, and defense. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1 (EMS1) LRR-RLK and its potential small protein ligand TAPETUM DETERMINANT1 (TPD1) are specifically required for anther cell differentiation; however, TPD1 and EMS1 orthologs also control megaspore mother cell proliferation in rice and maize ovules. Here, the molecular function of TPD1 was demonstrated during ovule development in Arabidopsis using a gain-of-function approach. In ovules, the EMS1 gene was primarily expressed in nucellus epidermis and chalaza, whereas the expression of TPD1 was weakly restricted to the distal end of integuments. Ectopic expression of TPD1 caused pleiotropic defects in ovule and seed development. RNA sequencing analysis showed that ectopic expression of TPD1 altered expression of auxin signaling genes and core cell-cycle genes during ovule development. Moreover, ectopic expression of TPD1 not only affected auxin response but also enhanced expression of cyclin genes CYCD3;3 and CYCA2;3 in ovules. Thus, these results provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which TPD1-EMS1 signaling controls plant development possibly via regulation of auxin signaling and cell-cycle genes. PMID:26685185

  4. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous system and whether it can reverse alcohol damages on developed brain later in life. This study aims to investigate protective roles of taurine against maternal alcohol consumption on growth and development of offspring. The experimental protocol was conducted using ICR-outbred pregnant mice given 10 % alcohol, with or without maternal taurine supplementation during gestation and lactation. Pregnancy outcomes, offspring mortality and successive bodyweight until adult were monitored. Adult offspring is supplemented taurine to verify its ability to reverse damages on learning and memory through a water maze task performance. Our results demonstrate that offspring of maternal alcohol exposure, together with maternal taurine supplementation show conserved learning and memory, while that of offspring treated taurine later in life are disturbed. Taurine provides neuroprotective effects and preserves learning and memory processes when given together with maternal alcohol consumption, but not shown such effects when given exclusively in offspring. PMID:26648819

  5. Does the Time of Postoperative Bisphosphonate Administration Affect the Bone Union in Osteoporotic Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Je; Chun, Young Soo; Kang, Joon Soon; Jung, Gwang Young; Lee, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the effect of bisphosphonate administration starting time on bone healing and to identify the best administration time following surgical treatment of osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods Two hundreds and eighty four patients (284 hips; 52 males, 232 females) who underwent surgery following osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture from December 2002 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The average follow-up period was 68.4 months. The patients were divided into three groups according to the time of bisphosphonate administration after operation: 1 week (group A; n=102), 1 month (group B; n=89), and 3 months (group C; n=93). Koval scores and change of Koval scores 1 year after operation were used for clinical evaluation. For radiologic evaluation, the time of callus appearance across the fracture line on sagittal and coronal radiographs and the time to absence of pain during hip motion was judged as the time of bone union. Results Koval scores one year after surgery for groups A, B, and C were 2.44, 2.36, and 2.43 (P=0.895), respectively. The mean time of union was 12.4, 11.9, and 12.3 weeks after operation in the three groups (P=0.883), respectively. There were zero cases of nonunion. There were 3, 5, and 7 cases of fixative displacement in the three groups, respectively, but the distribution showed no significant difference (P>0.472). Conclusion The initiating time of bisphosphonate administration following surgery does not affect the clinical outcomes in patients with osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture. PMID:27536634

  6. A Computer Simulation for Teaching Quantal Time Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Daniel F.

    1996-11-01

    The computer program QMTime (for MS-DOS machines) enables students to simulate quantal time development in one dimension. A variety of initial wave packets (Gaussian, Lorentzian, etc.) can evolve in time under the influence of a variety of potential energy functions (step, ramp, square well, harmonic oscillator, etc.) with or without an external driving force. A novel visualization technique simultaneously displays the magnitude and phase of complex-valued wavefunctions. Either position-space or momentum-space wavefunctions, or both, can be shown. The program is particularly effective in demonstrating the classical limit of quantum mechanics. This program is part of the CUPS (Consortium for Upper level Physics Software) project.

  7. Development of a preprototype times wastewater recovery subsystem, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehner, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Six tasks are described reflecting subsystem hardware and software modifications and test evaluation of a TIMES wastewater recovery subsystem. The overall results are illustrated in a figure which shows the water production rate, the specific energy corrected to 26.5 VDC, and the product water conductivity at various points in the testing. Four tasks are described reflecting studies performed to develop a preliminary design concept for a next generation TIMES. The overall results of the study are the completion of major design analyses and preliminary configuration layout drawings.

  8. The relative timing between eye and hand in rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, F J A; van Polanen, V; Savelsbergh, G J P; Bennett, S J

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were manipulated, such that timing constraints were high (ISI = 300 ms) or low (ISI = 450 ms) and advance knowledge of the target location was present (fixed order) or absent (random order). Analysis of eye and finger onset and completion times per segment of the sequence indicated that oculo-manual behaviour was in general characterized by eye movements preceding the finger, as well as 'gaze anchoring' (i.e. eye fixation of the first target until completion of the finger movement towards that target). Advance knowledge of future target locations lead to shorter latency times of eye and hand, and smaller eye-hand lead times, which in combination resulted in shorter total movement times. There was, however, no effect of advance knowledge on the duration of gaze anchoring. In contrast, gaze anchoring did change as a function of the interval between successive stimuli and was shorter with a 300 ms ISI versus 450 ms ISI. Further correlation analysis provided some indication that shorter residual latency is associated with shorter pointing duration, without affecting accuracy. These results are consistent with a neural mechanism governing the coupling of eye and arm movements, which has been suggested to reside in the superior colliculus. The temporal coordination resulting from this coupling is a function of the time pressure on the visuo-manual system resulting from the appearance of external stimuli. PMID:21744087

  9. Development of Hospital Information Systems: User Participation and Factors Affecting It

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Bahlol; Safdari, Reza; Jebraeily, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Given the large volume of data generated in hospitals, in order to efficiently management them; using hospital information system (HIS) is critical. User participation is one of the major factors in the success of HIS that in turn leads Information needs and processes to be correctly predicted and also their commitment to the development of HIS to be augmented. The purpose of this study is to investigate the participation rate of users in different stages of HIS development as well as to identify the factors affecting it. Method and materials: This is a descriptive–cross sectional study which was inducted in 2014. The study population consists of 140 HIS users (from different types of job including physicians, nurses, laboratory, radiology and HIM staffs) from Teaching Hospitals Affiliated to Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire which was estimated as both reliable and valid. The data were analyzed by SPSS software descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (t-test and chi-square). Results: The highest participation rate of users in the four-stage development of the HIS was related to the implementation phase (2.88) and the lowest participation rate was related to analysis (1.23). The test results showed that the rate of user participation was not satisfactory in none of the stages of development (P< 0.05). The most important factors in increasing user participation include established teamwork from end-users and the support of top managers from HIS development. Conclusion: According to the results obtained from the study, it seems that health care administrators must have a detailed plan for user participation prior to the development and purchase of HIS so that they identify the real needs as well as increase their commitment and motivations to develop, maintain and upgrade the system, and in this way, the success of the system will be assured. PMID:25684849

  10. l-Carnitine affects preimplantation embryo development toward infertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Kyvelidou, Christiana; Sotiriou, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Tania; Tsagkaraki, Margarita; Tserevelakis, George J; Filippidis, George; Athanassakis, Irene

    2016-10-01

    l-Carnitine (l-Cn), despite the beneficial role as energy-generating substance delivering long-chain fatty acids to the β-oxidation pathway in mitochondria, has been accused to cause an endometriosis-like state to BALB/c mice manifested by increased inflammatory cytokines in serum and peritoneal fluid, accumulation of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity and uterine walls and most importantly, correlating to infertility. Exploring this type of infertility, the effect of l-Cn on preimplantation embryo development, ovarian integrity and systemic maternal immunity was studied. Using nonlinear microscopy analysis, which was shown to be a powerful tool for determining embryo quality by quantitatively estimating the lipid body (LB) content of the cells, it was shown that in vitro and in vivo administration of l-Cn significantly decreased LB mean area in zygotes. Daily intraperitoneal administration of 2.5mg l-Cn for 3, 4 and 7days to mice significantly decreased the percent of normal zygotes. However, only the 7-day treatment persisted by affecting 2- and 8-cell stage embryos, while almost abolishing blastocyst development. Such effects were accompanied by abnormal ovarian histology, showing increased numbers of corpora luteus and elevated progesterone concentration in the serum. In addition, it was shown that the 7-day l-Cn treatment pushed maternal systemic immunity toward inflammation and immunosuppression by increasing CD11b-, CD25- and CD11bGr1-positive cells in spleen, which opposed the necessity for immunostimulation at these early stages of pregnancy. In conclusion, the results presented here demonstrated that elevated doses of l-Cn affect early stages of embryo development, leading to infertility. PMID:27402869

  11. Development of Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiota in Infancy is Affected by Mode of Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Astrid A T M; Levin, Evgeni; van Houten, Marlies A; Hasrat, Raiza; Kalkman, Gino; Biesbroek, Giske; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; de Groot, Pieter-Kees C M; Pernet, Paula; Keijser, Bart J F; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-07-01

    Birth by Caesarian section is associated with short- and long-term respiratory morbidity. We hypothesized that mode of delivery affects the development of the respiratory microbiota, thereby altering its capacity to provide colonization resistance and consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections. Therefore, we longitudinally studied the impact of mode of delivery on the nasopharyngeal microbiota development from birth until six months of age in a healthy, unselected birth cohort of 102 children (n=761 samples). Here, we show that the respiratory microbiota develops within one day from a variable mixed bacterial community towards a Streptococcus viridans-predominated profile, regardless of mode of delivery. Within the first week, rapid niche differentiation had occurred; initially with in most infants Staphylococcus aureus predominance, followed by differentiation towards Corynebacterium pseudodiphteriticum/propinquum, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Moraxella catarrhalis/nonliquefaciens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and/or Haemophilus influenzae dominated communities. Infants born by Caesarian section showed a delay in overall development of respiratory microbiota profiles with specifically reduced colonization with health-associated commensals like Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum, thereby possibly influencing respiratory health later in life. PMID:27333043

  12. White Matter Development in Adolescence: The Influence of Puberty and Implications for Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Peper, Jiska S.; Crone, Eveline A.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white matter development in adolescence. We focus on white matter because of its role in providing the structural architectural organization of the brain and as a structural correlate of communication within complex neural systems. We begin with a review of studies that report sex differences or sex by age interactions in white matter development as these findings can provide, although indirectly, information relevant to puberty-related changes. Studies are also critically reviewed based on methodological procedures used to assess pubertal maturation and relations with white matter changes. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for the development of neural systems underlying the regulation of emotion and behavior and how alterations in the development of these systems may mediate risk for affective disorders in vulnerable adolescents. PMID:22247751

  13. Interoccurrence time statistics in fully-developed turbulence.

    PubMed

    Manshour, Pouya; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Reinke, Nico; Sahim, Muhammad; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Emergent extreme events are a key characteristic of complex dynamical systems. The main tool for detailed and deep understanding of their stochastic dynamics is the statistics of time intervals of extreme events. Analyzing extensive experimental data, we demonstrate that for the velocity time series of fully-developed turbulent flows, generated by (i) a regular grid; (ii) a cylinder; (iii) a free jet of helium, and (iv) a free jet of air with the Taylor Reynolds numbers Reλ from 166 to 893, the interoccurrence time distributions P(τ) above a positive threshold Q in the inertial range is described by a universal q- exponential function, P(τ) = β(2 - q)[1 - β(1 - q)τ](1/(1-q)), which may be due to the superstatistical nature of the occurrence of extreme events. Our analysis provides a universal description of extreme events in turbulent flows. PMID:27282347

  14. Decreased Zinc Availability Affects Glutathione Metabolism in Neuronal Cells and in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Yo; Salvador, Gabriela A.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    A deficit in zinc (Zn) availability can increase cell oxidant production, affect the antioxidant defense system, and trigger oxidant-sensitive signals in neuronal cells. This work tested the hypothesis that a decreased Zn availability can affect glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the developing rat brain and in neuronal cells in culture, as well as the capacity of human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells to upregulate GSH when challenged with dopamine (DA). GSH levels were low in the brain of gestation day 19 (GD19) fetuses from dams fed marginal Zn diets throughout gestation and in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCL), the first enzyme in the GSH synthetic pathway, was altered by Zn deficiency (ZD). The protein and mRNA levels of the GCL modifier (GCLM) and catalytic (GCLC) subunits were lower in the Zn-deficient GD19 fetal brain and in IMR-32 cells compared with controls. The nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which controls GCL transcription, was impaired by ZD. Posttranslationally, the caspase-3-dependent GCLC cleavage was high in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. Cells challenged with DA showed an increase in GCLM and GCLC protein and mRNA levels and a consequent increase in GSH concentration. Although Zn-deficient cells partially upregulated GCL subunits after exposure to DA, GSH content remained low. In summary, results show that a low Zn availability affects the GSH synthetic pathway in neuronal cells and fetal brain both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This can in part underlie the GSH depletion associated with ZD and the high sensitivity of Zn-deficient neurons to pro-oxidative stressors. PMID:23377617

  15. Development of a real-time transport performance optimization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    The practical application of real-time performance optimization is addressed (using a wide-body transport simulation) based on real-time measurements and calculation of incremental drag from forced response maneuvers. Various controller combinations can be envisioned although this study used symmetric outboard aileron and stabilizer. The approach is based on navigation instrumentation and other measurements found on state-of-the-art transports. This information is used to calculate winds and angle of attack. Thrust is estimated from a representative engine model as a function of measured variables. The lift and drag equations are then used to calculate lift and drag coefficients. An expression for drag coefficient, which is a function of parasite drag, induced drag, and aileron drag, is solved from forced excitation response data. Estimates of the parasite drag, curvature of the aileron drag variation, and minimum drag aileron position are produced. Minimum drag is then obtained by repositioning the symmetric aileron. Simulation results are also presented which evaluate the affects of measurement bias and resolution.

  16. Cognitive and Affective Reading Development during an After-School Program: A Case Study of Three Adolescent Readers' Participation in the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moransky-Miller, Marlo R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how three struggling, sixth grade readers experienced an after-school program designed to increase their affective and cognitive reading performance. Research in the areas of vocabulary acquisition, reading strategy development, discussion of text, time spent reading, engagement, and reader self-perception…

  17. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell. PMID:25382136

  18. Time series analysis of the developed financial markets' integration using visibility graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Enyu; Small, Michael; Feng, Gang

    2014-09-01

    A time series representing the developed financial markets' segmentation from 1973 to 2012 is studied. The time series reveals an obvious market integration trend. To further uncover the features of this time series, we divide it into seven windows and generate seven visibility graphs. The measuring capabilities of the visibility graphs provide means to quantitatively analyze the original time series. It is found that the important historical incidents that influenced market integration coincide with variations in the measured graphical node degree. Through the measure of neighborhood span, the frequencies of the historical incidents are disclosed. Moreover, it is also found that large "cycles" and significant noise in the time series are linked to large and small communities in the generated visibility graphs. For large cycles, how historical incidents significantly affected market integration is distinguished by density and compactness of the corresponding communities.

  19. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. PMID:25645061

  20. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  1. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954

  2. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life. PMID:27623622

  3. Susceptible period of socio-emotional development affected by constant exposure to daylight.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Ozawa, Simpei; Tanaka, Ikuko; Honda, Yoshiko; Usui, Setsuo; Kodama, Tohru; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    As a diurnal experimental primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has recently contributed to numerous kinds of studies of neurobiological psychiatry as an essential pre-clinical model. The marmoset matures sexually within one or two years after birth. Thus, we can observe how the primate learns and develops psycho-cognitive functions through experiences in experimental environment for a much shorter period compared to that of humans. Longer daylight exposure may affect psychological development of children. In our research, we focus on raising marmosets under constant daylight from birth until various ages. In order to quantitatively evaluate the development of higher-ordered psychological functions, we designed a system of socio-behavioral tests and multivariate correlation analysis methods based on principal component analysis. With reference to the call and typical body movement expressed during a particular social context, we statistically inferred the emotional features of the subjects. In the current literature, we review our published results showing increased alert behaviors by constant light, and then, attempted to extend our additional analysis to seek age-dependent susceptibility to constant light. We then present the neurobiological mechanisms with reference to previous research reports. The current review suggests possible existence of a susceptible period earlier than three to five month-old in the environment-induced developmental disorder model, supposedly like attention deficit hyperactive disorders (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). PMID:25305341

  4. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  5. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  6. Habitat Quality Affects Early Physiology and Subsequent Neuromotor Development of Juvenile Black-Capped Chickadees

    PubMed Central

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Avey, Marc T.; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Sturdy, Christopher B.; Otter, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  7. Habitat quality affects early physiology and subsequent neuromotor development of juvenile black-capped chickadees.

    PubMed

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D; Avey, Marc T; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sturdy, Christopher B; Otter, Ken A

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  8. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  9. Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yong; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical models of the travel time distribution (TTD) from a source area to a sample location are often used to estimate groundwater ages and solute concentration trends. The accuracies of these models are not well known for geologically complex aquifers. In this study, synthetic datasets were used to quantify the accuracy of four analytical TTD models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, model selection, and tracer selection. Synthetic TTDs and tracer data were generated from existing numerical models with complex hydrofacies distributions for one public-supply well and 14 monitoring wells in the Central Valley, California. Analytical TTD models were calibrated to synthetic tracer data, and prediction errors were determined for estimates of TTDs and conservative tracer (NO3−) concentrations. Analytical models included a new, scale-dependent dispersivity model (SDM) for two-dimensional transport from the watertable to a well, and three other established analytical models. The relative influence of the error sources (TTD complexity, observation error, model selection, and tracer selection) depended on the type of prediction. Geological complexity gave rise to complex TTDs in monitoring wells that strongly affected errors of the estimated TTDs. However, prediction errors for NO3− and median age depended more on tracer concentration errors. The SDM tended to give the most accurate estimates of the vertical velocity and other predictions, although TTD model selection had minor effects overall. Adding tracers improved predictions if the new tracers had different input histories. Studies using TTD models should focus on the factors that most strongly affect the desired predictions.

  10. Development and application of a real-time capacitive sensor.

    PubMed

    Wongkittisuksa, Booncharoen; Limsakul, Chusak; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Dawan, Supaporn; Loyprasert, Suchera; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2011-01-15

    A real-time capacitive sensor based on a potentiostatic step method was developed. It can display in real-time the evoked current waveform, capacitance and the electrical resistance of elements serially connected to the insulation layer on the electrode as a function of time as well as the ohmic resistance of the insulation layer. These features enable the user to observe the association and dissociation of the affinity binding pairs and to evaluate the insulating property of the electrode surface during measurement. The system allows the setting of potential pulse height, pulse interval, gain, filter, and sampling frequency, enabling the system to be more flexible. The performance of the system was firstly evaluated with equivalent circuits. Under suitable parameter settings it provided good accuracy of both the capacitance and resistance. Using the affinity binding pair of human serum albumin (HSA) and anti human serum albumin (anti-HSA) the measured capacitance change was used for the direct detection of HSA. The developed system provided the same sensitivity as the commercially available potentiostat (P>0.05). The proposed system was then applied to analyse HSA in real urine samples and the results agreed well with the immunoturbidimetric assay (P>0.05). The proposed system can be applied for capacitance measurement to directly detect other target analytes using different affinity binding pairs. Other applications such as kinetics analysis of the interaction between affinity bindings, thickness analysis, and the study of the insulation property of the modified layer are also promising. PMID:21087852

  11. The timing and amount of vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training affect post-stroke recovery of forelimb strength

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of upper arm strength after stroke is a leading cause of disability. Strategies that can enhance the benefits of rehabilitative training could improve motor function after stroke. Recent studies in a rat model of ischemic stroke demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training substantially improves recovery of forelimb strength compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS. Here we report that the timing and amount of stimulation affect the degree of forelimb strength recovery. Similar amounts of delayed VNS delivered two hours after daily rehabilitative training sessions resulted in significantly less improvement compared to VNS that is paired with identical rehabilitative training. Significantly less recovery also occurred when several-fold more VNS was delivered during rehabilitative training. Both delayed and additional VNS confer moderately improved recovery compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS, but fail to enhance recovery to the same degree as VNS that is timed to occur with successful movements. These findings confirm that VNS paired with rehabilitative training holds promise for restoring forelimb strength post-stroke and indicate that both the timing and amount of VNS should be optimized to maximize therapeutic benefits. PMID:24818637

  12. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received. PMID:25528091

  13. Two-way satellite time transfer: Overview and recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit

    1994-01-01

    The experiment using small earth stations for transatlantic two-way satellite time transfer between the USA and Germany has had its 10th anniversary this year. Pseudo-random noise coded time signals were phase modulated and demodulated at each station using a modem. Recently, during the last two weeks of Aug. 1993, six European time laboratories have used the INTELSAT 307E satellite for line-up tests and preliminary time transfer sessions using the same type of MITREX modem. The need for a uniform format for the exchange of data was felt heavily after these sessions. This problem was foreseen and addressed in international working parties. During Apr. 1993, in Task Group 7/2 of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector, a very intense discussion has taken place about what procedure should be recommended for TWSTFT and what items the header and data lines of the resulting data fields should contain. A difficulty is that two different methods of calibration of the earth station delays exist which result in different sets of delay data to be exchanged. Further study and discussions are necessary. Also, a meeting of the CCDS Working Group on TWSTFT addressed this in Oct. 1993. The outcome of the discussions and the prospect for future developments are presented.

  14. Fire regime, not time-since-fire, affects soil fungal community diversity and composition in temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Eleonora; McMullan-Fisher, Sapphire; Morgan, John W; May, Tom; Zeeman, Ben; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-09-01

    Frequent burning is commonly undertaken to maintain diversity in temperate grasslands of southern Australia. How burning affects below-ground fungal community diversity remains unknown. We show, using a fungal rDNA metabarcoding approach (Illumina MiSeq), that the fungal community composition was influenced by fire regime (frequency) but not time-since-fire. Fungal community composition was resilient to direct fire effects, most likely because grassland fires transfer little heat to the soil. Differences in the fungal community composition due to fire regime was likely due to associated changes that occur in vegetation with recurrent fire, via the break up of obligate symbiotic relationships. However, fire history only partially explains the observed dissimilarity in composition among the soil samples, suggesting a distinctiveness in composition in each grassland site. The importance of considering changes in soil microbe communities when managing vegetation with fire is highlighted. PMID:27528692

  15. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Sarvan, I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Dekker, M; Verkerk, R

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown products are affected by steaming (raw, 1min, 2min and 3min steamed) and meal composition (protein or lipid addition) was studied with an in vitro digestion model (mouth, stomach, intestine, but not colonic digestion). The main formation of SF and SFN occurred during in vitro chewing. The contents of GR, SF and SFN did not change after further digestion, as the irreversible inactivated myrosinase under gastric conditions caused no further GR hydrolysis. SF concentrations were up to 10 times higher in raw and 1min steamed broccoli samples after digestion compared to longer-steamed broccoli. Protein or lipid addition had no influence on the formation and bioaccessibility of SF or SFN. PMID:27507513

  16. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  17. Time spent in child care: How and why does it affect social development?

    PubMed

    Huston, Aletha C; Bobbitt, Kaeley C; Bentley, Alison

    2015-05-01

    Children who experience early and extensive child care, especially center-based care, are rated by teachers as having more externalizing behavior problems than are other children. This association is reduced, but not eliminated, when care is of high quality, and it varies by socioeconomic disadvantage and the type of behavior assessed. We examine the processes that may account for the quantity effect, concluding that it occurs primarily among relatively advantaged White non-Hispanic families. It appears primarily for teacher-rated behavior, especially externalizing and low self-control, but is not evident for positive behavior and peer interaction skills. Some of the processes accounting for the relation of quantity to behavior are most likely to be poor caregiver-child relationships and negative peer interactions, not reduced attachment to mothers or lowered maternal sensitivity. Many questions remain about duration of effects, developmental and individual differences, more nuanced conceptualizations of both care quality and social behavior, and variations across cultural and ethnic groups. PMID:25751096

  18. Time Spent in Child Care: How and Why Does It Affect Social Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Bobbitt, Kaeley C.; Bentley, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children who experience early and extensive child care, especially center-based care, are rated by teachers as having more externalizing behavior problems than are other children. This association is reduced, but not eliminated, when care is of high quality, and it varies by socioeconomic disadvantage and the type of behavior assessed. We examine…

  19. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  20. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  1. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    PubMed

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  2. Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract.

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, C; Faccioli, P; Terzi, V; Stanca, A M; Cerioli, S; Castiglioni, P; Fink, R; Capone, R; Müller, K J; Bossinger, G; Rohde, W; Salamini, F

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of mutants that affect the morphology of the lemma, a floral bract of barley, are described. The first comprises phenotypes associated with mutant alleles of calcaroides loci. On the lemma of these mutants, a well-organized neomorphic structure is formed, termed the sac. We provide a morphological description of wild-type (WT) and mutant lemmas, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing that both consist of similar tissues, but that the mutant is characterized by reversed growth polarity. The sac is a unique structure among grasses, and it is remarkable that recessive mutations at five different genetic loci lead to the same organ. The second group of mutants carry recessive alleles of two leafy lemma genes, both of which are necessary to cause the transformation of the lemma into a structure having all characteristics of a vegetative leaf, as shown by SEM analysis. The presence of sheath, blade, and ligule in the mutant lemma suggests that wild-type lemma development is interrupted at a leaf-like stage. The genes cal a, b, C, d, 23, lel1, and lel2 have now been mapped at precise positions on linkage groups 2, 7, 7, 3, 7, 5, and 7, respectively. The mutants considered in this article are unaffected in other floral organs. A model for lemma development is suggested. PMID:10757774

  3. Time Use as Cause and Consequence of Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, daily activities are both causes and consequences of youth development. As causes, daily activities represent distinct sets of socialization experiences that afford opportunities to acquire new competencies and behavioral patterns. As consequences, daily activities reflect youth’s force and resource characteristics, including developmental status, temperament and motivation, and pre-existing levels of adjustment. An ecological perspective also highlights the role of the larger sociocultural context in shaping and conditioning the links between daily activities and youth development. In this article, we draw on research with children and adolescents to consider how an ecological perspective can provide a flexible framework for studying time use as a developmental phenomenon. We also discuss methodological issues and suggest research that should be conducted in this broad area. PMID:25821514

  4. Development of a Liquefied Noble Gas Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ezra; White, Aaron; Aidala, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have been used for various applications in recent years for detecting neutrinos, neutrons, photons, and potentially dark matter. The University of Michigan is developing a detector with liquid argon to produce scintillation light and ionization electrons. Our data collection method will allow high-resolution energy measurement and spatial reconstruction of detected particles by using multi-pixel silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire endplate. We have already designed a liquid argon condenser and purification unit surrounded by an insulating vacuum, constructed circuitry for temperature and pressure sensors, and created software to obtain high-accuracy sensor readouts. The status of detector development will be presented. Funded through the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project.

  5. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    PubMed Central

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97)]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56)]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06)]. Conclusions Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome. PMID:27396484

  6. Glycerol Affects Root Development through Regulation of Multiple Pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    treatment altered endogenous levels of G3P, phosphate and ROS, affected auxin distribution and cell division in the root meristem, and eventually resulted in modifications of root development. PMID:24465999

  7. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    treatment altered endogenous levels of G3P, phosphate and ROS, affected auxin distribution and cell division in the root meristem, and eventually resulted in modifications of root development. PMID:24465999

  8. Study of major factors to affect photoresist profile on developable bottom anti-reflective coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hyo Jung; Ju, Dong Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaehyun

    2011-04-01

    As critical dimensions continue to shrink in lithography, new materials will be needed to meet the new demands imposed by this shrinkage. Recently, there are needs for novel materials with various substrates and immersing process, including double patterning process, a high resolution implant process, and so on. Among such materials, Developable Bottom Anti-reflective Coating material (DBARC) is a good candidate for high resolution implant application as well as double patterning. DBARC should have reflectivity control function as an ordinary BARC, as well as an appropriate solubility in TMAH-based conventional developer after exposure and bake process. The most distinguished advantage of DBARC is to skip BARC etch process that is required in normal BARC process. In spite of this advantage, the photoresist profile on DBARC could be influenced by components and process conditions of DBARC. Several groups have tried to solve this issue to implement DBARC to new process. We have studied material-related factors affecting photoresist profiles, such as a polymer, photo-acid generators (PAGs), and additives. And we explored the effect of process condition for photoresist and DBARC. In case of polymer, we studied the effect of dissolution rate in developer and crosslinking functionality. For PAGs and additives, the effect of acid diffusivity and cross-linking degree according to their bulkiness were examined. We also evaluated coated film stability in a photoresist solvent after BARC bake process and compared lithographic performance of various DBARC formulations. In addition, the effect of photoresist profile with bake condition of photoresist and DBARC were investigated. In this paper, we will demonstrate the most influential factors of DBARC to photoresist profile and suggest the optimum formulation and process condition for DBARC application.

  9. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  10. Lower temperature during the dark cycle affects disease development on Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern) by Bipolaris sacchari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth chamber studies were conducted to examine environmental parameters affecting disease development by the indigenous pathogen Bipolaris sacchari isolate LJB-1L on the invasive weed Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern). Initial studies examined three different temperature regimes (20...

  11. Critical Timing without a Timer for Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Tufcea, Daniel E; François, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Timing of embryonic development is precisely controlled, but the mechanisms underlying biological timers are still unclear. Here, a validated model for timing under control of Sonic Hedgehog is revisited and generalized to an arbitrary number of genes. The developmental dynamics where a temporal sequence of gene expression recapitulates a steady-state spatial pattern can be realized through a simple network close to criticality, controlled by the duration of exposure to a morphogen. Criticality simultaneously accounts for many observed biological properties, such as timing, multistability, and canalization of genetic expression. This process can be parsimoniously generalized in many dimensions with a minimum number of genes, all repressing each other with asymmetrical strengths, which also explains sequential activation of different fates. Separation of timescales allows for a simple analytical interpretation. Finally, it is shown that even in the presence of noise, coupling between cells preserves criticality and robust patterning. The model offers a simple theoretical framework for the study of emergent developmental timers. PMID:26488664

  12. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  13. Interoccurrence time statistics in fully-developed turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Manshour, Pouya; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Reinke, Nico; Sahim, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Emergent extreme events are a key characteristic of complex dynamical systems. The main tool for detailed and deep understanding of their stochastic dynamics is the statistics of time intervals of extreme events. Analyzing extensive experimental data, we demonstrate that for the velocity time series of fully-developed turbulent flows, generated by (i) a regular grid; (ii) a cylinder; (iii) a free jet of helium, and (iv) a free jet of air with the Taylor Reynolds numbers Reλ from 166 to 893, the interoccurrence time distributions P(τ) above a positive threshold Q in the inertial range is described by a universal q- exponential function, P(τ) = β(2 − q)[1 − β(1 − q)τ]1/(1−q), which may be due to the superstatistical nature of the occurrence of extreme events. Our analysis provides a universal description of extreme events in turbulent flows. PMID:27282347

  14. Interoccurrence time statistics in fully-developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manshour, Pouya; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Reinke, Nico; Sahim, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    Emergent extreme events are a key characteristic of complex dynamical systems. The main tool for detailed and deep understanding of their stochastic dynamics is the statistics of time intervals of extreme events. Analyzing extensive experimental data, we demonstrate that for the velocity time series of fully-developed turbulent flows, generated by (i) a regular grid; (ii) a cylinder; (iii) a free jet of helium, and (iv) a free jet of air with the Taylor Reynolds numbers Reλ from 166 to 893, the interoccurrence time distributions P(τ) above a positive threshold Q in the inertial range is described by a universal q- exponential function, P(τ) = β(2 ‑ q)[1 ‑ β(1 ‑ q)τ]1/(1‑q), which may be due to the superstatistical nature of the occurrence of extreme events. Our analysis provides a universal description of extreme events in turbulent flows.

  15. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  16. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX) family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG) using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most likely by preventing premature

  17. Factors affecting the risk of developing lower back musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in experienced and inexperienced rodworkers.

    PubMed

    Salas, Elizabeth A; Vi, Peter; Reider, Vanesa L; Moore, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Injury and dropout rates during rodwork training appear to reflect difficulties encountered by apprentices adapting to increased physical demands of tying on slab, one of the rodworking tasks with the highest injury risk. Because experience influences work strategies, and consequently the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), this study aimed to identify differences in work practices associated with tying rebar on slab, potentially relevant to back MSD development, in experienced and inexperienced rodworkers. Fourteen male rodworkers were recruited from either experienced (>2 years experience post apprenticeship), or inexperienced (<6 months experience) groups. Both tied an area with rebar laid on the ground. Trunk flexion/extension angles were measured. L4/L5 moments were estimated from T9 Erector Spinae EMG. Experienced workers were found to spend longer periods of time in trunk flexed postures, with lower peak L4/L5 moments. Our findings revealed practices associated with each group might have different implications on back health. PMID:26360195

  18. The Development of a Climate Time Line Information Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, D.; McCaffery, M.; Anderson, D.; Habermann, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    The "Climate Time Line" or CTL tool currently in development at the National Geophysical Data Center will provide a climatic and "place-based" context for current weather patterns and a pre-instrumental context for current climate trends. Two audiences-GLOBE students and water managers involved with the Western Water Assessment--are targeted in the pilot project phase to test the CTL as a learning and decision-making support tool. Weather, climate and paleoclimatic observations will be integrated through a web-based interface that can be used for comparing data collected over 10 year, 100 year and 1000+ year periods, and made accessible and meaningful to non-technical users. The Climate Time Line prototype will include the following features: 1) Access to diverse data sets such as NCDC's Historic Climate Network, GLOBE Student Data Archive, World Data Center for Paleoclimatology and historical streamflow data from the USGS; 2) Map Locator/Search Utility for regional inquiries and comparison views; 3) Varying temporal and spatial displays; 4) Tutorial and help sections to guide and support users; 5) Supporting materials including a "Powers of Ten" primer examining variability at various timescales; and 6) Statistical assessment tools. The CTL prototype offers a novel approach in the scientific analysis of climate and hydrology data. It will facilitate inquiries by simplifying access to environmental data. Additionally, it will provide historical timelines for the intended user to compare the development of human cultures in relation to climate trends and variability--promoting an inquiry-rich learning environment. Throughout the pilot project phase, the CTL will undergo evaluation particularly in the area of usability, followed by a pre- and post- assessment of its educational impact on the targeted, non-technical audience. A hypernews workspace has been created to facilitate the development of the CTL. >http://HyperNews.ngdc.noaa.gov/HyperNews/get/ ClimateTimelineProject.html.

  19. Development of Visuo-Auditory Integration in Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2012-01-01

    Adults integrate multisensory information optimally (e.g., Ernst and Banks, 2002) while children do not integrate multisensory visual-haptic cues until 8–10 years of age (e.g., Gori et al., 2008). Before that age strong unisensory dominance occurs for size and orientation visual-haptic judgments, possibly reflecting a process of cross-sensory calibration between modalities. It is widely recognized that audition dominates time perception, while vision dominates space perception. Within the framework of the cross-sensory calibration hypothesis, we investigate visual-auditory integration in both space and time with child-friendly spatial and temporal bisection tasks. Unimodal and bimodal (conflictual and not) audio-visual thresholds and PSEs were measured and compared with the Bayesian predictions. In the temporal domain, we found that both in children and adults, audition dominates the bimodal visuo-auditory task both in perceived time and precision thresholds. On the contrary, in the visual-auditory spatial task, children younger than 12 years of age show clear visual dominance (for PSEs), and bimodal thresholds higher than the Bayesian prediction. Only in the adult group did bimodal thresholds become optimal. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that also visual-auditory adult-like behavior develops late. We suggest that the visual dominance for space and the auditory dominance for time could reflect a cross-sensory comparison of vision in the spatial visuo-audio task and a cross-sensory comparison of audition in the temporal visuo-audio task. PMID:23060759

  20. Timing of meiotic progression in bovine oocytes and its effect on early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Dominko, T; First, N L

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of the kinetics of nuclear maturation in bovine oocytes on early embryo development and to examine whether the time of insemination of mature oocytes affects the oocytes' ability to support events of early embryo development. The time required for completion of nuclear maturation was influenced by gonadotropins used to supplement the maturation medium. Luteinizing hormone (LH) enhanced the speed of nuclear maturation when compared to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Oocytes completing their nuclear maturation early (by 16 hours after the initiation of culture) were more likely to complete the first embryonic cell cycle (78% in LH vs. 43% in FSH) and develop to the blastocyst stage (47% in LH vs. 34% in FSH). As the age of the oocytes at the time of MII arrest increased (extrusion of the polar body by 20 or 24 hours), a decrease in their ability to cleave and develop to the blastocyst stage was observed. Differences in the oocyte's ability to decondense chromatin and form pronuclei were also observed. Early maturing oocytes started forming pronuclei earlier than their later maturing counterparts. The time of insemination of mature oocytes played an equally important role. Generally, when insemination of mature oocytes was delayed for 8 hours, higher proportions of fertilized oocytes developed to advanced preimplantation stages than did the oocytes inseminated immediately after metaphase II arrest. PMID:9211431

  1. Chronic exposure to mercuric chloride during gestation affects sensorimotor development and later behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Chehimi, Latifa; Roy, Vincent; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Sakly, Mohsen

    2012-09-01

    The current study was performed to assess the effects of inorganic mercury (mercuric chloride - HgCl(2)) on the development of offsprings from intoxicated-mother during pregnancy. In this respect, pregnant rats were chronically treated with HgCl(2) at 50 ppm (Hg50) and 100 ppm (Hg100) in drinking water. After parturition, maternal behaviour was recorded during 30 min at 1st to 6th postnatal day (Pnd). The development of their offspring was studied during the first 17 days after birth. Sensorimotor development of pups was measured by different tests: rooting reflex, vibrissae placing response, righting reflex, negative geotaxis, suspension test and rotating grid. Two month after birth, the anxiety of offspring was tested using the elevated plus maze test. Our results indicate that mercury treatment significantly reduced the nursing and increased the time out the nest or drinking and eating. We also showed that prenatal exposure to HgCl(2) decreased weight gain. Importantly, the rooting reflex, the development of the vibrissae placing response, the righting reflex, the grip strength and the negative geotaxis behaviour were delayed in the offspring of dams treated with Hg50, the delay being more severe with Hg100. We also found a decrease in anxiety in adulthood. Cross-fostering test support the direct toxic effects of mercury. PMID:22705860

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling affects both angiogenesis and osteogenesis during the development of scleral ossicles.

    PubMed

    Jabalee, James; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2015-10-01

    Intramembranous ossification is a complex multi-step process which relies on extensive interactions among bone cells and surrounding tissues. The embryonic vasculature is essential in regulating endochondral ossification; however, its role during intramembranous ossification remains poorly understood, and in vivo studies are lacking. Previous research from our lab on the development of the intramembranous scleral ossicles has demonstrated an intriguing pattern of vascular development in which the areas of future osteogenesis remain avascular until after bone induction has occurred. Such avascular zones are located directly beneath each of the conjunctival papillae, epithelial structures which provide osteogenic signals to the underlying mesenchyme. Here we provide a high-resolution map of the developing vasculature from the time of ossicle induction to mineralization using a novel technique. We show that vegfa is expressed by the papillae and nearby mesenchymal tissue throughout HH 34-37, when vascular growth is taking place, and is down-regulated thereafter. Localized inhibition of Vegf results in expansion of the avascular zone surrounding the implanted papilla and mispatterning of the scleral ossicles. These results demonstrate that Vegf signaling could provide important insights into the complex relationship between bone and vasculature during intramembranous bone development. PMID:26210172

  3. Recent developments in time-of-flight PET.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, S; Mikhaylova, E; D'Hoe, E; Mollet, P; Karp, J S

    2016-12-01

    While the first time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) systems were already built in the early 1980s, limited clinical studies were acquired on these scanners. PET was still a research tool, and the available TOF-PET systems were experimental. Due to a combination of low stopping power and limited spatial resolution (caused by limited light output of the scintillators), these systems could not compete with bismuth germanate (BGO)-based PET scanners. Developments on TOF system were limited for about a decade but started again around 2000. The combination of fast photomultipliers, scintillators with high density, modern electronics, and faster computing power for image reconstruction have made it possible to introduce this principle in clinical TOF-PET systems. This paper reviews recent developments in system design, image reconstruction, corrections, and the potential in new applications for TOF-PET. After explaining the basic principles of time-of-flight, the difficulties in detector technology and electronics to obtain a good and stable timing resolution are shortly explained. The available clinical systems and prototypes under development are described in detail. The development of this type of PET scanner also requires modified image reconstruction with accurate modeling and correction methods. The additional dimension introduced by the time difference motivates a shift from sinogram- to listmode-based reconstruction. This reconstruction is however rather slow and therefore rebinning techniques specific for TOF data have been proposed. The main motivation for TOF-PET remains the large potential for image quality improvement and more accurate quantification for a given number of counts. The gain is related to the ratio of object size and spatial extent of the TOF kernel and is therefore particularly relevant for heavy patients, where image quality degrades significantly due to increased attenuation (low counts) and high scatter fractions. The

  4. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule. PMID:27085910

  5. Development of a real-time geospace simulator for space weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinagawa, H.; Shimazu, H.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.; Terada, N.; Nakamura, M.; Obara, T.

    Space weather forecast requires real-time numerical models along with various real-time observational data on the ground and in space Real-time numerical models not only give present information on the space environment but also predict upcoming space weather disturbances Recently a real-time global MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the earth s magnetosphere has been developed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology NICT in collaboration with Kyushu University The model is now operated at the NICT s space weather forecast center to understand present state of the magnetospheric environment and to predict magnetic disturbances However the present real-time model has not satisfactorily included particle effects on the space environment and realistic ionosphere and thermosphere High-energy particles could damage satellite instruments and human bodies in space while ionospheric storms could affect various communication and broadcasting systems Therefore it is important to develop a numerical model which is able to predict such disturbances We have started to improve our real-time magnetospheric model by including the particle effects as well as the ionosphere-thermosphere system We will describe the current status and future prospect of the real-time geospace model

  6. Murine tribbles homolog 2 deficiency affects erythroid progenitor development and confers macrocytic anemia on mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kou-Ray; Yang-Yen, Hsin-Fang; Lien, Huang-Wei; Liao, Wei-Hao; Huang, Chang-Jen; Lin, Liang-In; Li, Chung-Leung; Yen, Jeffrey Jong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) is a member of Tribbles protein pseudokinases and involves in apoptosis, autoimmunity, cancer, leukemia and erythropoiesis, however, the physiological function of Trib2 in hematopoietic system remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that Trib2 knockout (KO) mice manifest macrocytic anemia and increase of T lymphocytes. Although Trib2 deficient RBCs have similar half-life as the control RBCs, Trib2 KO mice are highly vulnerable to oxidant-induced hemolysis. Endogenous Trib2 mRNA is expressed in early hematopoietic progenitors, erythroid precursors, and lymphoid lineages, but not in mature RBCs, myeloid progenitors and granulocytes. Consistently, flow cytometric analysis and in vitro colony forming assay revealed that deletion of Trib2 mainly affected erythroid lineage development, and had no effect on either granulocyte or megakaryocyte lineages in bone marrow. Furthermore, a genetic approach using double knockout of Trib2 and C/ebpα genes in mice suggested that Trib2 promotes erythropoiesis independent of C/ebpα proteins in vivo. Finally, ectopic expression of human Trib2 in zebrafish embryos resulted in increased expression of erythropoiesis-related genes and of hemoglobin. Taking all data together, our results suggest that Trib2 positively promotes early erythrocyte differentiation and is essential for tolerance to hemolysis. PMID:27550848

  7. Murine tribbles homolog 2 deficiency affects erythroid progenitor development and confers macrocytic anemia on mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kou-Ray; Yang-Yen, Hsin-Fang; Lien, Huang-Wei; Liao, Wei-Hao; Huang, Chang-Jen; Lin, Liang-In; Li, Chung-Leung; Yen, Jeffrey Jong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) is a member of Tribbles protein pseudokinases and involves in apoptosis, autoimmunity, cancer, leukemia and erythropoiesis, however, the physiological function of Trib2 in hematopoietic system remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that Trib2 knockout (KO) mice manifest macrocytic anemia and increase of T lymphocytes. Although Trib2 deficient RBCs have similar half-life as the control RBCs, Trib2 KO mice are highly vulnerable to oxidant-induced hemolysis. Endogenous Trib2 mRNA is expressed in early hematopoietic progenitors, erythroid precursors, and lymphoid lineages, but not in mature RBCs, myeloid progenitors and granulocytes. Consistently, flow cytometric analysis and in vitro colony forming assay revealed that deletion of Trib2 mainly affected erythroid lineage development, and had no effect on either granulocyte or megakaryocyte lineages in bone marrow. Furthermore, a genetic approach using double knockout of Trib2 and C/ebpα genes in mice suggested that Trib2 promotes erythropoiesis independent of C/ebpα proteins in vivo. Finally, ectopic expression of human Trib2 in zebrafish embryos resulted in increased expression of erythropoiesis-related genes and of hemoglobin. Taking all data together, our results suggest that Trib2 positively promotes early erythrocyte differentiation and is essential for tolerance to hemolysis. PMID:27550848

  8. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Burkuš, Ján; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Kokošová, Natália; Fabianová, Kamila; Fabian, Dušan; Koppel, Juraj; Čikoš, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life. PMID:25985793

  9. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development

    PubMed Central

    BURKUŠ, Ján; KAČMAROVÁ, Martina; KUBANDOVÁ, Janka; KOKOŠOVÁ, Natália; FABIANOVÁ, Kamila; FABIAN, Dušan; KOPPEL, Juraj; ČIKOŠ, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life. PMID:25985793

  10. Culture conditions affect the cholinergic development of an isolated subpopulation of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Barald, K F

    1989-10-01

    Although neural crest cells are known to be very responsive to environmental cues during their development, recent evidence indicates that at least some subpopulations may be committed to a specific differentiation program prior to migration. Because the neural crest is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of cells that contributes to many vertebrate cell lineages, assessing the properties of specific subpopulations and the effect of the environment on their development has been difficult. To address this problem, we have isolated a pure subpopulation of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells by fluorescence no-flow cytometry after labeling them with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to a 75-kDa cell surface antigen that is associated with high affinity choline uptake. When cultures of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells are labeled with these Mabs and a fluorescent second step antibody, approximately 5% of the cells are antigen-positive (A+). After sorting, 100% of the resulting cultured mesencephalic neural crest cells are A+. The Mabs we used also label all of the neurons of the embryonic chick and quail ciliary ganglion in vivo and in vitro. We have compared the effect of various cell culture media on the isolated neural crest subpopulation and the heterogeneous chick mesencephalic neural crest from which it was derived. A+ cells were passaged and grown in a variety of media, each of which differently affected its characteristics and development. A+ cells proliferated in the presence of 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and high concentrations (10-15%) of chick embryo extract, but did not differentiate, although they retained basal levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity. However, in chick serum and high (25 mM as opposed to 7 mM) K+, and heart-, iris-, or lung-conditioned medium, all of which are known to promote survival and/or cholinergic development of ciliary ganglion neurons, the cells ceased to proliferate and all of the cells in the culture became

  11. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  12. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    PubMed Central

    Jarideh, S.; Taeb, S.; Pishva, S. M.; Haghani, M.; Sina, S.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Hosseini, M. A.; Nematollahi, S.; Shokrpour, N.; Hassan Shahi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females), with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38), participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females) whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT) test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32) and the control group (N=29) were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively.  Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i) pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii) forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii) backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv) word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid Dastghieb

  13. The Development of Affect Specificity in Infants' Use of Emotion Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole Gendler; Witherington, David C.; Edwards, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the emergence of affect specificity in infancy. In this study, infants received verbal and facial signals of 2 different, negatively valenced emotions (fear and sadness) as well as neutral affect via a television monitor to determine if they could make qualitative distinctions among emotions of the same valence. Twenty 12- to…

  14. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  15. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  16. Time of day affects chemoreflex sensitivity and the carbon dioxide reserve during NREM sleep in participants with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2014-11-15

    Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PET(CO2)) and minute ventilation, as well as the PET(CO2) that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PET(CO2): 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea. PMID:25213638

  17. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  18. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  19. Microwells support high-resolution time-lapse imaging and development of preimplanted mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yu-Hsiang; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Kao, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Chihchen

    2015-01-01

    A vital aspect affecting the success rate of in vitro fertilization is the culture environment of the embryo. However, what is not yet comprehensively understood is the affect the biochemical, physical, and genetic requirements have over the dynamic development of human or mouse preimplantation embryos. The conventional microdrop technique often cultures embryos in groups, which limits the investigation of the microenvironment of embryos. We report an open microwell platform, which enables micropipette manipulation and culture of embryos in defined sub-microliter volumes without valves. The fluidic environment of each microwell is secluded from others by layering oil on top, allowing for non-invasive, high-resolution time-lapse microscopy, and data collection from each individual embryo without confounding factors. We have successfully cultured mouse embryos from the two-cell stage to completely hatched blastocysts inside microwells with an 89% success rate (n = 64), which is comparable to the success rate of the contemporary practice. Development timings of mouse embryos that developed into blastocysts are statistically different to those of embryos that failed to form blastocysts (p–value < 10−10, two-tailed Student's t-test) and are robust indicators of the competence of the embryo to form a blastocyst in vitro with 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Embryos at the cleavage- or blastocyst-stage following the normal development timings were selected and transferred to the uteri of surrogate female mice. Fifteen of twenty-two (68%) blastocysts and four of ten (40%) embryos successfully developed into normal baby mice following embryo transfer. This microwell platform, which supports the development of preimplanted embryos and is low-cost, easy to fabricate and operate, we believe, opens opportunities for a wide range of applications in reproductive medicine and cell biology. PMID:26015830

  20. Development of real-time ATC simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pararas, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Flight Transportation Laboratory has developed a real time interactive Air Traffic Control simulation facility designed to provide a versatile and easy to use tool for research and experimentation involving air traffic control. The facility uses a VAX-11/750 as the central computer. The SANDERS GRAPHICS-7 display system is used to simulate air traffic control displays. Pseudo-pilot displays are provided on Texas Instruments TI940 video terminals. Finally, a custom designed audio system driven by a Z-80 and interfaced with the VAX provides voice communication between the air traffic controllers and the pseudo-pilots. The audio system provides computer controlled voice disguising and thus allows each aircraft to have its own audio characteristics and provides an added realism to the experiment. The facility can accommodate multiple controller stations and pseudo-pilot stations. Each station is manned by a single operator who has a large repertoire of commands with which to control his/her display and the simulated aircraft under his/her jurisdiction. An additional console and a distinct set of commands allow full controllability of the simulation environment by the experimenter in real time.

  1. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  2. Development of Knowledge Discovery System from Annotated Time Sereis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    This paper proposes a knowledge discovery system from annotated time series data, they are expressed as sequences of numerical values. They generally have a lot of important information in background, but it is not included in data. Analysis methods without background information have limitations. Several studies propose meta data approaches, which is often expressed as a short text, the techniques are insufficient for our purpose. We therefore develop a method that uses annotations which are compact expressions of back ground information. Subsequences obtained by using domain knowledge are organized into groups based on a distance measure. Among the groups some of them are identified as important features. In order to measure importance, we develop a method that uses global and local frequencies of subsequences. This idea is similar to the TF*IDF method, which is used in text mining. A subsequence that represents an important group is regarded as a feature pattern. In addition, we extract association rules over feature patterns and annotations. We introduce a new concept, called max allowance length, to focus only on influential annotations to a pattern. We demonstrate an effect of the proposed method by using financial data.

  3. How group size affects vigilance dynamics and time allocation patterns: the key role of imitation and tempo.

    PubMed

    Michelena, Pablo; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    In the context of social foraging, predator detection has been the subject of numerous studies, which acknowledge the adaptive response of the individual to the trade-off between feeding and vigilance. Typically, animals gain energy by increasing their feeding time and decreasing their vigilance effort with increasing group size, without increasing their risk of predation ('group size effect'). Research on the biological utility of vigilance has prevailed over considerations of the mechanistic rules that link individual decisions to group behavior. With sheep as a model species, we identified how the behaviors of conspecifics affect the individual decisions to switch activity. We highlight a simple mechanism whereby the group size effect on collective vigilance dynamics is shaped by two key features: the magnitude of social amplification and intrinsic differences between foraging and scanning bout durations. Our results highlight a positive correlation between the duration of scanning and foraging bouts at the level of the group. This finding reveals the existence of groups with high and low rates of transition between activities, suggesting individual variations in the transition rate, or 'tempo'. We present a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments. Our theoretical predictions show that the system is robust in respect to variations in the propensity to imitate scanning and foraging, yet flexible in respect to differences in the duration of activity bouts. The model shows how individual decisions contribute to collective behavior patterns and how the group, in turn, facilitates individual-level adaptive responses. PMID:21525987

  4. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

  5. How Group Size Affects Vigilance Dynamics and Time Allocation Patterns: The Key Role of Imitation and Tempo

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Pablo; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    In the context of social foraging, predator detection has been the subject of numerous studies, which acknowledge the adaptive response of the individual to the trade-off between feeding and vigilance. Typically, animals gain energy by increasing their feeding time and decreasing their vigilance effort with increasing group size, without increasing their risk of predation (‘group size effect’). Research on the biological utility of vigilance has prevailed over considerations of the mechanistic rules that link individual decisions to group behavior. With sheep as a model species, we identified how the behaviors of conspecifics affect the individual decisions to switch activity. We highlight a simple mechanism whereby the group size effect on collective vigilance dynamics is shaped by two key features: the magnitude of social amplification and intrinsic differences between foraging and scanning bout durations. Our results highlight a positive correlation between the duration of scanning and foraging bouts at the level of the group. This finding reveals the existence of groups with high and low rates of transition between activies, suggesting individual variations in the transition rate, or ‘tempo’. We present a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments. Our theoretical predictions show that the system is robust in respect to variations in the propensity to imitate scanning and foraging, yet flexible in respect to differences in the duration of activity bouts. The model shows how individual decisions contribute to collective behavior patterns and how the group, in turn, facilitates individual-level adaptive responses. PMID:21525987

  6. Gradient Index Microlens Implanted in Prefrontal Cortex of Mouse Does Not Affect Behavioral Test Performance over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon A.; Holly, Kevin S.; Voziyanov, Vladislav; Villalba, Stephanie L.; Tong, Rudi; Grigsby, Holly E.; Glasscock, Edward; Szele, Francis G.; Vlachos, Ioannis; Murray, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Implanted gradient index lenses have extended the reach of standard multiphoton microscopy from the upper layers of the mouse cortex to the lower cortical layers and even subcortical regions. These lenses have the clarity to visualize dynamic activities, such as calcium transients, with subcellular and millisecond resolution and the stability to facilitate repeated imaging over weeks and months. In addition, behavioral tests can be used to correlate performance with observed changes in network function and structure that occur over time. Yet, this raises the questions, does an implanted microlens have an effect on behavioral tests, and if so, what is the extent of the effect? To answer these questions, we compared the performance of three groups of mice in three common behavioral tests. A gradient index lens was implanted in the prefrontal cortex of experimental mice. We compared their performance with mice that had either a cranial window or a sham surgery. Three presurgical and five postsurgical sets of behavioral tests were performed over seven weeks. Behavioral tests included rotarod, foot fault, and Morris water maze. No significant differences were found between the three groups, suggesting that microlens implantation did not affect performance. The results for the current study clear the way for combining behavioral studies with gradient index lens imaging in the prefrontal cortex, and potentially other regions of the mouse brain, to study structural, functional, and behavioral relationships in the brain. PMID:26799938

  7. Steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum affected by various salts and sugars: Time-independent properties.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali R; Eivazlou, Razieh; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2016-10-01

    The rheological properties of food hydrocolloids are remarkably influenced by the quality of solvent/cosolutes in a food system. In this work, the steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum (SSG, 0.5% w/w) at the presence of different levels of salts (KCl & MgCl2, 0-100mM) and sugars (sucrose, lactose & glucose, 0-6% w/w) was studied. It was found that the rheological properties of SSG were affected by the type of sugars and salts and their concentrations as well. Synergistic interaction was observed between SSG and sugars which enhanced the viscosity of gum solutions, while salts addition diminished the viscosity. SSG solutions exhibited a shear thinning behavior at all conditions tested. Various time-independent rheological models were used to fit the shear stress-shear rate data, although the Herschel-Bulkley (R(2)=0.994-0.999) and Sisko (R(2)=0.995-0.999) models showed the best results to describe the flow behavior of SSG. In the presence of salts, the yield stress (τ0), consistency coefficient (k), and flow behavior index (n) values decreased. The k and τ0 values enhanced and the n value lowered in the presence of sugars. Divalent cations of Mg(2+) and sucrose roughly showed more effect on rheological parameters than others. PMID:27316768

  8. UV wavelengths experienced during development affect larval newt visual sensitivity and predation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mélissa; Théry, Marc; Rodgers, Gwendolen; Goven, Delphine; Sourice, Stéphane; Mège, Pascal; Secondi, Jean

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally investigated the influence of developmental plasticity of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity on predation efficiency of the larval smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. We quantified expression of SWS1 opsin gene (UV-sensitive protein of photoreceptor cells) in the retinas of individuals who had developed in the presence (UV+) or absence (UV-) of UV light (developmental treatments), and tested their predation efficiency under UV+ and UV- light (testing treatments). We found that both SWS1 opsin expression and predation efficiency were significantly reduced in the UV- developmental group. Larvae in the UV- testing environment displayed consistently lower predation efficiency regardless of their developmental treatment. These results prove for the first time, we believe, functional UV vision and developmental plasticity of UV sensitivity in an amphibian at the larval stage. They also demonstrate that UV wavelengths enhance predation efficiency and suggest that the magnitude of the behavioural response depends on retinal properties induced by the developmental lighting environment. PMID:26843556

  9. Position along the nasal/temporal plane affects synaptic development by adult photoreceptors, revealed by micropatterning.

    PubMed

    Kung, Frank; Wang, Jianfeng; Perez-Castillejos, Raquel; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2015-03-01

    In retinal degeneration, death of photoreceptors causes blindness. Repair of the retina by transplanting photoreceptors has resulted in limited functional connectivity between transplanted and host neurons. We hypothesize that absence of appropriate biological cues, specifically positional (retinotopographic) cues, reduces synaptogenesis. Here we use micropatterning to test whether regional origin affects the early synaptic development of photoreceptors. Right and left retinas from salamanders were first labelled with dextran tetramethyl-rhodamine and fluorescein, respectively, bisected into nasal (N)/temporal (T) or dorsal (D)/ventral (V) halves, individually dissociated, mixed, and cultured for 1 week. Origin of cells was identified by the fluorescent label. Interactions between photoreceptors and neighboring (target) cells were assessed by the number of neuritic contacts with a presynaptic swelling (varicosity). Randomly-plated photoreceptors showed no preference for cellular origin, likely due to multiple potential interactions available to each cell. To reduce cell-cell interactions, culture substrate was patterned using a microfluidic device with 10 μm-wide channels separated by 200 μm, thus allowing only 1-2 targets per photoreceptor. In patterned cultures, 36.89% of N rod cells contacted T targets but only 27.42% of N rod cells contacted N targets; similarly 35.05% of T rod cells contacted N cells but only 17.08% contacted T cells. Thus, opposite regions were more permissive of contact. However, neither cone nor D/V rod cells showed preferences for positional origin of targets. In conclusion, micropatterning demonstrated that neuritic differentiation by rod cells depends on retinotopographic cues along the nasal/temporal plane, suggesting that transplanting rod cells of known positional origin will increase transplant success. PMID:25616113

  10. Rice ORMDL controls sphingolipid homeostasis affecting fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Chueasiri, Chutharat; Chunthong, Ketsuwan; Pitnjam, Keasinee; Chakhonkaen, Sriprapai; Sangarwut, Numphet; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Suksangpanomrung, Malinee; Michaelson, Louise V; Napier, Johnathan A; Muangprom, Amorntip

    2014-01-01

    The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development. PMID:25192280

  11. cor Gene Expression in Barley Mutants Affected in Chloroplast Development and Photosynthetic Electron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bosco, Cristina; Busconi, Marco; Govoni, Chiara; Baldi, Paolo; Stanca, A. Michele; Crosatti, Cristina; Bassi, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The expression of several barley (Hordeum vulgare) cold-regulated (cor) genes during cold acclimation was blocked in the albino mutant an, implying a chloroplast control on mRNAs accumulation. By using albino and xantha mutants ordered according to the step in chloroplast biogenesis affected, we show that the cold-dependent accumulation of cor14b, tmc-ap3, and blt14 mRNAs depends on plastid developmental stage. Plants acquire the ability to fully express cor genes only after the development of primary thylakoid membranes in their chloroplasts. To investigate the chloroplast-dependent mechanism involved in cor gene expression, the activity of a 643-bp cor14b promoter fragment was assayed in wild-type and albino mutant an leaf explants using transient β-glucuronidase reporter expression assay. Deletion analysis identified a 27-bp region between nucleotides −274 and −247 with respect to the transcription start point, encompassing a boundary of some element that contributes to the cold-induced expression of cor14b. However, cor14b promoter was equally active in green and in albino an leaves, suggesting that chloroplast controls cor14b expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Barley mutants lacking either photosystem I or II reaction center complexes were then used to evaluate the effects of redox state of electron transport chain components on COR14b accumulation. In the mutants analyzed, the amount of COR14b protein, but not the steady-state level of the corresponding mRNA, was dependent on the redox state of the electron transport chain. Treatments of the vir-zb63 mutant with electron transport chain inhibitors showed that oxidized plastoquinone promotes COR14b accumulation, thus suggesting a molecular relationship between plastoquinone/plastoquinol pool and COR14b. PMID:12586903

  12. Chronic Exposure to Ambient Levels of Urban Particles Affects Mouse Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Mauad, Thais; Rivero, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; de Faria Coimbra Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Guimarães, Eliane Tigre; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Kasahara, David Itiro; de Siqueira Bueno, Heloisa Maria; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on children's lung growth. Objectives: We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to urban levels of particulate matter (PM) on selected phases of mouse lung development. Methods: The exposure occurred in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered) placed 20 m from a street with heavy traffic in São Paulo, 24 hours/day for 8 months. There was a significant reduction of the levels of PM2.5 inside the filtered chamber (filtered = 2.9 ± 3.0 μg/m3, nonfiltered = 16.8 ± 8.3 μg/m3; P = 0.001). At this exposure site, vehicular sources are the major components of PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5μm). Exposure of the parental generation in the two chambers occurred from the 10th to the 120th days of life. After mating and birth of offspring, a crossover of mothers and pups occurred within the chambers, resulting in four groups of pups: nonexposed, prenatal, postnatal, and pre+postnatal. Offspring were killed at the age of 15 (n = 42) and 90 (n = 35) days; lungs were analyzed by morphometry for surface to volume ratio (as an estimator of alveolization). Pressure–volume curves were performed in the older groups, using a 20-ml plethysmograph. Measurements and Main Results: Mice exposed to PM2.5 pre+postnatally presented a smaller surface to volume ratio when compared with nonexposed animals (P = 0.036). The pre+postnatal group presented reduced inspiratory and expiratory volumes at higher levels of transpulmonary pressure (P = 0.001). There were no differences among prenatal and postnatal exposure and nonexposed animals. Conclusions: Our data provide anatomical and functional support to the concept that chronic exposure to urban PM affects lung growth. PMID:18596224

  13. Early diet affects the development of 3-6 Hz EEG activity in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study investigated whether diet affects brain physiological functions during infancy. Power spectra (3-6 Hz) of electroencephalographic signals (high density recordings) in the bilateral prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, occipital, anterior temporal, mid-temporal, and posteri...

  14. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  15. Neonatal Phytoestrogen Exposure Alters Oviduct Mucosal Immune Response to Pregnancy and Affects Preimplantation Embryo Development in the Mouse1

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Wendy N.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Phelps, Jazma Y.; Cantor, Amy M.; Williams, Carmen J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of neonatal mice with the phytoestrogen genistein (50 mg/kg/day) results in complete female infertility caused in part by preimplantation embryo loss in the oviduct between Days 2 and 3 of pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that oviducts of genistein-treated mice are “posteriorized” as compared to control mouse oviducts because they express numerous genes normally restricted to posterior regions of the female reproductive tract (FRT), the cervix and vagina. We report here that neonatal genistein treatment resulted in substantial changes in oviduct expression of genes important for the FRT mucosal immune response, including immunoglobulins, antimicrobials, and chemokines. Some of the altered immune response genes were chronically altered beginning at the time of neonatal genistein treatment, indicating that these alterations were a result of the posteriorization phenotype. Other alterations in oviduct gene expression were observed only in early pregnancy, immediately after the FRT was exposed to inflammatory or antigenic stimuli from ovulation and mating. The oviduct changes affected development of the surviving embryos by increasing the rate of cleavage and decreasing the trophectoderm-to-inner cell mass cell ratio at the blastocyst stage. We conclude that both altered immune responses to pregnancy and deficits in oviduct support for preimplantation embryo development in the neonatal genistein model are likely to contribute to infertility phenotype. PMID:22553218

  16. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  17. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  18. Recent developments in guided wave travel time tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zon, Tim van; Volker, Arno

    2014-02-18

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography had been developed to create a map of the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. It can be used for both monitoring and for inspection of pipe-segments that are difficult to access, for instance at the location of pipe-supports. An important outcome of the tomography is the minimum remaining wall thickness, as this is critical in the scheduling of a replacement of the pipe-segment. In order to improve the sizing accuracy we have improved the tomography scheme. A number of major improvements have been realized allowing to extend the application envelope to pipes with a larger wall thickness and to larger distances between the transducer rings. Simulation results indicate that the sizing accuracy has improved and that is now possible to have a spacing of 8 meter between the source-ring and the receiver-ring. Additionally a reduction of the number of sensors required might be possible as well.

  19. Real time gesture based control: A prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Deepshikha; Solanki, L.; Rai, Satish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The computer industry is getting advanced. In a short span of years, industry is growing high with advanced techniques. Robots have been replacing humans, increasing the efficiency, accessibility and accuracy of the system and creating man-machine interaction. Robotic industry is developing many new trends. However, they still need to be controlled by humans itself. This paper presents an approach to control a motor like a robot with hand gestures not by old ways like buttons or physical devices. Controlling robots with hand gestures is very popular now-a-days. Currently, at this level, gesture features are applied for detecting and tracking the hand in real time. A principal component analysis algorithm is being used for identification of a hand gesture by using open CV image processing library. Contours, convex-hull, and convexity defects are the gesture features. PCA is a statistical approach used for reducing the number of variables in hand recognition. While extracting the most relevant information (feature) contained in the images (hand). After detecting and recognizing hand a servo motor is being controlled, which uses hand gesture as an input device (like mouse and keyboard), and reduces human efforts.

  20. Does lighting manipulation during incubation affect hatching rhythms and early development of sole?

    PubMed

    Blanco-Vives, B; Aliaga-Guerrero, M; Cañavate, J P; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2011-05-01

    Light plays a key role in the development of biological rhythms in fish. Previous research on Senegal sole has revealed that both spawning rhythms and larval development are strongly influenced by lighting conditions. However, hatching rhythms and the effect of light during incubation are as yet unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the light spectrum and photoperiod on Solea senegalensis eggs and larvae until day 7 post hatching (dph). To this end, eggs were collected immediately after spawning during the night and exposed to continuous light (LL), continuous darkness (DD), or light-dark (LD) 12L:12D cycles of white light (LD(W)), blue light (LD(B); λ(peak) = 463 nm), or red light (LD(R); λ(peak) = 685 nm). Eggs exposed to LD(B) had the highest hatching rate (94.5% ± 1.9%), whereas LD(R) and DD showed the lowest hatching rate (54.4% ± 3.9% and 48.4% ± 4.2%, respectively). Under LD conditions, the hatching rhythm peaked by the end of the dark phase, but was advanced in LD(B) (zeitgeber time 8 [ZT8]; ZT0 representing the onset of darkness) in relation to LD(W) and LD(R) (ZT11). Under DD conditions, the same rhythm persisted, although with lower amplitude, whereas under LL the hatching rhythm split into two peaks (ZT8 and ZT13). From dph 4 onwards, larvae under LD(B) showed the best growth and quickest development (advanced eye pigmentation, mouth opening, and pectoral fins), whereas larvae under LD(R) and DD had the poorest performance. These results reveal that developmental rhythms at the egg stage are tightly controlled by light characteristics, underlining the importance of reproducing their natural underwater photoenvironment (LD cycles of blue wavelengths) during incubation and early larvae development of fish. PMID:21539421

  1. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  2. Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application.

    PubMed

    Hall, M R; Johnson, A W; Smittle, D A

    1988-10-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil and increased marketable yield in 1982, but not in 1983 and 1984. When DD, fenamiphos, and aldicarb were applied just before planting either sweet potato or onion, nematode population densities at harvest were lower in treated than in untreated plots. No additional benefits resulted when the nematicides were applied immediately before planting both sweet potato and onion. Correlation coefficients (P

  3. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-01-27

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  4. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J

    2006-10-01

    Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields showed prominent bilateral P100m, N250m, P320m and N450m peaks. Significant change in the peak latencies of all components except P100m was observed over time. Larger P100m and N450m amplitude as well as more rapid change of N250m amplitude and latency was associated with the violin rather than the noise stimuli. Larger P100m and P320m peak amplitudes in the left hemisphere than in the right are consistent with left-lateralized cortical development in this age group. A clear musical training effect was expressed in a larger and earlier N250m peak in the left hemisphere in response to the violin sound in musically trained children compared with untrained children. This difference coincided with pronounced morphological change in a time window between 100 and 400 ms, which was observed in musically trained children in response to violin stimuli only, whereas in untrained children a similar change was present regardless of stimulus type. This transition could be related to establishing a neural network associated with sound categorization and/or involuntary attention, which can be altered by music learning experience. PMID:16959812

  5. Factors Affecting the Inter-annual to Centennial Time Scale Variability of All Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The All Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) is highly important for the livelihood of more than 1 billion people living in the Indian sub-continent. The agriculture of this region is heavily dependent on seasonal (JJAS) monsoon rainfall. An early start or a slight delay of monsoon, or an early withdrawal or prolonged monsoon season may upset the farmer's agricultural plans, can cause significant reduction in crop yield, and hence economic loss. Understanding of AISMR is also vital because it is a part of global atmospheric circulation system. Several studies show that AISMR is influenced by internal climate forcings (ICFs) viz. ENSO, AMO, PDO etc. as well as external climate forcings (ECFs) viz. Greenhouse Gases, volcanic eruptions, and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). We investigate the influence of ICFs and ECFs on AISMR using recently developed statistical technique called De-trended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA). DPCCA can analyse a complex system of several interlinked variables. Often, climatic variables, being cross correlated, are simultaneously tele-connected with several other variables and it is not easy to isolate their intrinsic relationship. In the presence of non-stationarities and background signals the calculated correlation coefficients can be overestimated and erroneous. DPCCA method removes the non-stationarities and partials out the influence of background signals from the variables being cross correlated and thus give a robust estimate of correlation. We have performed the analysis using NOAA Reconstructed SSTs and homogenised instrumental AISMR data set from 1854-1999. By employing the DPCCA method we find that there is a statistically insignificant negative intrinsic relation (by excluding the influence of ICFs, and ECFs except TSI) between AISMR and TSI on decadal to centennial time scale. The ICFs considerably modulate the relation between AISMR and solar activity between 50-80 year time scales and transform this relationship

  6. Instructor Time Requirements to Develop and Teach Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    How much time does it take to teach an online course? Does teaching online take more or less time than teaching face-to-face? Instructors, department chairs, deans, and program administrators have long believed that teaching online is more time-consuming than teaching face-to-face. Many research studies and practitioner articles indicate…

  7. Plant Quantity Affects Development and Survival of a Gregarious Insect Herbivore and Its Endoparasitoid Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Zhu, Feng; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semi-field experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation in a tri-trophic system where quantitative constraints are profoundly important on insect performance. The large cabbage white Pieris brassicae, is a specialist herbivore of relatively small wild brassicaceous plants that grow in variable densities, with black mustard (Brassica nigra) being one of the most important. Larvae of P. brassicae are in turn attacked by a specialist endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. Increasing the length of food deprivation of newly molted final instar caterpillars significantly decreased herbivore and parasitoid survival and biomass, but shortened their development time. Moreover, the ability of caterpillars to recover when provided with food again was correlated with the length of the food deprivation period. In outdoor tents with natural vegetation, we created conditions similar to those faced by P. brassicae in nature by manipulating plant density. Low densities of B. nigra lead to potential starvation of P. brassicae broods and their parasitoids, replicating nutritional conditions of the lab experiments. The ability of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars to find corner plants was similar but decreased with central plant density. Survival of both the herbivore and parasitoid increased with plant density and was higher for unparasitized than for parasitized caterpillars. Our results, in comparison with previous studies, reveal that quantitative constraints are far more important that qualitative constraints on the performance of

  8. Does aggressive and expectant management of severe preeclampsia affect the neurologic development of the infant?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Arif Aktuğ; Kapudere, Bilge; Eken, Meryem Kurek; İlhan, Gülşah; Dırman, Şükriye; Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Deniz, Engin; Karatekin, Güner; Çöğendez, Ebru; Api, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare and evaluate the influences of expectant and aggressive management of severe preeclampsia on the first year neurologic development of the infants in pregnancies between 27 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Methods: Seventy women with severe preeclampsia between 27 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in the study. 37 patients were managed aggressively (Group 1) and 33 patients were managed expectantly (Group 2). Glucocorticoids, magnesium sulfate infusion and antihypertensive drugs were administered to each group. After glucocorticoid administration was completed Group 1 was delivered either by cesarean section or vaginal delivery. In Group 2 magnesium sulfate infusion was stopped after glucocorticoid administration was completed. Antihypertensive drugs were given, bed rest and intensive fetal monitorization were continued in this group. Results: The average weeks of gestation, one minute and five minute apgar scores and hospitalization time in intensive care unit were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Three neonatal complications in Group 2 and five in Group 1 were detected according to the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II and one pathologic case was detected in both groups following neurologic examination. Neonatal mortality was seen in seven patients in Group 1 and one in Group 2. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal mortality and morbidity and maternal morbidity (P > 0.05). The average latency period was 3.45 ± 5.48 days in Group 2 and none in Group 1. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the first year neurological development of infants whose mothers underwent either expectant and aggressive management for severe preeclampsia. PMID:26770571

  9. Plant Quantity Affects Development and Survival of a Gregarious Insect Herbivore and Its Endoparasitoid Wasp.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Zhu, Feng; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semi-field experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation in a tri-trophic system where quantitative constraints are profoundly important on insect performance. The large cabbage white Pieris brassicae, is a specialist herbivore of relatively small wild brassicaceous plants that grow in variable densities, with black mustard (Brassica nigra) being one of the most important. Larvae of P. brassicae are in turn attacked by a specialist endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. Increasing the length of food deprivation of newly molted final instar caterpillars significantly decreased herbivore and parasitoid survival and biomass, but shortened their development time. Moreover, the ability of caterpillars to recover when provided with food again was correlated with the length of the food deprivation period. In outdoor tents with natural vegetation, we created conditions similar to those faced by P. brassicae in nature by manipulating plant density. Low densities of B. nigra lead to potential starvation of P. brassicae broods and their parasitoids, replicating nutritional conditions of the lab experiments. The ability of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars to find corner plants was similar but decreased with central plant density. Survival of both the herbivore and parasitoid increased with plant density and was higher for unparasitized than for parasitized caterpillars. Our results, in comparison with previous studies, reveal that quantitative constraints are far more important that qualitative constraints on the performance of

  10. Development of the triage, monitoring and treatment Handbook for Members of the Public Affected by Radiological Terrorism - A European Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, P.; Rojas-Palma, C.

    2007-07-01

    European national emergency response plans have long been focused on accidents at nuclear power plants. Recently, the possible threats by disaffected groups have shifted the focus to being prepared also for malevolent use of radiation that are aimed at creating disruption and panic in the society. The casualties will most likely be members of the public. According to the scenario, the number of affected people can vary from a few to mass casualties. The radiation exposure can range from very low to substantial, possibly combined with conventional injuries. There is a need to develop practicable tools for the adequate response to such acts and more specifically to address European guidelines for triage, monitoring and treatment of exposed people. Although European countries have developed emergency response plans for nuclear accidents they have not all made plans for handling malevolent use of radioactive material. Indeed, there is a need to develop practical guidance on emergency response and medical treatment of the public affected by malevolent acts. Generic guidance on this topic has been published by international organisations. They are, however, not operational documents to be used in emergency situations. The Triage, Monitoring and Treatment (TMT) Handbook aims to strengthen the European ability to efficiently respond to malevolent acts in terms of protecting and treating exposed people. Part of the Handbook is also devoted to public information and communication issues which would contribute to public reassurance in emergency situations. The Handbook will be drafted by European and international experts before it is circulated to all emergency response institutions in Europe that would be a part of the handling of malevolent acts using radioactive material. The institutions would be given a 6 months consultation time with encouragement to test the draft Handbook in national exercises. A workshop will allow feedback from these end users on the content

  11. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  12. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  13. Factors affecting the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after vitrification using glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Wan, Fachun

    2009-09-01

    microtubules and chromosomes. With 2 h incubation, the microtubules could repolymerize and the rate of fertilization in vitro was much higher than those of 1 and 3 h incubation groups. In conclusion, the protection of basic medium and FCS to oocytes during cryopreservation and sufficient cooling and warming rates using glass capillaries have profound effects on oocytes survival and subsequent embryonic development competence. The appropriate time for fertilization in vitro may be related to the recovery of spindles after incubation and avoiding ageing in the whole process. PMID:19343459

  14. New ways of working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration. PMID:22317507

  15. New Ways of Working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration. PMID:22317114

  16. Using Rasch Measurement for the Development and Use of Affective Assessments in Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    With the demand for quality quantitative instruments in the field of science education rising, additional measures of currently unassessed affective variables need to be constructed. In this study, we discuss the survey creation and evaluation process of the STEM Awareness Community Survey (SACS) through an application of Liu's (Liu, X.,…

  17. Examining the Familial Link between Positive Affect and Empathy Development in the Second Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volbrecht, Michele M.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2007-01-01

    Within a sample of 584 twins aged 12 to 25 months (292 pairs) studied longitudinally, positive affect measured through two laboratory pleasure episodes and maternal report at 12 and 22 months significantly predicted empathy-related helping and hypothesis testing assessed between 19 and 25 months. Girls showed significantly more concern than did…

  18. Severity and timing: How prenatal stress exposure affects glial developmental, emotional behavioural and plasma neurosteroid responses in guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Walker, David; Hirst, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of developmental changes in offspring, notably those associated with brain development and subsequent risk for neuropathologies later in life. Recently, the importance of the timing and the severity of the stressor during pregnancy has been emphasized with neurosteroids including allopregnanolone implicated in the regulation of stress and also for endogenous neuroprotection in offspring. Prenatal stress was induced using strobe light exposure in pregnant guinea pigs (term 71days) in three defined stress exposure groups (Gestational Age (GA)35-65, GA50-65 and GA60-65). Stress was induced for 2h (9-11am) every 5days via strobe light exposure. A fetal cohort were euthanased at term with fetal brains and plasma collected. Anxiety-like behaviour was evaluated at 18 days of age in a separate cohort of offspring with brains and plasma collected at 21days of age. Markers for mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes were measured in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subcortical white matter. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone was measured by radioimmunoassay in offspring plasma. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, fetuses from all stress groups showed reduced expression of mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes. By juvenility, all male stress exposure groups had recovered to levels of unaffected controls with the exception of the GA35-65 stress group. In juvenile females, mature oligodendrocyte marker expression was reduced in all stress groups and reactive astrocyte expression was reduced in the GA35-65 and GA60-65 stress groups by juvenility. Increased reactive astrocyte expression was also apparent in the subcortical white matter in both sexes both at term and at juvenility. Prenatally stressed offspring spent less time exploring in the object exploration test and also entered the inner zone of the open field less than controls at 18days of age. Circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were

  19. Timing of The First Zygotic Cleavage Affects Post-Vitrification Viability of Murine Embryos Produced In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jusof, Wan-Hafizah Wan; Khan, Nor-Ashikin Mohamed Noor; Rajikin, Mohd Hamim; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Mustafa, Mohd-Fazirul; Jusoh, Norhazlin; Dasiman, Razif

    2015-01-01

    Background Timing of the first zygotic cleavage is an accurate predictor of embryo quality. Embryos that cleaved early (EC) have been shown to exhibit higher develop- mental viability compared to those that cleaved at a later period (LC). However, the vi- ability of EC embryos in comparison to LC embryos after vitrification is unknown. The present study aims to investigate the post-vitrification developmental viability of murine EC versus LC embryos. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, female ICR mice (6-8 weeks old) were superovulated and cohabited with fertile males for 24 hours. Afterwards, their ovi- ducts were excised and embryos harvested. Embryos at the 2-cell stage were catego- rized as EC embryos, while zygotes with two pronuclei were categorized as LC embryos. Embryos were cultured in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a humidified 5% CO2atmosphere. Control embryos were cultured until the blastocyst stage without vitrification. Experimental embryos at the 2-cell stage were vitri- fied for one hour using 40% v/v ethylene glycol, 18% w/v Ficoll-70 and 0.5 M sucrose as the cryoprotectant. We recorded the numbers of surviving embryos from the control and experimental groups and their development until the blastocyst stage. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results A significantly higher proportion of EC embryos (96.7%) from the control group developed to the blastocyst stage compared with LC embryos (57.5%, P<0.0001). Similarly, in the experimental group, a significantly higher percentage of vitrified EC embryos (69.4%) reached the blastocyst stage compared to vitrified LC embryos (27.1%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Vitrified EC embryos are more vitrification tolerant than LC embryos. Prese- lection of EC embryos may be used as a tool for selection of embryos that exhibit higher developmental competence after vitrification. PMID:26246881

  20. Hydrogen cracking in the heat affected zone of high strength steels - year 2, development of weld metal test

    SciTech Connect

    Graville, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    In previous work the notched bend test had been developed for evaluating the sensitivity of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a weld to hydrogen cracking. In the present work the test was modified to allow the evaluation of weld metal. The test specimen uses a Charpy-V notch placed in the weld metal after welding and prior to loading in three point bending. The deflection to first load drop is used as the measure of sensitivity to cracking. The results showed that weld metal could readily be evaluated with the test discriminating among weld metals of different composition and hydrogen content. Finite element analysis was undertaken and showed that for the two weld metals tested, cracking occurred at the same local stress when the hydrogen content was the same despite differences in strength. A finite difference model was used to calculate the distribution of hydrogen as a function of aging time. Although the general trends were confirmed by the experimental measurements of hydrogen content, there was considerable scatter attributed to the small hydrogen volumes measured.