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Sample records for affect development time

  1. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  2. Water Stress Affects Development Time but Not Takeoff Performance in the Butterfly Pararge aegeria.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Breuker, Casper J; Van Damme, Raoul

    Most organisms are limited in the amount and type of resources they are able to extract from the environment. The juvenile environment is particularly important in this regard, as conditions over ontogeny can influence the adult phenotype. Whole-organism performance traits, such as locomotion, are susceptible to such environmental effects, yet the specific biotic and abiotic factors driving performance plasticity have received little attention. We tested whether speckled wood Pararge aegeria L. butterflies reared under conditions of water stress exhibited poorer flight morphology and performance than control individuals. Despite large differences in mortality between treatments, we found no effects of water stress treatment on takeoff performance and only minor treatment effects on flight morphology. However, butterflies reared on water-stressed diets exhibited both significantly greater mortality and longer development times than did control individuals. Pararge aegeria larvae may compensate for this stress by prolonging development, resulting in similar realized performance capacities at least in takeoff performance in surviving adult butterflies; other measures of flight performance remain to be considered. Alternatively, the adult phenotype may be insulated from environmental effects at the larval stage in these insects.

  3. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  4. Endogenous and exogenous estrogens during embryonic development affect timing of hatch and growth in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Cruze, Lori; Roark, Alison M; Rolland, Gabrielle; Younas, Mona; Stacy, Nicole; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect length of gestation and body mass and size of offspring. However, the dose, timing, and duration of exposure as well as sex and strain of the experimental animals determine the direction and magnitude of these effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a one-time embryonic exposure to either 17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1.4 days earlier than vehicle-treated (control) alligators, suggesting that estrogenic chemicals hasten hatching in these animals. We assessed growth rates, growth allometry, and body condition for 21 weeks after hatching and found that BPA-treated alligators grew more quickly shortly after hatching but more slowly thereafter compared to control alligators. Conversely, E2-treated alligators grew more slowly shortly after hatching but more quickly thereafter compared to control alligators. As a result of differences in growth rate, BPA-treated alligators were heavier, longer, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were similar in size and leaner than control alligators at age 21 weeks. Biochemical analytes were examined at the end of the 21-week study to assess overall metabolic condition. We found that E2-treated alligators had significantly higher circulating plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides than control alligators while BPA-treated alligators had blood profiles comparable to control alligators. Our results provide important insights into the effects of exogenous estrogens on morphology and metabolism in an oviparous, semi-aquatic reptile.

  5. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  6. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated.

  7. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  8. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Marcel E.; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar activity not only has an effect on population numbers but that it also affects the timing of animal behaviour. This effect is statistically independent of ambient temperature. In years with few sunspots, birds initiate laying late while they are often early in years with many sunspots. The sunspot effect may be owing to a crucial difference between the method of temperature measurements by meteorological stations (in the shade) and the temperatures experienced by the birds. A better understanding of the impact of all the thermal components of weather on the phenology of ecosystems is essential when predicting their responses to climate change. PMID:19574283

  9. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  10. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Methods Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. Results The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Conclusions Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food

  11. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  12. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  13. Reading Enjoyment and Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reporting on Reading, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The articles in this publication offer ideas for developing enjoyment of reading in children. Among the topics discussed are the following: the need for teachers and parents to build children's self-esteem through increasing their experiences of success, their expectations of success, and the value they place on reading; methods for increasing…

  14. Information superhighway: Issues affecting development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    Technological advances in the transmission of voice, video, and data are fostering fundamental changes in the telecommunications industry. For example, large local telephone companies plan to offer video services in competition with cable and broadcast television, while cable television companies plan to offer local telephone service over their wires in competition with the local telephone companies. The administration believes that these technological changes provide the opportunity to develop an 'Information Superhighway' that could provide every element of society with ready access to data, voice, and video communications. Concurrently, the Congress is considering sweeping changes to telecommunications regulations to keep pace with this dynamic industry. GAO prepared this report to serve as an overview of three key issues that decisionmakers may face as they deliberate telecommunications legislation; it focuses on three pivotal issues they face in formulating new telecommunications legislation: (1) managing the transition to a more competitive local telecommunications marketplace; (2) ensuring that all consumers have access to affordable telecommunications as competition develops; and (3) ensuring that the Information Superhighway provides adequate security, privacy, reliability, and interoperability.

  15. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  16. Time for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of professional development and maintains that the summer offers an ideal time for such activities. Describes informal activities such as composing and arranging and encourages professional collaboration. Identifies formal study such as graduate study, workshops, and professional conferences. (CFR)

  17. How snowpack heterogeneity affects diurnal streamflow timing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of streamflow in snow-fed rivers can be used to infer the average time a water parcel spends in transit from the top of the snowpack to a stream gauge in the river channel. This travel time, which is measured as the difference between the hour of peak snowmelt in the afternoon and the hour of maximum discharge each day, ranges from a few hours to almost a full day later. Travel times increase with longer percolation times through deeper snowpacks, and prior studies of small basins have related the timing of a stream's diurnal peak to the amount of snow stored in a basin. However, in many larger basins the time of peak flow is nearly constant during the first half of the melt season, with little or no variation between years. This apparent self-organization at larger scales can be reproduced by employing heterogeneous observations of snow depths and melt rates in a model that couples porous medium flow through an evolving snowpack with free surface flow in a channel. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Some Factors Affecting Time Reversal Signal Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevorovsky, Z.; Kober, J.

    Time reversal (TR) ultrasonic signal processing is now broadly used in a variety of applications, and also in NDE/NDT field. TR processing is used e.g. for S/N ratio enhancement, reciprocal transducer calibration, location, identification, and reconstruction of unknown sources, etc. TR procedure in con-junction with nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy NEWS is also useful for sensitive detection of defects (nonlinearity presence). To enlarge possibilities of acoustic emission (AE) method, we proposed the use of TR signal reconstruction ability for detected AE signals transfer from a structure with AE source onto a similar remote model of the structure (real or numerical), which allows easier source analysis under laboratory conditions. Though the TR signal reconstruction is robust regarding the system variations, some small differences and changes influence space-time TR focus and reconstruction quality. Experiments were performed on metallic parts of both simple and complicated geometry to examine effects of small changes of temperature or configuration (body shape, dimensions, transducers placement, etc.) on TR reconstruction quality. Results of experiments are discussed in this paper. Considering mathematical similarity between TR and Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), prediction of signal reconstruction quality was possible using only the direct propagation. The results show how some factors like temperature or stress changes may deteriorate the TR reconstruction quality. It is also shown that sometimes the reconstruction quality is not enhanced using longer TR signal (S/N ratio may decrease).

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  20. Writing direction affects how people map space onto time.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Benjamin K; Chan Lau, Ting Ting

    2012-01-01

    What determines which spatial axis people use to represent time? We investigate effects of writing direction. English, like Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, is written left to right and then top to bottom. But in Taiwan, characters are written predominantly top to bottom and then right to left. Because being a fluent reader-writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one's writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time in terms of space. In a behavioral experiment, we had native speakers of English, Mandarin Chinese from mainland China, and Mandarin Chinese from Taiwan place sets of cards in temporal order. These cards depicted stages of development of plants and animals, for instance: tadpole, froglet, frog. Results showed that English speakers always represented time as moving from left to right (LR). Mainland Chinese participants trended in the same direction, but a small portion laid the cards out from top to bottom. Taiwanese participants were just as likely to depict time as moving from LR as from top to bottom, with a large minority depicting it as moving from right to left. Native writing system affects how people represent time spatially.

  1. Should what we know about neurobehavioral development, complex congenital heart disease, and brain maturation affect the timing of corrective cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    DiNardo, James A

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable improvements in perioperative care, adverse neurobehavioral outcomes following neonatal and infant cardiac surgery are commonplace and are associated with substantial morbidity. It is becoming increasingly clear that complex congenital heart disease is associated with both abnormalities in neuroanatomic development and a delay in fetal brain maturation. Substantial cerebral ischemic/hypoxic injury has been detected in neonates with complex congenital heart disease both prior to and following corrective cardiac surgery. The brain of the neonate with complex congenital heart disease appears to be uniquely vulnerable to the types of ischemic/hypoxic injury associated with perioperative care. It remains to be determined whether delaying surgical correction to allow for brain maturation will be associated with improvements in neurobehavioral outcomes.

  2. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  3. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  4. Time-Varying Affective Response for Humanoid Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkina, Lilia; Arkin, Ronald C.; Lee, Jamee K.; Jung, Hyunryong

    This paper describes the design of a complex time-varying affective architecture. It is an expansion of the TAME architecture (traits, attitudes, moods, and emotions) as applied to humanoid robotics. It particular it is intended to promote effective human-robot interaction by conveying the robot’s affective state to the user in an easy-to-interpret manner.

  5. Developing Hierarchical Structures Integrating Cognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Barbara Martin

    Several categories of the affective domain are important to the schooling process. Schools are delegated the responsibility of helping students to clarify their esthetic, instrumental, and moral values. Three areas of affect are related to student achievement: subject-related affect, school-related affect, and academic self concept. In addition,…

  6. The stingy hour: how accounting for time affects volunteering.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Sanford E; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    These studies examined how the practice of accounting for one's time-so that work can be billed or charged to specific clients or projects-affects the decision to allocate time to volunteer activities. Using longitudinal data collected from law students transitioning to their first jobs, Study 1 showed that exposure to billing time diminished individuals' willingness to volunteer, even after controlling for attitudes about volunteering held before entering the workforce as well as the individual's specific opportunity costs of volunteering time. Studies 2-5 experimentally manipulated billing time and confirmed its causal effect on individuals' willingness to volunteer and actual volunteering behavior. Study 5 showed that the effect of exposure to billing time on volunteering occurred above and beyond any effects on general self-efficacy or self-determination. Individual differences moderated the effects of billing, such that people who did not value money as much were less affected.

  7. Leveraging Affective Learning for Developing Future Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    sity, the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or any other US government agency. Cleared for public release: distribution unlimited...clude affective objectives in their lessons. A student’s affective state influences his or her learning pre- disposition, and educators should consider...but may not be possible for a large number of students or for dispersed learning activity. The ability to discern the affective state of students

  8. How Does Calibration Timing and Seasonality Affect Item Parameter Estimates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Continuously administered examination programs, particularly credentialing programs that require graduation from educational programs, often experience seasonality where distributions of examine ability may differ over time. Such seasonality may affect the quality of important statistical processes, such as item response theory (IRT) item…

  9. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-15

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos.

  10. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  11. Numerical magnitude affects temporal memories but not time encoding.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Wang, Ruiming

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the perception of time is influenced by concurrent magnitude information (e.g., numerical magnitude in digits, spatial distance), but the locus of the effect is unclear, with some findings suggesting that concurrent magnitudes such as space affect temporal memories and others suggesting that numerical magnitudes in digits affect the clock speed during time encoding. The current paper reports 6 experiments in which participants perceived a stimulus duration and then reproduced it. We showed that though a digit of a large magnitude (e.g., 9), relative to a digit of a small magnitude (e.g., 2), led to a longer reproduced duration when the digits were presented during the perception of the stimulus duration, such a magnitude effect disappeared when the digits were presented during the reproduction of the stimulus duration. These findings disconfirm the account that large numerical magnitudes accelerate the speed of an internal clock during time encoding, as such an account incorrectly predicts that a large numerical magnitude should lead to a shorter reproduced duration when presented during reproduction. Instead, the findings suggest that numerical magnitudes, like other magnitudes such as space, affect temporal memories when numerical magnitudes and temporal durations are concurrently held in memory. Under this account, concurrent numerical magnitudes have the chance to influence the memory of the perceived duration when they are presented during perception but not when they are presented at the reproduction stage.

  12. Elements affecting wound healing time: An evidence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hanan; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Carroll, Matthew; Walker, Judi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant client factors and comorbidities that affected the time taken for wounds to heal. A prospective study design used the Mobile Wound Care (MWC) database to capture and collate detailed medical histories, comorbidities, healing times and consumable costs for clients with wounds in Gippsland, Victoria. There were 3,726 wounds documented from 2,350 clients, so an average of 1.6 wounds per client. Half (49.6%) of all clients were females, indicating that there were no gender differences in terms of wound prevalence. The clients were primarily older people, with an average age of 64.3 years (ranging between 0.7 and 102.9 years). The majority of the wounds (56%) were acute and described as surgical, crush and trauma. The MWC database categorized the elements that influenced wound healing into 3 groups--factors affecting healing (FAH), comorbidities, and medications known to affect wound healing. While there were a multitude of significant associations, multiple linear regression identified the following key elements: age over 65 years, obesity, nonadherence to treatment plan, peripheral vascular disease, specific wounds associated with pressure/friction/shear, confirmed infection, and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Wound healing is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of influencing elements to improve healing times.© 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  13. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  14. Goal regulation across time: the effects of feedback and affect.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Judge, Timothy A

    2005-05-01

    This research focused on the processes individuals use to regulate their goals across time. Two studies examined goal regulation following task performance with 6 samples of participants in a series of 8-trial task performance experiments. The experiments involved: (a) 3 task types, (b) 2 goal types, and (c) actual or manipulated performance feedback referring to the focal participant's own performance or to the participant's performance compared with others' performance. Applying multilevel methods, the authors examined (a) how performance feedback influences subsequent goals within individuals across both negative and positive performance feedback ranges, and (b) the mediating role of affect in explaining the relationship between feedback and subsequent goal setting. Results showed that participants adjusted their goals downwardly following negative feedback and created positive goal-performance discrepancies by raising their goals following positive feedback. In each sample, affect mediated substantial proportions of the feedback-goals relationship within individuals.

  15. Cognition and Affect in Early Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Gillian D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Using Vygotsky's theory of development, explores the significance of storytelling and dramatization activities on the intellectual and emotional development of preschool children. Results indicate that dramatizing of children's stories enhances the storytelling of preschool children and, thus, influences their literacy development. (DST)

  16. Comparisons of HIV-Affected and Non-HIV-Affected Families Over Time.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W Scott; Best, Karin; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study compares HIV-affected families and their non-HIV-affected neighbors' behavioral health outcomes and family conflict. To compare two groups from the same neighborhoods at four points over 18 months, mothers with HIV (MLH) (N=167) and their school-age children (age 6 to 20) were recruited from clinical care settings in Los Angeles, CA and neighborhood control mothers (NCM) without HIV (N=204) were recruited from modal neighborhoods. In addition, children living at home who were 12 years and older were recruited. We assessed parenting behaviors, family conflict, mental health, sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV-related health behaviors over time. MLH perceived greater economic insecurity at baseline, less employment, and involvement in romantic relationships. MLH reported more emotional distress and substance use than NCM. MLH, however, reported lowered HIV transmission risk. The random regressions indicated that MLH exhibited higher levels and became significantly less depressed and less anxious over time than their non-HIV-affected neighbors. MLH also reported less initial family violence and conflict reasoning than NCM; violence decreased and conflict increased over time for MLH relative to NCM. Children of MLH decreased their marijuana use but hard drug users of MLH increased their risk, over time, compared to children of NCM. Moreover, children of MLH reported more internalizing behaviors than children of NCM. Even when compared to other families living in the same economically disadvantaged communities, MLH and their children continue to face challenges surrounding family conflict, and key behavioral health outcomes, especially with respect to substance use and mental health outcomes. These families, however, show much resilience and MLH report lowered levels of HIV transmission risk, their children report no greater levels of HIV transmission risk and levels of family violence were lower than reported by families in the same neighborhoods.

  17. Irrigation timing and volume affects growth of container grown maples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container nursery production requires large inputs of water and nutrients but frequently irrigation inputs exceed plant demand and lack application precision or are not applied at optimal times for plant production. The results from this research can assist producers in developing irrigation manage...

  18. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  19. The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system. PMID:16262989

  20. Fetal jaw movement affects condylar cartilage development.

    PubMed

    Habib, H; Hatta, T; Udagawa, J; Zhang, L; Yoshimura, Y; Otani, H

    2005-05-01

    Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular condyle. Condylar cartilage was reduced in size, and the bone-cartilage margin was ill-defined in the sutured group at E18.5. Volume, total number of cells, and number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the mesenchymal zone were lower in the sutured group than in the non-sutured group at E16.5 and E18.5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were larger, whereas fewer apoptotic chondrocytes and osteoclasts were observed in the hypertrophic zone in the sutured group at E18.5. Analysis of our data revealed that restricted fetal TMJ movement influences the process of endochondral bone formation of condylar cartilage.

  1. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Formiggini, Fabio; Marco, Nadia De; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay- Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the "corona" effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  2. Do ELF magnetic fields affect human reaction time?

    SciTech Connect

    Podd, J.V.; Whittington, C.J.; Barnes, G.R.G.; Page, W.H.; Rapley, B.I.

    1995-12-01

    Two double-blind studies were run in an attempt to confirm the finding that a 0.2 Hz magnetic field affects simple reaction time (RT) in humans, whereas a 0.1 Hz field does not. In the first experiment, 12 volunteer subjects were exposed to a continuous 0.2 Hz, 0.1 Hz, or sham field in a fully counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Subjects were run singly for one condition each day over 3 consecutive days with a field strength of 1.1 mT and a daily expose duration of 5 min. Neither magnetic field had any effect on RT at any time during the exposure. One condition of a second study, using a new group of 24 volunteer subjects, also failed to find any field effects at 0.2 Hz. Additionally, the second study failed to show any effects when the frequency, flux density, and field orientation were set according to parameter resonance theory. It is suggested that, although ELF magnetic field effects on human behavior may be elusive, future research can improve detection rates by paying greater attention to reducing error variance and increasing statistical power.

  3. Factors that Affect Drain Indwelling Time after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uslukaya, Ömer; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Gümüş, Metehan; Bozdağ, Zübeyir; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Gümüş, Hatice; Kaya, Şeyhmus; Gül, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Objective The most common procedure to prevent seroma formation, a common complication after breast and axillary surgery, is to use prophylactic surgical drains. Ongoing discussions continue regarding the ideal time for removing drains after surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate factors that affect drain indwelling time (DIT). Materials and Methods From 2014 to 2015, a total of 91 consecutive patients with breast cancer were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatment methods, histopathologic features of the tumor, size of removed breast tissue (BS), tumor size (TS), number of totally removed lymph nodes (TLN), and metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), whether they had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the DIT were retrospectively recorded from the hospital database. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years, and the mean DIT was 4.8 days. The mean size of breast removed was 17.3 cm and tumor size was 4.7 cm, and the mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was 3.3, and mean total number of lymph nodes was 14.1. Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherahpy had longer DIT. There was a positive correlation between the BS, TS, TLN, MLN, length of hospital stay, and DIT. Linear regresion analysis revealed that the BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy were independent risk factors for DIT. Conclusion DIT primarily depends on BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy. A policy for the management of removing drains to prevent seroma formation should thus be individualized.

  4. Stress sensitivity and the development of affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Bale, Tracy L

    2006-11-01

    Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental illness in America, affecting females twice as often as males. The great variability of symptoms and responses to therapeutic treatment emphasize the complex underlying neurobiology of disease onset and progression. Evidence from human and animal studies reveals a vital link between individual stress sensitivity and the predisposition toward mood disorders. While the stress response is essential for maintenance of homeostasis and survival, chronic stress and maladaptive responses to stress insults can lead to depression or other affective disorders. A key factor in the mediation of stress responsivity is the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Studies in animal models of heightened stress sensitivity have illustrated the involvement of CRF downstream neurotransmitter targets, including serotonin and norepinephrine, in the profound neurocircuitry failure that may underlie maladaptive coping strategies. Stress sensitivity may also be a risk factor in affective disorder development susceptibility. As females show an increased stress response and recovery time compared to males, they may be at an increased vulnerability for disease. Therefore, examination of sex differences in CRF and downstream targets may aid in the elucidation of the underlying causes of the increased disease presentation in females. While we continue to make progress in our understanding of mood disorder etiology, we still have miles to go before we sleep. As an encouraging number of new animal models of altered stress sensitivity and negative stress coping strategies have been developed, the future looks extremely promising for the possibility of a new generation of drug targets to be developed.

  5. Time to wait: a systematic review of strategies that affect out-patient waiting times.

    PubMed

    Naiker, Ugenthiri; FitzGerald, Gerry; Dulhunty, Joel M; Rosemann, Michael

    2017-03-30

    Objective Out-patient waiting times pose a significant challenge for public patients in need of specialist evaluation and intervention. The aim of the present study was to identify and categorise effective strategies to reduce waiting times for specialist out-patient services with a focus on the Australian healthcare system.Methods A systematic review of major health databases was conducted using the key terms 'outpatient*' AND 'waiting time', 'process*' AND 'improvement in outpatient clinics'. Identified articles were assessed for their relevance by sequential review of the title, abstract and full text. References of the selected manuscripts were scanned for additional relevant articles. Selected articles were evaluated for consistent and emerging themes.Results In all, 152 articles were screened, of which 38 were included in the present review. Numerous strategies identified in the articles were consolidated into 26 consistent approaches. Three overarching themes were identified as significantly affecting waiting times: resource realignment, operational efficiency and process improvement.Conclusions Strategies to align resources, increase operational efficiency and improve processes provide a comprehensive approach that may reduce out-patient waiting times.What is known about the topic? Out-patient waiting times are a challenge in most countries that seek to provide universal access to health care for all citizens. Although there has been extensive research in this area, many patients still experience extensive delays accessing specialist care, particularly in the public health sector. The multiple factors that contribute to bottlenecks and inefficiencies in the referral process and affect patient waiting times are often poorly understood.What does this paper add? This paper reviews the published healthcare literature to identify strategies that affect specialist out-patient waiting times for patients. The findings suggest that there are numerous operational

  6. Development Cycle Time Simulation for Civil Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitz, William; Berardino, Frank; Golaszewski, Richard; Johnson, Jesse

    2001-01-01

    Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) will be one of the major factors affecting the future of the civil aerospace industry. This focus is the end reflection of the level of competition in the commercial large carrier aircraft industry. Aircraft manufacturer must minimize costs and pass a portion of those savings onto buyers. CTR is one strategy used to move the manufacturing firm down the cost curve. The current NASA Airframe Development Cycle Time Reduction Goal is 50% by year 2022. This goal is not achievable based on the program analysis done by the LMI/GRA team. This may mean that the current roster of NASA CTR programs needs to be reexamined or that the program technology progress factors, as determined by the NASA experts, were understated. Programs that duplicate the reductions of others should be replaced with non-duplicative programs. In addition, new programs targeting a specific part of the cycle can be developed.

  7. Evolution of meiosis timing during floral development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, M. O.

    1999-01-01

    Meiosis divides the haploid and diploid portions of the life cycle in all sexual organisms. In angiosperms meiosis occurs during flower development, the duration of which varies widely among species and is affected by environmental conditions within species. For 36 species representing 13 angiosperm families, we determined the time at which meiosis ceased in the anthers as a fraction of the total time from floral primordium initiation (beginning of development) to flower opening (end). It was found that this fraction, rather than being continuously distributed among species, occurred in three discrete classes despite wide variations within and among species in absolute developmental durations. Each species was characterized by a single timing class. For all species within a given timing class, therefore, the durations before and after the end of microsporocyte meiosis existed in constant ratio. Each timing class was found in phylogenetically distant species; conversely, a plant family often contained more than one class. Timing class was not related to ploidy level, inflorescence architecture, pollination syndrome or mating system. These findings show that either the durations before and after microsporocyte meiosis are regulated by the same exogenous process, or one duration determines the other. They further imply that the underlying developmental processes have evolved in a limited number of ways among flowering plants.

  8. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates.

    PubMed

    Inman, C F; Haverson, K; Konstantinov, S R; Jones, P H; Harris, C; Smidt, H; Miller, B; Bailey, M; Stokes, C

    2010-06-01

    Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12-28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2-5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12-28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy.

  9. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    PubMed Central

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses. PMID:27982121

  10. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  11. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence.

  12. Strategies for Developing Effective Teaching Skills in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other academic discipline, physical education holds the highest potential for teaching affective skills. By its very nature, the typical physical education setting offers countless teachable moments and opportunities to capitalize on the development of affective skills. The seeming lack of attention given to affective…

  13. The Development of the Meta-Affective Trait Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…

  14. A Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolase orthologue that affects developmental timing.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Mizuho; Yasuno, Mami; Shindo, Yuki; Kawata, Takefumi

    2014-02-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a facultative multicellular amoebozoan with cellulose in the stalk and spore coat of its fruiting body as well as in the extracellular matrix of the migrating slug. The organism also harbors a number of cellulase genes. One of them, cbhA, was identified as a candidate cellobiohydrolase gene based on the strong homology of its predicted protein product to fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI). Expression of the cbhA was developmentally regulated, with strong expression in the spores of the mature fruiting body. However, a weak but detectable level of expression was observed in the extracellular matrix at the mound - tipped finger stages, in prestalk O cells, and in the slime sheath of the migrating slug - late culminant stages. A null mutant of the cbhA showed almost normal morphology. However, the developmental timing of the mutant was delayed by 2-4 h. When a c-Myc epitope-tagged CbhA was expressed, it was secreted into the culture medium and was able to bind crystalline cellulose. The CbhA-myc protein was glycosylated, as demonstrated by its ability to bind succinyl concanavalin A-agarose. Moreover, conditioned medium from the cbhA-myc (oe) strain displayed 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-cellobioside (4-MUC) digesting activity in Zymograms in which conditioned medium was examined via native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or spotted on an agar plate containing 4-MUC, one of the substrates of cellobiohydrolase. Taken together, these findings indicate that Dictyostelium CbhA is an orthologue of CBH I that is required for a normal rate of development.

  15. The colour red affects time perception differently in different contexts.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaxin; Huang, Xiting

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that psychological and behavioural functions of the colour red vary according to context. In this research, we used the verbal estimation paradigm to determine if the colour red affects individuals' perception of interval duration. In our results, perceived duration was shorter in a red condition than in a blue one; additionally, only in the red condition, perceived duration was shorter in an online dating context than in an online interviewing context. The contribution and limitations of this study and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food.

  17. Product development cycle time reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farran, Robin

    1992-05-01

    We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

  18. Left Hand Dominance Affects Supra-Second Time Processing

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Bonní, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies exploring specific brain functions of left- and right-handed subjects have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing of temporal intervals, we designed a study aimed at investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose both left- and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproduction of sub-second vs. supra-second time intervals with their left and right hand. Our results show that during processing of the supra-second intervals left-handed participants sub-estimated the duration of the intervals, independently of the hand used to perform the task, while no differences were reported for the sub-second intervals. These results are discussed on the basis of recent findings on supra-second motor timing, as well as emerging evidence that suggests a linear representation of time with a left-to-right displacement. PMID:22028685

  19. Perceptual Grouping Affects Pitch Judgments across Time and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchert, Elizabeth M. O.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared…

  20. Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

  1. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  2. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  3. Processing Time Shifts Affects the Execution of Motor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Andrea J.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether time shifts in text comprehension are represented spatially. Participants read sentences involving past or future events and made sensibility judgment responses in one of two ways: (1) moving toward or away from their body and (2) pressing the toward or away buttons without moving. Previous work suggests that spatial…

  4. Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, T A; Nelson, R J

    2017-01-01

    Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light–dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep–wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression. Circadian disruption by nighttime light perturbs those processes and is associated with increasing incidence of certain cancers, metabolic dysfunction and mood disorders. This review focuses on the role of artificial light at night in mood regulation, including mechanisms through which aberrant light exposure affects the brain. Converging evidence suggests that circadian disruption alters the function of brain regions involved in emotion and mood regulation. This occurs through direct neural input from the clock or indirect effects, including altered neuroplasticity, neurotransmission and clock gene expression. Recently, the aberrant light exposure has been recognized for its health effects. This review summarizes the evidence linking aberrant light exposure to mood. PMID:28140399

  5. Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, T A; Nelson, R J

    2017-01-31

    Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression. Circadian disruption by nighttime light perturbs those processes and is associated with increasing incidence of certain cancers, metabolic dysfunction and mood disorders. This review focuses on the role of artificial light at night in mood regulation, including mechanisms through which aberrant light exposure affects the brain. Converging evidence suggests that circadian disruption alters the function of brain regions involved in emotion and mood regulation. This occurs through direct neural input from the clock or indirect effects, including altered neuroplasticity, neurotransmission and clock gene expression. Recently, the aberrant light exposure has been recognized for its health effects. This review summarizes the evidence linking aberrant light exposure to mood.

  6. Factors affecting larval tick feeding success: host, density and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ectoparasites rely on blood feeding to sustain activity, support development and produce offspring. Blood feeding is also a route for transmission of diverse vector-borne pathogens. The likelihood of successfully feeding is thus an important aspect of ectoparasite population dynamics and...

  7. Affect development as a need to preserve homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Aslıhan; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Ünsalver, Barış Önen

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we aim to present our hypothesis about the neural development of affect. According to this view, affect develops at a multi-layered process, and as a mediator between drives, emotion and cognition. This development is parallel to the evolution of the brain from reptiles to mammals. There are five steps in this process: (1) Because of the various environmental challenges, changes in the autonomic nervous system occur and homeostasis becomes destabilized; (2) Drives arise from the destabilized homeostasis; (3) Drives trigger the neural basis of the basic emotional systems; (4) These basic emotions evolve into affect to find the particular object to invest the emotional energy; and (5) In the final stage, cognition is added to increase the possibility of identifying a particular object. In this paper, we will summarize the rationale behind this view, which is based on neuroscientific proofs, such as evolution of autonomic nervous system, neural basis the raw affective states, the interaction between affect and cognition, related brain areas, related neurotransmitters, as well as some clinical examples.

  8. Children's time perception as affected by order of stimulus presentation.

    PubMed

    Bowers, R L; Richards, R W

    1987-10-01

    Two groups of 5- to 6-yr.-old children estimated the time required to view 15 color slides containing an assortment of familiar objects. In one group, the pictures appeared in categorical order. A second group viewed the same 15 slides in a random order. The results showed that, although picture-recall was similar for the two groups, children in the category group estimated significantly longer durations than subjects in the random condition. The findings were discussed in the context of Ornstein's 1969 storage size hypothesis.

  9. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  10. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  11. Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making.

    PubMed

    Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects

  12. Does fluoride gel/foam application time affect enamel demineralization?

    PubMed

    Braxton, Ashanti; Garrett, Latasha; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2014-01-01

    The American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs recommends a four-minute application of professionally applied topical fluoride, based on clinical evidence for caries reduction. However, some product manufacturers imply that a one-minute application is sufficient. The purpose of this laboratory study was to ascertain if a one-minute application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) is equivalent to a four-minute application for reduction of enamel demineralization. We measured baseline hardness of polished bovine enamel before treatment with APF gel or foam for one or four minutes (N = 10). A control group received no fluoride treatment. The teeth were then immersed in pooled human saliva for 30 minutes, rinsed, and subjected to lactic acid gel to simulate the initial stage of dental caries. After three hours, the hardness was measured and the difference in hardness was determined as an indication of demineralization. We found that enamel hardness was significantly reduced after exposure to lactic acid gel. The reduction was significantly less in all APF-treatment groups compared to the control. However, there was no significant difference between a tooth exposed to APF gel or foam for 1 minute or for 4 minutes (ANOVA/Student-Newman-Keuls, significance level 0.05). In conclusion, APF gel and foam reduced enamel demineralization regardless of a one- or four-minute application time.

  13. Perceptual grouping affects pitch judgments across time and frequency.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Elizabeth M O; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared listeners' ability to detect differences in F0 between pairs of sequential or simultaneous tones that were filtered into separate, nonoverlapping spectral regions. The timbre differences induced by filtering led to poor F0 discrimination in the sequential, but not the simultaneous, conditions. Temporal overlap of the two tones was not sufficient to produce good performance; instead performance appeared to depend on the two tones being integrated into the same perceptual object. The results confirm the difficulty of comparing the pitches of sequential sounds with different timbres and suggest that, for simultaneous sounds, pitch differences may be detected through a decrease in perceptual fusion rather than an explicit coding and comparison of the underlying F0s.

  14. [Mentalisation and affect regulation--how the infantile self develops].

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The text comprises the different elements of the psychoanalytic mentalization theory of Peter Fonagy et al. and tries to explain them. Part of this theory are above all the affect mirroring as well as the affect reciprocity theory and the two modes of the "as if" character and the psychic equivalence (playing with reality). You can find clear examples for each of these theoretical components. Moreover there are many correlations to other authors and their respective development theories: that is to Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. The text is based above all on Martin Dornes' approaches on this topic (2004, 2006).

  15. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems.

  16. Genetic and environmental contributions to the development of positive affect in infancy.

    PubMed

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2017-04-01

    We studied developmental changes in infant positive affect from 6 to 12 months of age, a time marked by increasing use of positive vocalizations, laughter, and social smiles. We estimated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on observed and parent reported infant positive affect across development. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal twin study of infancy and toddlerhood (N = 536 twin pairs). Mothers and fathers reported on infant temperament and infants were videotaped during 2 observational tasks assessing positive affect. Parents also reported on their own affect and emotional expression within the family. Biometric models examined genetic and environmental influences that contribute to the developmental continuity of positive affect. Infant positive affect was associated with increased parent positive affect and family expressions of positive affect although not with family expressions of negative affect. In addition, the shared environment accounted for a large portion of variation in infant positive affect and continuity over time. These findings highlight the importance of the family environment in relation to infant positive emotional development. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  18. How a Decade of Conflict Affected Junior Logistics Officer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 22-03-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT HOW A DECADE OF CONFLICT AFFECTED JUNIOR...FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 March 2011 WORD COUNT: 5,662 PAGES: 28 KEY TERMS: Modularity, ARFORGEN, Leader Development

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.195 - Are there time limits affecting filing of a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.195 Are there time limits affecting filing...

  20. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  1. When Does Time Matter? Maternal Employment, Children's Time With Parents, and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better “quality” of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers’ education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and childcare. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development. PMID:25280840

  2. Development of Coordination in Time Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Wallot, Sebastian; Gresham, Lori J.; Kloos, Heidi; Riley, Michael A.; Shockley, Kevin; Van Orden, Guy

    2014-01-01

    How to best characterize cognitive development? The claim put forward in this article is that development is the improvement of a kind of coordination among a variety of factors. To determine the development of coordination in a cognitive task, children between 4 and 12 years of age and adults participated in a time estimation task: They had to…

  3. Nicotine alters bovine oocyte meiosis and affects subsequent embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Guang-Peng; White, Kenneth L; Rickords, Lee F; Sessions, Benjamin R; Aston, Kenneth I; Bunch, Thomas D

    2007-11-01

    The effects of nicotine on nuclear maturation and meiotic spindle dynamics of bovine oocytes and subsequent embryonic development were investigated. Maturation rates (85%-94%) derived from nicotine treatments at 0.01 to 1.0 mM were similar to the control (86%), but significantly decreased at 2.0 to 6.0 mM. Haploid complements of metaphase II oocytes in 0.01 to 1.0 mM nicotine (approximately 90%) were similar to the control, while lower (ranged from 63% to 76%, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) haploid oocytes were observed in the 2.0 to 6.0 mM nicotine groups. The majority of the PB1-free oocytes derived from 3.0 to 6.0 mM nicotine treatments were diploidy (2n = 60). Spindle microtubules changed from characteristically being asymmetrical in the controls to being equally distributed into two separate chromosome groups in the nicotine treatments. Nicotine disorganized the microfilament organization and inhibited the movement of anaphase or telophase chromosomes to the cortical area. The inhibited two chromosome groups became two spindles that either moved close in proximity or merged entirely together resulting in diploidy within the affected oocyte. Nicotine treatment significantly reduced the rate of cleavage and blastocyst development after parthenogenetic activation. Diploidy and cell number were drastically reduced in the resultant blastocysts. In conclusion, nicotine can alter the normal process of bovine oocyte meiosis and affects subsequent embryonic development.

  4. Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training can affect the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants. 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics were recorded while the infants were exposed to slow and fast horizontal forward (Fw) and backward (Bw) displacements of the platform. After the first session the parents of nine infants trained their child's sitting balance daily. 3. At the youngest age, when none of the infants could sit independently, the muscle activation patterns were direction specific and showed a large variation. This variation decreased with increasing age, resulting in selection of the most complete responses. Training facilitated response selection both during Fw and Bw translations. This suggests a training effect on the first level of the central pattern generator (CPG) model of postural control. 4. Training also affected the development of response modulation during Fw translations. It accelerated the development of: (1) the ability to modulate EMG amplitude with respect to platform velocity and initial sitting position, (2) antagonist activity and (3) a distal onset of the response. These findings point to a training effect on the second level of the CPG model of postural adjustments. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8735713

  5. Beneficial microbes affect endogenous mechanisms controlling root development

    PubMed Central

    Verbon, Eline H.; Liberman, Louisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have incredible developmental plasticity, enabling them to respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. Among these conditions is the presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the soil. Recent studies show that PGPR affect root growth and development within Arabidopsis thaliana root. These effects lead to dramatic changes in root system architecture, that significantly impact aboveground plant growth. Thus, PGPR may promote shoot growth via their effect on root developmental programs. This review focuses on contextualizing root developmental changes elicited by PGPR in light of our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and root developmental biology. PMID:26875056

  6. Bone development in black ducks as affected by dietary toxaphene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehrle, P.M.; Finley, M.T.; Ludke, J.L.; Mayer, F.L.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    Black ducks, Anas rubripes, were exposed to dietary toxaphene concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 μg/g of food for 90 days prior to laying and through the reproductive season. Toxaphene did not affect reproduction or survival, but reduced growth and impaired backbone development in ducklings. Collagen, the organic matrix of bone, was decreased significantly in cervical vertebrae of ducklings fed 50 μg/g, and calcium conentrations increased in vertebrae of ducklings fed 10 or 50 μg/g. The effects of toxaphene were observed only in female ducklings. In contrast to effects on vertebrae, toxaphene exposure did not alter tibia development. Toxaphene residues in carcasses of these ducklings averaged slightly less than the dietary levels.

  7. Timing and magnitude of systolic stretch affect myofilament activation and mechanical work

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Jared R.; Campbell, Stuart G.; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Dyssynchronous activation of the heart leads to abnormal regional systolic stretch. In vivo studies have suggested that the timing of systolic stretch can affect regional tension and external work development. In the present study, we measured the direct effects of systolic stretch timing on the magnitude of tension and external work development in isolated murine right ventricular papillary muscles. A servomotor was used to impose precisely timed stretches relative to electrical activation while a force transducer measured force output and strain was monitored using a charge-couple device camera and topical markers. Stretches taking place during peak intracellular Ca2+ statistically increased peak tension up to 270%, whereas external work due to stretches in this interval reached values of 500 J/m. An experimental analysis showed that time-varying elastance overestimated peak tension by 100% for stretches occurring after peak isometric tension. The addition of the force-velocity relation explained some effects of stretches occurring before the peak of the Ca2+ transient but had no effect in later stretches. An estimate of transient deactivation was measured by performing quick stretches to dissociate cross-bridges. The timing of transient deactivation explained the remaining differences between the model and experiment. These results suggest that stretch near the start of cardiac tension development substantially increases twitch tension and mechanical work production, whereas late stretches decrease external work. While the increased work can mostly be explained by the time-varying elastance of cardiac muscle, the decreased work in muscles stretched after the peak of the Ca2+ transient is largely due to myofilament deactivation. PMID:24878774

  8. Rhizosphere microbiome assemblage is affected by plant development

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Badri, Dayakar V; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    There is a concerted understanding of the ability of root exudates to influence the structure of rhizosphere microbial communities. However, our knowledge of the connection between plant development, root exudation and microbiome assemblage is limited. Here, we analyzed the structure of the rhizospheric bacterial community associated with Arabidopsis at four time points corresponding to distinct stages of plant development: seedling, vegetative, bolting and flowering. Overall, there were no significant differences in bacterial community structure, but we observed that the microbial community at the seedling stage was distinct from the other developmental time points. At a closer level, phylum such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and specific genera within those phyla followed distinct patterns associated with plant development and root exudation. These results suggested that the plant can select a subset of microbes at different stages of development, presumably for specific functions. Accordingly, metatranscriptomics analysis of the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that 81 unique transcripts were significantly (P<0.05) expressed at different stages of plant development. For instance, genes involved in streptomycin synthesis were significantly induced at bolting and flowering stages, presumably for disease suppression. We surmise that plants secrete blends of compounds and specific phytochemicals in the root exudates that are differentially produced at distinct stages of development to help orchestrate rhizosphere microbiome assemblage. PMID:24196324

  9. Predator density and timing of arrival affect reef fish community assembly.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Geange, Shane W; Hanson, Kate M; Bolker, Benjamin M

    2013-05-01

    Most empirical studies of predation use simple experimental approaches to quantify the effects of predators on prey (e.g., using constant densities of predators, such as ambient vs. zero). However, predator densities vary in time, and these effects may not be well represented by studies that use constant predator densities. Although studies have independently examined the importance of predator density, temporal variability, and timing of arrival (i.e., early or late relative to prey), the relative contribution of these different predator regimes on prey abundance, diversity, and composition remains poorly understood. The hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), a carnivorous coral reef fish, exhibits substantial variability in patch occupancy, density, and timing of arrival to natural reefs. Our field experiments demonstrated that effects of hawkfish on prey abundance depended on both hawkfish density and the timing of their arrival, but not on variability in hawkfish density. Relative to treatments without hawkfish, hawkfish presence reduced prey abundance by 50%. This effect increased with a doubling of hawkfish density (an additional 33% reduction), and when hawkfish arrived later during community development (a 34% reduction). Hawkfish did not affect within-patch diversity (species richness), but they increased between-patch diversity (beta) based on species incidence (22%), and caused shifts in species composition. Our results suggest that the timing of predator arrival can be as important as predator density in modifying prey abundance and community composition.

  10. Intron Delays and Transcriptional Timing during Development

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, Ian A.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    The time taken to transcribe most metazoan genes is significant because of the substantial length of introns. Developmentally regulated gene networks, where timing and dynamic patterns of expression are critical, may be particularly sensitive to intron delays. We revisit and comment on a perspective last presented by Thummel 16 years ago: transcriptional delays may contribute to timing mechanisms during development. We discuss the presence of intron delays in genetic networks. We consider how delays can impact particular moments during development, which mechanistic attributes of transcription can influence them, how they can be modeled, and how they can be studied using recent technological advances as well as classical genetics. PMID:18331713

  11. When Time Flies: How Abstract and Concrete Mental Construal Affect the Perception of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jochim; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Time is experienced as passing more quickly the more changes happen in a situation. The present research tested the idea that time perception depends on the level of construal of the situation. Building on previous research showing that concrete rather than abstract mental construal causes people to perceive more variations in a given situation,…

  12. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.

    PubMed

    Watson, D; Clark, L A; Tellegen, A

    1988-06-01

    In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.

  13. Short communication: Timing of first milking affects serotonin (5-HT) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Gross, J J; Crenshaw, T D; Bruckmaier, R M; Hernandez, L L

    2014-05-01

    Hormonal signals differentially regulate the timing of parturition, as well lactogenesis and, potentially, colostrum formation in the mammary gland. Non-neuronal serotonin (5-HT) is a homeostatic regulator of the mammary gland. In the current study, we manipulated the timing of first milking to investigate its effects on serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations in the maternal and calf circulation, as well as in colostrum. Twenty-three cows were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n=10) group, milked for the first time at 4h postcalving, or a treatment (TRT; n=13) group, milked for the first time approximately 1 d before calving in addition to 4h postcalving. Maternal blood samples were collected for 4 d precalving, 3 times daily, and 1 blood sample was taken 4h postcalving. Calf blood samples were collected 4 (before first colostrum feeding) and 12h after birth, and at 3 wk of age. Calves from both treatments were fed colostrum from their respective mothers. Serum 5-HT concentrations were greater in CON cows and decreased significantly in TRT cows after milking was initiated precalving (951 vs. 524 ± 111 ng/mL, respectively). Cow serum calcium concentrations were affected by time, beginning to decrease 1 d precalving until 4h postcalving, but this drop in serum calcium was more pronounced in TRT cows. Serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations were negatively correlated (r=-0.57) for the CON cows and positively correlated (r=0.6) for the TRT cows. Maternal calcium and 5-HT decreased similarly due to precalving milking. Calcium and 5-HT concentrations were greater in colostrum collected from TRT cows milked precalving. Overall, calves had higher circulating 5-HT concentrations than cows, and calves born to TRT cows had increased 5-HT concentrations compared with the CON. Precalving milking could affect 5-HT synthesis within the mammary gland and therefore affect maternal 5-HT and calcium concentrations. Further research is needed in ruminants to assess the extent of 5-HT

  14. Young People's Time-of-Day Preferences Affect Their School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…

  15. Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2016-07-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development is presented. Paradigm shift from full spacetime covariance to spatial diffeomorphism invariance yields a nonvanishing Hamiltonian, a resolution of the ‘problem of time’ and gauge-invariant temporal ordering in an ever expanding universe. Einstein’s general relativity is a particular realization of a wider class of theories; and the framework prompts natural extensions and improvements with the consequent dominance of Cotton-York potential at early times when the universe was small.

  16. Automated real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  17. Time flies: time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Susan N.; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  18. Time flies: Time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Susan N; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-10-07

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males.

  19. Embryonic genotype and inbreeding affect preimplantation development in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, G; Colleoni, S; Duchi, R; Galli, A; Houghton, F D; Galli, C

    2011-05-01

    Infertility in cattle herds is a growing problem with multifactorial causes. Embryonic genotype and level of inbreeding are among the many factors that can play a role on reproductive efficiency. To investigate this issue, we produced purebred and crossbred bovine embryos by in vitro techniques from Holstein oocytes and Holstein or Brown Swiss semen and analyzed several cellular and molecular features. In the first experiment, purebred and crossbred embryos, obtained from abattoir oocytes, were analyzed for cleavage, development to morula/blastocyst stages, amino acid metabolism and gene expression of developmentally important genes. The results indicated significant differences in the percentage of compacted morulae, in the expression of three genes at the blastocyst stage (MNSOD, GP130 and FGF4) and in the utilization of serine, asparagine, methionine and tryptophan in day 6 embryos. In the second experiment, bovine oocytes were collected by ovum pick up from ten Holstein donors and fertilized with the semen of the respective Holstein sires or with Brown Swiss semen. The derived embryos were grown in vitro up to day 7, and were then transferred to synchronized recipients and recovered on day 12. We found that purebred/inbred embryos had lower blastocyst rate on days 7-8, were smaller on day 12 and had lower expression of the trophoblast gene PLAC8. Overall, these results indicate reduced and delayed development of purebred embryos compared with crossbred embryos. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that embryo genotype and high inbreeding can affect amino acid metabolism, gene expression, preimplantation development and therefore fertility in cattle.

  20. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  1. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  2. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in acute kidney injury is affected by administration timing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jieru; Jiao, Xiaoyan; Yu, Xiaofang; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2017-03-10

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for acute kidney injury; however, the efficacy is limited due to poor survival after transplantation. In this study, we investigated how MSC transplantation timing affected the survival and therapeutic potential of MSCs in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. After kidney I/R injury, the inflammatory process and tissue damage were characterized over 1 week post-I/R, we found that inflammation peaked at 12-24 h post-I/R (h.p.i.), and urine  neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) measurements correlated highly with measures of inflammation. We cultured MSCs with supernatants from I/R injured kidney tissue homogenates collected at different time points and found that kidney homogenates from 12 and 24 h.p.i. were most toxic to MSCs, whereas homogenates from 1 h.p.i. were not as cytotoxic as those from 12 and 24 h.p.i. Compared with MSCs administered at 12, or 24 h.p.i., cells administered immediately after ischemia or 1 h.p.i. yielded the highest renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Our findings indicate that MSC treatment for acute kidney injury is most effective when applied prior to the development of a potent inflammatory microenvironment, and urine NGAL may be helpful for detecting inflammation and selecting MSC transplantation timing in I/R kidney injury.

  3. Professional Development in Tough Financial Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandel, Paul B.; Golden, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The authors asked a diverse cross-section of their colleagues how they were addressing professional development in tight economic times, when they are all being asked to work more effectively across organizational boundaries. While the survey was informal and not scientific, the authors found that many organizations have maintained strong…

  4. Physical Development: Taking Time for Physical Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses children's physical development through physical play. Here, the author gives ways to incorporate opportunities for physical play. For infants, time for play may have to revolve around nap schedules. This may mean allowing for different wake-sleep cycles for different infants. Teachers can divide the infants into groups so…

  5. Developmental stage of strongyle eggs affects the outcome variations of real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, U V; Haakansson, I T; Roust, T; Rhod, M; Baptiste, K E; Nielsen, M K

    2013-01-16

    Strongyle and trichostrongyle parasites are ubiquitous nematodes of grazing livestock. Several molecular diagnostic tests are based upon measuring and quantifying DNA obtained from parasite eggs. It is well known that such eggs undergo development during storage, but it remains unknown to which extent developmental stages can affect the variation of diagnostic test results. This study investigated the influence of developmental stages of strongyle eggs on the variation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Mixed species strongyle eggs were obtained from the faeces of a naturally infected horse. Eggs were isolated and placed in microtiter plates with demineralized water. A total of 25 wells containing 100 eggs each were set up and kept refrigerated for up to five days. Once daily, five wells were examined on an inverted microscope at 100× magnification, where the developmental stages of the eggs were noted, and then eggs harvested for DNA extraction. The protocol was repeated three times. Genomic DNA was extracted using a commercial kit previously validated for strongyle type eggs. PCR reactions were performed with a primer set specific for the ribosomal DNA region for all strongyle type parasites (NC1, NC2). SYBR Green Real-Time PCRs were performed in triplicates. Results revealed a statistically significant increase in PCR yield after three days, which was statistically associated with beginning embryonation of the eggs. In conclusion, storage time and developmental stage of strongyle eggs are significant sources of error in studies based on quantitative real-time PCR analysis. This study suggests that for refrigerated storage of more than three days, eggs should be inactivated and preserved for further analysis.

  6. Examining Correlates of Part-Time Faculty Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Samantha Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Changes in a multitude of factors including the economy, student enrollment, university goals and policies, and the available talent pool have created an imbalance in the supply and demand for qualified part-time faculty. The unmet demand has prompted university leaders to seek an understanding of part-time faculty affective commitment, job…

  7. Towards Real-Time Speech Emotion Recognition for Affective E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the voice emotion recognition part of the FILTWAM framework for real-time emotion recognition in affective e-learning settings. FILTWAM (Framework for Improving Learning Through Webcams And Microphones) intends to offer timely and appropriate online feedback based upon learner's vocal intonations and facial expressions in order…

  8. Time-varying exposure and the impact of stressful life events on onset of affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Surtees, Paul G

    2002-07-30

    Stressful life events are now established as risk factors for the onset of affective disorder but few studies have investigated time-varying exposure effects. Discrete (grouped) time survival methods provide a flexible framework for evaluating multiple time-dependent covariates and time-varying covariate effects. Here, we use these methods to investigate the time-varying influence of life events on the onset of affective disorder. Various straightforward time-varying exposure models are compared, involving one or more (stepped) time-dependent covariates and time-dependent covariates constructed or estimated according to exponential decay. These models are applied to data from two quite different studies. The first, a small scale interviewer-based longitudinal study (n = 180) concerned with affective disorder onset following loss (or threat of loss) event experiences. The second, a questionnaire assessment as part of an ongoing population study (n = 3353), provides a history of marital loss events and of depressive disorder onset. From the first study the initial impact of loss events was found to decay with a half-life of 5 weeks. Psychological coping strategy was found to modify vulnerability to the adverse effects of these events. The second study revealed that while men had a lower immediate risk of disorder onset following loss event experience their risk period was greater than for women. Time-varying exposure effects were well described by the appropriate use of simple time-dependent covariates.

  9. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public.

  10. Building characteristics affect the risk of allergy development.

    PubMed

    Hesselmar, Bill; Aberg, Birgitta; Eriksson, Bo; Björkstén, Bengt; Aberg, Nils

    2005-03-01

    Damp dwellings increase the risk for house dust mite (HDM) infestation in temperate climate zones and may be associated with an increased risk for allergic disease. The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between allergen levels in house dust, characteristics of residence buildings and allergic diseases in children. A subsample of 12-yr-old children, having the same address in 1991 and 1996, was selected from a population-based sample of children from the Göteborg area. Health inspectors examined the residences of all the 109 children and several different building characteristics including humidity and indoor temperature were collected. Dust samples for analysis of HDM allergens were collected from the children's beds, and for analysis of cat and dog allergens from the living room. Current health status was assessed by questionnaires, interviews and skin prick tests (SPT). Dog or cat allergens were found in all houses, even in houses without such animals. HDM allergens were found in 60% of the houses, but only six of them had levels exceeding 2 microg/g dust. There was a strong association between HDM-infestation and wheeze, but not with specific sensitization to HDM. The type of building (houses when compared with flats), the ventilation system and the presence of a basement had all major implications on respiratory symptoms, atopy and HDM infestation. We can conclude that dog or cat allergens were found in all houses, and a strong association between HDM infestation and indoor environment. Building construction affected both respiratory morbidity and sensitisation independently, suggesting not only worsening of symptoms but also a causative relationship with disease development.

  11. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol.

  12. Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

  13. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  14. Extraversion, threat categorizations, and negative affect: a reaction time approach to avoidance motivation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P; Vargas, Patrick T

    2005-10-01

    The authors sought to measure a component of the avoidance self-regulation system, specifically one related to object appraisal functions. Participants performed a choice reaction time task (Studies 1 & 2) or a go/no go task (Study 3) in which they were asked to categorize words (e.g., knife) as threatening in nature. In a series of three studies involving 236 undergraduates, the authors found that introverts who were skilled at categorizing events as threatening (vs. introverts slow to do so) experienced more negative affect in their daily lives. Among extraverts, threat categorization performance did not predict negative affect. The authors suggest that implicit threat categorizations render individuals vulnerable to negative affect but that high levels of Extraversion are capable of inhibiting such affective consequences. The authors discuss implications of the findings for extant views of Extraversion, avoidance motivation, and self-regulation.

  15. Affect Regulation Training (ART) for Alcohol Use Disorders: Development of a Novel Intervention for Negative Affect Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Coffey, Scott F.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Gudleski, Gregory; Bole, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this Stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called Affect Regulation Training (ART), which could be added to enhance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (Stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N = 77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (Stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT + ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT + HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT + ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT + ART when compared to CBT + HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers. PMID:23876455

  16. Maternal Stress and Affect Influence Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Hawkins, Melissa; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Pressman, Eva K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated associations between maternal psychological and fetal neurobehavioral functioning with data provided at 24, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. Found that fetuses of women who were more affectively intense, appraised their lives as more stressful, and reported more pregnancy-specific hassles were more active across gestation. Fetuses of women…

  17. Child Studies through Fantasy: Cognitive-Affective Patterns in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Rosalind

    This book presents a study of cognitive-affective interdependence as shown in children's fantasy behavior. The systems of Piaget and Freud are the foundation of analysis. The study data consist of approximately one hundred verbatim recordings of the dramatic play of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (in groups or alone) collected by trained teachers in a…

  18. Mapping emotions through time: how affective trajectories inform the language of emotion.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Cunningham, William A

    2012-04-01

    The words used to describe emotions can provide insight into the basic processes that contribute to emotional experience. We propose that emotions arise partly from interacting evaluations of one's current affective state, previous affective state, predictions for how these may change in the future, and the experienced outcomes following these predictions. These states can be represented and inferred from neural systems that encode shifts in outcomes and make predictions. In two studies, we demonstrate that emotion labels are reliably differentiated from one another using only simple cues about these affective trajectories through time. For example, when a worse-than-expected outcome follows the prediction that something good will happen, that situation is labeled as causing anger, whereas when a worse-than-expected outcome follows the prediction that something bad will happen, that situation is labeled as causing sadness. Emotion categories are more differentiated when participants are required to think categorically than when participants have the option to consider multiple emotions and degrees of emotions. This work indicates that information about affective movement through time and changes in affective trajectory may be a fundamental aspect of emotion categories. Future studies of emotion must account for the dynamic way that we absorb and process information.

  19. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates.

  20. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  1. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Heather S; Howard, Aaron F; Weiss, Martha R

    2016-01-01

    Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult) affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt) did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage.

  2. Timing of mTOR activation affects tuberous sclerosis complex neuropathology in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Magri, Laura; Cominelli, Manuela; Cambiaghi, Marco; Cursi, Marco; Leocani, Letizia; Minicucci, Fabio; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Galli, Rossella

    2013-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a dominantly inherited disease with high penetrance and morbidity, and is caused by mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Most affected individuals display severe neurological manifestations - such as intractable epilepsy, mental retardation and autism - that are intimately associated with peculiar CNS lesions known as cortical tubers (CTs). The existence of a significant genotype-phenotype correlation in individuals bearing mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 is highly controversial. Similar to observations in humans, mouse modeling has suggested that a more severe phenotype is associated with mutation in Tsc2 rather than in Tsc1. However, in these mutant mice, deletion of either gene was achieved in differentiated astrocytes. Here, we report that loss of Tsc1 expression in undifferentiated radial glia cells (RGCs) early during development yields the same phenotype detected upon deletion of Tsc2 in the same cells. Indeed, the same aberrations in cortical cytoarchitecture, hippocampal disturbances and spontaneous epilepsy that have been detected in RGC-targeted Tsc2 mutants were observed in RGC-targeted Tsc1 mutant mice. Remarkably, thorough characterization of RGC-targeted Tsc1 mutants also highlighted subventricular zone (SVZ) disturbances as well as STAT3-dependent and -independent developmental-stage-specific defects in the differentiation potential of ex-vivo-derived embryonic and postnatal neural stem cells (NSCs). As such, deletion of either Tsc1 or Tsc2 induces mostly overlapping phenotypic neuropathological features when performed early during neurogenesis, thus suggesting that the timing of mTOR activation is a key event in proper neural development.

  3. Emotional modulation of attention affects time perception: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Maria; Uusberg, Andero; Allik, Jüri; Kreegipuu, Kairi

    2014-06-01

    Emotional effects on human time perception are generally attributed to arousal speeding up or slowing down the internal clock. The aim of the present study is to investigate the less frequently considered role of attention as an alternative mediator of these effects with the help of event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants produced short intervals (0.9, 1.5, 2.7, and 3.3s) while viewing high arousal images with pleasant and unpleasant contents in comparison to neutral images. Behavioral results revealed that durations were overproduced for the 0.9s interval whereas, for 2.7 and 3.3s intervals, underproduction was observed. The effect of affective valence was present for the shorter durations and decreased as the target intervals became longer. More specifically, the durations for unpleasant images were less overproduced in the 0.9s intervals, and for the 1.5s trials, durations for unpleasant images were slightly underproduced, compared to pleasant images, which were overproduced. The analysis of different ERP components suggests possible attention processes related to the timing of affective images in addition to changes in pacemaker speed. Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) was larger for positive than for negative images, indicating valence-specific differences in activation of early attention mechanisms. Within the early P1 and the Late Positive Potential (LPP) components, both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli exhibited equal affective modulation. Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) remained independent of both timing performance and affective modulation. This pattern suggests that both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli enhanced arousal and captured attention, but the latter effect was more pronounced for pleasant stimuli. The valence-specificity of affective attention revealed by ERPs combined with behavioral timing results suggests that attention processes indeed contribute to emotion-induced temporal distortions, especially for longer target intervals.

  4. Investigations into factors affecting the cascade developer used in ESDA--a review.

    PubMed

    Nic Daéid, N; Hayes, K; Allen, M

    2008-10-25

    The Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) is a technique most commonly used for the visualisation of indented impressions on questioned documents. This work investigates some of the variables which are known to affect the results of ESDA and some variables which have, as yet, not been addressed. The investigation of variables included: examining the effects of different levels of indentation on different qualities of paper, chronological aging of cascade developer and the effects of repeated use of cascade developer on both the quality of results and the glass beads themselves, the effects of storage of cascade developer in a humidified environment and finally the effects of variation on the image development time. Results indicate that chronological aging of cascade developer does not have a negative effect on the quality of results and a 200 g portion of cascade developer will give good quality results for up to 30 traces before the quality will begin to deteriorate. Humidification of the cascade developer appears to have no advantages over storage in a normal environment and, in fact, the toner is lost sooner with humidification. The surface of the glass beads are affected through repeated use of cascade developer and appear to become visually smoother which may lead to a loss of attraction between them and the toner particles.

  5. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  6. Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) mature in 13 or 17 years, the longest development times for any non-diapausing insects. Selection may favor prolonged development since nymphs experience little mortality and individuals taking 17 years have been shown to have greater fecundity than those taking 13 years. Why don't periodical cicadas take even longer to develop? Nymphs feed on root xylem fluid and move little. Ovipositing females prefer fast-growing trees at forest edges. I hypothesized that (1) adults emerging at edges would be heavier than those from forest interiors and (2) habitat changes could limit development time. I collected newly eclosed females that had neither fed as adults nor moved from their site of development. For M. septendecim, females from edges were 4.9% heavier than those from the interior. I assumed that emergence density indicated habitat quality and measured density at eight sites in 1979, 1996, and 2013. Over three generations, variation in densities was great; densities at two sites crashed, and at one site they exploded to 579/m2 Habitat transience may limit development time because only adults can reassess habitats and reposition offspring. In conclusion, cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.

  7. Development of a Behavioral Affective Relationship Scale for Encounter Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Zarle, Thomas

    The paper outlines several studies over a two-year period to develop a self-report and observer-rating measure of sensitivity/encounter group outcome. The initial form of the scale was taken from McMillan (1971) who developed a measure of 16 categories of group outcome; McMillan's work indicated the scale had high reliability. Subsequent study…

  8. Collaborative Development: A New Culture Affects an Old Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Jim; Ruzicka, Terry

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, the Registrar's Office and the Division of Information Technology (DoIT) apply a collaborative development process to joint projects. This model differs from a "waterfall" model in that technical and functional staff work closely to develop requirements, prototypes, and the product throughout…

  9. How does Low Impact Development affect Urban Base Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, A.; Hogan, D. M.; Archfield, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    A novel form of urban development, Low Impact Development (LID), aims to engineer systems that replicate natural hydrologic functioning. LID includes the preservation of near-natural groundwater recharge via infiltration close to impervious surfaces where stormwater is generated. Our study watershed in Clarksburg, Maryland is an instrumented 1.11 km2 watershed developed between 2004 and 2010 with 73 infiltration-focused stormwater facilities, including bioretention facilities, dry wells, and dry swales. We examined changes to annual and monthly streamflow during and after urban development (2004—2014) and compared alterations to nearby forested and urban control watersheds. We show that total flow and base flow increased in the study watershed during development as compared to control watersheds. We also found that the study watershed had slower storm recessions after development and less seasonality in base flow. These changes may be due to a combination of urban processes occurring during development, including reduction in evapotranspiration and the increase in point sources of recharge. Precipitation that may have infiltrated a forested landscape pre-development, been stored in soil moisture, and eventually been transpired by plants may now be recharged to groundwater and become base flow. A transfer of evapotranspiration to base flow is an unintended alteration to the urban water budget, here observed in a watershed using LID.

  10. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities.

  11. Factors Affecting Recovery Time of Pulmonary Function in Hospitalized Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Jaemoon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, So-Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged recovery time of pulmonary function after an asthma exacerbation is a significant burden on asthmatics, and management of these patients needs to be improved. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with a longer recovery time of pulmonary function among asthmatic patients hospitalized due to a severe asthma exacerbation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 89 patients who were admitted for the management of acute asthma exacerbations. The recovery time of pulmonary function was defined as the time from the date each patient initially received treatment for asthma exacerbations to the date the patient reached his or her previous best FEV1% value. We investigated the influence of various clinical and laboratory factors on the recovery time. Results The median recovery time of the patients was 1.7 weeks. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that using regular inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) before an acute exacerbation of asthma and concurrent with viral infection at admission were associated with the prolonged recovery time of pulmonary function. Conclusions The prolonged recovery time of pulmonary function after a severe asthma exacerbation was not shown to be directly associated with poor adherence to ICS. Therefore the results indicate that an unknown subtype of asthma may be associated with the prolonged recovery of pulmonary function time after an acute exacerbation of asthma despite regular ICS use. Further prospective studies to investigate factors affecting the recovery time of pulmonary function after an asthma exacerbation are warranted. PMID:27582400

  12. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K.; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke’s Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing. PMID:27910908

  13. Time-lagged moment-to-moment interplay between negative affect and paranoia: new insights in the affective pathway to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ingrid; Simons, Claudia J P; Wigman, Johanna T W; Collip, Dina; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2014-03-01

    Evidence suggests that affect plays a role in the development of psychosis but the underlying mechanism requires further investigation. This study examines the moment-to-moment dynamics between negative affect (NA) and paranoia prospectively in daily life. A female general population sample (n = 515) participated in an experience sampling study. Time-lagged analyses between increases in momentary NA and subsequent momentary paranoia were examined. The impact of childhood adversity, stress sensitivity (impact of momentary stress on momentary NA), and depressive symptoms on these time-lagged associations, as well as associations with follow-up self-reported psychotic symptoms (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised) were investigated. Moments of NA increase resulted in a significant increase in paranoia over 180 subsequent minutes. Both stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms impacted on the transfer of NA to paranoia. Stress sensitivity moderated the level of increase in paranoia during the initial NA increase, while depressive symptoms increased persistence of paranoid feelings from moment to moment. Momentary paranoia responses to NA increases were associated with follow-up psychotic symptoms. Examination of microlevel momentary experience may thus yield new insights into the mechanism underlying co-occurrence of altered mood states and psychosis. Knowledge of the underlying mechanism is required in order to determine source and place where remediation should occur.

  14. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    SciTech Connect

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  15. Factors Affecting the Professional Development of Elementary English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    The poor classroom practices of English teachers at elementary level in Indonesia have been attributed to the inadequacy of pre-service education. Yet, whether in-service professional development (PD) also plays a role is unknown. This study investigated the perspectives of 23 teachers, 14 teacher educators and 3 school principals regarding the…

  16. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based materials derived from pine trees, such as processed whole pine tree (WPT), can be a viable option for producers looking to offset pine bark or peatmoss usage in container substrates. Reduced root development of stem cuttings rooted in WPT compared with pine bark (PB) has been observed, b...

  17. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing

    PubMed Central

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans [1, 2, 3]. Eye contact with others is present from birth [4], and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication [5, 6, 7]. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6–10 and 12–16 months. Face scanning [8] and gaze following [7, 9] were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors [10] and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development [11] were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6–10 and 12–16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults’ eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual’s specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  18. Professional Development: Designing for the Cognitive and Affective Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Iain

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically reflects on the pedagogical approach underlying a professional development course in eLearning. The aim of the course was to teach faculty based eLearning officers the necessary practical and theoretical skills to fulfil their roles in supporting Faculties with eLearning initiatives. Whilst the course was successful--judged…

  19. Beyond Brain Growth: Other Factors Affecting Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanich, Greg; Aldridge, Mary Nan

    The intellectual model of Jean Piaget asserts that individuals pass through a series of various intellectual stages as they mature. Human development is categorized into four basic stages: (1) sensory motor stage, which lasts from birth to about eighteen months; (2) preoperational stage, lasting from eighteen months to about seven years; (3)…

  20. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  1. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  2. Factors Affecting Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between factors (internal [personal] and external [environmental]) and teachers' participation in professional development (PD) programs in Turkey. The researcher employed a survey design, using a multiple-stage sampling method, selecting 30 out of 66 elementary schools in the Center…

  3. Developing Culturally Competent Faculty: A Cognitive, Affective, and Spiritual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Deborah L.; Van Zandt, Cassandra; Menjares, Pete C.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has evidenced significant dialogue on faith-based campuses about the persistent gap between the increasing ethnic diversity of the student population and that of the faculty. While campus administrators and leaders acknowledge the need to address this concern through faculty development, there is a disturbing lack of successful…

  4. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  5. Does overall reinforcer rate affect discrimination of time-based contingencies?

    PubMed

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Blumhardt, Luca; Elliffe, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Overall reinforcer rate appears to affect choice. The mechanism for such an effect is uncertain, but may relate to reinforcer rate changing the discrimination of the relation between stimuli and reinforcers. We assessed whether a quantitative model based on a stimulus-control approach could be used to account for the effects of overall reinforcer rate on choice under changing time-based contingencies. On a two-key concurrent schedule, the likely availability of a reinforcer reversed when a fixed time had elapsed since the last reinforcer, and the overall reinforcer rate was varied across conditions. Changes in the overall reinforcer rate produced a change in response bias, and some indication of a change in discrimination. These changes in bias and discrimination always occurred quickly, usually within the first session of a condition. The stimulus-control approach provided an excellent account of the data, suggesting that changes in overall reinforcer rate affect choice because they alter the frequency of reinforcers obtained at different times, or in different stimulus contexts, and thus change the discriminated relation between stimuli and reinforcers. These findings support the notion that temporal and spatial discriminations can be understood in terms of discrimination of reinforcers across time and space.

  6. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time.

  7. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines.

    PubMed

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies.

  8. Beyond working time: factors affecting sleep behaviour in rail safety workers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica L; Dorrian, Jill; Clarkson, Larissa; Darwent, David; Ferguson, Sally A

    2012-03-01

    There are many factors that may affect the sleep behaviour and subsequent fatigue risk of shift workers. In the Australian rail industry the emphasis is primarily on the impact of working time on sleep. The extent to which factors other than working time might affect the sleep behaviour of employees in the large and diverse Australian rail industry is largely unknown. The present study used sleep, work and fatigue diaries completed for two weeks, in conjunction with actigraphy, to understand the contribution of demographic and health factors to sleep behaviour in 40 rail safety workers. Both shift type and having dependents were significant predictors of sleep duration (P<.05). Sleep duration was greatest prior to night shifts, followed by afternoon shifts and morning shifts. Participants with dependents got significantly less sleep than participants without dependents. Both timing of sleep and smoking were significant predictors of sleep quality (P<.05). Day sleeps were associated with lower subjective sleep quality than night sleeps and smokers reported poorer sleep quality than non-smokers. These findings indicate that factors other than working time have the potential to influence both the sleep duration and subjective sleep quality of rail safety workers.

  9. How Volatilities Nonlocal in Time Affect the Price Dynamics in Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  10. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  11. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    transition region between fresh and saline water, captured the occurrence of strong precipitation event on the Hudson river as indicated by reduced water column salinity levels in the water column. Despite the large influx of freshwater and suspended solids originating as precipitation runoff, tidal forces dominated the net water transport and coincident suspended particle load. Such information is crucial to track the particle-driven contaminant movement in the water column. Both the FRVP and MRUP have been deployed in an active Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls Superfund site to characterize the fundamental sediment transport mechanisms affecting remedial dredging operations. A potential application of this monitoring system is in the development of an adaptive remedial operation, where activity would be adjusted to maintain conditions within threshold limits based on real time environmental observations. Further, observational REON data can be integrated with water quality and hydrodynamic models that can be used to evaluate episodic events and their subsequent impacts to the Hudson River.

  12. Community history affects the predictability of microbial ecosystem development.

    PubMed

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Strathdee, Fiona; Spears, Bryan M; Cates, Michael E; Allen, Rosalind J; Free, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate crucial biogeochemical, biomedical and biotechnological processes, yet our understanding of their assembly, and our ability to control its outcome, remain poor. Existing evidence presents conflicting views on whether microbial ecosystem assembly is predictable, or inherently unpredictable. We address this issue using a well-controlled laboratory model system, in which source microbial communities colonize a pristine environment to form complex, nutrient-cycling ecosystems. When the source communities colonize a novel environment, final community composition and function (as measured by redox potential) are unpredictable, although a signature of the community's previous history is maintained. However, when the source communities are pre-conditioned to their new habitat, community development is more reproducible. This situation contrasts with some studies of communities of macro-organisms, where strong selection under novel environmental conditions leads to reproducible community structure, whereas communities under weaker selection show more variability. Our results suggest that the microbial rare biosphere may have an important role in the predictability of microbial community development, and that pre-conditioning may help to reduce unpredictability in the design of microbial communities for biotechnological applications.

  13. Community history affects the predictability of microbial ecosystem development

    PubMed Central

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Strathdee, Fiona; Spears, Bryan M; Cates, Michael E; Allen, Rosalind J; Free, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate crucial biogeochemical, biomedical and biotechnological processes, yet our understanding of their assembly, and our ability to control its outcome, remain poor. Existing evidence presents conflicting views on whether microbial ecosystem assembly is predictable, or inherently unpredictable. We address this issue using a well-controlled laboratory model system, in which source microbial communities colonize a pristine environment to form complex, nutrient-cycling ecosystems. When the source communities colonize a novel environment, final community composition and function (as measured by redox potential) are unpredictable, although a signature of the community's previous history is maintained. However, when the source communities are pre-conditioned to their new habitat, community development is more reproducible. This situation contrasts with some studies of communities of macro-organisms, where strong selection under novel environmental conditions leads to reproducible community structure, whereas communities under weaker selection show more variability. Our results suggest that the microbial rare biosphere may have an important role in the predictability of microbial community development, and that pre-conditioning may help to reduce unpredictability in the design of microbial communities for biotechnological applications. PMID:23985743

  14. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-09-19

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  15. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    PubMed

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  16. Development of a diagnosis index of tropical cyclones affecting the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi

    2016-06-01

    This study has developed the index for diagnosis on possibility that tropical cyclones (TCs) affect Korean Peninsula. This index is closely related to the strength of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which is calculated as a difference in meridional wind between at the highest correlation area (around Korean Peninsula) and at the lowest correlation area (sea southeast of Japan) through a correlation analysis between TC frequency that affects Korean Peninsula and 500 hPa meridional wind. In low frequency years that selected from Korea affecting TC index, anomalous northeasterly is strengthened from Korea to the South China Sea because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to northwest of Korean Peninsula. Thus, TCs tend to move westward from the sea east of the Philippines to the mainland China. On the other hand, in high frequency years, anomalous southwesterly serves as steering flow that more TCs move toward Korean Peninsula because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to sea east of Japan. Consequently, this study suggests that if this index is calculated using real time 500 hPa meridional winds that forecasted by dynamic models during the movement of TCs, the possibility that TCs approach Korean Peninsula can be diagnosed in real time.

  17. Statistical Properties of Real-Time Amplitude Estimate of Harmonics Affected by Frequency Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, Diego; Pignari, Sergio A.

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the statistical characterization of real-time digital measurement of the amplitude of harmonics affected by frequency instability. In fact, in modern power systems both the presence of harmonics and frequency instability are well-known and widespread phenomena mainly due to nonlinear loads and distributed generation, respectively. As a result, real-time monitoring of voltage/current frequency spectra is of paramount importance as far as power quality issues are addressed. Within this framework, a key point is that in many cases real-time continuous monitoring prevents the application of sophisticated algorithms to extract all the information from the digitized waveforms because of the required computational burden. In those cases only simple evaluations such as peak search of discrete Fourier transform are implemented. It is well known, however, that a slight change in waveform frequency results in lack of sampling synchronism and uncertainty in amplitude estimate. Of course the impact of this phenomenon increases with the order of the harmonic to be measured. In this paper an approximate analytical approach is proposed in order to describe the statistical properties of the measured magnitude of harmonics affected by frequency instability. By providing a simplified description of the frequency behavior of the windows used against spectral leakage, analytical expressions for mean value, variance, cumulative distribution function, and probability density function of the measured harmonics magnitude are derived in closed form as functions of waveform frequency treated as a random variable.

  18. Ayurvedic approach for improving reaction time of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affected children

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Harish Kumar; Neetu; Kumar, Abhimanyu; Rai, Moti

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder of children. It is the most common neurological disorder of childhood. The present study was conducted to examine the increase in attention span in 43 ADHD-affected children treated with different approaches. The reaction time was measured using a Vernier chronoscope (electronic). Selected children of both sexes in the age-group of 6–16 years were divided into three groups. In group A, 17 patients received syrup Ayurvedic compound I; in group B, 14 patients were treated with syrup Ayurvedic compound I + Shirodhara with milk; and in group C, 12 patients received syrup Ayurvedic compound II (placebo). The dose of the drug was 1.0 ml/kg body weight and the duration of treatment was 3 months. Group B showed highly significant (P<.001) improvement in total reaction time, while in group C the change was statistically nonsignificant P > 0.10. It was found that while the drug and Shirodhara were both effective in improving the reaction time of ADHD-affected children, the drug combined with Shirodhara was superior to the drug used alone. PMID:22131736

  19. Factors affecting the development of lung function in Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Y; Pariès, J; Harrabi, I; Zbidi, A; Tabka, Z; Richalet, J P; Buvry, A

    2008-01-01

    We undertook to evaluate the impacts of morphology at birth, physical activity, anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors on lung function in healthy Tunisian children. Pulmonary function parameters were measured with a Minato portable spirometer in a randomized population of 756 healthy children (388 males and 368 females) aged between 6 and 16. The morphology at birth, the gestational age, the physical activity, the socioeconomic status, the type of habitation, and the environmental factors were all assessed by a standard questionnaire. Using univariate analysis, we found that: (1) morphometric parameters (height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory perimeter), as well as sex were highly associated with pulmonary function parameters; (2) Height at birth showed strong significant relations with FVC, FEV(1), and FEV(1)/FVC; (3) lung function parameters were influenced by physical training of our children, socioeconomic status, indoor pollution, and passive smoking; and (4) we did not observe any association between the gestational age and the weight at their birth and lung function parameters. Using a general linear model analysis, morphometric parameters, age, sex, type of heating, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory perimeters had significant relation with respiratory parameters. In our population of healthy Tunisian children, the main predictive factors of the pulmonary development were the morphological factors such as height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory thoracic perimeter, sex and age, and the environmental conditions such as type of heating but not morphology at birth, physical activity, or socioeconomic status.

  20. Situational factors affecting sleep paralysis and associated hallucinations: position and timing effects.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, J A

    2002-06-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) entails a period of paralysis upon waking or falling asleep and is often accompanied by terrifying hallucinations. Two situational conditions for sleep paralysis, body position (supine, prone, and left or right lateral decubitus) and timing (beginning, middle, or end of sleep), were investigated in two studies involving 6730 subjects, including 4699 SP experients. A greater number of individuals reported SP in the supine position than all other positions combined. The supine position was also 3-4 times more common during SP than when normally falling asleep. The supine position during SP was reported to be more prevalent at the middle and end of sleep than at the beginning suggesting that the SP episodes at the later times might arise from brief microarousals during REM, possibly induced by apnea. Reported frequency of SP was also greater among those consistently reporting episodes at the beginning and middle of sleep than among those reporting episodes when waking up at the end of sleep. The effects of position and timing of SP on the nature of hallucinations that accompany SP were also examined. Modest effects were found for SP timing, but not body position, and the reported intensity of hallucinations and fear during SP. Thus, body position and timing of SP episodes appear to affect both the incidence and, to a lesser extent, the quality of the SP experience.

  1. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  2. Strategies for Developing the Affective Work Competencies of Marketing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl C.

    Effective strategies for developing the affective work competencies of marketing education students include teaching procedures, acquisition of skills and materials for teaching in the affective domain, and implementation considerations. Affective concerns in marketing can be grouped into three broad types of performance categories--self-concept,…

  3. Timing subsystem development: Network synchronization experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backe, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a program in which several experimental timing subsystem prototypes were designed, fabricated, and field tested using a small network of troposcatter and microwave digital communication links. This equipment was responsible for modem/radio interfacing, time interval measurement, clock adjustment and distribution, synchronization technique, and node to node information exchange. Presented are discussions of the design approach, measurement plan, and performance assessment methods. Recommendations are made based on the findings of the test program and an evaluation of the design of both the hardware and software elements of the timing subsystem prototypes.

  4. An Examination of the Joint Effects of Affective Experiences and Job Beliefs on Job Satisfaction and Variations in Affective Experiences over Time.

    PubMed

    Weiss; Nicholas; Daus

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated the joint influences of episodic levels of pleasant mood at work and beliefs about one's job on judgments of job satisfaction, as well as examining the prediction of the patterns of affective states over time. Twenty-four managerial workers completed a diary during work hours which required them to report their mood state at four different times during the workday. The diaries were completed for 16 workdays. At a separate time they completed a measure of overall satisfaction, a Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) measure of beliefs about the job and two dispositional variables, dispositional happiness and affect intensity. Results showed that average levels of pleasant mood over the 16 days and VIE beliefs about the job made significant and independent contributions to the prediction of overall job satisfaction and did so over and above the contribution of dispositional happiness. Results also indicated that individual differences in affective intensity predicted the variability of pleasant mood over time as well as mean levels of mood activation. Finally, spectral analyses applied to the series of mood observations showed that the variability over time in the series of mood observations showed two definite cycles, one corresponding to a daily cycle and one corresponding to a two-period oscillation in mood. Results are discussed in terms of the joint influences of affective experiences and job beliefs on job attitudes and the importance of studying affect over time independent of job satisfaction. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Time frames for geothermal project development

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, David W.

    2001-04-17

    Geothermal development can generally be broken down into distinct phases: Exploration and Leasing; Project Development And Feasibility Studies; Well Field Development; Project Finance, Construction and Start-up Operations; and Commercial Operations. Each phase represents different levels of cost and risk and different types of management teams that are needed to assess and manage the project and associated risk. Orderly transitions of management at each major phase are needed. Exploration programs are largely science based, the primary focus of the science based investigations should be to: secure the lease position, and develop sufficient information to identify and characterize an economical geothermal resource. Project development specialists build on the exploration data to: pull together a project design, develop a detailed cost estimate; prepare an environmental assessment; and collect all data needed for project financing. Construction specialist build from the development phase to: develop detailed engineering, procure equipment and materials, schedule and manage the facilities construction programs, and start and test the power plant. Operations specialists take over from construction during start-up and are responsible for sustainable and reliable operations of the resource and power generation equipment over the life of the project.

  6. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; Koç, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Patients of four endoscopists at similar experience levels were retrospectively identified and categorized into the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy before colonoscopy group (group 1) or the colonoscopy only group (group 2). The demographics, clinical data and the time to achieve cecal intubation for each patient were analyzed. The mean time to achieve cecal intubation in the first group that included 319 cases was 8.4 ± 0.93 minutes and the mean time in the second group that included 1672 cases was 8.56 ± 1.16 minutes. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was also no significant difference between the Group 1 and Group 2 when compared according to which of the four endoscopists performed the procedures. Performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to colonoscopy did not affect the time to achieve cecal intubation. Considering that performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to the colonoscopy is more advantageous in terms of patient comfort and analgesic requirement, beginning to BE with it seems more favorable. PMID:23936601

  7. Pubertal development timing in urban Chinese boys.

    PubMed

    Ma, H-M; Chen, S-K; Chen, R-M; Zhu, C; Xiong, F; Li, T; Wang, W; Liu, G-L; Luo, X-P; Liu, L; Du, M-L

    2011-10-01

    We describe current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of 18,807 urban Chinese boys aged from 3.50 to 18.49years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI at different stages of testicular development, pubic hair development and spermarche. By age 9, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume of 4mL or greater. The median age of onset of puberty defined as the age at attainment of testicular volume of 4mL or greater was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27-10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH(2) ) and spermarche was 12.78 (95%CI 12.67-12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80-14.32) years, respectively. Pubertal onset in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used clinical norms but their pubic hair development occurs relatively late in comparison with the reported data from numerous other countries. There is also evidence of a secular trend towards an earlier age of spermarche since 1979 in Chinese urban boys.

  8. Alterations in affective behavior during the time course of alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Karadayian, Analía G; Busso, María J; Feleder, Carlos; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-09-15

    Alcohol hangover is a temporary state described as the unpleasant next-day effects after binge-like drinking. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. Affective behavior is impaired during the acute phase of alcohol intoxication; however, no reports indicate if similar effects are observed during withdrawal. The aim of this work was to study the time-extension and possible fluctuations in affective behavior during a hangover episode. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8g/kg BW) (hangover group). Anxiety, fear-related behavior and despair phenotype were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2h up to 20h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Also, anhedonia signs and pain perception disabilities were studied. Mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior during 4h and 14h after hangover onset when evaluated by the elevated-plus maze and open field test respectively (p<0.05). Fear-related behavior was detected in hangover animals by the increase of freezing and decrease of line crossings and rearing frequency during 16h after hangover onset (p<0.001). Depression signs were found in hangover mice during 14h (p<0.05). Hangover mice showed a significant decrease in pain perception when tested by tail immersion test at the beginning of hangover (p<0.05). Our findings demonstrate a time-extension between 14 and 16h for hangover affective impairments. This study shows the long lasting effects of hangover over the phase of ethanol intoxication.

  9. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  10. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  11. Appropriate timing of uterine cavity length measurement positively affects assisted reproduction cycle outcome.

    PubMed

    Madani, Tahereh; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Abadi, Akram Bahman; Kiani, Kiandokht

    2009-11-01

    An appropriate and easy embryo transfer has a direct impact on pregnancy rates. Proper evaluation of the uterocervical axis and uterine depth are necessary for suitable embryo transfer. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriate time for cervical axis evaluation and uterine measurement. A total of 124 patients undergoing IVF treatment were included in the study. They were divided equally into two groups. In group I (62 women), uterine cavity depth was measured and the uterocervical axis was determined on day 2 or 3 of the menstrual cycle, and in group II (62 women) at the time of oocyte retrieval. There was a statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups (P = 0.006). Thirty-four women became pregnant in group I (64.2%) versus 19 women in group II (35.8%). In conclusion, uterine cavity measurement is necessary for suitable embryo transfer. It seems that the time of measurement significantly affects clinical pregnancy rate in IVF cycles. The best time for uterine measurement is on day 2 or 3 of menstruation.

  12. Factors Affecting Timely Completion of a PhD: A Complex Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchforth, Jegar; Beames, Stephanie; Thomas, Aleysha; Falk, Matthew; Farr, Charisse; Gasson, Susan; Thamrin, Sri Astuti; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    Completing a PhD on time is a complex process, influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we take a Bayesian Network approach to analyzing the factors perceived to be important in achieving this aim. Focusing on a single research group in Mathematical Sciences, we develop a conceptual model to describe the factors considered to be…

  13. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  14. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-20

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis RAND issue papers explore...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  15. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis Afghanistan and its...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  16. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  17. Developmental programming by androgen affects the circadian timing system in female mice.

    PubMed

    Mereness, Amanda L; Murphy, Zachary C; Sellix, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    Circadian clocks play essential roles in the timing of events in the mammalian hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. The molecular oscillator driving these rhythms has been localized to tissues of the HPO axis. It has been suggested that synchrony among these oscillators is a feature of normal reproductive function. The impact of fertility disorders on clock function and the role of the clock in the etiology of endocrine pathology remain unknown. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating fertility disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women at childbearing age with features including a polycystic ovary, anovulation, and elevated serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, marked by hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that developmental exposure to excess androgen contributes to the etiology of fertility disorders, including PCOS. To better define the role of the timing system in these disorders, we determined the effects of androgen-dependent developmental programming on clock gene expression in tissues of the metabolic and HPO axes. Female PERIOD2::luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice were exposed to androgen (dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) in utero (Days 16-18 of gestation) or for 9-10 wk (DHT pellet) beginning at weaning (pubertal androgen excess [PAE]). As expected, both groups of androgen-treated mice had disrupted estrous cycles. Analysis of PER2::LUC expression in tissue explants revealed that excess androgen produced circadian misalignment via tissue-dependent effects on phase distribution. In vitro treatment with DHT differentially affected the period of PER2::LUC expression in tissue explants and granulosa cells, indicating that androgen has direct and tissue-specific effects on clock gene expression that may account for the effects of developmental programming on the timing system.

  18. Factors affecting time of access of in-patient care at Webuye District hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otsyula, Barasa K.; Downing, Raymond; Yakubu, Kenneth; Miima, Miriam; Ifeyinwa, Okoye

    2016-01-01

    Background Among many Kenyan rural communities, access to in-patient healthcare services is seriously constrained. It is important to understand who has ready access to the facilities and services offered and what factors prevent those who do not from doing so. Aim To identify factors affecting time of access of in-patient healthcare services at a rural district hospital in Kenya. Setting Webuye District hospital in Western Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional, comparative, hospital-based survey among 398 in-patients using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results were analysed using SPSS V.12.01. Results The median age of the respondents, majority of whom were female respondents (55%), was 24 years. Median time of presentation to the hospital after onset of illness was 12.5 days. Two hundred and forty seven patients (62%) presented to the hospital within 2 weeks of onset of illness, while 151 (38%) presented after 2 weeks or more. Ten-year increase in age, perception of a supernatural cause of illness, having an illness that was considered bearable and belief in the effectiveness of treatment offered in-hospital were significant predictors for waiting more than 2 weeks to present at the hospital. Conclusion Ten-year increment in age, perception of a supernatural cause of illness (predisposing factors), having an illness that is considered bearable and belief in the effectiveness of treatment offered in hospital (need factors) affect time of access of in-patient healthcare services in the community served by Webuye District hospital and should inform interventions geared towards improving access. PMID:27796120

  19. Do Phases of the Moon Affect Phases of Science Software Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Linda, M.; Tilmes, C.

    2004-12-01

    This paper is based on observation of a number of satellite remote sensing missions and their associated data production efforts. Projects typically transition from initial concept through pre-launch development, launch and early operations, initial release of data, release of "validated" data and into final reprocessing and end of life. Different drivers affect development of the science code during each phase. Science teams tend to create new algorithm versions in distinct patterns during each project phase. One result of this is that a multitude of software and data set versions are created for each data product. This paper will delineate typical project phases, examine the main drivers behind algorithm change, and illustrate typical patterns of science software versions for each phase. Understanding these phases and the nature of the data prodceed in each can improve estimates of both the time it will take and the magnitude and schedule of resources needed to develop, produce, archive and distribute data. It can also help users understand when they will be able to obtain and use data from new projects and how the data sets will change with time. By the way we have not found any connection between moon phases and data set development phases.

  20. Estimating Computer-Based Training Development Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-14

    training facility. Participants were selected based on their willingness to participate without compensation , and the availability of historical data on...willingness to participate without monetary compensation . Selected projects had to have been completed within the last two years. The authors promised to...guidelines unknown Question 20: Is the development effor t being managed by an individual wi th past experience managi ng CBT project s? X RESPONSE 1

  1. Oral contraceptive cycle phase does not affect 200-m swim time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Rechichi, Claire; Dawson, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether swimming performance was affected by acute hormonal fluctuation within a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. Six competitive swimmers and water polo players completed a 200-m time trial at 3 time points of a single OC cycle: during the consumption phase (CONS), early (WITH1), and late in the withdrawal phase (WITH2). Split times and stroke rate were recorded during the time trial, and heart rate, blood lactate, glucose, and pH were measured after each performance test. Resting endogenous serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were also assessed. No significant differences were observed between phases for body composition, 200-m swim time, mean stroke rate, peak heart rate, or blood glucose (p > 0.05). The mean peak blood lactate was significantly lower during WITH2 (9.9 ± 3.0 mmol·L(-1)) compared with that of CONS (12.5 ± 3.0 mmol·L(-1)) and mean pH higher during WITH2 (7.183 ± 0.111) compared with that of CONS (7.144 ± 0.092). Serum estradiol levels were significantly greater during WITH2 compared with that during WITH1 and CONS, but there was no difference in serum progesterone levels. These results demonstrate that for monophasic OC users, cycle phase does not impact the 200-m swimming performance. There was a reduction in blood lactate and an increase in pH during the withdrawal phase, possibly because of an increase in fluid retention, plasma volume, and cellular alkalosis. Therefore, female 200-m swimmers taking a monophasic OC need not be concerned by the phase of their cycle with regard to competition and optimizing performance. However, coaches and scientists should exercise caution when interpreting blood lactate results obtained from swimming tests and consider controlling for cycle phase for athletes taking an OC.

  2. The sound of a mobile phone ringing affects the complex reaction time of its owner

    PubMed Central

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zwolińska, Anna; Śmigielski, Janusz; Beling, Piotr; Cegliński, Tomasz; Nowak, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phone conversation decreases the ability to concentrate and impairs the attention necessary to perform complex activities, such as driving a car. Does the ringing sound of a mobile phone affect the driver's ability to perform complex sensory-motor activities? We compared a subject's reaction time while performing a test either with a mobile phone ringing or without. Material and methods The examination was performed on a PC-based reaction time self-constructed system Reactor. The study group consisted of 42 healthy students. The protocol included instruction, control without phone and a proper session with subject's mobile phone ringing. The terms of the study were standardised. Results There were significant differences (p < 0.001) in reaction time in control (597 ms), mobile (633 ms) and instruction session (673 ms). The differences in female subpopulation were also significant (p < 0.01). Women revealed the longest reaction time in instruction session (707 ms), were significantly quicker in mobile (657 ms, p < 0.01) and in control session (612 ms, p < 0.001). In men, the significant difference was recorded only between instruction (622 ms) and control session (573 ms, p < 0.01). The other differences were not significant (p > 0.08). Men proofed to complete significantly quicker than women in instruction (p < 0.01) and in mobile session (p < 0.05). Differences amongst the genders in control session was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results obtained proofed the ringing of a phone exerts a significant influence on complex reaction time and quality of performed task. PMID:23185201

  3. Factors affecting survival time of cholangiocarcinoma patients: a prospective study in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Promthet, Supannee; Songserm, Nopparat; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a major health problem and cause of death among people in Northeastern Thailand. In this prospective study 171 patients newly diagnosed with CCA by physicians in 5 tertiary hospitals in four provinces of northeastern of Thailand between February and July 2011 were followed up to January 2012. The outcome was survival time from diagnosis to death. A total of 758.4 person-months of follow-up were available. The mortality rate was 16.9 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 14.1-20.1). The median survival time among CCA patients was 4.3 months (95%CI: 3.3-5.1). Cox's proportional hazard model was used to study the independent effects of factors affecting survival time among patients. Statistically significant factors included advanced stage at diagnosis (HR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.7-3.8), presentation with jaundice (HR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.1-2.4) or ascites (HR: 2.8, 95%CI: 1.8-4.4), and positive serum carcinoembryonic antigen (HR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.2-4.3). Patients who had received standard treatment had a better prognosis that those who did not (HR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.7).

  4. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, Cristian; Díaz, Nelson F.; Gomez, Gilda; López, María Eugenia; Iturra, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map. PMID:22888302

  5. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  6. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  7. Daytime light intensity affects seasonal timing via changes in the nocturnal melatonin levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Rani, Sangeeta; Malik, Shalie; Trivedi, Amit K.; Schwabl, Ingrid; Helm, Barbara; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2007-08-01

    Daytime light intensity can affect the photoperiodic regulation of the reproductive cycle in birds. The actual way by which light intensity information is transduced is, however, unknown. We postulate that transduction of the light intensity information is mediated by changes in the pattern of melatonin secretion. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of high and low daytime light intensities on the daily melatonin rhythm of Afro-tropical stonechats ( Saxicola torquata axillaris) in which seasonal changes in daytime light intensity act as a zeitgeber of the circannual rhythms controlling annual reproduction and molt. Stonechats were subjected to light conditions simulated as closely as possible to native conditions near the equator. Photoperiod was held constant at 12.25 h of light and 11.75 h of darkness per day. At intervals of 2.5 to 3.5 weeks, daytime light intensity was changed from bright (12,000 lux at one and 2,000 lux at the other perch) to dim (1,600 lux at one and 250 lux at the other perch) and back to the original bright light. Daily plasma melatonin profiles showed that they were linked with changes in daytime light intensity: Nighttime peak and total nocturnal levels were altered when transitions between light conditions were made, and these changes were significant when light intensity was changed from dim to bright. We suggest that daytime light intensity could affect seasonal timing via changes in melatonin profiles.

  8. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  9. Development of True Time Delay Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    tripline in th d as a strip . The 0.5ns nes are laye ias are use ed switches ll grid array y antenna . t (TTD) tha m 0.3 to 3 dies or pack stant gain f...Physics, RF Science Asian Office of Aerospace Research & Development Tokyo, Japan AND Mr. Thomas Dalrymple Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL...coordinate vis had to fi ed by End Interconnec ntire panel t under test se venting es and strip iscontinuity ission lines orks and co clude with , we

  10. Maturation conditions and boar affect timing of cortical reaction in porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Romar, R; Coy, P; Rath, D

    2012-09-15

    The cortical reaction induces changes at the egg's Zona pellucida (ZP), perivitelline space and/or oolemma level, blocking polyspermic fertilization. We studied the timing of sperm penetration and cortical reaction in pig oocytes matured under different conditions and inseminated with different boars. Immature (germinal vesicle stage) and in vitro matured (IVM) (metaphase II stage) oocytes were inseminated and results assessed at different hours post insemination. Penetrability and polyspermy rates increased with gamete coincubation time and were higher in IVM oocytes. A strong boar effect was observed in IVF results. Cortical reaction (assessed as area occupied by cortical granules) and galactose-β(1-3)-Nacetylgalactosamine residues on ZP (area labeled by peanut agglutinin lectin, PNA) were assessed in IVM and in vivo matured (IVV) oocytes at different hours post insemination. After maturation, IVM and IVV oocytes displayed similar area occupied by cortical granules and it decreased in fertilized oocytes compared to unfertilized ones. Cortical reaction was influenced by boar and was faster in polyspermic than in monospermic oocytes, and in IVM than in IVV oocytes. The outer ZP of inseminated oocytes appeared stained by PNA and the labeled area increased along with gamete coculture time. This labeling was also observed after insemination of isolated ZP, indicating that this modification in ZP carbohydrates is not induced by cortical reaction. The steady and maintained cortical reaction observed at 4 to 5 h post insemination in IVV monospermic oocytes might reflect the physiological time course of this important event in pigs. Both maturation conditions and boar affect cortical granules release.

  11. Does Timing of Colon Procedures Affect Outcomes in D-IBS Trials?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Sherrill, Beth; Hamm, Lynne A.; Mangel, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy is usually performed prior to enrollment into clinical trials of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Two main reasons are to rule out alternative diagnoses and to ensure that colitis is not present. However, the possible impact of a recent versus remote colon procedure on symptoms in IBS trials has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of colon procedures on symptoms in IBS trials. Methods Post hoc analyses were conducted using placebo patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS in a phase 2 trial. Pain, frequency, consistency, and urgency were analyzed using repeated measures models during the first 7 days of treatment and over the entire 12-week treatment period. Results Fifty-two placebo patients were grouped by whether they had a colon exam performed between screening and randomization (Group 1) or had a normal colon procedure during the 3 years prior to screening for this trial (Group 2). Average screening symptom scores were comparable between the two groups. Evaluation of various symptoms showed that there were no consistent significant differences between the two groups in pain, frequency, consistency, or urgency. Conclusions After the required 3-day post-procedure recovery period, there was no evidence that colonoscopy timing affected subsequent IBS symptoms. PMID:27956995

  12. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  13. T3 supplementation affects ventilatory timing & glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus model.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Stephen S; Weltman, Nathen Y; Gerdes, A Martin; Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect ventilation, metabolism, and fasting blood glucose levels. Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of T2DM. In this study T2DM was induced in 20 female Sprague Dawley rats using Streptozotocin (STZ) and Nicotinamide (N). One of experimental STZ/N groups (N=10 per group) was treated with a low dose of triiodothyronine (T3). Blood glucose levels, metabolism and ventilation (in air and in response to hypoxia) were measured in the 3 groups. STZ/N-treated rats increased fasting blood glucose compared to control rats eight days and 2 months post-STZ/N injections indicating stable induction of T2DM state. Treatments had no effects on ventilation, metabolism or body weight. After one month of T3 supplementation, there were no physiological indications of hyperthyroidism, but T3 supplementation altered ventilatory timing and decreased blood glucose levels compared to STZ/N rats. These results suggest that low levels of T3 supplementation could offer modest effects on blood glucose and ventilatory timing in this T2M model.

  14. Time-Dependent Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in Salt-Affected Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, D.

    2012-04-01

    Mixed salts such as sodium-calcium salts interact with the soil matrix. The physico chemical interactions between the soil solution and the soil matrix (SS-SM), particularly in the presence of smectite minerals (e.g., montmorillonite), may change the soil pore-size distribution; the latter could affect the soil hydraulic properties, i.e., the soil hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention. Since the magnitude of the SS-SM interactions depend on time-dependent flow-controlled attributes, i.e., soil solution concentration and composition and water content, the resultant hydraulic properties are also time-dependent. The present talk focuses on the effect of mixed-ion solutions on soil hydraulic properties relevant to water flow and solute transport. Experimental evidence on, and an approach for modeling of the effect of soil solution concentration and composition on the local- (Darcy) scale soil hydraulic properties are presented and discussed. Long-term effect of the soil solution concentration and composition on the soil hydraulic properties, and, concurrently, on water flow and solute transport are presented through simulations of field-scale flow and transport.

  15. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  16. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Presslauer, Christopher; Nagasawa, Kazue; Dahle, Dalia; Babiak, Joanna; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Babiak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf), growth differentiation factor (Gdf9), and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75), all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329) were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik) pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a straightforward potential

  17. The type of mat (Contact vs. Photocell) affects vertical jump height estimated from flight time.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Morante, Juan C; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A

    2013-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze the validity and reliability of 2 photocell mats and to probe the possible influence of the type of mat (contact vs. photocell) on vertical jump height estimated from flight time. In 2 separate studies, 89 and 92 physical students performed 3 countermovement jumps that were simultaneously registered by a Force Plate (gold standard method), 2 photocell mats (SportJump System Pro and ErgoJump Plus), and a contact mat (SportJump-v1.0). The first study showed that the 2 photocell mats underestimated the vertical jump height (1.3 ± 0.2 cm and 5.9 ± 5.2 cm, respectively), but only SportJump System Pro showed a high correlation with the Force Plate (r = 0.999 and 0.676, respectively) and good intraday reliability (coefficient of variation = 2.98 and 15.94%, intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.95-0.97 and 0.45-0.57, respectively). The second study demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.994) between the 2 technologies (contact vs. photocell mats) with differences in vertical jump height of 2.0 ± 0.8 cm (95% confidence interval = 1.9-2.1 cm), which depended on both flight time and subjects' body mass. In conclusion, SportJump System Pro was a valid and reliable device. The new devices to measure vertical jump height from flight time should be validated. The type of mat (contact vs. photocell) affected approximately 6% the vertical jump height (approximately 2 cm in this study), which should be considered in further studies. The use of validated photocell mats instead of the contact mats was recommended.

  18. Fasting and sampling time affect liver gene expression of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y

    2010-05-01

    Several physiological and biological variables are known to affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α-dependent signaling pathway and plasma biochemical profiles. However, less is known about the effect of these variables on high-fat diet-fed mice. In a 5-week study, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (C) and high-fat diet-fed (H) groups, whereby before dissection, each group was subdivided into non-fasted (nC and nH) and a 15-h fasted mice (fC and fH) killed in the early light cycle, and a 15-h fasted mice (eC and eH) killed in the late phase of the light cycle. Liver and blood from the vena cava were collected. Non-fasted nC and nH mice have a marginal difference in their body weight gain, whereas significant differences were found for fasted mice. In nH mice, PPAR-α, acyl-CoA oxidase and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein expressions were significantly elevated, in contrast to fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl CoA-desaturase (SCD)-1, and elongase (ELOVL)-6 expressions. Fasn was profoundly induced in fH mice, while decreased sterol regulatory-binding protein-1 and SCD-1 were found only in eH mice. Different from the gene expression profiles, plasma total cholesterol level of the eH mice was higher than controls, whereas nH mice have increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Only glucose level of the fH mice was higher than that observed for controls. Results showed that fasting and sampling time have significantly affected liver gene expression and plasma biochemical indices of the high-fat diet-treated mice. An overlook in these aspects can cause serious discrepancies in the experimental data and their interpretations.

  19. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  20. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.

    2008-08-07

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the {sup 238}U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning.

  1. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development?

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R

    2011-06-01

    fed MR. Significant positive Pearson correlations were found between small intestine and reticulorumen weights as well as between activity of brush border lactase, maltase, aminopeptidase A, and aminopeptidase N and reticulorumen weight. Different liquid feeds affect small intestine development, animal growth, solid feed intake and metabolic status of calves and this effect can indirectly influence the development of forestomachs.

  2. Does socioeconomic status affect lengthy wait time in Canada? Evidence from Canadian Community Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-04-07

    Reasonable access to health services without financial or other barriers is a primary objective of the Canadian health system. Notwithstanding such concern about accessibility of services, long waiting times for health services have been a prominent health policy issue in recent years. Using pooled data from four nationally representative Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHSs, 2000/01, 2003, 2005 and 2010; n = 266,962) we examine socioeconomic inequality in lengthy wait time (LWT) to health care among adults (aged 18-65) in Canada. The relative and absolute concentration indices (RC and AC, respectively) are used to quantify income-related inequality in LWT in Canada and for its provinces. Additionally, we decompose the RC and AC indices to identify factors affecting income-related inequality in LWT. Our descriptive results show that, on average, 5% of Canadian adults experienced LWT to access health services in the past 12 months. While 3% of the residents of British Columbia and Saskatchewan reported LWT to access health care services, this figure was 7% in Quebec. Our findings also demonstrated that LWT was mainly concentrated among the poor in Canada [RC = -0.039; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.049 to -0.028 and AC = -0.067; CI -0.086 to -0.049]. The RC and AC suggested statistically significant pro-rich inequality of LWT in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. Decomposition analyses indicate that, besides income itself, health status (measured by a set of 15 chronic condition indicators), immigration status and geographical factors were the most important factors contributing to the concentration of LWT among the poor in Canada. These results provide some evidence that low-income individuals tend to have lengthier wait times for publicly-funded health care in Canada in comparison to their high-income counterparts. The observed negative gradient between income and long waiting time may be interpreted as

  3. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  4. Affections in Learning Situations: A Study of an Entrepreneurship Skills Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…

  5. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    PubMed

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  6. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables

    PubMed Central

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; Trost, Wiebke J.

    2014-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

  7. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  8. Warming affects hatching time and early season survival of eastern tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Lill, John T

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is disrupting species interactions by altering the timing of phenological events such as budburst for plants and hatching for insects. We combined field observations with laboratory manipulations to investigate the consequences of climate warming on the phenology and performance of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum). We evaluated the effects of warmer winter and spring regimes on caterpillar hatching patterns and starvation endurance, traits likely to be under selection in populations experiencing phenological asynchrony, using individuals from two different populations (Washington, DC, and Roswell, GA). We also quantified the proximate and extended fitness effects of early food deprivation and recorded spring phenology of local caterpillars and their host plants. In addition, we conducted laboratory assays to determine if caterpillars are using plant chemical cues to fine-tune their hatching times. Warmer winter temperatures induced earlier hatching and caterpillars from GA survived starvation for periods that were 30% longer than caterpillars from DC. Warmer spring regimes reduced the starvation endurance of caterpillars overwintering in the wild but not in the laboratory. Early starvation dramatically reduced hatchling survival; however, surviving caterpillars did not show detrimental effects on pupal mass or development time. In the field, hatching preceded budburst in both 2013 and 2014 and the period of optimal foliage quality was 2 weeks shorter in 2013. Hatching time was unaffected by exposure to plant volatiles. Overall, we found that warmer temperatures can trigger late-season asynchrony by accelerating plant phenology and caterpillars from different populations exhibit differential abilities to cope with environmental unreliability.

  9. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results.

  10. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.

  11. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness. PMID:26388812

  12. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness.

  13. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Zabel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  14. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t.

  15. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  16. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  17. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions.

  18. Increasing preoperative dislocations and total time of dislocation affect surgical management of anterior shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    Denard, Patrick J.; Dai, Xuesong; Burkhart, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the relationship between number of preoperative shoulder dislocations and total dislocation time and the need to perform bone deficiency procedures at the time of primary anterior instability surgery. Our hypothesis was that need for bone deficiency procedures would increase with the total number and hours of dislocation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed of primary instability surgeries performed by a single surgeon. Patients with <25% glenoid bone loss were treated with an isolated arthroscopic Bankart repair. Those who also had an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with remplissage. Patients with >25% glenoid bone loss were treated with Latarjet reconstruction. Number of dislocations and total dislocation time were examined for their relationship with the treatment method. Results: Ten arthroscopic Bankart repairs, 13 arthroscopic Bankart plus remplissage procedures, and 9 Latarjet reconstructions were available for review. Total dislocations (P = 0.012) and total hours of dislocation (P = 0.019) increased from the Bankart, to the remplissage, to the Latarjet groups. Patients with a total dislocation time of 5 h or more were more likely to require a Latarjet reconstruction (P = 0.039). Patients with only 1 preoperative dislocation were treated with an isolated Bankart repair in 64% (7 of 11) of cases, whereas those with 2 or more dislocations required a bone loss procedure in 86% (18 of 21) of cases (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Increasing number of dislocations and total dislocation time are associated with the development of glenoid and humeral head bony lesions that alter surgical management of anterior shoulder instability. The necessity for the addition of a remplissage to an arthroscopic Bankart repair or the use of a Latarjet reconstruction increases with only 1 recurrent dislocation. Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. PMID:25709237

  19. Exposure to Sevoflurane Affects the Development of Parvalbumin Interneurons in the Main Olfactory Bulb in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Jing; Cai, Guohong; Lu, Rui; Sun, Tingting; Luo, Tingting; Wu, Shengxi; Ling, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB). The number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB were impaired by exposure to sevoflurane at PD7. However, exposure to sevoflurane at PD10 had no effect on calcium-binding protein expression or the number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. These results suggest that exposing neonatal mice to sevoflurane during a critical period of olfactory development affects the development of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. PMID:27445710

  20. Different immunological responses to early-life antibiotic exposure affecting autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youjia; Jin, Ping; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-08-01

    Environmental factors clearly influence the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease. We have studied gut microbiota as important environmental agents that could affect the initiation or progression of type 1 diabetes especially in the prenatal period. We used neomycin, targeting mainly Gram negative or vancomycin, targeting mainly Gram positive bacteria, to treat pregnant NOD mothers and to study autoimmune diabetes development in their offspring. Neomycin-treated offspring were protected from diabetes, while vancomycin-treated offspring had accelerated diabetes development, and both antibiotics caused distinctly different shifts in gut microbiota composition compared with the offspring from untreated control mice. Our study demonstrated that neomycin treatment of pregnant mothers leads to generation of immune-tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the offspring and these APCs had reduced specific autoantigen-presenting function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the protection from diabetes mediated by tolerogenic APCs was vertically transmissible to the second generation. In contrast, more diabetogenic inflammatory T cells were found in the lymphoid organs of the offspring from the vancomycin-treated pregnant mothers. This change however was not transmitted to the second generation. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to antibiotic influenced gut bacterial composition at the earliest time point in life and is critical for consequent education of the immune system. As different bacteria can induce different immune responses, understanding these differences and how to generate self-tolerogenic APCs could be important for developing new therapy for type 1 diabetes.

  1. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  2. The development of time sense: from object constancy to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, C A

    1987-01-01

    A developmental line of time sense during the oedipal phase and latency is described. Subjective time sense is seen as constantly evolving, shaped by the emergence of cognitive capacities, significant emotional themes, and environmental influences. Temporal development during these phases is unique because the capacity to tell objective time is present for the first time. Significant emotional influences are the Oedipus complex, infantile neurosis, and superego formation. The concepts of Mother Time and Father Time are presented as useful descriptors of the child's intrapsychic representation of the chief environmental effectors of temporal organization. Clinical examples demonstrate that the development of time sense can be unaffected, impeded, or incorporated into psychopathology.

  3. Defective Pricing: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Sustention Rates and Disposition Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 0 .TIC Accespori For NTIS CRA&j DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF OTIC TAB 0 FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION U.:announced 0J1:;ti...the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION RATES AND...2 Sustention Rates

  4. The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

  5. Happy Places, Horrible Times, and Scary Learners: Affective Performances and Sticky Objects in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naraian, Srikala; Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from two studies conducted in US public schools, this paper traces the affective productions and performances of teachers to illustrate the role of affect in delineating (non)normative pedagogical practices in inclusive classrooms. Occupying a borderland space in narrative inquiry that permitted the straddling of differing…

  6. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  7. Pancreas-Specific Deletion of Prox1 Affects Development and Disrupts Homeostasis of the Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    WESTMORELAND, JOBY J.; KILIC, GAMZE; SARTAIN, CAROLINE; SIRMA, SEMA; BLAIN, JENNIFER; REHG, JEROLD; HARVEY, NATASHA; SOSA–PINEDA, BEATRIZ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The exocrine portion of the pancreas functions in digestion and preserves pancreatic homeostasis. Learning how this tissue forms during embryogenesis could improve our understanding of human pancreatic diseases. Expression of the homeo-box gene Prox1 in the exocrine pancreas changes throughout development in mice. We investigated the role of Prox1 in development of the exocrine pancreas in mice. METHODS Mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Prox1 (Prox1ΔPanc) were generated and their pancreatic tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, histologic techniques, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and morphometric analysis. RESULTS Loss of Prox1 from the pancreas led to multiple exocrine alterations, most notably premature acinar cell differentiation, increased ductal cell proliferation, altered duct morphogenesis, and imbalanced expression of claudin proteins. Prox1ΔPanc mice also had some minor alterations in islet cells, but beta-cell development was not affected. The exocrine congenital defects of Prox1ΔPanc pancreata appeared to initiate a gradual process of deterioration that resulted in extensive loss of acinar cells, lipomatosis, and damage to ductal tissue in adult mice. CONCLUSIONS Pancreas-specific deletion of Prox1 causes premature differentiation of acinar cells and poor elongation of epithelial branches; these defects indicate that Prox1 controls the expansion of tip progenitors in the early developing pancreas. During later stages of embryogenesis, Prox1 appears to regulate duct cell proliferation and morphogenesis. These findings identify Prox1 as an important regulator of pancreatic exocrine development. PMID:22178591

  8. The timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation affects responses to platform translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavacka, F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We compared the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation applied at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 s prior to a backward platform translation on postural responses. The effect of the galvanic stimulation was largest on the final equilibrium position of the center of pressure (CoP). The largest effects occurred for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-period, when the dynamic CoP pressure changes in response to both the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation coincided. The shift in the final equilibrium position was also larger than the sum of the shifts for the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation alone for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-periods. The initial rate of change of the CoP response to the platform translation was not significantly affected in any condition. Changes in the peak CoP position could be accounted for by local interaction of CoP velocity changes induced by the galvanic and translation responses alone, but the changes in final equilibrium position could only be accounted for by a change in global body orientation. These findings suggest that the contribution of vestibulospinal information is greatest during the dynamic phase of the postural response, and that the vestibular system contributes most to the later components of the postural response, particularly to the final equilibrium position. These findings suggest that a nonlinear interaction between the vestibular signal induced by the galvanic current and the sensory stimuli produced by the platform translation occurs when the two stimuli are presented within 1 s, during the dynamic phase of the postural response to the galvanic stimulus. When presented at greater separations in time, the stimuli appear to be treated as independent events, such that no interaction occurs. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Time-resolved pump-probe signals of a continuously driven quantum dot affected by phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, D. E.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction of a light field with a quantum-mechanical system can be studied in an optically controlled semiconductor quantum dot. When driven by a continuous light field switched on instantaneously, the quantum dot occupation performs Rabi oscillations. Unlike an atomic system, the quantum dot is coupled to phonons, which leads to a damping of the Rabi oscillations. Here we model the time-resolved probe spectra to monitor these dynamics and study the influence of phonons on the spectra. The spectra consist of up to three peaks, similar to the Mollow triplet known from quantum optics. We develop analytical equations within a rate equation model and show that they agree excellently with a numerical solution using a well established correlation expansion approach.

  10. Thermodynamics constrains allometric scaling of optimal development time in insects.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael E; Frazier, Melanie R

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the "hotter is better" hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes. The

  11. Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes

  12. Are introspective reaction times affected by the method of time estimation? A comparison of visual analogue scales and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Donna; Bratzke, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the method of time estimation plays a role in the apparent limits of introspection in dual-task processing. Previous studies showed that when participants reported introspective reaction times after each trial of a dual task by clicking on a visual analogue scale, they appeared to be unaware of the dual-task costs in their performance. However, visual analogue scales have seldom been used in interval estimation, and they may be inappropriate. In the present study, after each dual-task trial, participants reported their introspective reaction times either via a visual analogue scale or via the method of reproduction. The results replicated the previous findings, irrespective of method. That is, even though responses to the second task slowed down with increasing task overlap, this slowing was only very weakly reflected in the introspective reaction times. Thus, the participants' failure to report the objective dual-task costs in their reaction times is a rather robust finding that cannot be attributed to the method employed. However, introspective reaction times reported via visual analogue scales were more closely related to the objective reaction times, suggesting that visual analogue scales are preferable to reproduction. We conclude that introspective reaction times represent the same information regardless of method, but whether that information is temporal in nature is as yet unsettled.

  13. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  14. Cj1199 Affect the Development of Erythromycin Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni through Regulation of Leucine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Li, Fei; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Sun, Yawei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the biological function of Cj1199 which was overexpressed in the laboratory induced erythromycin resistant strains. The Cj1199 deletion mutant (ΦCj1199) was constructed via insertional inactivation from its parent strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168. The ΦCj1199 and NCTC11168 were then subjected to microarray and real-time PCR to find gene pathway of Cj1199. The antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance development, growth characteristics and leucine metabolism were examined to confirm the biological function of Cj1199. Our result showed that a total of 20 genes were down-regulated in ΦCj1199. These genes were mainly involved in leucine biosynthesis, amino acid transport and periplasmic/membrane structure. Compared to NCTC11168, ΦCj1199 was difficult to acquire higher-level erythromycin resistance during the in vitro step-wise selection. The competition growth and leucine-dependent growth assays demonstrated that ΦCj1199 imposed a growth disadvantage under pressure of erythromycin and in the leucine-free medium. In conclusion, Cj1199 gene may directly regulate the leucine biosynthesis and transport and indirectly affect the development of erythromycin resistance in C. jejuni. PMID:28144238

  15. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  17. Expanding a Model for Affective Development: Implications for an Activity Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Nancye E.

    One useful framework for understanding and articulating instructional design to change biased beliefs is the Martin and Reigeluth model for affective development, appearing in Volume II of Reigeluth's "Instructional-Design Theories and Models" (1999). Using this recently developed framework to examine a Web-based multimedia instructional program…

  18. Developing Connections for Affective Regulation: Age-Related Changes in Emotional Brain Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of affective arousal is a critical aspect of children's social and cognitive development. However, few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in the development of this aspect of "hot" executive functioning. This process has been conceptualized as involving prefrontal control of the amygdala. Here, using functional…

  19. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  20. Trends and Issues Affecting Economic Development in Ohio, 2001-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerold R.; Safrit, R. Dale

    Fourteen economic development practitioners were asked to participate in a modified Delphi study that attempted to provide a level of agreement about future trends and issues that affect economic development at the county level in Ohio. Literature from several fields was reviewed to find potential trends and issues and, using a Likert-type scale,…

  1. Factors Affecting the Turnover of Different Groups of Part-Time Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Jenell L.; Martin, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Past research on employee attitudes and behavior has focused mainly on full-time employees. When part-time employees have been studied, the research has concentrated on the differences between full-time and part-time employees. Recent research has suggested that part-time employees should not be viewed as a single, undifferentiated group. Instead…

  2. Losing the safety net: how a time-limited welfare policy affects families at risk of reaching time limits.

    PubMed

    Morris, Pamela A; Hendra, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and subsequently assessed the experimental effects of the time-limited welfare policy on this group as compared to an otherwise comparable group of single-mother welfare-recipient families. For the families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit, FTP had few effects. FTP decreased mothers' depressive symptoms, and mothers in the FTP group reported higher levels of children's school achievement. There were no effects on parenting behavior or mothers' reports of children's social-emotional outcomes.

  3. 12 CFR 516.190 - Will a meeting affect application processing time frames?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... time frames? 516.190 Section 516.190 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... processing time frames? If OTS decides to conduct a meeting, it may suspend applicable application processing time frames, including the time frames for deeming an application complete and the applicable...

  4. 12 CFR 516.190 - Will a meeting affect application processing time frames?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... time frames? 516.190 Section 516.190 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... processing time frames? If OTS decides to conduct a meeting, it may suspend applicable application processing time frames, including the time frames for deeming an application complete and the applicable...

  5. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  6. Color development time of the Lowry protein assay.

    PubMed

    Pomory, Christopher M

    2008-07-15

    Color development of the Lowry protein assay was tracked over time for bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentrations ranging from 40 to 600 microg/ml. The time interval between 2 and 4h produced the most stable readings. This time frame also improved linearity of the standard curve.

  7. On emotionally intelligent time travel: individual differences in affective forecasting ability.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth W; Brackett, Marc A; Ashton-James, Claire; Schneiderman, Elyse; Salovey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In two studies, the authors examined whether people who are high in emotional intelligence (EI) make more accurate forecasts about their own affective responses to future events. All participants completed a performance measure of EI (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) as well as a self-report measure of EI. Affective forecasting ability was assessed using a longitudinal design in which participants were asked to predict how they would feel and report their actual feelings following three events in three different domains: politics and academics (Study 1) and sports (Study 2). Across these events, individual differences in forecasting ability were predicted by participants' scores on the performance measure, but not the self-report measure, of EI; high-EI individuals exhibited greater affective forecasting accuracy. Emotion Management, a subcomponent of EI, emerged as the strongest predictor of forecasting ability.

  8. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

  9. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption.

  10. Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-02-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is that neural development underlies commonly observed adolescent phenomena such as susceptibility to peer influence and sensitivity to peer rejection. Experimental behavioural evidence of rejection sensitivity in adolescence is currently sparse. Here, we describe a study that directly compared the affective consequences of an experimental ostracism manipulation (Cyberball) in female adolescents and adults. The ostracism condition led to significantly greater affective consequences in the adolescents compared with adults. This suggests that the ability to regulate distress resulting from ostracism continues to develop between adolescence and adulthood. The results are discussed in the context of models of neurocognitive development.

  11. Numerical modelling of the physical factors that affect mass transport in the vasculature at early time periods.

    PubMed

    Denny, William J; Walsh, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Coronary artery disease results in blockages or narrowing of the artery lumen. Drug eluting stents were developed to replace bare metal stents in an effort to combat re-blocking of the lumen. A key element in determining the therapeutic success of a drug eluting stent is an in-depth understanding of the physical factors that affect mass transport of the drug into the arterial wall, over early time periods. The numerical models developed within this study focus on assessing the influence of a host of physical factors that either facilitate or impede therapeutic drug delivery into the arterial wall from the unit cell of an idealised stent. This study demonstrates that model reduction strategies to 2D and 1D can still adequately represent a 3D curved arterial wall and strut polymer coating, respectively, using an idealistic stent geometry. It was shown that the level of strut compression can have a significant impact on therapeutic drug delivery in the arterial wall.

  12. Time on Task and Other Variables Affecting the Quality of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Glenn

    Through a literature review and classroom observations, several variables affecting the quality of education were studied, focusing on processes related to student placement in special education and to instruction after placement. The study found that: (1) A dynamic interaction is needed among the referral, assessment, placement, and instruction…

  13. How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of…

  14. Virtual Characters: Visual Realism Affects Response Time and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibuma, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates agent research with a neurocognitive technique to study how character faces affect cognitive processing. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) was used to study face processing during simple decision-making tasks. Twenty-five adults responded to facial expressions (fear/neutral) presented in three designs…

  15. Factors Affecting Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction in the Colorado Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    How do part-time faculty members in community colleges view their roles? Data from part-time faculty responses regarding their experiences in higher education vary. Valadez and Antony (2001) analyzed data from 6,811 part-time faculty collected from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 1992-1993 National Survey of Postsecondary…

  16. Timing Is Affected by Demands in Memory Search but Not by Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Claudette; Schweickert, Richard; Gaudreault, Remi; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that timing and tasks involving executive control processes might require the same attentional resources. This should lead to interference when timing and executive tasks are executed concurrently. This study examined the interference between timing and task switching, an executive function. In 4 experiments, memory search…

  17. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  18. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders.

  19. Timing Childhoods: An Alternative Reading of Children's Development through Philosophy of Time, Temporality, Place and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that the denial of development can be a productive space and a liberating time for children in the current outcomes-driven times. The author offers an alternative reading of childhood, considering children's development differently through various philosophical theorizations of events, which emerge through utilizing philosophy…

  20. Dietary flavonoids advance timing of moult but do not affect redox status of juvenile blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Carnevali, Chiara; Colombo, Graziano; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Mancuso, Elisa; Milzani, Aldo; Parolini, Marco; Portanova, Antea; Saino, Nicola; Serra, Lorenzo; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Flavonoids are the most abundant plant polyphenols, widely occurring in fruits and berries, and show a strong antioxidant activity in vitro Studies of avian species feeding on berries suggest that dietary flavonoids have health-promoting effects and may enhance the expression of melanin-based plumage traits. These effects are probably mediated by the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. However, the effect of dietary flavonoids on oxidative status has never been investigated in any bird species. We analysed the effects of dietary flavonoids on blood non-enzymatic antioxidants and protein oxidative damage of juvenile European blackbirds (Turdus merula). In addition, we analysed the effects of flavonoid-enriched diet on body condition and on the timing of moult from juvenile to adult plumage. Dietary flavonoids did not significantly affect redox status but significantly advanced the onset of moult, hastening plumage development. Moulting birds showed higher protein oxidative damage compared with those that had not yet started moulting. The probability of initiating moult after 40 days of dietary treatment was higher for birds with low circulating levels of oxidizing agents and high glutathione concentration. The metabolization of flavonoids could have altered their redox potential, resulting in no net effects on redox status. However, flavonoid consumption before and during moult may contribute to enhance plumage development. Moreover, our findings suggest that moulting feathers may result in redox imbalance. Given their effect on moult and growth of melanin-rich feathers, fruit flavonoids may have contributed to shape plant fruiting time in relation to fruit consumption preferences by birds.

  1. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  2. Factors Affecting Female Participation in Education in Seven Developing Countries. Second Edition. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine

    Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries were examined through field visits to the following countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, India, Jamaica, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, and Vanuatu. In each country, researchers interviewed key personnel, consulted local documentation, and conducted two empirical surveys…

  3. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  4. On the Affective Challenges of Developing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jason K.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the affective challenges I experienced while attempting to develop a pedagogy of teacher education during my first three years in teacher preparation. Data were collected systematically over the course of the study in the form of written interpretive accounts of my experiences. Analysis of these accounts revealed how…

  5. The Federal Policy Landscape: A Look at How Legislation Affects Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islas, M. Rene

    2010-01-01

    Four years ago, Learning Forward established "affecting the policy context" as the first of five strategic priorities that would guide its efforts through 2011. Learning Forward believes that good policy promotes good practice and that laws and policies that promote and support effective professional development are needed to achieve the…

  6. Do Regulable Features of Child-Care Homes Affect Children's Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; O'Brien, Marion; McCartney, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Used data from NICHD Study of Early Child Care to assess whether regulable features of child care homes affected children's development. Found caregivers' education and recency of training related to learning environment and caregiving sensitivity. More positive caregiving related to compliance with age-weighted group-size cut-offs. Caregiver…

  7. Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Lynda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

  8. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  9. Does Intellectual Disability Affect the Development of Dental Caries in Patients with Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the severity of intellectual disability is a factor that affects the development of dental cavities in patients with cerebral palsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 165 individuals who were selected from a physical rehabilitation center, a special public school and a regular public school. Of…

  10. Variables Affecting the Effects of Recasts on L2 Pronunciation Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how recasts can promote the L2 pronunciation development of word-initial /?/ by Japanese learners of English in relation to two developmental stages of English /?/ acquisition (i.e. change in second formant [F2] ? change in third formant [F3]) as well as four affecting variables (i.e. the amount of recasts and…

  11. A Sharing Experience: Development of a Group for Families Affected by HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Diane; Appleby, Sue

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment and development of a support group for the parents of children infected and/or affected by HIV infection. The group is hospital-based, meeting monthly since April 1992, facilitated by professionals but with a self-help and peer support emphasis. Explains the planning, setting, and running of the group. Identifies…

  12. China’s Economic Development Plan in Xinjiang and How It Affects Ethnic Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN XINJIANG AND HOW IT AFFECTS ETHNIC INSTABILITY by Susan W. K. Wong-Tworek March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Tristan J. Mabry...DATES COVERED March 2015 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CHINA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN XINJIANG AND HOW IT ...economic zone. China is also investing in Central Asia to further meet its energy demand. A network of pipelines and major rail systems connect

  13. Development of coincidence-anticipation timing in a catching task.

    PubMed

    Kim, Robyn; Nauhaus, Genevieve; Glazek, Kuba; Young, Douglas; Lin, Sherry

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the effects of age, target location, and stimulus speed on coincidence-anticipation timing in a catching task. Males aged 11 to 18 years made simulated catching movements toward a light stimulus that rapidly approached the head or chest at various speeds. Coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy, movement onset times, and movement times did not differ by age. However, 17- to 18-year-olds exhibited significantly faster movement speeds than 14- to 16-year-olds. Target location (head or chest) did not affect coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy or movement speed. However, movements toward the head were initiated earlier and took longer than movements to the chest. Finally, stimulus speed had statistically significant effects on all measures: faster stimuli were associated with longer delays in coincidence-anticipation timing responses, earlier movement onset times, shorter movement times, and faster movement speeds. These results underscore the adaptability of coincidence-anticipation timing abilities for responding to stimuli under varying temporal and spatial constraints.

  14. Analysis on spatial transfer model of energy development layout and the ecological footprint affection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    Consider the global energy interconnection, the global is concentrating on carrying out clean energy alternative, which is mainly focusing on using the clean energy to take place of fossil energy, and change the global energy layout and ecological atmosphere condition. This research gives the energy spatial transfer model of energy development layout to analyse the global energy development layout condition and ecological affection. And it is a fast and direct method to analyse its energy usage process and environmental affection. The paper also gives out a system dynamics model of energy spatial transfer shows, which electric power transmission is better than original energy usage and transportation. It also gives the comparison of different parameters. The energy spatial transfer can affect the environment directly. Consider its three environmental factors, including energy saving, climate changing and conventional pollutant emission reduction, synthetic combine with the spatial transfer model, it can get the environmental change parameters, which showed that with the clean energy wide usage, the ecological footprint affection will be affected significantly.

  15. Guerrilla Collection Development: Time-Saving Tactics for Busy Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Reviews time-saving approaches that can help academic librarians (or small libraries lacking collection development librarians) to maintain collections. A sidebar provides information on locating subject publication lists and appendices offer guidelines for collection weeding and sampling. (JMV)

  16. Timing and duration of nursing from birth affect neonatal porcine uterine matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1.

    PubMed

    Ho, T Y; Rahman, K M; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2017-04-01

    Nursing for 2 d from birth supports neonatal porcine uterine and cervical development. However, it is not clear how timing or duration of lactocrine signaling from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) affects development of neonatal female reproductive tract tissues. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine effects of age at first nursing and duration of nursing from birth on specific elements of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) system in uterine and cervical tissues at PND 2. When nursing was initiated at 0 h or 30 min of age, targeted proteins, including proMMP9 and MMP9, were detected in uterine and cervical tissues on PND 2, as was uterine TIMP1. However, these proteins were undetectable when nursing was delayed for 12 h and when gilts were fed milk replacer for 48 h from birth. Increasing the duration of nursing from 30 min to 12 h from birth increased uterine (P < 0.05) and cervical (P < 0.001) MMP9 levels to those observed in gilts nursed for 48 h. Similarly, uterine TIMP1 levels increased with duration of nursing. Uterine MMP2 levels were detectable but unaffected by age at first nursing or duration of nursing from birth. Uterine MMP2 and MMP9 activities, monitored by zymography, reflected immunoblotting data. Results provide evidence for the utility of MMP9 and TIMP1 as markers of age- and lactocrine-sensitive porcine female reproductive tract development.

  17. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  18. Instrumentation Development: The Multiple Subsystem Timing Meter (MSTM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    developed to record operational times for the turret drive, turret power, infrared sight unit and the Stabe system on the Bradley Fighting vehicle... RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL Bruce Buzzo (602)-328-3131) STEYP-MT-TS DD Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous editions are...development of instrumention currently in use that displays and maintain accurate operational time of critical components in the Bradley Fighting Vehicle(s

  19. Are Time- and Event-based Prospective Memory Comparably Affected in HIV Infection?†

    PubMed Central

    Zogg, Jennifer B.; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Doyle, Katie; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hale, Braden R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund; Schrier, Rachel; Heaton, Robert K.; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Jernigan, Terry; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah L.; Hesselink, John; Annese, Jacopo; Taylor, Michael J.; Masliah, Eliezer; Everall, Ian; Langford, T. Dianne; Richman, Douglas; Smith, David M.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Everall, Ian; Lipton, Stuart; McCutchan, J. Allen; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Atkinson, J. Hampton; von Jaeger, Rodney; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cushman, Clint; Masys, Daniel R.; Abramson, Ian; Ake, Christopher; Vaida, Florin

    2011-01-01

    According to the multi-process theory of prospective memory (ProM), time-based tasks rely more heavily on strategic processes dependent on prefrontal systems than do event-based tasks. Given the prominent frontostriatal pathophysiology of HIV infection, one would expect HIV-infected individuals to demonstrate greater deficits in time-based versus event-based ProM. However, the two prior studies examining this question have produced variable results. We evaluated this hypothesis in 143 individuals with HIV infection and 43 demographically similar seronegative adults (HIV−) who completed the research version of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test, which yields parallel subscales of time- and event-based ProM. Results showed main effects of HIV serostatus and cue type, but no interaction between serostatus and cue. Planned pair-wise comparisons showed a significant effect of HIV on time-based ProM and a trend-level effect on event-based ProM that was driven primarily by the subset of participants with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Nevertheless, time-based ProM was more strongly correlated with measures of executive functions, attention/working memory, and verbal fluency in HIV-infected persons. Although HIV-associated deficits in time- and event-based ProM appear to be of comparable severity, the cognitive architecture of time-based ProM may be more strongly influenced by strategic monitoring and retrieval processes. PMID:21459901

  20. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  1. Comparison of Affective Credit Attitude Scores and Credit Use of College Students at Two Points in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2002-01-01

    A study of 120 college students' use of credit in 1997 and 1999 showed that, during that time, 60 students graduated; 41 had more credit cards in 1999 than 1997; 62 had fewer; and 32 were repaying student loans. Affective credit attitude scores for those with four or more credit cards and for students who had graduated were lower in 1999 than in…

  2. The Development of Time, Speed, and Distance Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, D. Dean; Siegler, Robert S.

    This paper reports two experimental studies of the development of time, speed and distance concepts in children. In Experiment I subjects (12 in each of four age groups: 5-, 8-, 11-year-olds, and adults) were asked to judge which of two electric trains on parallel tracks went faster, for the longer distance, or for more time. Subject's knowledge…

  3. Delayed system response times affect immediate physiology and the dynamics of subsequent button press behavior.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, Christin; Hrabal, David; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2014-11-01

    System response time research is an important issue in human-computer interactions. Experience with technical devices and general rules of human-human interactions determine the user's expectation, and any delay in system response time may lead to immediate physiological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. We investigated such effects on a trial-by-trial basis during a human-computer interaction by measuring changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the dynamics of button press responses. We found an increase in SC and a deceleration of HR for all three delayed system response times (0.5, 1, 2 s). Moreover, the data on button press dynamics was highly informative since subjects repeated a button press with more force in response to delayed system response times. Furthermore, the button press dynamics could distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions and may thus even be used to infer the uncertainty of a user's decision.

  4. MODELING HOW A HURRICANE BARRIER IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS, AFFECTS THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND RESIDENCE TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models were used to simulate tidal and subtidal circulation, residence times, and the longitudinal distributions of conservative constituents in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, before and after a hurricane barrier was constructed. The...

  5. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  6. Elapsed decision time affects the weighting of prior probability in a perceptual decision task.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Timothy D; Mazurek, Mark E; Kiani, Roozbeh; Hopp, Elisabeth; Shadlen, Michael N

    2011-04-27

    Decisions are often based on a combination of new evidence with prior knowledge of the probable best choice. Optimal combination requires knowledge about the reliability of evidence, but in many realistic situations, this is unknown. Here we propose and test a novel theory: the brain exploits elapsed time during decision formation to combine sensory evidence with prior probability. Elapsed time is useful because (1) decisions that linger tend to arise from less reliable evidence, and (2) the expected accuracy at a given decision time depends on the reliability of the evidence gathered up to that point. These regularities allow the brain to combine prior information with sensory evidence by weighting the latter in accordance with reliability. To test this theory, we manipulated the prior probability of the rewarded choice while subjects performed a reaction-time discrimination of motion direction using a range of stimulus reliabilities that varied from trial to trial. The theory explains the effect of prior probability on choice and reaction time over a wide range of stimulus strengths. We found that prior probability was incorporated into the decision process as a dynamic bias signal that increases as a function of decision time. This bias signal depends on the speed-accuracy setting of human subjects, and it is reflected in the firing rates of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of rhesus monkeys performing this task.

  7. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826

  8. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy.

  9. No Time To Kill: Entrainment and Accelerating Courseware Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millington, Paula Crnkovich

    This paper examines the concept of time in multimedia, World Wide Web-based courseware development. The biological concept of entrainment (the alignment of rhythms within and between systems) to accelerate courseware development is explored. The discussion begins with the foundational concepts of entrainment from biological systems and social…

  10. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration.

  11. Stressors can affect immobility time and response to imipramine in the rat forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M

    2009-02-01

    We subjected Wistar rats to the forced swim test (FST) to compare the effects of two doses of imipramine in physically stressed rats (P: unavoidable electric footshocks), emotionally stressed rats (E: odors), or non-stressed rats (C). Stress or control sessions lasted 35 days. Drug treatments began on day 21 and continued for the next 14 days. E rats were placed for 10 min, once per day for 35 days, in a small non-movement-restricting cage impregnated with urine collected from a P rat. E and P rats exhibited opposite changes in locomotion. After 21 days of stress sessions, P rats displayed the longest immobility times in the FST, followed by E rats. In the P group, on day 7 of treatment (day 28 of the study), imipramine (2.5 mg/kg) reduced immobility time to baseline values. In the E group, immobility time decreased only after 14 days of treatment with the low imipramine dose. The high dose of imipramine (5.0 mg/kg) reduced immobility time at day 7 of treatment in all groups. In conclusion, physical and emotional stress similarly increased immobility time in the FST, but emotional stress appears to be more resistant to imipramine treatment.

  12. Affective status in relation to impulsive, motor and motivational symptoms: personality, development and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Tomas; Beninger, Richard J; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Archer, Trevor

    2008-10-01

    The contributions of impulsive and risk-taking behaviour in depressive and bipolar disorders, motivational and motor behaviours in anhedonic and substance addictive states, and the factors, particularly distress and trauma, underlying the development of neuropathology in affective status are described from clinical, epidemiological and laboratory perspectives. In order to distinguish one case factor for biopsychological substrates of health, an array of self-reported characteristics, e.g., positive or negative affect, stress or energy, optimism, etc., that may be predictive or counterpredictive for the propensity for physical exercise and activity were analysed using a linear regression in twelve different studies. Several individual characteristics were found to be markedly and significantly predictive of the exercise propensity, i.e., positive affect, energy, health-seeking behaviour and character, while optimism was of lesser, though significant, importance. Several individual characteristics were found to be significantly counterpredictive: expression of BDI- and HAD-depression, major sleep problems and lack/negligence of health-seeking behaviour. The consequences of physical activity and exercise for both affective well-being, cognitive mobility and neurogenesis is noted, particularly with regard to developmental assets for younger individuals. Affective disorder states may be studied through analyses of personal characteristics that unfold predispositions for symptoms-profiles and biomarkers derived from properties of dysfunction, such as impulsiveness, temperament dimensions, anhedonia and 'over-sensitivity', whether interpersonal or to reward.

  13. Feeling backwards? How temporal order in speech affects the time course of vocal emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Rigoulot, Simon; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Pell, Marc D

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the time course for recognizing vocal expressions of basic emotion in speech varies significantly by emotion type, implying that listeners uncover acoustic evidence about emotions at different rates in speech (e.g., fear is recognized most quickly whereas happiness and disgust are recognized relatively slowly; Pell and Kotz, 2011). To investigate whether vocal emotion recognition is largely dictated by the amount of time listeners are exposed to speech or the position of critical emotional cues in the utterance, 40 English participants judged the meaning of emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterances presented in a gating paradigm, where utterances were gated as a function of their syllable structure in segments of increasing duration from the end of the utterance (i.e., gated syllable-by-syllable from the offset rather than the onset of the stimulus). Accuracy for detecting six target emotions in each gate condition and the mean identification point for each emotion in milliseconds were analyzed and compared to results from Pell and Kotz (2011). We again found significant emotion-specific differences in the time needed to accurately recognize emotions from speech prosody, and new evidence that utterance-final syllables tended to facilitate listeners' accuracy in many conditions when compared to utterance-initial syllables. The time needed to recognize fear, anger, sadness, and neutral from speech cues was not influenced by how utterances were gated, although happiness and disgust were recognized significantly faster when listeners heard the end of utterances first. Our data provide new clues about the relative time course for recognizing vocally-expressed emotions within the 400-1200 ms time window, while highlighting that emotion recognition from prosody can be shaped by the temporal properties of speech.

  14. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  15. Fibrinolytic Therapy in CCU Instead of Emergency Ward: How It Affects Door to Needle Time?

    PubMed Central

    Zeraati, Fatemeh; Homayounfar, Shahram; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Khalili, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The door-to-needle-time (DNT) is considered a standard time for scheduling thrombolysis for acute ST-segment elevation of myocardial infarction and this time can be reduced by minimizing the delay in starting thrombolytic treatment once the patient has reached to the hospital. This study was carried out on a sample of Iranian patients with acute myocardial infarction to determine the DNT in those after changing schedule of thrombolysis during 8 years from emergency to coronary care unit (CCU). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on all consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction admitted to the emergency ward of Ekbatan Hospital in Hamadan, Iran, within 2011 and had an indication of fibrinolytic therapy, which 47 patients were finally indicated to receive streptokinase in the part of CCU. Results: The mean time interval between arrival at the hospital and electrocardiogram (ECG) assessment was 6.30 min, taking ECG and patient's admission was 21.6 min and transferring the patient from admission to CCU ward was 31.9. The time between transferring the patients to CCU ward and fibrinolytic administration order and the time between its ordering and infusion was 31.2 min and 14.0 min respectively. In sum, the DNT was estimated 84.48 ± 53.00 min ranged 30-325 min that was significantly more than standard DNT (P <0.01). Furthermore, DNT mean in this study is significantly more than a study conducted 8 years ago in the same hospital (P <0.01). Conclusions: The DNT is higher than the standard level and higher than the estimated level in the past. This shows that DNT was longer after transferring to CCU. PMID:24829715

  16. Drive time to cardiac rehabilitation: at what point does it affect utilization?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A 30 minute drive time threshold has often been cited as indicative of accessible health services. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a chronic disease management program designed to enhance and maintain cardiovascular health, and geographic barriers to utilization are often cited. The purpose of this study was to empirically test the drive time threshold for CR utilization. Methods A prospective study, using a multi-level design of coronary artery disease outpatients nested within 97 cardiologists. Participants completed a baseline sociodemographic survey, and reported CR referral, enrollment and participation in a second survey 9 months later. CR utilization was verified with CR sites. Geographic information systems were used to generate drive times at 60, 80 and 100% of the speed limit to the closest CR site from participants' homes, to take into consideration various traffic conditions. Bivariate analysis was used to test for differences in CR referral, enrollment and degree of participation by drive time. Logistic regression was used to test drive time increments where significant differences were found. Results Drive times were generated for 1209 outpatients. Overall, CR referral was verified for 523 (43.3%) outpatients, with verified enrollment for 444 (36.7%) participating in a mean of 86.4 ± 25.7% of prescribed sessions. There were significant differences in CR referral and enrollment by drive time (ps < .01), but not degree of participation. Logistic regression analysis (ps < .001) revealed that the drive time threshold at 80% of the posted speed limit for physician referral may be 60 minutes (OR = .26, 95% CI: 0.13-0.55), and the threshold for patient CR enrollment may also be 60 minutes (OR = .11, 95% CI: 0.04-0.33). Conclusions Physicians may be taking geography into consideration when referring patients to CR. Empirical consideration also reveals that patients are significantly less likely to enroll in CR where they must drive 60 minutes or

  17. Quadriceps Rate of Force Development affects Gait and Function in People with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Joshua D.; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Quadriceps weakness exists in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) but other muscle factors like rate of force development (RFD) may also be affected by knee OA. The purpose of this study was to determine if people with knee OA have deficits in quadriceps RFD, determine if quadriceps RFD would improve predicting knee joint power absorption and generation during free and fast walking, and determine if RFD would improve predicting functional outcomes. Methods 26 subjects with knee OA and 23 healthy control subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC) and RFD measures of the quadriceps. Subjects also underwent a 3-D motion analysis of both self-selected free and self-selected fast walking speeds. Joint kinetics were calculated from inverse dynamics. Results RFD was not different by group (p=0.763), however the OA subjects generated the highest peak RFD at a lower %MVIC (p=0.008). Controls walked significantly faster at both free and fast walking speeds (p=0.001, p=0.029). Knee angles at heel strike and peak knee extension were lower (p=0.004, p=0.027) in the OA group. During fast walking knee power generation was higher in Controls (p=0.028). MVIC and force of highest peak RFD predicted KOOS ADL score in the OA subjects, but only MVIC predicted stair climbing time. Conclusions The submaximal force at which peak RFD occurs plays a significant role in knee joint power as well as functional measures in the OA subjects, providing further evidence that factors other than maximal strength are also important in people with knee OA. PMID:24240535

  18. Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Yoshan; Masello, Juan F; Cole, Theresa L; Calderon, Luciano; Munimanda, Gopi K; Thali, Marco R; Alderman, Rachael; Cuthbert, Richard J; Marin, Manuel; Massaro, Melanie; Navarro, Joan; Phillips, Richard A; Ryan, Peter G; Suazo, Cristián G; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in convergently evolved allele size classes, biasing measures of interspecific genetic differentiation. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to develop microsatellite markers from a shotgun genome sequence of the sub-Antarctic seabird, the thin-billed prion (Pachyptila belcheri), that we tested for cross-species amplification in other Pachyptila and related sub-Antarctic species. We found that heterozygosity decreased and the proportion of nonamplifying loci increased with phylogenetic distance from the target species. Surprisingly, we found that species trees estimated from interspecific FST provided better approximations of mtDNA relationships among the studied species than those estimated using DC , even though FST was more affected by null alleles. We observed a significantly nonlinear second order polynomial relationship between microsatellite and mtDNA distances. We propose that the loss of linearity with increasing mtDNA distance stems from an increasing proportion of homoplastic allele size classes that are identical in state, but not identical by descent. Therefore, despite high cross-species amplification success and high polymorphism among the closely related Pachyptila species, we caution against the use of microsatellites in phylogenetic inference among distantly related taxa.

  19. Crumbs affects protein dynamics in anterior regions of the developing Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Firmino, João; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Knust, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity is essential for epithelial integrity and requires particular reinforcement during tissue morphogenesis, when cells are reorganised, undergo shape changes and remodel their junctions. It is well established that epithelial integrity during morphogenetic processes depends on the dynamic exchange of adherens junction components, but our knowledge on the dynamics of other proteins and their dynamics during these processes is still limited. The early Drosophila embryo is an ideal system to study membrane dynamics during morphogenesis. Here, morphogenetic activities differ along the anterior-posterior axis, with the extending germband showing a high degree of epithelial remodelling. We developed a Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay with a higher temporal resolution, which allowed the distinction between a fast and a slow component of recovery of membrane proteins during the germband extension stage. We show for the first time that the recovery kinetics of a general membrane marker, SpiderGFP, differs in the anterior and posterior parts of the embryo, which correlates well with the different morphogenetic activities of the respective embryonic regions. Interestingly, absence of crumbs, a polarity regulator essential for epithelial integrity in the Drosophila embryo, decreases the fast component of SpiderGFP and of the apical marker Stranded at Second-Venus specifically in the anterior region. We suggest that the defects in kinetics observed in crumbs mutant embryos are the first signs of tissue instability in this region, explaining the earlier breakdown of the head epidermis in comparison to that of the trunk, and that diffusion in the plasma membrane is affected by the absence of Crumbs.

  20. Case for real-time systems development - Quo vadis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, Dona M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper focuses on the distinctive issues of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) products for the development of real-time systems. CASE technologies and associated standardization efforts are evolving from sets of conflicting interests. The majority of case products are intended for use in the development of management information systems. CASE products to support the development of large, complex real-time systems must provide additional capabilities. Generic concerns include the quality of the implementation of the required method for the phase of the system's development and whether the vendor is stable and committed to evolving the products in parallel with nonproprietary standards. The CASE market is undergoing considerable consolidation. The paper describes the major forces, cooperating entities, and remaining uncertainties that need to be weighed in near-term CASE procurements to limit risk of loss of investment in project time, trianing, and money.

  1. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  2. Corn yield and nitrate loss in subsurface drainage affected by timing of anhydrous ammonia application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surprisingly little research has examined the corn yield, N use efficiency, and water quality implications of N fertilizer timing. We applied anhydrous ammonia either in the fall after harvest (F) at 196 kg ha-1, or in the spring before planting (PP) or as an early sidedress (SD) at rates of 168 kg ...

  3. How Do Mode and Timing of Follow-up Surveys Affect Evaluation Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundinya, Vikram; Klink, Jenna; Deming, Philip; Meyers, Andrew; Erb, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the analysis of evaluation methods used in a well-designed and comprehensive evaluation effort of a significant Extension program. The evaluation data collection methods were analyzed by questionnaire mode and timing of follow-up surveys. Response rates from the short- and long-term follow-ups and different questionnaire…

  4. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  5. How Work Affects Divorce: The Mediating Role of Financial and Time Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associated with spouses' working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband works on average fewer hours and the wife more…

  6. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  7. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellioscaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellioscaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  8. Altered cytokine network in gestational diabetes mellitus affects maternal insulin and placental-fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Lauren; Belkacemi, Louiza

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by an altered inflammatory profile, compared to the non-pregnant state with an adequate balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines needed for normal development. Cytokines are small secreted proteins expressed mainly in immunocompetent cells in the reproductive system. From early developmental stages onward, the secretory activity of placenta cells clearly contributes to increase local as well as systemic levels of cytokines. The placental production of cytokines may affect mother and fetus independently. In turn because of this unique position at the maternal fetal interface, the placenta is also exposed to the regulatory influence of cytokines from maternal and fetal circulations, and hence, may be affected by changes in any of these. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an overall alteration of the cytokine network. This review discusses the changes that occur in cytokines post GDM and their negative effects on maternal insulin and placental-fetal development.

  9. Intraindividual reaction time variability affects P300 amplitude rather than latency

    PubMed Central

    Ramchurn, Anusha; de Fockert, Jan W.; Mason, Luke; Darling, Stephen; Bunce, David

    2014-01-01

    The neural correlates of intraindividual response variability were investigated in a serial choice reaction time (CRT) task. Reaction times (RTs) from the faster and slower portions of the RT distribution for the task were separately aggregated and associated P300 event-related potentials computed. Independent behavioral measures of executive function and IQ were also recorded. Across frontal, fronto-central, central, centro-parietal and parietal scalp regions, P300 amplitudes were significantly greater for faster relative to slower behavioral responses. However, P300 peak amplitude latencies did not differ according to the speed of the behavioral RT. Importantly, controlling for select independent measures of executive function attenuated shared variance in P300 amplitude for faster and slower trials. The findings suggest that P300 amplitude rather than latency is associated with the speed of behavioral RTs, and the possibility that fluctuations in executive control underlie variability in speeded responding. PMID:25120458

  10. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  11. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring–summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus–host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus–host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems. PMID:26296067

  12. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-02-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring-summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus-host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus-host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems.

  13. Swine effluent application timing and rate affect nitrogen use efficiency in common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Read, J J; Brink, G E; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L

    2008-01-01

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay production is integral to manure management on southeastern swine farms. But swine effluent timing must be synchronized with crop nitrogen (N) demands to decrease the potential for soil N accumulation and nitrate (NO(3)) leaching. Field studies were conducted on a Prentiss sandy loam (coarse-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Glossic Fragiudult) to determine N-use efficiency (NUE) and residual soil NO(3)-N. Two rates of 10 and 20 cm yr(- 1) ( approximately 260 and 480 kg ha(-1) N, respectively) were applied in four timing treatments: April to September (full season), April to May, June to July, and August to September. Plots were harvested every 7 to 9 wk beginning in June, and soil was sampled in fall after a killing frost and the following spring. Annual uptake of N and P were least in the August to September timing treatment. Doubling the effluent rate increased N uptake 112% in 2000 (from 130 to 276 kg ha(-1)) and 53% in 2001 (from 190 to 290 kg ha(-1)), suggesting 10-cm did not meet crop N demands. Due to low rainfall and decreased forage yield in 2000, doubling the effluent rate led to increased soil NO(3)-N to 30-cm depth in fall 2000 and spring 2001. Averaged across timing treatments, soil NO(3)-N at 5-cm depth ranged from 8.5 mg kg(-1) in non-irrigated controls to 39.6 mg kg(-1) with 20-cm effluent. Results indicate low NUE in the order of 30 to 38% for applications in August to September increase the risk to surface and ground water quality from excess N remaining in soil.

  14. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample.

  15. Water movement in LURGI-combusted oil shale affected by time-dependent hydraulic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sri Ranjan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains organic matter which is insoluble in petroleum based solvents under normal conditions. When oil shale is heated to cause pyrolysis, destructive distillation or retorting, molecules are freed and form simpler petroleum liquids and gases. The remaining inorganic matrix, after the oil extraction process is completed, is known as retorted or spent shale. Retorted oil shale contains many chemical species that present the potential for leaching and the creation of adverse impacts on the ground water beneath the disposal sites. This leachate could result from internal drainage of liquids emplaced with the solids and from infiltration in excess of that which can be stored and returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. This dissertation describes the determination of the time-dependent hydraulic properties of LURGI-combusted oil shale. The determination is accomplished through a combination of indirect electromagnetic measurements and direct hydraulic techniques. The time-dependent properties are incorporated into a partial differential equation for which an exact solution is derived for the case of horizontal flow. The exact solution is evaluated using the time-dependent properties measured for the LURGI material and is compared with an independent horizontal flow experiment. Such comparison independently confirms the measured hydraulic properties and the tendency for the LURGI shale to be self-sealing. The exact solution for horizontal flow and an approximate solution for vertical flow are used to explore the effects of time-dependent hydraulic properties on water movement under field conditions. Means by which the tendency to self-seal can be exploited to minimize penetration of water in disposed shale are discussed.

  16. Does the Time of Radiotherapy Affect Treatment Outcomes? A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, S; Rowbottom, L; McDonald, R; Bjarnason, G A; Tsao, M; Danjoux, C; Barnes, E; Popovic, M; Lam, H; DeAngelis, C; Chow, E

    2017-04-01

    Circadian rhythm-dependent cell cycle progression produces daily variations in radiosensitivity. This literature review aims to summarise the data on whether radiotherapy outcomes differ depending on administration time. A literature search was conducted on Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed using key words such as 'radiotherapy', 'circadian rhythm', 'treatment outcome' and 'survival'. Articles evaluating the correlation between radiotherapy time and outcomes in cancer patients were included and relevant information was extracted. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Four investigated lung cancer patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases, with one study observing improved local control and survival in patients treated in the morning. Another two studies with breast and cervical cancer patients observed that the prevalence of toxicities was higher in afternoon and morning cohorts, respectively. Two studies in head and neck cancer patients found trends indicating morning patients experienced less oral mucositis. Increased toxicities and biochemical failure rates were associated with evening treatment in prostate cancer patients. As inconsistencies in the literature exist regarding the time dependency of radiotherapy outcomes, further investigation is warranted.

  17. Timing of speech and display affects the linguistic mediation of visual search.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Eric M; Spivey, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that, instead, of a dichotomy between parallel and serial search strategies, in many instances we see a combination of both search strategies utilized. Consequently, computational models and theoretical accounts of visual search processing have evolved from traditional serial-parallel descriptions to a continuum from 'efficient' to 'inefficient' search. One of the findings, consistent with this blurring of the serial-parallel distinction, is that concurrent spoken linguistic input influences the efficiency of visual search. In our first experiment we replicate those findings using a between-subjects design. Next, we utilize a localist attractor network to simulate the results from the first experiment, and then employ the network to make quantitative predictions about the influence of subtle timing differences of real-time language processing on visual search. These model predictions are then tested and confirmed in our second experiment. The results provide further evidence toward understanding linguistically mediated influences on real-time visual search processing and support an interactive processing account of visual search and language comprehension.

  18. Propagation container and timing of propagation affects growth and quality of oak seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the container effect and the timeline of seed propagation on germination and subsequent shoot and root development for container-grown oaks. Quercus nigra and Q. texana had equal or better growth and better root ratings when acorns were sown in Anderson t...

  19. Development of a 10 picosecond time-of-flight Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Andrew G

    2010-03-18

    This Advanced Detector Research proposal presented a plan to develop an extremely fast time-of-flight detector for measuring the arrival time of beam protons scattered at small angles in high energy hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The proposed detectors employ a gas or quartz Cerenkov radiator which produce light when a proton passes through them, coupled to a micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) that converts the light to an electrical pulse. The very small jitter of the pulse time provided by the MCP-PMT, combined with downstream electronics that accurately measure the pulse time results in a time-of-flight measurement of unprecedented accuracy. This ADR proposal was extremely successful, culminating in the development of a 10 ps resolution time-of-flight system, about an order of magnitude better than any time-of-flight system previously deployed at a collider experiment. The primary areas of advance were the usage of new radiator geometries providing fast detector signals, using multiple measurements to obtain a superior system resolution, and development of an electronics readout system tuned to maintain the excellent timing afforded by the detector. Test beam and laser tests have improved the knowledge of MCP-PMT’s and enabled the evaluation of the new detector concepts. In addition to being a generally useful detector concept, these fast timing detectors are a major component of proposed upgrades to the LHC ATLAS and CMS detectors, and if deployed could significantly enhance the discovery potential of these detectors, including contributions to the measurement of the properties of the Higgs Boson. In addition to the potential for furthering fundamental understanding of nature, the knowledge gained on MCP-PMT’s could be useful in developing improved versions of these devices which have promise in diverse fields such as biological and medical imaging.

  20. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  1. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    PubMed

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  2. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.

  3. How mistimed and unwanted pregnancies affect timing of antenatal care initiation in three districts in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early antenatal care (ANC) initiation is a doorway to early detection and management of potential complications associated with pregnancy. Although the literature reports various factors associated with ANC initiation such as parity and age, pregnancy intentions is yet to be recognized as a possible predictor of timing of ANC initiation. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional household survey on health behaviour and service utilization patterns. The survey was conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania on 3,127 women from whom 910 of reproductive age who had given birth in the past two years and sought ANC at least once during pregnancy were selected for the current analysis. ANC initiation was considered to be early only if it occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy gestation. A recently completed pregnancy was defined as mistimed if a woman wanted it later, and if she did not want it at all the pregnancy was termed as unwanted. Chi-square was used to test for associations and multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine how mistimed and unwanted pregnancies relate with timing of ANC initiation. Results Although 49.3% of the women intended to become pregnant, 50.7% (34.9% mistimed and 15.8% unwanted) became pregnant unintentionally. While ANC initiation in the 1st trimester was 18.5%, so was 71.7% and 9.9% in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that ANC initiation in the 2nd trimester was 1.68 (95% CI 1.10–2.58) and 2.00 (95% CI 1.05–3.82) times more likely for mistimed and unwanted pregnancies respectively compared to intended pregnancies. These estimates rose to 2.81 (95% CI 1.41–5.59) and 4.10 (95% CI 1.68–10.00) respectively in the 3rd trimester. We controlled for gravidity, age, education, household wealth, marital status, religion, district of residence and travel time to a health facility. Conclusion Late ANC initiation is a significant maternal and

  4. Can Chemicals in the Environment That Affect Hormone Function Disrupt Development?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hormones, including estrogens and androgens, regulate the expression of genes that play critical roles in guiding the development of organ systems in the embryo. Changes in either the amount or the timing of hormone exposure can lead to altered human development. For example, hum...

  5. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development.

  6. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  7. When up is down in 0g: how gravity sensing affects the timing of interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Senot, Patrice; Zago, Myrka; Le Séac'h, Anne; Zaoui, Mohammed; Berthoz, Alain; Lacquaniti, Francesco; McIntyre, Joseph

    2012-02-08

    Humans are known to regulate the timing of interceptive actions by modeling, in a simplified way, Newtonian mechanics. Specifically, when intercepting an approaching ball, humans trigger their movements a bit earlier when the target arrives from above than from below. This bias occurs regardless of the ball's true kinetics, and thus appears to reflect an a priori expectation that a downward moving object will accelerate. We postulate that gravito-inertial information is used to tune visuomotor responses to match the target's most likely acceleration. Here we used the peculiar conditions of parabolic flight--where gravity's effects change every 20 s--to test this hypothesis. We found a striking reversal in the timing of interceptive responses performed in weightlessness compared with trials performed on ground, indicating a role of gravity sensing in the tuning of this response. Parallels between these observations and the properties of otolith receptors suggest that vestibular signals themselves might plausibly provide the critical input. Thus, in addition to its acknowledged importance for postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial navigation, we propose that detecting the direction of gravity's pull plays a role in coordinating quick reactions intended to intercept a fast-moving visual target.

  8. Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean sea at ecological time scales.

    PubMed

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer.

  9. Trophallaxis in filled-crop honeybees (Apis mellifera L.): food-loading time affects unloading behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainselboim, A. J.; Farina, W. M.

    Honeybees ingested 50% w/w (1.8M) sucrose solution at a rate feeder offering either 16.5, 32.5 or 65 μl/min. While the time spent ingesting solution at the feeder decreased significantly with increasing flow of solution, bees attained maximum crop loads with this range of flows. Different parameters related to mouth-to-mouth food exchange (trophallaxis) showed important modulations as the offered flow of solution was incremented. Trophallactic transfer rate, i.e. the speed at which liquid food is transferred from donor to recipient bee, was found to increase along with increasing profitability at the rate feeder. In the present case, food source profitability could have been evaluated by foragers either by measuring the time invested in ingesting the solution, or by direct assessment of the flow rate of the feeder. Thus it seems that perception of profitability conditions at the food sourcesuffices for later representation in the hive through trophallactic contacts, independently of crop-filling state.

  10. Seasonal timing of first rain storms affects rare plant population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in forecasting the ecological consequences of climate change is understanding the relative importance of changes to mean conditions vs. changes to discrete climatic events, such as storms, frosts, or droughts. Here we show that the first major storm of the growing season strongly influences the population dynamics of three rare and endangered annual plant species in a coastal California (USA) ecosystem. In a field experiment we used moisture barriers and water addition to manipulate the timing and temperature associated with first major rains of the season. The three focal species showed two- to fivefold variation in per capita population growth rates between the different storm treatments, comparable to variation found in a prior experiment imposing eightfold differences in season-long precipitation. Variation in germination was a major demographic driver of how two of three species responded to the first rains. For one of these species, the timing of the storm was the most critical determinant of its germination, while the other showed enhanced germination with colder storm temperatures. The role of temperature was further supported by laboratory trials showing enhanced germination in cooler treatments. Our work suggests that, because of species-specific cues for demographic transitions such as germination, changes to discrete climate events may be as, if not more, important than changes to season-long variables.

  11. Timing of neuron development in the rodent vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The timing of cell generation (onset and duration) in the developing rat vestibular and proprioceptive systems is investigated. The results clearly indicate a defined time-span for generation of all neurons in the central nervous system nuclei studied. This cytogenetic period in both vestibular and proprioceptive sensory nuclei is determined to occur during and immediately after placentation, a potentially critical period for spaceflight exposure due to alterations in maternal physiology.

  12. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD.

  13. Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Evoked Potentials and Self-Reported Gender in People Affected by Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Amy B.; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E.; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) – (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46, XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) – the male-typical pattern – than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD. PMID:25038289

  14. The Use of Narrative in Understanding how Cancer Affects Development: The Stories of One Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA SUNMI

    2010-01-01

    Although cancer disrupts development, the experience of having cancer is often understood using developmental theories that do not assume serious illness at an early age. This article presents a narrative analysis of one patient’s story of survivorship. She tells three interrelated stories: how others have reacted to her illness; her struggles to understand her illness; and how it has changed her priorities. Taken together, her stories comprise an account of how the experience has affected her development. Her story is an example of how individuals integrate unusual life events into their development. It suggests that focusing more on how unusual life experiences contribute to development may expand and enrich our understanding of developmental processes. PMID:21151860

  15. Factors Affecting "Ghosting" In Time-Multiplexed Piano-Stereoscopic Crt Display Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    1987-06-01

    Two factors contributing to "ghosting" (image doubling) in plano-stereoscopic CRT displays are phosphor decay and dynamic range of the shutters. A ghosting threshold must be crossed before comfortable fusion can take place. The ghosting threshold changes as image brightness increases and with higher-contrast subjects and those with larger parallax values. Because of the defects of existing liquid crystal shutters, we developed a liquid-crystal shutter with high dynamic range, good transmission, and high speed. With these shutters, residual ghosting is a result of phosphor persistence.

  16. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families.

  17. How do the timing and length of a night-shift nap affect sleep inertia?

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Matsumoto, Shun; Ebara, Takeshi; Murata, Kensaburo; Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru

    2010-07-01

    Napping is one strategy that may assist night shiftworkers to cope with sleepiness and fatigue. However, one potential disadvantage of napping is that awakening from naps is disturbed by sleep inertia, which has also been found to impair performance and/or mood, transiently. The authors examined the effects of the timing and length of a night-shift nap on sleep inertia in a laboratory setting. Twelve male university students (mean +/- SD: 21.6 +/- 2.8 yrs) participated in this 3-day experiment, during which included a simulated night shift (22:00-08:00 h) and subsequent day (11:30-17:30 h) and night sleep (00:00-07:00 h). The simulated night shift was designed to include one of five (four nap/one no-nap) conditions. The napping conditions differed by their timing and duration: 00:00-01:00 h (Early 60 min; E60), 00:00-02:00 h (Early 120 min; E120), 04:00-05:00 h (Late 60 min; L60), 04:00-06:00 h (Late 120 min; L120). Participants completed all the experimental conditions in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature (R(T)) was recorded throughout the simulated shift and polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during the nap period. Immediately before and after each nap, participants were required to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess sleepiness and a visual vigilance test (VVT). During the simulated night shift, a set of tasks (an English transcription task, a performance test battery, and a break) was repeated hourly, except during the periods of napping. For each nap condition, the VAS and VVT (reaction time [RT]; lapses >5 s) results were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (nap [nap versus no-nap] x time point [pre-nap versus post-nap]). PSG and R(T) data were analyzed with one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Marginally significant interactions were observed for RTs and lapses in VVT for the L60 nap condition (p = .071 and p = .070, respectively). However, those effect sizes were moderate (partial eta(2) = 0.266, 0

  18. Mechatronic objects for real-time control software development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Patrick F.; Horner, Jeremy W.

    1998-12-01

    The design of real-time control software for a mechatronic system must be effectively integrated with the system hardware in order to achieve useful qualitative benefits beyond basic functionality. The sought-after benefits include: rapid development, flexibility, maintainability, extensively, and reusability. In this work we focus upon the interface between the device drivers and the control software with the aim to properly design this interface to best realize the aforementioned benefits. The results of this fundamental research include the development of an easily manageable set of four C++ object classes following an object-oriented approach to software design. These Universal Mechatronic Objects (UMOs) are applicable to a wide spectrum of actuators including dc motors, stepper motors, and solenoids; and sensors including pressure sensors, microswitches, and encoders. UMOs encapsulate the interface between the electrical subsystem and the control subsystem, providing the control software developer with a powerful abstraction that facilitates the development of hardware-independent control code and providing the electrical subsystem developer with an effective abstraction that facilitates the development of application-independent device drivers. Objects which are intuitively related to hardware components of the mechatronic system can be declared using the UMOs early in the system development process to facilitate the rapid concurrent development of both the electrical and the control subsystems. Our UMOs were developed as part of a project to implement a real-time control system for a z-theta robotic manipulator. The z- theta manipulator is one component of the Minifactory project in the Microdynamic Systems Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University. The goals of this agile assembly project include the reduction of factory setup and changeover times, plug-and-play type modularity, and the reuse of its components. The application of UMOs to the manipulator

  19. Timing of adding blood to prime affects inflammatory response to neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Benjamin S; Jordan, James E; Lane, Magan R; DiPasquale, Vanessa M; Graf, Lori P; Ootaki, Yoshio; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2016-07-08

    Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.

  20. Real-time prediction of cell division timing in developing zebrafish embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kozawa, Satoshi; Akanuma, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sato, Yasuomi D.; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of live-imaging and live-manipulation of developing embryos in vivo provides a useful tool to study developmental processes. Identification and selection of target cells for an in vivo live-manipulation are generally performed by experience- and knowledge-based decision-making of the observer. Computer-assisted live-prediction method would be an additional approach to facilitate the identification and selection of the appropriate target cells. Herein we report such a method using developing zebrafish embryos. We choose V2 neural progenitor cells in developing zebrafish embryo as their successive shape changes can be visualized in real-time in vivo. We developed a relatively simple mathematical method of describing cellular geometry of V2 cells to predict cell division-timing based on their successively changing shapes in vivo. Using quantitatively measured 4D live-imaging data, features of V2 cell-shape at each time point prior to division were extracted and a statistical model capturing the successive changes of the V2 cell-shape was developed. By applying sequential Bayesian inference method to the model, we successfully predicted division-timing of randomly selected individual V2 cells while the cell behavior was being live-imaged. This system could assist pre-selecting target cells desirable for real-time manipulation–thus, presenting a new opportunity for in vivo experimental systems. PMID:27597656

  1. Real-time prediction of cell division timing in developing zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Satoshi; Akanuma, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sato, Yasuomi D; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Thomas N

    2016-09-06

    Combination of live-imaging and live-manipulation of developing embryos in vivo provides a useful tool to study developmental processes. Identification and selection of target cells for an in vivo live-manipulation are generally performed by experience- and knowledge-based decision-making of the observer. Computer-assisted live-prediction method would be an additional approach to facilitate the identification and selection of the appropriate target cells. Herein we report such a method using developing zebrafish embryos. We choose V2 neural progenitor cells in developing zebrafish embryo as their successive shape changes can be visualized in real-time in vivo. We developed a relatively simple mathematical method of describing cellular geometry of V2 cells to predict cell division-timing based on their successively changing shapes in vivo. Using quantitatively measured 4D live-imaging data, features of V2 cell-shape at each time point prior to division were extracted and a statistical model capturing the successive changes of the V2 cell-shape was developed. By applying sequential Bayesian inference method to the model, we successfully predicted division-timing of randomly selected individual V2 cells while the cell behavior was being live-imaged. This system could assist pre-selecting target cells desirable for real-time manipulation-thus, presenting a new opportunity for in vivo experimental systems.

  2. Real-time prediction of cell division timing in developing zebrafish embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Satoshi; Akanuma, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sato, Yasuomi D.; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Combination of live-imaging and live-manipulation of developing embryos in vivo provides a useful tool to study developmental processes. Identification and selection of target cells for an in vivo live-manipulation are generally performed by experience- and knowledge-based decision-making of the observer. Computer-assisted live-prediction method would be an additional approach to facilitate the identification and selection of the appropriate target cells. Herein we report such a method using developing zebrafish embryos. We choose V2 neural progenitor cells in developing zebrafish embryo as their successive shape changes can be visualized in real-time in vivo. We developed a relatively simple mathematical method of describing cellular geometry of V2 cells to predict cell division-timing based on their successively changing shapes in vivo. Using quantitatively measured 4D live-imaging data, features of V2 cell-shape at each time point prior to division were extracted and a statistical model capturing the successive changes of the V2 cell-shape was developed. By applying sequential Bayesian inference method to the model, we successfully predicted division-timing of randomly selected individual V2 cells while the cell behavior was being live-imaged. This system could assist pre-selecting target cells desirable for real-time manipulation–thus, presenting a new opportunity for in vivo experimental systems.

  3. The development of time sense in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, C A

    1991-01-01

    The subjective, intrapsychic experience of time may be traced through life. The development of time sense in young adulthood (ages 20 to 40) is related to the effects of physical aging and important object relationships to spouse, children, parents, and friends. The subjective experience of the temporal modes of past, present, and future are determined by current, phase-specific influences and attitudes toward time from childhood and adolescence. As an individual approaches 40, normal functioning in relation to time implies that he or she has integrated the shift from physical progression in childhood to physical aging in adulthood, begun to deal with the idea of personal death, separated psychologically from parents, and forged new ties that shape current attitudes toward time and give meaning to life.

  4. Institutional Guidance of Affective Bonding: Moral Values Development in Brazilian Military Education.

    PubMed

    Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2016-09-01

    In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation.

  5. Dehydration rate and time of desiccation affect recovery of the lichen alga [corrected] Trebouxia erici: alternative and classical protective mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Francisco; de Nova, Pedro Gómez; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José M; Barreno, Eva; Guéra, Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of lichens and their photobionts are still poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms we have studied dehydration rate and desiccation time in Trebouxia, the most abundant chlorophytic photobiont in lichen. Our findings indicate that the drying rate has a profound effect on the recovery of photosynthetic activity of algae after rehydration, greater than the effects of desiccation duration. The basal fluorescence (F'(o)) values in desiccated algae were significantly higher after rapid dehydration, than after slow dehydration, suggesting higher levels of light energy dissipation in slow-dried algae. Higher values of PSII electron transport were recovered after rehydration of slow-dried Trebouxia erici compared to rapid-dried algae. The main component of non-photochemical quenching after slow dehydration was energy dependent (q (E)), whereas after fast dehydration it was photoinhibition (q (I)). Although q (E) seems to play a role during desiccation recovery, no significant variations were detected in the xanthophyll cycle components. Desiccation did not affect PSI functionality. Classical antioxidant activities like superoxide dismutase or peroxidase decreased during desiccation and early recovery. Dehydrins were detected in the lichen-forming algae T. erici and were constitutively expressed. There is probably a minimal period required to develop strategies which will facilitate transition to the desiccated state in this algae. In this process, the xanthophyll cycle and classical antioxidant mechanisms play a very limited role, if any. However, our results indicate that there is an alternative mechanism of light energy dissipation during desiccation, where activation is dependent on a sufficiently slow dehydration rate.

  6. Time changes in radiocesium concentration in aquatic systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Also detailed field monitoring has been condcuted in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. These monitoring includes, 1) Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use, 2) 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope, 3) Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water, 4)Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment, and 5)Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide

  7. Cdk4 deficiency inhibits skin tumor development but does not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; LaCava, Margaret; Moons, David S; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Conti, Claudio J

    2002-08-01

    Most human tumors have mutations that result in deregulation of the cdk4/cyclin-Ink4-Rb pathway. Overexpression of D-type cyclins or cdk4 and inactivation of Ink4 inhibitors are common in human tumors. Conversely, lack of cyclin D1 expression results in significant reduction in mouse skin and mammary tumor development. However, complete elimination of tumor development was not observed in these models, suggesting that other cyclin/cdk complexes play an important role in tumorigenesis. Here we described the effects of cdk4 deficiency on mouse skin proliferation and tumor development. Cdk4 deficiency resulted in a 98% reduction in the number of tumors generated through the two-stage carcinogenesis model. The absence of cdk4 did not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation and both wild-type and cdk4 knockout epidermis are equally affected after topical treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. In similar fashion, cdk4 knockout keratinocytes proliferated well in an in vivo model of wound-induced proliferation. Biochemical studies in mouse epidermis showed that cdk6 activity increased twofold in cdk4-deficient mice compared to wild-type siblings. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches to inhibit cdk4 activity could provide a target to inhibit tumor development with minimal or no effect in normal tissue.

  8. A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the formation of F-actin-rich dendritic filopodia or dendritic spines. We developed a forward genetic screen utilizing transgenic Drosophila second instar larvae expressing an actin, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (actin∷GFP) in subsets of sensory neurons. Utilizing this fluorescent transgenic reporter, we conducted a forward genetic screen of >4000 mutagenized chromosomes bearing lethal mutations that affected multiple aspects of larval dendrite development. We isolated 13 mutations on the X and second chromosomes composing 11 complementation groups affecting dendrite outgrowth/branching, dendritic filopodia formation, or actin∷GFP localization within dendrites in vivo. In a fortuitous observation, we observed that the structure of dendritic arborization (da) neuron dendritic filopodia changes in response to a changing environment. PMID:16415365

  9. Distractor onset but not preparation time affects the frequency of task confusions in task switching

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marco; Gade, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    When participants rapidly switch between tasks that share the same stimuli and responses, task confusions (i.e., the accidental application of the wrong task) can occur. The present study investigated whether these task confusions result from failures of endogenous control (i.e., from ineffective task preparation) or from failures of exogenous control (i.e., from stimulus-induced task conflicts). The frequency of task confusions was estimated by considering the relative proportion of distractor errors, that is, errors that result when participants erroneously respond to the distractor associated with the alternative task. In Experiment 1, the efficiency of exogenous control was manipulated by varying the temporal order of target and distractor presentation. In Experiment 2, the efficiency of endogenous control was manipulated by varying the time available for preparing the task in advance. It turned out that only the efficiency of exogenous control but not the efficiency of endogenous control influenced the proportion of distractor errors. Accordingly, task confusions are more related to failures in exogenous control. PMID:26579050

  10. How does the timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation in acute infection affect HIV reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Chomont, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The long-lived viral reservoir is a major obstacle to achieving a cure for HIV. Therapeutic strategies, such as early antiretroviral therapy (ART), may be a prerequisite to achieving long-term control of viral replication upon ART withdrawal. Recent findings HIV persistence is established early in acute HIV infection (AHI) with infection in long-lived memory CD4+ T cells. Studies conducted in nonhuman primates have suggested that this could occur as early as 3 days postinfection; however, the timing in humans is uncertain. ART during AHI significantly restricts the HIV reservoirs as compared with later treatment. Early ART, particularly prior to the detection of HIV immunoglobulin M, may also reduce the contribution of the long-lived central memory CD4+ T cells to the total HIV reservoir, a profile observed in individuals who naturally control HIV without ART. Summary It is clear that early ART has a greater impact in limiting the HIV reservoirs than later treatment. However, latently infected long-lived memory CD4+ T cells persist in most early treated individuals. Therefore, additional interventions will likely be required to eliminate all cells capable of producing replication-competent virus but treatment in AHI may be the critical first step in containing the HIV reservoirs. PMID:25415421

  11. Timing of obstetrical assistance affects peripartal cardiac autonomic function and early maternal behavior of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Ruff, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2016-10-15

    Peripartal autonomic nervous system function and early maternal behavior were investigated in 79 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were allocated into four groups based on the technology of calving management: 1) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; N=19), 2) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCI; N=21), 3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACA; N=20), and 4) assisted calving with premature obstetrical assistance (ACP; N=19). Heart rate, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of vagal activity and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF ratio) as a parameter of sympathetic nervous system activity were calculated. Heart rate and HRV parameters were presented as areas under the curves (AUC) for the following periods: 1) prepartum period (between 96h before the onset of calving restlessness and the onset of restlessness), 2) parturition (between the onset calving restlessness and delivery), and 3) postpartum period (during a 48-h period after delivery). Pain-related behaviors were recorded during parturition (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization and stretching the neck towards the abdomen) and during a 2-h observation period after calving (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization, stretching the neck towards the abdomen and the duration of standing with an arched back). Early maternal behavior was observed during the first 2h following calving as follows: 1) latency and duration of sniffing calf's head/body, and 2) latency and duration of licking calf's head/body. No difference was found across groups in autonomic function before the onset of calving restlessness. Area under the heart rate curve was higher in ACP cows during parturition (39.6±2.5beats/min×h) compared to UCG, UCI and ACA animals (AUC=13.1±0.9beats/min×h, AUC=22.3±1.4beats/min×h and AUC=25.0±2.1beats/min×h, respectively). Area under the heart rate curve did not differ across the UCG

  12. Caffeine Affects Time to Exhaustion and Substrate Oxidation during Cycling at Maximal Lactate Steady State.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Beneke, Ralph; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-06-30

    This study analyzed the effects of caffeine intake on whole-body substrate metabolism and exercise tolerance during cycling by using a more individualized intensity for merging the subjects into homogeneous metabolic responses (the workload associated with the maximal lactate steady state-MLSS). MLSS was firstly determined in eight active males (25 ± 4 years, 176 ± 7 cm, 77 ± 11 kg) using from two to four constant-load tests of 30 min. On two following occasions, participants performed a test until exhaustion at the MLSS workload 1 h after taking either 6 mg/kg of body mass of caffeine or placebo (dextrose), in a randomized, double-blinded manner. Respiratory exchange ratio was calculated from gas exchange measurements. There was an improvement of 22.7% in time to exhaustion at MLSS workload following caffeine ingestion (95% confidence limits of ±10.3%, p = 0.002), which was accompanied by decrease in respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.001). These results reinforce findings indicating that sparing of the endogenous carbohydrate stores could be one of the several physiological effects of caffeine during submaximal performance around 1 h.

  13. Reprocessing WFC3/IR Exposures Affected by Time-Variable Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, G.

    2016-11-01

    The background seen in WFC3/IR observations frequently shows strong time-dependent behavior above the constant flux expected for zodiacal continuum light. This is often caused by an emission line of helium at 1.083 μm excited in the sun-illuminated upper atmosphere, when seen in the filters (F105W, F110W) and grisms (G102, G141) sensitive to the feature. The default behavior of the calwf3 pipeline assumes constant source-plus-background fluxes when it performs up-the-ramp fitting to identify cosmic rays and determine the average count rate within a MULTIACCUM IR exposure. calwf3 provides undesirable results in the presence of strongly variable backgrounds, primarily in the form of elevated and non-Gaussian noise in the FLT products. Here we describe methods to improve the noise properties of the reduced products. In the first, we simply turn off the calwf3 crcorr step, treating the IR detector as if it were a CCD, i.e., accumulating flux and reading it out at the end of the exposure. Next, we artificially flatten the ramps in the IMA products and then allow calwf3 to proceed as normal fitting the ramp and identifying CRs. Either of these procedures enable recovery of datasets otherwise corrupted beyond repair and have no discernible effects on photometry of sources in deep combined images.

  14. Development of fully Bayesian multiple-time-window source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Aoi, Shin

    2016-03-01

    In the estimation of spatiotemporal slip models, kinematic source inversions using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) and the multiple-time-window method have often been used. However, there are cases in which conventional ABIC-based source inversions do not work well in the determination of hyperparameters when a non-negative slip constraint is used. In order to overcome this problem, a new source inversion method was developed in this study. The new method introduces a fully Bayesian method into the kinematic multiple-time-window source inversion. The multiple-time-window method is one common way of parametrizing a source time function and is highly flexible in terms of the shape of the source time function. The probability distributions of model parameters and hyperparameters can be directly obtained by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. These probability distributions are useful for simply evaluating the uniqueness and reliability of the derived model, which is another advantage of a fully Bayesian method. This newly developed source inversion method was applied to the 2011 Ibaraki-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 7.9) to demonstrate its usefulness. It was demonstrated that the problem with using the conventional ABIC-based source inversion method for hyperparameter determination appeared in the spatiotemporal source inversion of this event and that the newly developed source inversion could overcome this problem.

  15. The Timing of Family Instability and Children's Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Huston, Aletha C.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the growing literature of family instability by investigating the significance of its timing for children's social adjustment. We find that more than a third of the 1,364 elementary school children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development experienced some family structure change. Their cumulative level of…

  16. Effects of paclitaxel on the development of neuropathy and affective behaviors in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Toma, Wisam; Kyte, S Lauren; Bagdas, Deniz; Alkhlaif, Yasmin; Alsharari, Shakir D; Lichtman, Aron H; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Del Fabbro, Egidio; Bigbee, John W; Gewirtz, David A; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-02-22

    Paclitaxel, one of the most commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, effectively extends the progression-free survival of breast, lung, and ovarian cancer patients. However, paclitaxel and other chemotherapy drugs elicit peripheral nerve fiber dysfunction or degeneration that leads to peripheral neuropathy in a large proportion of cancer patients. Patients receiving chemotherapy also often experience changes in mood, including anxiety and depression. These somatic and affective disorders represent major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Consequently, the present study was designed to develop a preclinical model of paclitaxel-induced negative affective symptoms in order to identify treatment strategies and their underlying mechanisms of action. Intraperitoneal injections of paclitaxel (8 mg/kg) resulted in the development and maintenance of mechanical and cold allodynia. Carboplatin, another cancer chemotherapeutic drug that is often used in combination with paclitaxel, sensitized mice to the nociceptive effects of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel also induced anxiety-like behavior, as assessed in the novelty suppressed feeding and light/dark box tests. In addition, paclitaxel-treated mice displayed depression-like behavior during the forced swim test and an anhedonia-like state in the sucrose preference test. In summary, paclitaxel produced altered behaviors in assays modeling affective states in C57BL/6J male mice, while increases in nociceptive responses were longer in duration. The characterization of this preclinical model of chemotherapy-induced allodynia and affective symptoms, possibly related to neuropathic pain, provides the basis for determining the mechanism(s) underlying severe side effects elicited by paclitaxel, as well as for predicting the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions.

  17. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  18. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  19. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  20. Force time-history affects fatigue accumulation during repetitive handgrip tasks.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael W; Hodder, Joanne N; Wells, Ryan; Potvin, Jim R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with a higher risk of workplace injury, in particular during repetitive tasks. This study aimed to identify the effect of a complex force-time history (a task with multiple different submaximal effort levels) on fatigue accumulation and recovery during a handgrip task. We measured surface electromyography of the brachioradialis (BRD) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) of ten right hand dominant females with no history of upper limb injury while they performed a complex submaximal visually targeted gripping task. The task consisted of 15%, 30%, 45%, 30%, and 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) plateaus. Each plateau was held for 15s, followed by a 3s MVC and 3s of rest. The "pyramid" was repeated until fatigue criteria were met. Grip force, average EMG and mean power frequency (MnPF) for first cycle and fatigued last cycle, were compared. Post-plateau peak grip force was on average 20.5% MVC lower during the last cycle (p<0.01). Post-plateau grip forces decreased on average by 5.1% MVC after the first 15% MVC plateau (from baseline), by 5.3% MVC after the 30% MVC plateau and 6.8% MVC after the 45% MVC plateau. Further accumulation of fatigue after the second 30% MVC plateau however was minimal, only decreasing by 1.6% MVC. Recovery appeared to occur during the last 15% MVC plateau with an increase in post plateau grip force of 1.6% MVC. Interestingly, MnPF parameters confirmed significant fatigue accumulation during the back end of a force pyramid. We conclude that in a pattern of contractions with ascending, then descending force intensity, voluntary force recovery was present when the preceding force was of a lower intensity. These findings indicate preceding demands play a role in fatigue accumulation during complex tasks.

  1. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate. PMID:28066225

  2. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate.

  3. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  4. Massage Timing Affects Postexercise Muscle Recovery and Inflammation in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Caroline; Butterfield, Timothy A.; Abshire, Sarah; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jarjoura, David; Best, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the effect of immediate versus delayed massage-like compressive loading (MLL) on peak isometric torque recovery and inflammatory cell infiltration following eccentric exercise (EEX). Methods Eighteen skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were instrumented with peroneal nerve cuffs for stimulation of hindlimb tibialis anterior muscles. Following a bout of EEX, rabbits were randomly assigned to a MLL protocol (0.5Hz, 10N, 15min) started immediately post-EEX, 48 hours post-EXX, or no-MLL control and performed for four consecutive days. A torque-angle (T-Θ) relationship was obtained for 21 joint angles pre and post-EEX and post four consecutive days of MLL or no-MLL. Muscle wet weights and immunohistochemical sections were obtained following final treatments. Results EEX produced an average 51% (±13%) decrease in peak isometric torque output. Greatest peak torque recovery occurred with immediate application of MLL. There were differences in torque recovery between immediate and delayed MLL (p=0.0012), immediate MLL and control (p<0.0001), and delayed MLL and control (p=0.025). Immunohistochemical analysis showed 39.3% and 366.0% differences in the number of RPN3/57 and CD11b positive cells between immediate (p=0.71) and delayed MLL (p=0.12). Area under the T-Θ curve showed a difference for immediate (p<0.0001) and delayed (p=0.0051) MLL as compared to control. Exercise produced an average 10°± 0.2 rightward shift from pre exercise peak isometric torque angle. Control, immediate MLL and delayed MLL produced an average leftward angular shift from the post exercise angle (p=0.28, p=0.03, and p=0.47, respectively). Conclusion Post-EEX, immediate MLL was more beneficial than delayed MLL in restoring muscle function and modulating inflammatory cell infiltration. These findings invite similar human studies in order to make definitive conclusions on optimal timing of massage-based therapies. PMID:23274593

  5. Pulsed resources affect the timing of first breeding and lifetime reproductive success of tawny owls.

    PubMed

    Millon, A; Petty, S J; Lambin, X

    2010-03-01

    1. According to life-history theory, environmental variability and costs of reproduction account for the prevalence of delayed reproduction in many taxa. Empirical estimates of the fitness consequences of different ages at first breeding in a variable environment are few however such that the contributions of environmental and individual variability remains poorly known. 2. Our objectives were to elucidate processes that underpin variation in delayed reproduction and to assess lifetime consequences of the age of first breeding in a site-faithful predator, the tawny owl Strix aluco L. subjected to fluctuating selection linked to cyclical variation in vole density (typically 3-year cycles with low, increasing and decreasing vole densities in successive years). 3. A multistate capture-recapture model revealed that owl cohorts had strikingly different juvenile survival prospects, with estimates ranging from 0.08 to 0.33 respectively for birds born in Decrease and Increase phases of the vole cycle. This resulted in a highly skewed population structure with >75% of local recruits being reared during Increase years. In contrast, adult survival remained constant throughout a vole cycle. The probability of commencing reproduction was lower at age 1 than at older ages, and especially so for females. From age 2 onwards, pre-breeders had high probabilities of entering the breeding population. 4. Variation in lifetime reproductive success was driven by the phase of the vole cycle in which female owls started their breeding career (26-47% of variance explained, whether based on the number of local recruits or fledglings), more than by age at first breeding or by conditions experienced at birth. Females who postponed reproduction to breed for the first time at age 3 during an Increase phase, produced more recruits, even when accounting for birds that may have died before reproduction. No such effects were detected for males. 5. Sex-specific costs of early reproduction may have

  6. Fluoride-Induced Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress in Osteosarcoma Cells: Does It Affect Bone Development Pathway?

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Deepa; Naoghare, Pravin K; Bafana, Amit; Kannan, Krishnamurthi; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is reported to negatively affect osteoblast cells. Present study reports oxidative and inflammatory signatures in fluoride-exposed human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, and their possible association with the genes involved in osteoblastic differentiation and bone development pathways. HOS cells were challenged with sublethal concentration (8 mg/L) of sodium fluoride for 30 days and analyzed for transcriptomic expression. In total, 2632 transcripts associated with several biological processes were found to be differentially expressed. Specifically, genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, osteoblastic differentiation, and bone development pathways were found to be significantly altered. Variation in expression of key genes involved in the abovementioned pathways was validated through qPCR. Expression of serum amyloid A1 protein, a key regulator of stress and inflammatory pathways, was validated through western blot analysis. This study provides evidence that chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress may be associated with the fluoride-induced impediment in osteoblast differentiation and bone development.

  7. Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kong-Yan; Zuo, Guo-Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xing-Yao; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2016-01-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America coincided with a marked increase in microcephaly in newborns. However, the causal link between maternal ZIKV infection and malformation of the fetal brain has not been firmly established. Here we show a vertical transmission of ZIKV in mice and a marked effect on fetal brain development. We found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a contemporary ZIKV strain in pregnant mice led to the infection of radial glia cells (RGs) of dorsal ventricular zone of the fetuses, the primary neural progenitors responsible for cortex development, and caused a marked reduction of these cortex founder cells in the fetuses. Interestingly, the infected fetal mice exhibited a reduced cavity of lateral ventricles and a discernable decrease in surface areas of the cortex. This study thus supports the conclusion that vertically transmitted ZIKV affects fetal brain development and provides a valuable animal model for the evaluation of potential therapeutic or preventative strategies. PMID:27174054

  8. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, H.; Koshimura, S.; Imai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Namegaya, Y.; Nishimura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by visually interpreting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using Geographic Information System (GIS), and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses. From the developed fragility functions, we quantitatively understood the vulnerability of a coastal region in American Samoa characterized by steep terrains and ria coasts.

  9. The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Barbara L

    2008-02-04

    Evolutionary and other functional accounts of the retina and its normal development highlight different aspects of control of its growth and form than genomic and mechanistic accounts. Discussing examples from opsin expression, developmental regulation of the eye's size and optical quality, regulation of eye size with respect to brain and body size, and the development of the fovea, these different aspects of control are contrasted. Contributions of mouse models, particularly with regard to relative timing of events in different species are reviewed, introducing a Web-based utility for exploration of timing issues (www.translatingtime.net). Variation at the individual level, in early experience, and also across species is an essential source of information to understand normal development and its pathologies.

  10. The hydrology of northern peatlands as affected by biogenic gas: Current developments and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Siegel, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that accumulation and release of biogenic gas from northern peatlands may substantially affect future climate. Sudden release of free-phase gas bubbles into the atmosphere may preclude the conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the uppermost oxic layer of the peat, resulting in greater contribution of methane to the atmosphere than is currently estimated. The hydrology of these peatlands also affects and is affected by this process, especially when gas is released suddenly and episodically. Indirect hydrological evidence indicates that ebullitive gas releases are relatively frequent in some peatlands and time-averaged rates may be significantly greater than diffusive releases. Estimates of free-phase gas contained in peat have ranged from 0 to nearly 20% of the peat volume. Abrupt changes in the volume of gas may alter hydraulic gradients and movement of water and solutes in peat, which in turn could alter composition and fluxes of the gas. Peat surfaces also move vertically and horizontally in response to accumulation and release of free-phase gas. Future research should address the distribution, temporal variability, and relative significance of ebullition in peatlands and the consequent hydrological responses to these gas-emission events. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy: do the time of diagnosis and delivery route affect pregnancy outcome in parturients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

    PubMed

    Yuce, T; Acar, D; Kalafat, E; Alkilic, A; Cetindag, E; Soylemez, F

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the determining effects of diagnosis time on pregnancy outcomes in a population of pregnant women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Records of all the pregnant women with thrombocytopenia were evaluated. Those with a confirmed diagnosis of ITP were included in the study. Main outcome measures were antenatal thrombocyte count, postpartum haemorrhage rate, and route of delivery. Foetal outcomes such as foetal thrombocyte count, haemorrhage, and birth weight were also reported as secondary outcome measures. Time of diagnosis either antenatal or preconception did not significantly alter the investigated parameters. Delivery route had no impact on complication rates. Time of diagnosis also did not affect treatment modality. ITP is rare disorder accounting for less than 5 % of all pregnant thrombocytopenias. Time of diagnosis does not affect maternal-foetal outcomes or treatment modality unless diagnosis is made during labour. Compared to gestational thrombocytopenia, treatment rates may differ but treatment modalities remain the same and the effort put into making the differential should be weighed against maternal stress factors for lengthy laboratory evaluation as long as the thrombocytopenia is of pure nature without any systemic involvement.

  12. A positive affect intervention for people experiencing health-related stress: development and non-randomized pilot test.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R; Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.

  13. Affective determinants of anxiety and depression development in children and adolescents: an individual growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-12-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, J Abnorm Psychol 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not anxiety) symptom developments and (b) NA interacts with PH to predict subsequent anxiety (but not depressive) symptom developments in a sample of 243 community and referred children and adolescents (42.8% boys; M age = 10.87 years, SD = 1.83). Results confirmed that individuals with a combined high NA/low PA profile display the least favorable course of depressive -but not anxiety- symptoms. In contrast with the model, the combination of NA and PH influenced the development of depression, but not anxiety. Relations were not moderated by sex or sample. Results revealed that the assessment of the tripartite components is warranted as it can help to identify children at risk for an unfavorable depressive symptom course.

  14. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Konstantina; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Bryan, Glenn J; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection.

  15. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  16. Volatile compounds profile of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by cooking conditions (vacuum packaging, temperature and time).

    PubMed

    del Pulgar, Jose Sanchez; Roldan, Mar; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2013-10-10

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C), time (5 or 12 h) and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged). As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  17. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  18. Factors affecting the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle.

  19. Select nutrients, progesterone, and interferon tau affect conceptus metabolism and development.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jingyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Ka, Hakhyun; Tekwe, Carmen D; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-10-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT), a novel multifunctional type I interferon secreted by trophectoderm, is the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants that also has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory bioactivities. IFNT, with progesterone, affects availability of the metabolic substrate in the uterine lumen by inducing expression of genes for transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen that activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling responsible for proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis by conceptus trophectoderm. As an immunomodulatory protein, IFNT induces an anti-inflammatory state affecting metabolic events that decrease adiposity and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 activity, while increasing insulin sensitivity, nitric oxide production by endothelial cells, and brown adipose tissue in rats. This short review focuses on effects of IFNT and progesterone affecting transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen to stimulate mTOR cell signaling required for conceptus development, as well as effects of IFNT on the immune system and adiposity in rats with respect to its potential therapeutic value in reducing obesity.

  20. Vagotomy affects the development of oral tolerance and increases susceptibility to develop colitis independently of the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Bosmans, Goele; Meroni, Elisa; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Florens, Morgane; Farro, Giovanna; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2016-06-14

    Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR(-/-) mice. VGX, but not α7nAChR deficiency, prevented oral tolerance establishment. This effect was associated with reduced Treg conversion in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymphnodes. To the same extent, vagotomized mice, but not α7nAChR(-/-) mice, developed a more severe DSS colitis compared with control mice treated with DSS, associated with a decreased number of colonic Tregs. However, neither VGX nor absence of α7nAChR in recipient mice affected colitis development in the T cell transfer model. In line, deficiency of α7nAChR exclusively in T cells did not influence the development of colitis induced by T cell transfer. Our results indicate a key role for the vagal intestinal innervation in the development of oral tolerance and colitis, most likely by modulating induction of Tregs independently of α7nAChR.

  1. Vagotomy Affects the Development of Oral Tolerance and Increases Susceptibility to Develop Colitis Independently of α-7 Nicotinic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Bosmans, Goele; Meroni, Elisa; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Florens, Morgane; Farro, Giovanna; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2016-01-01

    Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR-/- mice. VGX, but not α7nAChR deficiency, prevented oral tolerance establishment. This effect was associated with reduced Treg conversion in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymphnodes. To the same extent, vagotomized mice, but not α7nAChR-/- mice, developed a more severe DSS colitis compared with control mice treated with DSS, associated with a decreased number of colonic Tregs. However, neither VGX nor absence of α7nAChR in recipient mice affected colitis development in the T cell transfer model. In line, deficiency of α7nAChR exclusively in T cells did not influence the development of colitis induced by T cell transfer. Our results indicate a key role for the vagal intestinal innervation in the development of oral tolerance and colitis, most likely by modulating induction of Tregs independently of α7nAChR. PMID:27341335

  2. Development of a preprototype times wastewater recovery subsystem, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehner, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Six tasks are described reflecting subsystem hardware and software modifications and test evaluation of a TIMES wastewater recovery subsystem. The overall results are illustrated in a figure which shows the water production rate, the specific energy corrected to 26.5 VDC, and the product water conductivity at various points in the testing. Four tasks are described reflecting studies performed to develop a preliminary design concept for a next generation TIMES. The overall results of the study are the completion of major design analyses and preliminary configuration layout drawings.

  3. Variations at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) affect development of behavior in lead-exposed Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Helmut V B; Possidente, Debra; Averill, Sarah; Despain, Tamira Palmetto; Buytkins, Joel; Thomas, Valerie; Goebel, W Paul; Shipp-Hilts, Asante; Wilson, Diane; Hollocher, Kurt; Possidente, Bernard; Lnenicka, Greg; Ruden, Douglas M

    2009-03-01

    We developed Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study correlated behavioral, neuronal and genetic effects of the neurotoxin lead, known to affect cognitive and behavioral development in children. We showed that, as in vertebrates, lead affects both synaptic development and complex behaviors (courtship, fecundity, locomotor activity) in Drosophila. By assessing differential behavioral responses to developmental lead exposure among recombinant inbred Drosophila lines (RI), derived from parental lines Oregon R and Russian 2b, we have now identified a genotype by environment interaction (GEI) for a behavioral trait affected by lead. Drosophila Activity Monitors (TriKinetics, Waltham, MA), which measure activity by counting the number of times a single fly in a small glass tube walks through an infrared beam aimed at the middle of the tube, were used to measure activity of flies, reared from eggs to 4 days of adult age on either control or lead-contaminated medium, from each of 75 RI lines. We observed a significant statistical association between the effect of lead on Average Daytime Activity (ADA) across lines and one marker locus, 30AB, on chromosome 2; we define this as a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) associated with behavioral effects of developmental lead exposure. When 30AB was from Russian 2b, lead significantly increased locomotor activity, whereas, when 30AB was from Oregon R, lead decreased it. 30AB contains about 125 genes among which are likely "candidate genes" for the observed lead-dependent behavioral changes. Drosophila are thus a useful, underutilized model for studying behavioral, synaptic and genetic changes following chronic exposure to lead or other neurotoxins during development.

  4. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty.

  5. Real time study of development process in holographic emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimia, A.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Madrigal, R. F.; Mallavia, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the theoretical and experimental study using a real time technique for the measurement of the optical density when the emulsion is developing. Good agreement was observed between theory and experiment. We exposed an Agfa Gevaert 8E56HD emulsion with an Argon laser tuned at 514 nm and we measured the variation in optical density when the emulsion was put into the developer bath at 20°C. This method allows us to study the dynamics of different developers at different energy of storage. It also provides a way to optimize the composition of developers as a function of the chemical composition, temperature and other secondary factors as superadditivity and non-linear processes.

  6. Designing for development: Across the scales of time.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael

    2016-11-01

    This essay traces the history of an activity designed to promote the intellectual and social development of elementary-age schoolchildren during the afterschool hours. Following in the footsteps of Urie Bronfenbrenner, I highlight his argument that just as all human development occurs in contexts of varying levels of inclusiveness and mutual interchange, human development occurs at intersecting scales of time that themselves vary in character and duration. The task of exploring Bronfenbrenner's idea confronts scholars interested in person-context coconstitutive processes with a difficult methodological requirement; they must study simultaneously the history of persons (at the microgenetic and ontogenetic time scales) as well the history of "the contexts of development" in which the persons participate. A project implementing such a study focused on the life course of the system of activity is described, followed by a discussion of the lessons to be learned from a temporally extensive study of persons developing in contexts that are themselves changing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Moderate recurrent hypoglycemia during early development leads to persistent changes in affective behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Moore, Holly; Craft, Tara K S; Grimaldi, Lisa M; Babic, Bruna; Brunelli, Susan A; Vannucci, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is a common problem among infants and children that is associated with several metabolic disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although studies have reported a relationship between a history of juvenile hypoglycemia and psychological health problems, the direct effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia have not been fully determined. Thus, in this study, we used an animal model to examine the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia during the juvenile period on affective, social, and motor function (assessed under euglycemic conditions) across development. To model recurrent hypoglycemia, rats were administered 5 U/kg of insulin or saline twice per day from postnatal day (P)10 to P19. Body weight gain was retarded in insulin-treated rats during the treatment period, but recovered by the end of treatment. However, insulin-treated rats displayed increases in affective reactivity that emerged early during treatment and persisted after treatment into early adulthood. Specifically, insulin-treated pups showed increased maternal separation-induced vocalizations as infants, and an exaggerated acoustic startle reflex as juveniles and young adults. Moreover, young adult rats with a history of recurrent juvenile hypoglycemia exhibited increased fear-potentiated startle and increases in behavioral and hormonal responses to restraint stress. Some of these effects were sex-dependent. The changes in affective behavior in insulin-exposed pups were accompanied by decreases in adolescent social play behavior. These results provide evidence that recurrent, transient hypoglycemia during juvenile development can lead to increases in fear-related behavior and stress reactivity. Importantly, these phenotypes are not reversed with normalization of blood glucose and may persist into adulthood.

  8. Teacher Factors Affecting the Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education in Kericho Municipality, Kericho County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutindi, Koech Zipporah; Chepngeno, Kabwos Rebecca; Jeruto, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Childhood education is crucial in the life of a child because it lays the foundation of intellectual and physical development. Concerns have been raised over the state of the ECDE programmes with regard to the negative teacher attitudes towards selection and use of instructional resources due to low remuneration, lack of time and demotivation. The…

  9. Genetic deletion of the EGFR ligand epigen does not affect mouse embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Schäfer, Matthias; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

    2013-02-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor with manifold functions during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. EGFR activation, the formation of homodimers or heterodimers (with the related ERBB2-4 receptors) and downstream signaling is initiated by the binding of a family of structurally related growth factors, the EGFR ligands. Genetic deletion experiments clarified the biological function of all family members except for the last characterized ligand, epigen. We employed gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mice lacking epigen expression. Loss of epigen did not affect mouse development, fertility, or organ physiology. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of betacellulin and EGF in a few organs of epigen-deficient mice, suggesting a functional compensation by these ligands. In conclusion, we completed the genetic analysis of EGFR ligands and show that epigen has non-essential functions or functions that can be compensated by other EGFR ligands during growth and tissue homeostasis.

  10. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  11. 7-Rhamnosylated Flavonols Modulate Homeostasis of the Plant Hormone Auxin and Affect Plant Development*

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Benjamin M.; Errafi, Sanae; Bucher, Rahel; Dobrev, Petre; Geisler, Markus; Bigler, Laurent; Zažímalová, Eva; Ringli, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols are a group of secondary metabolites that affect diverse cellular processes. They are considered putative negative regulators of the transport of the phytohormone auxin, by which they influence auxin distribution and concomitantly take part in the control of plant organ development. Flavonols are accumulating in a large number of glycosidic forms. Whether these have distinct functions and diverse cellular targets is not well understood. The rol1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by a modified flavonol glycosylation profile that is inducing changes in auxin transport and growth defects in shoot tissues. To determine whether specific flavonol glycosides are responsible for these phenotypes, a suppressor screen was performed on the rol1-2 mutant, resulting in the identification of an allelic series of UGT89C1, a gene encoding a flavonol 7-O-rhamnosyltransferase. A detailed analysis revealed that interfering with flavonol rhamnosylation increases the concentration of auxin precursors and auxin metabolites, whereas auxin transport is not affected. This finding provides an additional level of complexity to the possible ways by which flavonols influence auxin distribution and suggests that flavonol glycosides play an important role in regulating plant development. PMID:26742840

  12. Tumor inoculation site affects the development of cancer cachexia and muscle wasting.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tatsuzo; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Okayama, Tetsuya; Oka, Kaname; Adachi, Satoko; Mizushima, Katsura; Kimura, Reiko; Okajima, Manabu; Sakai, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Naoyuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Kokura, Satoshi; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype and severity of cancer cachexia differ among tumor types and metastatic site in individual patients. In this study, we evaluated if differences in tumor microenvironment would affect the development of cancer cachexia in a murine model, and demonstrated that body weight, adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle decreased in tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, a reduction in heart weight was observed in the intraperitoneal tumor group but not in the subcutaneous group. We evaluated 23 circulating cytokines and members of the TGF-β family, and found that levels of IL-6, TNF-α and activin A increased in both groups of tumor-bearing mice. Eotaxin and G-CSF levels in the intraperitoneal tumor group were higher than in the subcutaneous group. Atrogin 1 and MuRF1 mRNA expressions in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly in both groups of tumor-bearing mice, however, in the myocardium, expression of these mRNAs increased in the intraperitoneal group but not in subcutaneous group. Based on these results, we believe that differences in microenvironment where tumor cells develop can affect the progression and phenotype of cancer cachexia through alterations in various circulating factors derived from the tumor microenvironment.

  13. 7-Rhamnosylated Flavonols Modulate Homeostasis of the Plant Hormone Auxin and Affect Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Benjamin M; Errafi, Sanae; Bucher, Rahel; Dobrev, Petre; Geisler, Markus; Bigler, Laurent; Zažímalová, Eva; Ringli, Christoph

    2016-03-04

    Flavonols are a group of secondary metabolites that affect diverse cellular processes. They are considered putative negative regulators of the transport of the phytohormone auxin, by which they influence auxin distribution and concomitantly take part in the control of plant organ development. Flavonols are accumulating in a large number of glycosidic forms. Whether these have distinct functions and diverse cellular targets is not well understood. The rol1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by a modified flavonol glycosylation profile that is inducing changes in auxin transport and growth defects in shoot tissues. To determine whether specific flavonol glycosides are responsible for these phenotypes, a suppressor screen was performed on the rol1-2 mutant, resulting in the identification of an allelic series of UGT89C1, a gene encoding a flavonol 7-O-rhamnosyltransferase. A detailed analysis revealed that interfering with flavonol rhamnosylation increases the concentration of auxin precursors and auxin metabolites, whereas auxin transport is not affected. This finding provides an additional level of complexity to the possible ways by which flavonols influence auxin distribution and suggests that flavonol glycosides play an important role in regulating plant development.

  14. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.

  15. Paternal benzo[a]pyrene exposure affects gene expression in the early developing mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Brevik, Asgeir; Lindeman, Birgitte; Rusnakova, Vendula; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Brunborg, Gunnar; Duale, Nur

    2012-09-01

    The health of the offspring depends on the genetic constitution of the parental germ cells. The paternal genome appears to be important; e.g., de novo mutations in some genes seem to arise mostly from the father, whereas epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones are frequent in the paternal gonads. Environmental contaminants which may affect the integrity of the germ cells comprise the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). B[a]P has received much attention due to its ubiquitous distribution, its carcinogenic and mutagenic potential, and also effects on reproduction. We conducted an in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment using sperm cells from B[a]P-exposed male mice to study effects of paternal B[a]P exposure on early gene expression in the developing mouse embryo. Male mice were exposed to a single acute dose of B[a]P (150 mg/kg, ip) 4 days prior to isolation of cauda sperm, followed by IVF of oocytes from unexposed superovulated mice. Gene expression in fertilized zygotes/embryos was determined using reverse transcription-qPCR at the 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and blastocyst cell stages of embryo development. We found that paternal B[a]P exposure altered the expression of numerous genes in the developing embryo especially at the blastocyst stage. Some genes were also affected at earlier developmental stages. Embryonic gene expression studies seem useful to identify perturbations of signaling pathways resulting from exposure to contaminants, and can be used to address mechanisms of paternal effects on embryo development.

  16. Intelsat TDMA/DSI burst time plan development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, C.; Trusty, P.; Jankowski, J.; Duesing, R.; Roach, P.

    1985-06-01

    The development of a burst time plan (BTP), which distributes the transponder capacity over time for the Intelsat TDMA/DSI system, is discussed. The software programs used in the Intelsat BTP are examined. The necessary inputs for the BTP software are: (1) a description of the transponders to be used; (2) identification of participating traffic terminals; (3) location and roles of reference stations; and (4) a matrix of traffic requirements. Once the inputs are generated a BTP plan that can be implemented in the TDMA system is produced. Before implementing the plan, system users must study master and condensed time plans and BTP program outputs in order to agree on processed traffic configurations and equipment requirements. When this is established baseband arrangements are agreed upon and the final plan is implemented. The order of the basic burst scheduling process and the technique used in BTP software are presented.

  17. Early trauma and affect: the importance of the body for the development of the capacity to symbolize.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Hessel

    2014-11-01

    In this paper I aim to outline the importance of working clinically with affect when treating severely traumatized patients who have a limited capacity to symbolize. These patients, who suffer the loss of maternal care early in life, require the analyst to be closely attuned to the patient's distress through use of the countertransference and with significantly less attention paid to the transference. It is questionable whether we can speak of transference when there is limited capacity to form internal representations. The analyst's relationship with the patient is not necessarily used to make interpretations but, instead, the analyst's reverie functions therapeutically to develop awareness and containment of affect, first in the analyst's mind and, later, in the patient's, so that, in time, a relationship between the patient's mind and the body, as the first object, is made. In contrast to general object-relations theories, in which the first object is considered to be the breast or the mother, Ferrari (2004) proposes that the body is the first object in the emerging mind. Once a relationship between mind and body is established, symbolization becomes possible following the formation of internal representations of affective states in the mind, where previously there were few. Using Ferrari's body-mind model, two clinical case vignettes underline the need to use the countertransference with patients who suffered chronic developmental trauma in early childhood.

  18. Development of a real-time transport performance optimization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    The practical application of real-time performance optimization is addressed (using a wide-body transport simulation) based on real-time measurements and calculation of incremental drag from forced response maneuvers. Various controller combinations can be envisioned although this study used symmetric outboard aileron and stabilizer. The approach is based on navigation instrumentation and other measurements found on state-of-the-art transports. This information is used to calculate winds and angle of attack. Thrust is estimated from a representative engine model as a function of measured variables. The lift and drag equations are then used to calculate lift and drag coefficients. An expression for drag coefficient, which is a function of parasite drag, induced drag, and aileron drag, is solved from forced excitation response data. Estimates of the parasite drag, curvature of the aileron drag variation, and minimum drag aileron position are produced. Minimum drag is then obtained by repositioning the symmetric aileron. Simulation results are also presented which evaluate the affects of measurement bias and resolution.

  19. Examining the role of time and language type in reading development for English Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Betts, Joseph; Bolt, Sara; Decker, Dawn; Muyskens, Paul; Marston, Doug

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of English reading achievement among English Language Learners (ELLs) and to determine whether the time that an ELL's family was in the United States and the type of native language spoken affected their reading development. Participants were 300 third-grade ELLs from two different native language backgrounds (93 Somali-speaking and 207 Spanish-speaking students) who attended a large Midwestern urban school district. Students' reading achievement was assessed using curriculum-based measurement and a statewide reading assessment. Moderated multiple regression and multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted. Results indicated that the time an ELL's family had been in the U.S. was an important factor in understanding the development of ELLs' reading achievement, whereas language type did not appear to be as important. Implications for research and practice associated with understanding and promoting English reading development among ELLs are discussed.

  20. Development of Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiota in Infancy is Affected by Mode of Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Astrid A T M; Levin, Evgeni; van Houten, Marlies A; Hasrat, Raiza; Kalkman, Gino; Biesbroek, Giske; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; de Groot, Pieter-Kees C M; Pernet, Paula; Keijser, Bart J F; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-07-01

    Birth by Caesarian section is associated with short- and long-term respiratory morbidity. We hypothesized that mode of delivery affects the development of the respiratory microbiota, thereby altering its capacity to provide colonization resistance and consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections. Therefore, we longitudinally studied the impact of mode of delivery on the nasopharyngeal microbiota development from birth until six months of age in a healthy, unselected birth cohort of 102 children (n=761 samples). Here, we show that the respiratory microbiota develops within one day from a variable mixed bacterial community towards a Streptococcus viridans-predominated profile, regardless of mode of delivery. Within the first week, rapid niche differentiation had occurred; initially with in most infants Staphylococcus aureus predominance, followed by differentiation towards Corynebacterium pseudodiphteriticum/propinquum, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Moraxella catarrhalis/nonliquefaciens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and/or Haemophilus influenzae dominated communities. Infants born by Caesarian section showed a delay in overall development of respiratory microbiota profiles with specifically reduced colonization with health-associated commensals like Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum, thereby possibly influencing respiratory health later in life.

  1. Melatonin, But not auxin, affects postnatal reproductive development in the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris).

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Kent E

    2013-06-01

    Melatonin and the plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) have some structural similarity and, may thus exert comparable physiological effects on reproduction and growth. To test this possibility, I examined the effects of melatonin and auxin administration on reproductive and non-reproductive organ development in an animal model, the marsh rice rat Oryzomys palustris. Juvenile males housed under 14L:10D conditions were injected daily for four weeks with saline, melatonin, auxin, or melatonin and auxin, and the development of the testes and other organs was assessed. Melatonin alone significantly inhibited the development of the testes, seminal vesicles, Harderian glands, and overall somatic growth, but not the spleen. Auxin did not affect any endpoint measured. When melatonin was administered simultaneously with auxin, the melatonin effects dominated in suppressing reproduction and growth. The administration of melatonin or auxin in the drinking water produced results similar to the effects of melatonin and auxin injections reported herein. Lastly, both melatonin and auxin in the drinking water failed to alter any short photoperiod-induced reproductive inhibition. These data suggest that structural similarities between melatonin and auxin do not result in similar postnatal effects on reproductive and non-reproductive organ development on a long photoperiod and further suggest that melatonin and auxin do not operate through a common physiological mechanism.

  2. P-element mutations affecting embryonic peripheral nervous system development in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, A.; Salzberg, A.; Bhat, M.

    1995-04-01

    The Drosophila embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS) is an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanisms governing neural development. To identify genes controlling PNS development, we screened 2000 lethal P-element insertion strains. The PNS of mutant embryos was examined using the neural specific marker MAb 22C10, and 92 mutant strains were retained for further analysis. Genetic and cytological analysis of these strains shows that 42 mutations affect previously isolated genes that are known to be required for PNS development: longitudinals lacking (19), mastermind (15), numb (4), big brain (2), and spitz (2). The remaining 50 mutations were classified into 29 complementation groups and the P-element insertions were cytologically mapped. The mutants were classified in five major classes on the basis of their phenotype: gain of neurons, loss of neurons, organizational defects, pathfinding defects and morphological defects. Herein we report the preliminary phenotypic characterization of each of these complementation groups as well as the embryonic lacZ expression pattern of each P-element strain. Our analysis indicates that in most of the P-element insertion strains, the lacZ reporter gene is not expressed in the developing PNS. 52 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Maternal creatine supplementation affects the morpho-functional development of hippocampal neurons in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sartini, S; Lattanzi, D; Ambrogini, P; Di Palma, M; Galati, C; Savelli, D; Polidori, E; Calcabrini, C; Rocchi, M B L; Sestili, P; Cuppini, R

    2016-01-15

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage due to its antioxidant and ergogenic functions. These features have led to the hypothesis of creatine supplementation use during pregnancy as prophylactic treatment to prevent CNS damage, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Unfortunately, very little is known on the effects of creatine supplementation during neuron differentiation, while in vitro studies revealed an influence on neuron excitability, leaving the possibility of creatine supplementation during the CNS development an open question. Using a multiple approach, we studied the hippocampal neuron morphological and functional development in neonatal rats born by dams supplemented with 1% creatine in drinking water during pregnancy. CA1 pyramidal neurons of supplemented newborn rats showed enhanced dendritic tree development, increased LTP maintenance, larger evoked-synaptic responses, and higher intrinsic excitability in comparison to controls. Moreover, a faster repolarizing phase of action potential with the appearance of a hyperpolarization were recorded in neurons of the creatine-treated group. Consistently, CA1 neurons of creatine exposed pups exhibited a higher maximum firing frequency than controls. In summary, we found that creatine supplementation during pregnancy positively affects morphological and electrophysiological development of CA1 neurons in offspring rats, increasing neuronal excitability. Altogether, these findings emphasize the need to evaluate the benefits and the safety of maternal intake of creatine in humans.

  4. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  5. Time series analysis of the developed financial markets' integration using visibility graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Enyu; Small, Michael; Feng, Gang

    2014-09-01

    A time series representing the developed financial markets' segmentation from 1973 to 2012 is studied. The time series reveals an obvious market integration trend. To further uncover the features of this time series, we divide it into seven windows and generate seven visibility graphs. The measuring capabilities of the visibility graphs provide means to quantitatively analyze the original time series. It is found that the important historical incidents that influenced market integration coincide with variations in the measured graphical node degree. Through the measure of neighborhood span, the frequencies of the historical incidents are disclosed. Moreover, it is also found that large "cycles" and significant noise in the time series are linked to large and small communities in the generated visibility graphs. For large cycles, how historical incidents significantly affected market integration is distinguished by density and compactness of the corresponding communities.

  6. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell.

  7. Intestinal development of bovine foetuses during gestation is affected by foetal sex and maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gionbelli, T R S; Rotta, P P; Veloso, C M; Valadares Filho, S C; Carvalho, B C; Marcondes, M I; Ferreira, M F L; Souza, J V F; Santos, J S A A; Lacerda, L C; Duarte, M S; Gionbelli, M P

    2016-08-03

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal nutrition (MN) and foetal sex on the intestinal development of bovine foetuses throughout different days of gestation (DG). Forty-four multiparous, dry Holstein × Gyr cows with average initial body weight of 480 ± 10 kg were fed the same diet of either restricted feeding at 1.15% of body weight (CO, n = 24) or fed ad libitum (overnourished, ON, n = 20). Six cows from CO group and five cows from ON group were slaughtered at 139, 199, 241 and 268 DG, and foetuses were necropsied to evaluate the intestinal development. The mass, length and density of foetal intestines were not affected by MN (p ≥ 0.260). An interaction between MN and DG was observed for the villi length of jejunum (p = 0.006) and ileum (p < 0.001). Villi length of jejunum and ileum was higher (p < 0.10) in foetuses from ON-fed cows than in foetuses from CO-fed cows at 139 DG. However, at 199 DG, the villi length of jejunum and ileum of foetuses from CO-fed cows was higher than in foetuses from ON-fed cows. Despite these differences, MN did not affect the villi length of jejunum and ileum at 268 DG (p > 0.10). Female foetuses had greater small intestine mass (p = 0.093), large intestine mass (p = 0.022), small intestine mass in proportion to body mass (p = 0.017) and large intestine mass in proportion to body mass (p < 0.001) than male foetuses. Female foetuses had also longer small intestine (p = 0.077) and greater small intestine density (p = 0.021) and villi length of jejunum (p = 0.001) and ileum (p = 0.010) than males. We conclude that MN affects the pathway for the development of foetal villi length throughout the gestation in bovine foetuses without changing the final villi length. Female foetuses had higher intestinal mass, density and villi length than males during the foetal phase in bovines.

  8. Continuous theta burst stimulation over the left pre-motor cortex affects sensorimotor timing accuracy and supraliminal error correction.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine D; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Dyson-Sutton, William; Barker, Anthony T; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2011-09-02

    Adjustments to movement in response to changes in our surroundings are common in everyday behavior. Previous research has suggested that the left pre-motor cortex (PMC) is specialized for the temporal control of movement and may play a role in temporal error correction. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the left PMC in sensorimotor timing and error correction using theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS). In Experiment 1, subjects performed a sensorimotor synchronization task (SMS) with the left and the right hand before and after either continuous or intermittent TBS (cTBS or iTBS). Timing accuracy was assessed during synchronized finger tapping with a regular auditory pacing stimulus. Responses following perceivable local timing shifts in the pacing stimulus (phase shifts) were used to measure error correction. Suppression of the left PMC using cTBS decreased timing accuracy because subjects tapped further away from the pacing tones and tapping variability increased. In addition, error correction responses returned to baseline tap-tone asynchrony levels faster following negative shifts and no overcorrection occurred following positive shifts after cTBS. However, facilitation of the left PMC using iTBS did not affect timing accuracy or error correction performance. Experiment 2 revealed that error correction performance may change with practice, independent of TBS. These findings provide evidence for a role of the left PMC in both sensorimotor timing and error correction in both hands. We propose that the left PMC may be involved in voluntarily controlled phase correction responses to perceivable timing shifts.

  9. Two-way satellite time transfer: Overview and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejong, Gerrit

    1994-05-01

    The experiment using small earth stations for transatlantic two-way satellite time transfer between the USA and Germany has had its 10th anniversary this year. Pseudo-random noise coded time signals were phase modulated and demodulated at each station using a modem. Recently, during the last two weeks of Aug. 1993, six European time laboratories have used the INTELSAT 307E satellite for line-up tests and preliminary time transfer sessions using the same type of MITREX modem. The need for a uniform format for the exchange of data was felt heavily after these sessions. This problem was foreseen and addressed in international working parties. During Apr. 1993, in Task Group 7/2 of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector, a very intense discussion has taken place about what procedure should be recommended for TWSTFT and what items the header and data lines of the resulting data fields should contain. A difficulty is that two different methods of calibration of the earth station delays exist which result in different sets of delay data to be exchanged. Further study and discussions are necessary. Also, a meeting of the CCDS Working Group on TWSTFT addressed this in Oct. 1993. The outcome of the discussions and the prospect for future developments are presented.

  10. Two-way satellite time transfer: Overview and recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit

    1994-01-01

    The experiment using small earth stations for transatlantic two-way satellite time transfer between the USA and Germany has had its 10th anniversary this year. Pseudo-random noise coded time signals were phase modulated and demodulated at each station using a modem. Recently, during the last two weeks of Aug. 1993, six European time laboratories have used the INTELSAT 307E satellite for line-up tests and preliminary time transfer sessions using the same type of MITREX modem. The need for a uniform format for the exchange of data was felt heavily after these sessions. This problem was foreseen and addressed in international working parties. During Apr. 1993, in Task Group 7/2 of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector, a very intense discussion has taken place about what procedure should be recommended for TWSTFT and what items the header and data lines of the resulting data fields should contain. A difficulty is that two different methods of calibration of the earth station delays exist which result in different sets of delay data to be exchanged. Further study and discussions are necessary. Also, a meeting of the CCDS Working Group on TWSTFT addressed this in Oct. 1993. The outcome of the discussions and the prospect for future developments are presented.

  11. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools.

  12. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  13. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  14. Apollo experience report: Real-time auxiliary computing facility development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allday, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo real time auxiliary computing function and facility were an extension of the facility used during the Gemini Program. The facility was expanded to include support of all areas of flight control, and computer programs were developed for mission and mission-simulation support. The scope of the function was expanded to include prime mission support functions in addition to engineering evaluations, and the facility became a mandatory mission support facility. The facility functioned as a full scale mission support activity until after the first manned lunar landing mission. After the Apollo 11 mission, the function and facility gradually reverted to a nonmandatory, offline, on-call operation because the real time program flexibility was increased and verified sufficiently to eliminate the need for redundant computations. The evaluation of the facility and function and recommendations for future programs are discussed in this report.

  15. Probability Learning: Changes in Behavior Across Time and Development.

    PubMed

    Plate, Rista C; Fulvio, Jacqueline M; Shutts, Kristin; Green, C Shawn; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-01-25

    Individuals track probabilities, such as associations between events in their environments, but less is known about the degree to which experience-within a learning session and over development-influences people's use of incoming probabilistic information to guide behavior in real time. In two experiments, children (4-11 years) and adults searched for rewards hidden in locations with predetermined probabilities. In Experiment 1, children (n = 42) and adults (n = 32) changed strategies to maximize reward receipt over time. However, adults demonstrated greater strategy change efficiency. Making the predetermined probabilities more difficult to learn (Experiment 2) delayed effective strategy change for children (n = 39) and adults (n = 33). Taken together, these data characterize how children and adults alike react flexibly and change behavior according to incoming information.

  16. Effects of time-pressure on decision-making under uncertainty: changes in affective state and information processing strategy.

    PubMed

    Maule, A J; Hockey, G R; Bdzola, L

    2000-06-01

    An experiment is reported that investigated the extent to which affective state, information processing strategy and task structure determine the effects of time-pressure on decision-making. Research participants were presented with risk scenarios involving a choice between safe and risky actions. The scenarios were systematically varied in terms of outcome valence (positive or negative) and effort associated with taking the safe action (high or low). Half the participants were given unlimited time to make their decision, the other half were required to choose within a deadline. The findings showed that time-pressured participants were more anxious and energetic and used a number of different strategies to cope with the deadline. These effects, as well as changes in risk-taking, were shown to vary systematically with task structure, particularly the effort manipulation. The findings are discussed in terms of how they contribute to theories of time-pressure and the methodological implications they have for future research in this area.

  17. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  18. Overexpression of a glutamine synthetase gene affects growth and development in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Urriola, Jazmina; Rathore, Keerti S

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient in plants, and nitrogen fertilizers play a critical role in crop production and yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene on nitrogen metabolism, and plant growth and development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). GS catalyzes the ATP dependent reaction between ammonia and glutamate to produce glutamine. A 1,071 bp long coding sequence of a sorghum cytosolic GS gene (Gln1) under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubq) promoter was introduced into sorghum immature embryos by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Progeny of the transformants exhibited higher accumulation of the Gln1 transcripts and up to 2.2-fold higher GS activity compared to the non-transgenic controls. When grown under optimal nitrogen conditions, these Gln1 transgenic lines showed greater tillering and up to 2.1-fold increase in shoot vegetative biomass. Interestingly, even under greenhouse conditions, we observed a seasonal component to both these parameters and the grain yield. Our results, showing that the growth and development of sorghum Gln1 transformants are also affected by N availability and other environmental factors, suggest complexity of the relationship between GS activity and plant growth and development. A better understanding of other control points and the ability to manipulate these will be needed to utilize the transgenic technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

  19. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks

    PubMed Central

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL) may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7–12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21) and normal-hearing controls (N = 23) performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as “touched the small green circle and the large blue square” and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39), evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language. PMID:24723873

  20. Oakleaf: an S locus-linked mutation of Primula vulgaris that affects leaf and flower development.

    PubMed

    Cocker, Jonathan M; Webster, Margaret A; Li, Jinhong; Wright, Jonathan; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Swarbreck, David; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    In Primula vulgaris outcrossing is promoted through reciprocal herkogamy with insect-mediated cross-pollination between pin and thrum form flowers. Development of heteromorphic flowers is coordinated by genes at the S locus. To underpin construction of a genetic map facilitating isolation of these S locus genes, we have characterised Oakleaf, a novel S locus-linked mutant phenotype. We combine phenotypic observation of flower and leaf development, with classical genetic analysis and next-generation sequencing to address the molecular basis of Oakleaf. Oakleaf is a dominant mutation that affects both leaf and flower development; plants produce distinctive lobed leaves, with occasional ectopic meristems on the veins. This phenotype is reminiscent of overexpression of Class I KNOX-homeodomain transcription factors. We describe the structure and expression of all eight P. vulgaris PvKNOX genes in both wild-type and Oakleaf plants, and present comparative transcriptome analysis of leaves and flowers from Oakleaf and wild-type plants. Oakleaf provides a new phenotypic marker for genetic analysis of the Primula S locus. We show that none of the Class I PvKNOX genes are strongly upregulated in Oakleaf leaves and flowers, and identify cohorts of 507 upregulated and 314 downregulated genes in the Oakleaf mutant.

  1. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  2. Impaired astrocytic extracellular matrix distribution under congenital hypothyroidism affects neuronal development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel; Alchini, Ricardo; Zucco, Juliana Klein; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Decker, Helena; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Tasca, Carla Inês; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves

    2010-11-15

    Astrocytes clearly play a role in neuronal development. An indirect mechanism of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of neuronal development mediated by astrocytes has been proposed. T3 alters the production and organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteoglycans, producing a high-quality substrate for neuronal differentiation. The present study investigated the effect of hypothyroidism on the astrocyte production of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN) as well as their involvement in neuronal growth and neuritogenesis. Our results demonstrated that the amount of both FN and LN were significantly reduced in cultures of hypothyroid astrocytes from rat cerebellum compared with normal cells. This effect was accompanied by reduced numbers of neurons and neuritogenesis. Similarly, the proportions of neurons and neurons with neurites were reduced in cultures on ECM prepared from hypothyroid astrocytes in comparison with normal cells. The proportion of both normal and hypothyroid neurons is strongly reduced in astrocyte ECM compared with cocultures on astrocyte monolayers, suggesting that extracellular factors other than ECM proteins are involved in this process. Moreover, treatment of hypothyroid astrocytic cultures with T3 restored the area of both FN and LN immunostaining to normal levels and partially reestablished neuronal survival and neuritogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that hypothyroidism involves impairment of the astrocytic microenvironment and affects the production of ECM proteins. Thus, hypothyroidism is implicated in impaired neuronal development.

  3. Does social support affect development of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Feride T.; Sabancıogullari, Selma; Aldemir, Kadriye; Kumsar, Azime K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine cognitive functions and perceived social support (SS) among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), and the effects of SS on the development of cognitive dysfunction (CD). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121 patients with DM presenting at the Endocrinology Clinic of Cumhuriyet University Health Services Application and Research Hospital, Sivas, Turkey between April and June 2014. Data were collected utilizing the “Patient Assessment Form”, “Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE)”, and “Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)”. Results: The mean score obtained for DM patients from the SMMSE was 21.55±5.7, with 65.3% found to have cognitive impairment. The total mean score of the participants for MSPSS was considered moderate (66.61±14.42). There was a significant positive correlation between cognitive function and SS (r=0.273, p=0.002). It was determined that individuals with CD had low levels of perceived SS, and that insufficient support from families and significant others contributed to the development of CD (p=0.008). Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that the cognitive function of individuals with DM was impaired and would improve as the perception of SS increased, and that perceived SS would affect the development of CD. Therefore, health professionals can contribute to the improvement of cognitive function of individuals with DM by facilitating the use of SS sources. PMID:26620984

  4. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  5. Time constant of round superconducting structures determined from the time development of the induced magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that evaluating the time development of the penetrated magnetic field into the superconductors can be used for the determination of time constant for round structures, too. The calculations are very similar to those used for the flat structures. The method is very simple, both by the practical realization of the experiment and by the evaluation of the time evolution of the penetrated magnetic field above the superconductor. The procedure uses an exponential decrease of the applied magnetic field, which can be easily performed by discharging an external circuit. By determining the position of the maximum of the difference between the penetrated field induction and the applied magnetic field induction, the corresponding time constant can be evaluated by a very simple equation, which is calculated in the paper. The results are very similar to the previous calculations, obtained for the flat superconducting cables. In addition, it is suggested that knowing the time constant of superconducting structures could be in many cases more important both for research aspects and for practical applications.

  6. Modest maternal caffeine exposure affects developing embryonic cardiovascular function and growth.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Nobuo; Tinney, Joseph P; Liu, Li J; Elshershari, Huda; Hoffmann, Paul J; Ralphe, John C; Keller, Bradley B; Tobita, Kimimasa

    2008-05-01

    Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is reported to increase the risk of in utero growth restriction and spontaneous abortion. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that modest maternal caffeine exposure affects in utero developing embryonic cardiovascular (CV) function and growth without altering maternal hemodynamics. Caffeine (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) subcutaneous) was administered daily to pregnant CD-1 mice from embryonic days (EDs) 9.5 to 18.5 of a 21-day gestation. We assessed maternal and embryonic CV function at baseline and at peak maternal serum caffeine concentration using high-resolution echocardiography on EDs 9.5, 11.5, 13.5, and 18.5. Maternal caffeine exposure did not influence maternal body weight gain, maternal CV function, or embryo resorption. However, crown-rump length and body weight were reduced in maternal caffeine treated embryos by ED 18.5 (P < 0.05). At peak maternal serum caffeine concentration, embryonic carotid artery, dorsal aorta, and umbilical artery flows transiently decreased from baseline at ED 11.5 (P < 0.05). By ED 13.5, embryonic aortic and umbilical artery flows were insensitive to the peak maternal caffeine concentration; however, the carotid artery flow remained affected. By ED 18.5, baseline embryonic carotid artery flow increased and descending aortic flow decreased versus non-caffeine-exposed embryos. Maternal treatment with the adenosine A(2A) receptor inhibitor reproduced the embryonic hemodynamic effects of maternal caffeine exposure. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene expression levels of ED 11.5 embryo and ED 18.5 uterus were decreased. Results suggest that modest maternal caffeine exposure has adverse effects on developing embryonic CV function and growth, possibly mediated via adenosine A(2A) receptor blockade.

  7. Timing of Breeding Determines Growth and Development in a Long-Distance Migratory Bird.

    PubMed

    Reed, Wendy L; Clark, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    The timing of breeding can have significant consequences for adult and offspring fitness, yet our current hypotheses of seasonal timing focus on the parent perspective. When offspring survival is affected by timing of breeding, we expect to see offspring mechanisms to detect and respond to cues of seasonal timing. Avian embryos respond to photoperiod and seasonal cues during development and in this study we evaluate the influence of photoperiod and season on posthatching growth and development in Franklin's gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan). Early- and late-season chicks exposed to short and long photoperiods during development were reared under common garden conditions. Photoperiod had no effect on posthatching growth and development, but seasonal effects present in the egg (maternal egg effects or genetic) did influence posthatching growth and development. Late-season chicks grew body mass and primary flight feathers at faster rates than early-season chicks, which we hypothesize facilitates independence and readiness for migration. Growth rates are complex phenotypes and we propose a general growth model that incorporates delays in negative feedback systems regulating growth. We show that the timing of breeding programs intrinsic growth rates in offspring, which suggests that many of the metrics used to describe seasonal patterns of reproductive success may be biased.

  8. [Some factors affecting in vitro development of porcine embryo reconstitution from somatic cells nuclear transfer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, De Fu; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yin; Wang, Kai; Schellander, Karl; Lin, Cai Lu

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, a study on reconstitution of porcine oocytes by using nuclear transfer with cumulus cells(CC) and fibroblast cells(FC) was carried out. Reconstituted oocytes which were the fusion with CC and showed a cleavage rate of 56.7%, developed to morula(11.7%) and blastocysts(6.7%) phases which were higher than those derived from the fusion with FC(p < 0.05). The results of this study also involved the effects of oocyte collection method and maturational age of recipient oocytes during the in vitro development of nuclear-transfer embryos which were reconstructed with cultured cumulus cells. The cumulus cells synchronized in G0/G1 phases through serum-starvation culture, were transferred into enucleated oocytes which were collected by aspiration or dissection method and cultured for 33 or 44 h. Reconstituted embryos were activated with a combination of calcium ionophore A23187 or electric pulsation and 6-DMAP, and cultured for 6 days. As for the oocytes collection methods, activation treatment in the presence of cytochalasin B did not affect the developmental rate of embryos reconstituted with 44-h-mature recipients. However, the development rate of reconstituted embryos with 33-h-mature recipients was significantly higher(p < 0.05) by activation with the combination of electric pulsation and 6-DMAP. These results suggest that reconstituted porcine embryos derived from cultured cumulus cells can develop to the blastocyst stage and that the development of the former could be improved by reconstruction with young oocyte cytoplast after the activation with the combination of electric pulsation and 6-DMAP.

  9. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age.

  10. Development of a Liquefied Noble Gas Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ezra; White, Aaron; Aidala, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have been used for various applications in recent years for detecting neutrinos, neutrons, photons, and potentially dark matter. The University of Michigan is developing a detector with liquid argon to produce scintillation light and ionization electrons. Our data collection method will allow high-resolution energy measurement and spatial reconstruction of detected particles by using multi-pixel silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire endplate. We have already designed a liquid argon condenser and purification unit surrounded by an insulating vacuum, constructed circuitry for temperature and pressure sensors, and created software to obtain high-accuracy sensor readouts. The status of detector development will be presented. Funded through the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project.

  11. Time Use as Cause and Consequence of Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, daily activities are both causes and consequences of youth development. As causes, daily activities represent distinct sets of socialization experiences that afford opportunities to acquire new competencies and behavioral patterns. As consequences, daily activities reflect youth’s force and resource characteristics, including developmental status, temperament and motivation, and pre-existing levels of adjustment. An ecological perspective also highlights the role of the larger sociocultural context in shaping and conditioning the links between daily activities and youth development. In this article, we draw on research with children and adolescents to consider how an ecological perspective can provide a flexible framework for studying time use as a developmental phenomenon. We also discuss methodological issues and suggest research that should be conducted in this broad area. PMID:25821514

  12. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  13. Illegal road crossing behavior of pedestrians at overpass locations: Factors affecting gap acceptance, crossing times and overpass use.

    PubMed

    Demiroz, Y I; Onelcin, P; Alver, Y

    2015-07-01

    The aim of designing overpasses is to provide safe road crossings for pedestrians by helping them to avoid conflicts with motor vehicles. However, the number of pedestrians who do not use overpasses to cross the road is very high. An observational survey of illegal road crossings was conducted at four overpass locations in Izmir, Turkey to determine the crossing time, crossing speed of the pedestrians and their distance and time gap perception for safe road-crossing within 25 m of the overpasses in both directions. Crossing time is the time needed for a pedestrian to cross a particular road. Time gap is strongly related with safety margin. If a pedestrian chooses a larger time gap, then the arrival time of the oncoming vehicle to the crossing point of the pedestrian increases thus, the possibility of a collision decreases. Each overpass was observed on weekdays during peak afternoon (12.30-13.30) and evening hours (17.00-18.00). At all overpass locations 454 illegal crossings were observed. ANOVA results revealed that age had a significant effect both on safety margin and crossing time. During the observations a survey was conducted among pedestrians who completed their crossings either using the overpass or at street level within 25 m of the overpass (n=231). Factors affecting the crossing choice of pedestrians were specified in the surveys. The major part of the respondents (71.7%) indicated that time saving was the main reason for crossing at street level. Pedestrians' crossing speeds were extracted from the video recordings to observe the effect of speed limit on pedestrian behavior. As a result, at locations where the speed limit was 70 km/h, pedestrians' average crossing speed was found to be 1.60 m/s and 1.73 m/s while at locations where the speed limit was 50 km/h, pedestrians' average crossing speed was found to be 1.04 m/s and 0.97 m/s. This shows that pedestrians feel safer while crossing when the vehicle speed is low.

  14. Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yong; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical models of the travel time distribution (TTD) from a source area to a sample location are often used to estimate groundwater ages and solute concentration trends. The accuracies of these models are not well known for geologically complex aquifers. In this study, synthetic datasets were used to quantify the accuracy of four analytical TTD models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, model selection, and tracer selection. Synthetic TTDs and tracer data were generated from existing numerical models with complex hydrofacies distributions for one public-supply well and 14 monitoring wells in the Central Valley, California. Analytical TTD models were calibrated to synthetic tracer data, and prediction errors were determined for estimates of TTDs and conservative tracer (NO3−) concentrations. Analytical models included a new, scale-dependent dispersivity model (SDM) for two-dimensional transport from the watertable to a well, and three other established analytical models. The relative influence of the error sources (TTD complexity, observation error, model selection, and tracer selection) depended on the type of prediction. Geological complexity gave rise to complex TTDs in monitoring wells that strongly affected errors of the estimated TTDs. However, prediction errors for NO3− and median age depended more on tracer concentration errors. The SDM tended to give the most accurate estimates of the vertical velocity and other predictions, although TTD model selection had minor effects overall. Adding tracers improved predictions if the new tracers had different input histories. Studies using TTD models should focus on the factors that most strongly affect the desired predictions.

  15. Discrete Space-Time: History and Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouse, David

    2017-01-01

    Discussed in this work is the long history and debate of whether space and time are discrete or continuous. Starting from Zeno of Elea and progressing to Heisenberg and others, the issues with discrete space are discussed, including: Lorentz contraction (time dilation) of the ostensibly smallest spatial (temporal) interval, maintaining isotropy, violations of causality, and conservation of energy and momentum. It is shown that there are solutions to all these issues, such that discrete space is a viable model, yet the solution require strict non-absolute space (i.e., Mach's principle) and a re-analysis of the concept of measurement and the foundations of special relativity. In developing these solutions, the long forgotten but important debate between Albert Einstein and Henri Bergson concerning time will be discussed. Also discussed is the resolution to the Weyl tile argument against discrete space; however, the solution involves a modified version of the typical distance formula. One example effect of discrete space is then discussed, namely how it necessarily imposes order upon Wheeler's quantum foam, changing the foam into a gravity crystal and yielding crystalline properties of bandgaps, Brilluoin zones and negative inertial mass for astronomical bodies.

  16. Interoccurrence time statistics in fully-developed turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Manshour, Pouya; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Reinke, Nico; Sahim, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Emergent extreme events are a key characteristic of complex dynamical systems. The main tool for detailed and deep understanding of their stochastic dynamics is the statistics of time intervals of extreme events. Analyzing extensive experimental data, we demonstrate that for the velocity time series of fully-developed turbulent flows, generated by (i) a regular grid; (ii) a cylinder; (iii) a free jet of helium, and (iv) a free jet of air with the Taylor Reynolds numbers Reλ from 166 to 893, the interoccurrence time distributions P(τ) above a positive threshold Q in the inertial range is described by a universal q- exponential function, P(τ) = β(2 − q)[1 − β(1 − q)τ]1/(1−q), which may be due to the superstatistical nature of the occurrence of extreme events. Our analysis provides a universal description of extreme events in turbulent flows. PMID:27282347

  17. Critical Timing without a Timer for Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Tufcea, Daniel E.; François, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Timing of embryonic development is precisely controlled, but the mechanisms underlying biological timers are still unclear. Here, a validated model for timing under control of Sonic Hedgehog is revisited and generalized to an arbitrary number of genes. The developmental dynamics where a temporal sequence of gene expression recapitulates a steady-state spatial pattern can be realized through a simple network close to criticality, controlled by the duration of exposure to a morphogen. Criticality simultaneously accounts for many observed biological properties, such as timing, multistability, and canalization of genetic expression. This process can be parsimoniously generalized in many dimensions with a minimum number of genes, all repressing each other with asymmetrical strengths, which also explains sequential activation of different fates. Separation of timescales allows for a simple analytical interpretation. Finally, it is shown that even in the presence of noise, coupling between cells preserves criticality and robust patterning. The model offers a simple theoretical framework for the study of emergent developmental timers. PMID:26488664

  18. Early exposure to caffeine affects gene expression of adenosine receptors, DARPP-32 and BDNF without affecting sensibility and morphology of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Nazario, Luiza Reali; Pohlmann, Julhana Bianchini; de Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Fazenda, Lidiane; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine receptors are the most important biochemical targets of caffeine, a common trimethylxanthine found in food and beverages. Adenosine plays modulatory action during the development through adenosine receptors and their intracellular pathways activation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if caffeine gave to zebrafish in the very first steps of development is able to affect its direct targets, through the adenosine receptors mRNA expression evaluation, and latter indirect targets, through evaluation of the pattern of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish express adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A1, A2A2 and A2B) since 24h post-fertilization (hpf) and that caffeine exposure is able to affect the expression of these receptors. Caffeine exposure from 1 hpf is able to increase A1 expression at 72-96 hpf and A2A1 expression at 72 hpf. No alterations occurred in A2A2 and A2B expression after caffeine treatment. DARPP-32, a phosphoprotein involved in adenosine intracellular pathway is also expressed since 24 hpf and early exposure to caffeine increased DARPP-32 expression at 168 hpf. We also evaluate the expression of BDNF as one of the targets of adenosine intracellular pathway activation. BDNF was also expressed since 24 hpf and caffeine treatment increased its expression at 48 and 72 hpf. No morphological alterations induced by caffeine treatment were registered by the check of general body features and total body length. Assessment of tactile sensibility also demonstrated no alterations by caffeine treatment. Altogether, these results suggest that caffeine is able to affect expression of its cellular targets since early phases of development in zebrafish without affect visible features. The up-regulation of direct and indirect targets of caffeine presents as a compensatory mechanism of maintenance of adenosinergic modulation during the developmental phase.

  19. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received.

  20. Breakfasts with different fiber and macronutrient contents do not differentially affect timing, size or microstructure of the subsequent lunch.

    PubMed

    Silberbauer, C; Frey-Rindova, P; Langhans, W

    1996-12-01

    The effects of four equienergetic breakfasts with varying fiber and macronutrient contents on hunger and satiety ratings, on subsequent lunch intake, and on postprandial carbohydrate and fat metabolism were investigated in normal weight male subjects in two experiments, in which lunch was offered at a predetermined time (Experiment 1) or in which the subjects were free to choose when to eat lunch (Experiment 2). Consumption of either a commercially available high fiber cereal (HFC, 10% fiber), a medium fiber cereal (MFC, 7% fiber), a low fiber cereal (LFC, 3% fiber), or a standard continental breakfast (0% fiber) on nonconsecutive days did not differentially affect hunger and satiety ratings, the size or microstructure of the subsequent lunch, and the breakfast to lunch intermeal interval (in Experiment 2). Plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and insulin increased more after the LFC breakfast than after the other breakfast varieties. A reactive postprandial hypoglycaemia occurred after the LFC breakfast, shortly before lunch. The plasma concentrations of fat metabolites (triglycerides, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate) and of glucagon were not differentially affected by the breakfast varieties. The results are consistent with the assumption that energy content of a meal is the major determinant of subsequent energy intake in man and the fiber content and macronutrient composition have only a modulating effect.

  1. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    PubMed Central

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  2. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    PubMed

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  3. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  4. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  5. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2017-01-09

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  7. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  8. Intracerebral inoculation of mouse-passaged Saffold virus type 3 affects cerebellar development in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Osamu; Suzuki, Tadaki; Yokoyama, Masaru; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriko; Sato, Hironori; Hasegawa, Hideki; Taguchi, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-08-31

    Saffold virus (SAFV), a human cardiovirus, is occasionally detected in infants with neurological disorders, including meningitis and cerebellitis. We recently reported that SAFV type 3 isolates infect cerebellar glial cells, but not large neurons, in mice. However, the impact of this infection remained unclear. Here, we determined the neuropathogenesis of SAFV type 3 in the cerebella of neonatal ddY mice using SAFV passaged in the cerebellum of neonatal BALB/c mice. The virus titer in the cerebellum increased following inoculation of each of five passaged strains. The fifth passaged strain harbored amino acid substitutions in the VP2 (H160R and Q239R) and VP3 (K62M) capsid proteins. Molecular modeling of the capsid proteins suggested that the VP2-H160R and VP3-K62M mutations alter the structural dynamics of the receptor binding surface via formation of a novel hydrophobic interaction between the VP2 puff B and VP3 knob regions. When compared with the original strain, the passaged strain showed altered growth characteristics in human-derived astroglial cell lines and higher replication in the brains of neonatal mice. In addition, the passaged strain was more neurovirulent than the original strain, while both strains infected astroglial and neural progenitor cells in the mouse brain. Intracerebral inoculation of either the original or passaged strain affected brain Purkinje cell dendrites, and a high titer of the passaged strain induced cerebellar hypoplasia in neonatal mice. Thus, infection by mouse-passaged SAFV affected cerebellar development in neonatal mice. This animal model contributes to the understanding of the neuropathogenicity of SAFV infections in infants.

  9. Development of Visuo-Auditory Integration in Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2012-01-01

    Adults integrate multisensory information optimally (e.g., Ernst and Banks, 2002) while children do not integrate multisensory visual-haptic cues until 8–10 years of age (e.g., Gori et al., 2008). Before that age strong unisensory dominance occurs for size and orientation visual-haptic judgments, possibly reflecting a process of cross-sensory calibration between modalities. It is widely recognized that audition dominates time perception, while vision dominates space perception. Within the framework of the cross-sensory calibration hypothesis, we investigate visual-auditory integration in both space and time with child-friendly spatial and temporal bisection tasks. Unimodal and bimodal (conflictual and not) audio-visual thresholds and PSEs were measured and compared with the Bayesian predictions. In the temporal domain, we found that both in children and adults, audition dominates the bimodal visuo-auditory task both in perceived time and precision thresholds. On the contrary, in the visual-auditory spatial task, children younger than 12 years of age show clear visual dominance (for PSEs), and bimodal thresholds higher than the Bayesian prediction. Only in the adult group did bimodal thresholds become optimal. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that also visual-auditory adult-like behavior develops late. We suggest that the visual dominance for space and the auditory dominance for time could reflect a cross-sensory comparison of vision in the spatial visuo-audio task and a cross-sensory comparison of audition in the temporal visuo-audio task. PMID:23060759

  10. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  11. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters.

    PubMed

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-09-24

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety.

  12. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

  13. Time of day affects chemoreflex sensitivity and the carbon dioxide reserve during NREM sleep in participants with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2014-11-15

    Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PET(CO2)) and minute ventilation, as well as the PET(CO2) that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PET(CO2): 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea.

  14. Time-development of sulphate hydration in anhydritic swelling rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafeimidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Anhydritic claystones are among the most problematic rocks in tunnelling due to their distinctive swelling properties. They consist of a clay matrix with distributed anhydrite particles, veins and layers and have caused severe damage to numerous tunnels excavated in the Gypsum Keuper formation in North-Western Switzerland and South-Western Germany. The swelling of anhydritic claystones which is mainly attributed to the transformation of anhydrite into gypsum (a chemical process which leads to an increase in the solids of 61 percent), is a markedly time-dependent process. It may take several decades to complete in nature and is therefore important for the design particularly of the final tunnel lining. Anhydrite occurs either in the form of particles or of layers and veins of different thicknesses and spacings. The particles may have an approximately spherical or rather prismatic form, while their size lies within a wide range (from few micrometer to few centimeter). The shape and size of the anhydrite particles and layers are important for the specific surface of anhydrite and thus for the evolution of its hydration over time. In the present contribution we focus on the kinetics of the chemical reactions in sulphatic rocks, limiting ourselves to closed systems, i.e. without investigating the effects of seepage flow and diffusive transport, which may also be important. In order to achieve this, a consistent and comprehensive dissolution and precipitation model has been developed that accounts for arbitrary geometrical forms of anhydrite as well as for the sealing of anhydrite by a layer of gypsum. The investigations have shown that anhydrite dissolution represents the limiting mechanism if anhydrite occurs in the form of larger particles or thicker veins (> 1 millimeter) and there are sufficient nuclei for gypsum growth (e.g. precipitation takes place on of the surfaces of inert minerals). It has also been indicated that the time required for the whole amount of

  15. Recent developments in time-of-flight PET.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, S; Mikhaylova, E; D'Hoe, E; Mollet, P; Karp, J S

    2016-12-01

    While the first time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) systems were already built in the early 1980s, limited clinical studies were acquired on these scanners. PET was still a research tool, and the available TOF-PET systems were experimental. Due to a combination of low stopping power and limited spatial resolution (caused by limited light output of the scintillators), these systems could not compete with bismuth germanate (BGO)-based PET scanners. Developments on TOF system were limited for about a decade but started again around 2000. The combination of fast photomultipliers, scintillators with high density, modern electronics, and faster computing power for image reconstruction have made it possible to introduce this principle in clinical TOF-PET systems. This paper reviews recent developments in system design, image reconstruction, corrections, and the potential in new applications for TOF-PET. After explaining the basic principles of time-of-flight, the difficulties in detector technology and electronics to obtain a good and stable timing resolution are shortly explained. The available clinical systems and prototypes under development are described in detail. The development of this type of PET scanner also requires modified image reconstruction with accurate modeling and correction methods. The additional dimension introduced by the time difference motivates a shift from sinogram- to listmode-based reconstruction. This reconstruction is however rather slow and therefore rebinning techniques specific for TOF data have been proposed. The main motivation for TOF-PET remains the large potential for image quality improvement and more accurate quantification for a given number of counts. The gain is related to the ratio of object size and spatial extent of the TOF kernel and is therefore particularly relevant for heavy patients, where image quality degrades significantly due to increased attenuation (low counts) and high scatter fractions. The

  16. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE To study time at risk to suicide attempt hospitalization among offspring of suicide decedents as compared with offspring of unintentional injury decedents by their developmental period at the time of parental death. DESIGN Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING Sweden. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six thousand ninety-six offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32 395 offspring of unintentional injury decedents prior to age 25 years between the years 1973 and 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12 years old), adolescence (13-17 years old), and young adulthood (18-24 years old). RESULTS The risk in offspring who lost a parent to suicide or an unintentional injury during childhood surpassed the other age groups' risk approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental death, and risk declined over time. Offspring who lost a parent to suicide in childhood and young adulthood had earlier onset of hospitalization for suicide attempt compared with offspring who lost a parent to an unintentional injury. CONCLUSIONS The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent later in development. The results suggest critical windows for careful monitoring and intervention for suicide attempt risk, especially 1 to 2 years after parental death for the

  17. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) population dynamics in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Franz, Kamila W; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  18. Prenatal caffeine intake differently affects synaptic proteins during fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Marques, Daniela M; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Rocha, Andréia S; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Costa, Marcelo S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. However, little is known about its effects during fetal brain development. In this study, adult female Wistar rats received caffeine in drinking water (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during the active cycle in weekdays, two weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus from embryonic stages 18 or 20 (E18 or E20, respectively) were collected for immunodetection of the following synaptic proteins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB receptor, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) and Synaptosomal-associated Protein 25 (SNAP-25). Besides, the estimation of NeuN-stained nuclei (mature neurons) and non-neuronal nuclei was verified in both brain regions and embryonic periods. Caffeine (1.0 g/L) decreased the body weight of embryos at E20. Cortical BDNF at E18 was decreased by caffeine (1.0 g/L), while it increased at E20, with no major effects on TrkB receptors. In the hippocampus, caffeine decreased TrkB receptor only at E18, with no effects on BDNF. Moderate and high doses of caffeine promoted an increase in Shh in both brain regions at E18, and in the hippocampus at E20. Caffeine (0.3g/L) decreased GAP-43 only in the hippocampus at E18. The NeuN-stained nuclei increased in the cortex at E20 by lower dose and in the hippocampus at E18 by moderate dose. Our data revealed that caffeine transitorily affect synaptic proteins during fetal brain development. The increased number of NeuN-stained nuclei by prenatal caffeine suggests a possible acceleration of the telencephalon maturation. Although some modifications in the synaptic proteins were transient, our data suggest that caffeine even in lower doses may alter the fetal brain development.

  19. Ranking Landscape Development Scenarios Affecting Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) Population Dynamics in Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Kamila W.; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios. PMID:23734223

  20. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  1. Rhythms of dialogue in infancy: coordinated timing in development.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, J; Beebe, B; Feldstein, S; Crown, C L; Jasnow, M D

    2001-01-01

    Although theories of early social development emphasize the advantage of mother-infant rhythmic coupling and bidirectional coordination, empirical demonstrations remain sparse. We therefore test the hypothesis that vocal rhythm coordination at age 4 months predicts attachment and cognition at age 12 months. Partner and site novelty were studied by recording mother-infant, stranger-infant, and mother-stranger face-to-face interactions in both home and laboratory sites for 88 4-month-old infants, for a total of 410 recordings. An automated dialogic coding scheme, appropriate to the nonperiodic rhythms of our data, implemented a systems concept of every action as jointly produced by both partners. Adult-infant coordination at age 4 months indeed predicted both outcomes at age 12 months, but midrange degree of mother-infant and stranger-infant coordination was optimal for attachment (Strange Situation), whereas high ("tight") stranger-infant coordination in the lab was optimal for cognition (Bayley Scales). Thus, high coordination can index more or less optimal outcomes, as a function of outcome measure, partner, and site. Bidirectional coordination patterns were salient in both attachment and cognition predictions. Comparison of mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions was particularly informative, suggesting the dynamics of infants' early differentiation from mothers. Stranger and infant showed different patterns of vocal rhythm activity level, were more bidirectional, accounted for 8 times more variance in Bayley scores, predicted attachment just as well as mother and infant, and revealed more varied contingency structures and a wider range of attachment outcomes. To explain why vocal timing measures at age 4 months predict outcomes at age 12 months, our dialogue model was construed as containing procedures for regulating the pragmatics of proto-conversation. The timing patterns of the 4-month-olds were seen as procedural or performance knowledge, and as

  2. Lower temperature during the dark cycle affects disease development on Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern) by Bipolaris sacchari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth chamber studies were conducted to examine environmental parameters affecting disease development by the indigenous pathogen Bipolaris sacchari isolate LJB-1L on the invasive weed Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern). Initial studies examined three different temperature regimes (20...

  3. Shaping the Development of Prejudice: Latent Growth Modeling of the Influence of Social Dominance Orientation on Outgroup Affect in Youth.

    PubMed

    Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology.

  4. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  5. Development and application of a method for quantifying factors affecting chloramine decay in service reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sathasivan, Arumugam; Krishna, K C Bal; Fisher, Ian

    2010-08-01

    Service reservoirs play an important role in maintaining water quality in distribution systems. Several factors affect the reservoir water quality, including bulk water reactions, stratification, sediment accumulation and wall reactions. It is generally thought that biofilm and sediments can harbour microorganisms, especially in chloraminated reservoirs, but their impact on disinfectant loss on disinfectant loss has not been quantified. Hence, debate exists as to the extent of the problem. To quantify the impact, the reservoir acceleration factor (F(Ra)) is defined. This factor represents the acceleration of chloramine decay arising from all causes, including changes in retention time, assuming that the reservoir is completely mixed. Such an approach quantifies the impact of factors, other than chemical reactions, in the bulk water. Data from three full-scale chloraminated service reservoirs in distribution systems of Sydney, Australia, were analysed to demonstrate the generality of the method. Results showed that in two large service reservoirs (404 x 10(3) m(3) and 82 x 10(3) m(3)) there was minimal impact from biofilm/sediment. However, in a small reservoir (3 x 10(3) m(3)), the biofilm/sediment had significant impact. In both small and large reservoirs, the effect of stratification was significant.

  6. Biofilm formation by the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: development and parameters affecting surface attachment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Arias, Covadonga R

    2013-09-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems.

  7. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  8. Alternative parasite development in transmission strategies: how time flies!

    PubMed

    Badets, M; Morrison, C; Verneau, O

    2010-10-01

    Among parasitic platyhelminths with complex life cycles, it has been well documented that transmission opportunities are the main forces shaping the diversity of life-history traits and parasite developmental strategies. While deviations in the development pathway usually involve shortening of life cycles, their extension may also occur following perception of remaining time by parasites. Polystoma gallieni, the monogenean parasite of Hyla meridionalis, is able to trigger two alternative developmental strategies depending on the physiological stage of the tadpoles upon which larvae attach. The distribution and reproductive outputs of both resulting phenotypes were surveyed to address questions about the dynamics of transmission in natural environments. Because modifications in the completion of life cycles can have drawbacks which may perturb the dynamic equilibrium of the resulting host-parasite systems, experimental infestations were also performed to assess parasite-parasite interactions. Our results suggest that the bladder adult phenotype, which involves transmission between frogs and tadpoles, is supplied secondarily by the branchial phenotype which involves transmission between tadpoles and metamorphs. They also support the occurrence of finely tuned trade-offs between hosts and parasites and highlight positive trends behind the extension of direct life cycles, in which host-derived signals account for the remaining time to achieve parasitic transmission.

  9. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  10. Time and concentration dependency in the potentially affected fraction of species: the case of hydrogen peroxide treatment of ballast water.

    PubMed

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Ebbens, Eltjo; Jak, Robbert G; Huijbregtst, Mark A J

    2008-03-01

    Transport of large volumes of ballast water contributes greatly to invasions of species. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of exotic species via ballast water. Instead of using environmental risk assessment techniques for protecting a certain fraction of the species from being affected, the present study aimed to apply these techniques to define treatment regimes of H2O2 and effectively eliminate as many species as possible. Based on time-dependent dose-response curves for five marine species (Corophium volutator, Artemia salina, Brachionus plicatilis, Dunaliella teriolecta, and Skeletonema costatum), time-dependent species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were derived for different effect sizes. The present study showed that H2O2 can be used effectively to treat ballast water but that relatively high concentrations and long treatment durations are required to eliminate the vast majority of species in ballast water. The described toxicant effectiveness approach using SSDs also has other potential fields of application, including short-term application of biocides.

  11. Development of Knowledge Discovery System from Annotated Time Sereis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    This paper proposes a knowledge discovery system from annotated time series data, they are expressed as sequences of numerical values. They generally have a lot of important information in background, but it is not included in data. Analysis methods without background information have limitations. Several studies propose meta data approaches, which is often expressed as a short text, the techniques are insufficient for our purpose. We therefore develop a method that uses annotations which are compact expressions of back ground information. Subsequences obtained by using domain knowledge are organized into groups based on a distance measure. Among the groups some of them are identified as important features. In order to measure importance, we develop a method that uses global and local frequencies of subsequences. This idea is similar to the TF*IDF method, which is used in text mining. A subsequence that represents an important group is regarded as a feature pattern. In addition, we extract association rules over feature patterns and annotations. We introduce a new concept, called max allowance length, to focus only on influential annotations to a pattern. We demonstrate an effect of the proposed method by using financial data.

  12. Development on drought-stressed host plants affects life history, flight morphology and reproductive output relative to landscape structure.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Melanie; Van Dyck, Hans; Breuker, Casper J

    2012-01-01

    With global climate change, rainfall is becoming more variable. Predicting the responses of species to changing rainfall levels is difficult because, for example in herbivorous species, these effects may be mediated indirectly through changes in host plant quality. Furthermore, species responses may result from a simultaneous interaction between rainfall levels and other environmental variables such as anthropogenic land use or habitat quality. In this eco-evolutionary study, we examined how male and female Pararge aegeria (L.) from woodland and agricultural landscape populations were affected by the development on drought-stressed host plants. Compared with individuals from woodland landscapes, when reared on drought-stressed plants agricultural individuals had longer development times, reduced survival rates and lower adult body masses. Across both landscape types, growth on drought-stressed plants resulted in males and females with low forewing aspect ratios and in females with lower wing loading and reduced fecundity. Development on drought-stressed plants also had a landscape-specific effect on reproductive output; agricultural females laid eggs that had a significantly lower hatching success. Overall, our results highlight several potential mechanisms by which low water availability, via changes in host plant quality, may differentially influence P. aegeria populations relative to landscape structure.

  13. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development

    PubMed Central

    BURKUŠ, Ján; KAČMAROVÁ, Martina; KUBANDOVÁ, Janka; KOKOŠOVÁ, Natália; FABIANOVÁ, Kamila; FABIAN, Dušan; KOPPEL, Juraj; ČIKOŠ, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life. PMID:25985793

  14. Dose of recombinant FSH and oestradiol concentration on day of HCG affect embryo development kinetics.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel; Cruz, María; Humaidan, Peter; Garrido, Nicolás; Pérez-Cano, Inmaculada; Meseguer, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    During follicular growth, the follicle is exposed to an almost ever-changing composition of isoforms of FSH and LH, which causes a number of different and divergent biological effects. Through a time-lapse system, embryo kinetics were examined following the use of FSH only (recombinant FSH, rFSH) and gonadotrophins containing LH activity (human menopausal gonadotrophin, HMG, and FSH+HMG) in oocyte donors. No significant differences were seen between the three groups (for rFSH, HMG and rFSH+HMG, t2 was 27.8h, 27.9h and 27.5h respectively). Moreover, although embryos obtained with rFSH showed an increase in the proportions of optimal timings of development, the differences observed were not significant, as shown by the percentages of embryos inside/outside these kinetic variables. In contrast, for gonadotrophin dosage and oestradiol concentration, this study observed differences in embryo development kinetics for some of the variables evaluated, which allowed the description of an optimal range of gonadotrophin dosage and oestradiol concentration. However, these kinetic differences did not translate into important distinctions in the proportion of optimal embryos with a higher implantation potential.

  15. Development of high-level streptomycin resistance affected by a plasmid in lactic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R P

    1986-08-01

    Some lactose-negative (Lac-) mutants of Streptococcus lactis C2 and ML3 exhibited development of very high level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug for 18 to 22 h. These drug-resistant mutants showed no loss of resistance even after 6 months of subculturing in broth without any drug. The parental Lac+ strains did not show mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance. The Lac+ characteristic of the parental strain was conjugally transferred to Lac- derivatives of C2 and ML3, showing the ability to mutate to high-level resistance. When transconjugants were analyzed for this characteristic, they showed both mutable and nonmutable Lac+ types. The results suggested that genetic information for mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance in lactic streptococci resides on the chromosome, and its expression is affected by a plasmid. The plasmid profiles of strains C2, ML3, C2 Lac-, ML3 Lac-, and two kinds of transconjugants confirmed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 5.5 megadaltons in strains showing no mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance, while strains missing such a plasmid exhibited high-level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug.

  16. TRNA mutations that affect decoding fidelity deregulate development and the proteostasis network in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Reverendo, Marisa; Soares, Ana R; Pereira, Patrícia M; Carreto, Laura; Ferreira, Violeta; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe; Moura, Gabriela R; Santos, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in genes that encode tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA syntheases, tRNA modifying enzymes and other tRNA interacting partners are associated with neuropathies, cancer, type-II diabetes and hearing loss, but how these mutations cause disease is unclear. We have hypothesized that levels of tRNA decoding error (mistranslation) that do not fully impair embryonic development can accelerate cell degeneration through proteome instability and saturation of the proteostasis network. To test this hypothesis we have induced mistranslation in zebrafish embryos using mutant tRNAs that misincorporate Serine (Ser) at various non-cognate codon sites. Embryo viability was affected and malformations were observed, but a significant proportion of embryos survived by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) and downregulating protein biosynthesis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage and disruption of the mitochondrial network, were also observed, suggesting that mistranslation had a strong negative impact on protein synthesis rate, ER and mitochondrial homeostasis. We postulate that mistranslation promotes gradual cellular degeneration and disease through protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and genome instability.

  17. The diageotropica gene differentially affects auxin and cytokinin responses throughout development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Coenen, C; Lomax, T L

    1998-05-01

    The interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin throughout plant development are complex, and genetic investigations of the interdependency of auxin and cytokinin signaling have been limited. We have characterized the cytokinin sensitivity of the auxin-resistant diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a range of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated responses. Intact, etiolated dgt seedlings showed cross-resistance to cytokinin with respect to root elongation, but cytokinin effects on hypocotyl growth and ethylene synthesis in these seedlings were not impaired by the dgt mutation. Seven-week-old, green wild-type and dgt plants were also equally sensitive to cytokinin with respect to shoot growth and hypocotyl and internode elongation. The effects of cytokinin and the dgt mutation on these processes appeared additive. In tissue culture organ regeneration from dgt hypocotyl explants showed reduced sensitivity to auxin but normal sensitivity to cytokinin, and the effects of cytokinin and the mutation were again additive. However, although callus induction from dgt hypocotyl explants required auxin and cytokinin, dgt calli did not show the typical concentration-dependent stimulation of growth by either auxin or cytokinin observed in wild-type cells. Cross-resistance of the dgt mutant to cytokinin thus was found to be limited to a small subset of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated growth processes affected by the dgt mutation, indicating that auxin and cytokinin regulate plant growth through both shared and separate signaling pathways.

  18. Blastocystis: how do specific diets and human gut microbiota affect its development and pathogenicity?

    PubMed

    Lepczyńska, M; Białkowska, J; Dzika, E; Piskorz-Ogórek, K; Korycińska, J

    2017-03-22

    Blastocystis is an enteric parasite that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many animals. This emerging parasite has a worldwide distribution. It is often identified as the most common eukaryotic organism reported in human fecal samples. This parasite is recognized and diagnosed more often than ever before. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against currently recommended drugs, such as metronidazole; therefore, the use of natural remedies or special diets has many positive aspects that may address this problem. The goal of this review is to compare natural treatments and various diets against the efficacy of drugs, and describe their influence on the composition of the gut microbiota, which affects Blastocystis growth and the occurrence of symptoms. This article reviews important work in the literature, including the classification, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, genetics, biology, and treatment of Blastocystis. It also includes a review of the current knowledge about human gut microbiota and various diets proposed for Blastocystis eradication. The literature has revealed that garlic, ginger, some medical plants, and many spices contain the most effective organic compounds for parasite eradication. They work by inhibiting parasitic enzymes and nucleic acids, as well as by inhibiting protein synthesis. The efficacy of any specific organic compound depends on the Blastocystis subtype, and, consequently, on its immunity to treatment. In conclusion, the article discusses the findings that human gut microbiota composition triggers important mechanisms at the molecular level, and, thus, has a crucial influence on the parasitic pathogenicity.

  19. The Dehydratase ADT3 Affects ROS Homeostasis and Cotyledon Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Para, Alessia; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Naldrett, Michael J.; Warpeha, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    During the transition from seed to seedling, emerging embryos strategically balance available resources between building up defenses against environmental threats and initiating the developmental program that promotes the switch to autotrophy. We present evidence of a critical role for the phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthetic activity of AROGENATE DEHYDRATASE3 (ADT3) in coordinating reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cotyledon development in etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. We show that ADT3 is expressed in the cotyledon and shoot apical meristem, mainly in the cytosol, and that the epidermis of adt3 cotyledons contains higher levels of ROS. Genome-wide proteomics of the adt3 mutant revealed a general down-regulation of plastidic proteins and ROS-scavenging enzymes, corroborating the hypothesis that the ADT3 supply of Phe is required to control ROS concentration and distribution to protect cellular components. In addition, loss of ADT3 disrupts cotyledon epidermal patterning by affecting the number and expansion of pavement cells and stomata cell fate specification; we also observed severe alterations in mesophyll cells, which lack oil bodies and normal plastids. Interestingly, up-regulation of the pathway leading to cuticle production is accompanied by an abnormal cuticle structure and/or deposition in the adt3 mutant. Such impairment results in an increase in cell permeability and provides a link to understand the cell defects in the adt3 cotyledon epidermis. We suggest an additional role of Phe in supplying nutrients to the young seedling. PMID:27540109

  20. Prenatal light exposure affects development of behavioural lateralization in a livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The existence of individual differences in handedness and other lateralized functions is an unresolved problem. Genetic factors account for only a small proportion of the variance but the contribution of environmental influences is still largely unexplored. In chicks and zebrafish the amount of environmental light reaching embryos during development greatly influences the lateralization of adults. To investigate whether a similar effect is present in livebearers, we measured behavioural lateralization in ten-day-old goldbelly topminnows born from females that have been maintained at high or low light intensities during pregnancy. Fish from high-light treatment were significantly lateralized in both visual and motor tests while fish exposed to low light intensities were not. As observed in chicks and zebrafish, the main consequence of light exposure was the alignment of the laterality of different individuals in the same direction. Lateralization is known to affect a number of fitness-related traits in topminnow and we suggest that light influence may be part of an adaptive mechanism allowing to adjust the developmental trajectories of offspring to the prevailing environmental conditions.

  1. Repeated acute exposures to hypergravity during early development subtly affect CD-1 mouse neurobehavioural profile.

    PubMed

    Francia, Nadia; Simeoni, Michelle; Petruzzi, Simona; Santucci, Daniela; Aloe, Luigi; Alleva, Enrico

    2006-05-15

    Exposure to altered gravitational environment, especially during critical ontogenetic phases, may induce persistent nervous system modifications and behavioural anomalies. This study evaluated the effects of hypergravity exposure on the development of the nervous system and assessed the relevance of parity in the mother's responses to altered gravitational stimuli. CD-1 mouse pups of both sexes delivered by primiparous and biparous dams were exposed to 1h of 2 G rotationally induced hypergravity from PND2 to PND9. Sensorimotor responses and somatic growth were daily measured (PND2-PND15), ultrasonic vocalisations recorded on PNDs 2, 5 and 9, and homing behaviour evaluated on PND12. In addition, spatial orientation ability was assessed in a T-maze on PND18, while mice exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity were evaluated in an open-field test (PND21). Long-term effects of hypergravity exposure on both spatial learning (Morris water-maze test) and brain levels of NGF and BDNF were also investigated at adulthood. Rotation per se induced a delay in somatic growth, sensorimotor responses and ultrasonic vocalisation profile, while hypergravity highlighted sex differences in open-field behaviour. Strategies to solve a spatial learning task, rather than learning per se, were affected by early exposure to rotation, while hypergravity selectively altered behavioural profile in the reversal phase of the test. Early exposure to rotation per se also decreased hypothalamic BDNF levels, while hypergravity reduced NGF levels in the frontal cortex. Previous maternal experience did not interact with hypergravity exposure, while differences between offspring of primiparous and biparous dams were observed in sensorimotor development and exploratory behaviour.

  2. Time and Nanoparticle Concentration Affect the Extractability of Cu from CuO NP-Amended Soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Spielman-Sun, Eleanor; Rodrigues, Sónia M; Casman, Elizabeth A; Lowry, Gregory V

    2017-02-21

    We assess the effect of CuO nanoparticle (NP) concentration and soil aging time on the extractability of Cu from a standard sandy soil (Lufa 2.1). The soil was dosed with CuO NPs or Cu(NO3)2 at 10 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg of total added Cu, and then extracted using either 0.01 M CaCl2 or 0.005 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) (pH 7.6) extraction fluid at selected times over 31 days. For the high dose of CuO NPs, the amount of DTPA-extractable Cu in soil increased from 3 wt % immediately after mixing to 38 wt % after 31 days. In contrast, the extractability of Cu(NO3)2 was highest initially, decreasing with time. The increase in extractability was attributed to dissolution of CuO NPs in the soil. This was confirmed with synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements. The CuO NP dissolution kinetics were modeled by a first-order dissolution model. Our findings indicate that dissolution, concentration, and aging time are important factors that influence Cu extractability in CuO NP-amended soil and suggest that a time-dependent series of extractions could be developed as a functional assay to determine the dissolution rate constant.

  3. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  4. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Andrew M; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2013-05-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We found that the excitatory effects of this slow EPSP are also mediated by GABA. Together, these two GABAergic actions structure B8 firing in a pattern characteristic of ingestive programs. Furthermore, we found that repeated B40 stimulation induces a persistent increase in B8 excitability that was occluded in the presence of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen, suggesting that GABA affects B8 excitability over multiple time scales. The phasing of B8 activity during the feeding motor programs determines the nature of the behavior elicited during that motor program. The persistent increase in B8 excitability induced by B40 biased the activity of B8 during feeding motor programs causing the motor programs to become more ingestive in nature. Thus, a single transmitter released from a single interneuron can have consequences for motor output that are expressed over multiple time scales. Importantly, despite the differences in their signs and temporal characteristics, the three actions of B40 are coherent in that they promote B8 firing patterns that are characteristic of ingestive motor outputs.

  5. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule.

  6. The Timing of Implant Exchange in the Development of Capsular Contracture After Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Jennifer L.; Kahn, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with reconstructive breast surgery. The optimal time interval between the completion of tissue expansion and placement of the permanent implant is arbitrary and incompletely studied in the literature. The aim of the study was to determine whether the time interval between completion of expansion and placement of the permanent implant would affect the incidence of capsular contracture. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 112 patients with breast cancer, including 140 breasts, who underwent postmastectomy tissue expander placement between 1997 and 2004. All patients underwent replacement of tissue expander with a permanent prosthesis. Data were collected retrospectively, including whether the patient smoked, underwent radiation therapy, had saline or silicone implant reconstruction, required reoperation after tissue expander placement or after permanent implant placement, Baker classification, and the interval between completion of expansion and placement of permanent implant. Results: We used a logistic regression model to incorporate the predictors of capsular contracture. Keeping all other predictors constant, we found that the time interval between implant exchange had no effect on capsular contracture. The only significant predictor of capsular contracture was whether the patient required a reoperation after the permanent implant was placed (P = .0001). Conclusions: Allowing the capsule around a tissue expander to mature does not significantly affect development of capsular contracture. However, a complication that necessitates disrupting the periprosthetic capsule of the permanent implant with an operation significantly increases odds of developing contracture. PMID:18587490

  7. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    PubMed Central

    Jarideh, S.; Taeb, S.; Pishva, S. M.; Haghani, M.; Sina, S.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Hosseini, M. A.; Nematollahi, S.; Shokrpour, N.; Hassan Shahi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females), with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38), participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females) whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT) test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32) and the control group (N=29) were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively.  Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i) pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii) forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii) backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv) word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid Dastghieb

  8. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  9. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  10. Influence of egg storage time and preincubation warming profile on embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Reijrink, I A M; Berghmans, D; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-06-01

    When eggs are stored beyond 7 d, hatchability and chick quality decrease. The cause of the negative effects of prolonged egg storage is not clear. The negative effects may be caused by a decrease in embryo viability due to an increase in cell death. The optimal time and curve of preincubation warming (the preincubation warming profile) may be different for eggs stored over short and long periods of time because embryo viability is dependent on egg storage time. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preincubation warming profiles affect embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality when eggs are stored for a short or prolonged time. Two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, a 2x2 completely randomized design was used with 2 storage times (4 and 14 d at 17 degrees C in experiment I and 4 and 13 d at 19 degrees C in experiment II) and 2 preincubation warming profiles (within 4 or 24 h from storage temperature to 37.8 degrees C). In experiment I, results suggested that the effect of preincubation warming profile on hatchability was dependent on storage time. However, because a low number of eggs were used in this experiment, these differences were not significant. In experiment II, the interaction between storage time and preincubation warming profile was observed for embryonic mortality during the first 2 d of incubation and hatchability (P=0.006 and P=0.01, respectively). When storage time was 13 d, embryonic mortality during the first 2 d of incubation decreased by 4.4% and hatchability increased by 5.7% when the 24-h preincubation warming profile was used instead of the 4-h preincubation warming profile. However, no effect of preincubation warming profile was observed when storage time was 4 d. In both experiments, chick quality decreased when storage time increased but was not affected by preincubation warming profile. We concluded that a slow preincubation warming profile is beneficial for hatchability when storage time is prolonged

  11. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  12. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S

    1997-02-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters