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Sample records for affect disease risk

  1. How do economic crises affect migrants’ risk of infectious disease? A systematic-narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. Methods: We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. Results: The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. Conclusions: There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for

  2. CFH Variants Affect Structural and Functional Brain Changes and Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Jin; Wu, Huan; Cui, Yue; Bi, Rui; Zhou, He-Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Li, Tao; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Tianzi; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The immune response is highly active in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of genetic risk contributed by immune genes to AD may provide essential insight for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we performed a genetic screening for AD-related top immune genes identified in Europeans in a Chinese cohort, followed by a multiple-stage study focusing on Complement Factor H (CFH) gene. Effects of the risk SNPs on AD-related neuroimaging endophenotypes were evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the effects on AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and CFH expression changes were measured in aged and AD brain tissues and AD cellular models. Our results showed that the AD-associated top immune genes reported in Europeans (CR1, CD33, CLU, and TREML2) have weak effects in Chinese, whereas CFH showed strong effects. In particular, rs1061170 (P(meta)=5.0 × 10(-4)) and rs800292 (P(meta)=1.3 × 10(-5)) showed robust associations with AD, which were confirmed in multiple world-wide sample sets (4317 cases and 16 795 controls). Rs1061170 (P=2.5 × 10(-3)) and rs800292 (P=4.7 × 10(-4)) risk-allele carriers have an increased entorhinal thickness in their young age and a higher atrophy rate as the disease progresses. Rs800292 risk-allele carriers have higher CSF tau and Aβ levels and severe cognitive decline. CFH expression level, which was affected by the risk-alleles, was increased in AD brains and cellular models. These comprehensive analyses suggested that CFH is an important immune factor in AD and affects multiple pathological changes in early life and during disease progress.

  3. CFH Variants Affect Structural and Functional Brain Changes and Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Jin; Wu, Huan; Cui, Yue; Bi, Rui; Zhou, He-Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Li, Tao; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Tianzi; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The immune response is highly active in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of genetic risk contributed by immune genes to AD may provide essential insight for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we performed a genetic screening for AD-related top immune genes identified in Europeans in a Chinese cohort, followed by a multiple-stage study focusing on Complement Factor H (CFH) gene. Effects of the risk SNPs on AD-related neuroimaging endophenotypes were evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the effects on AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and CFH expression changes were measured in aged and AD brain tissues and AD cellular models. Our results showed that the AD-associated top immune genes reported in Europeans (CR1, CD33, CLU, and TREML2) have weak effects in Chinese, whereas CFH showed strong effects. In particular, rs1061170 (P(meta)=5.0 × 10(-4)) and rs800292 (P(meta)=1.3 × 10(-5)) showed robust associations with AD, which were confirmed in multiple world-wide sample sets (4317 cases and 16 795 controls). Rs1061170 (P=2.5 × 10(-3)) and rs800292 (P=4.7 × 10(-4)) risk-allele carriers have an increased entorhinal thickness in their young age and a higher atrophy rate as the disease progresses. Rs800292 risk-allele carriers have higher CSF tau and Aβ levels and severe cognitive decline. CFH expression level, which was affected by the risk-alleles, was increased in AD brains and cellular models. These comprehensive analyses suggested that CFH is an important immune factor in AD and affects multiple pathological changes in early life and during disease progress. PMID:26243271

  4. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  5. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    PubMed

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat.

  6. A Common Polymorphism in EC-SOD Affects Cardiopulmonary Disease Risk by Altering Protein Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hartney, John M.; Stidham, Timothy; Goldstrohm, David A.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Weaver, Michael R.; Valnickova-Hansen, Zuzana; Scavenius, Carsten; Benninger, Richard K.P.; Leahy, Katelyn F.; Johnson, Richard; Gally, Fabienne; Kosmider, Beata; Zimmermann, Angela K.; Enghild, Jan J.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Bowler, Russell P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD; SOD3) is a major antioxidant defense in lung and vasculature. A nonsynonomous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EC-SOD (rs1799895) leads to an arginine to glycine (Arg->Gly) amino acid substitution at position 213 (R213G) in the heparin-binding domain (HBD). In recent human genetic association studies, this SNP attenuates the risk of lung disease, yet paradoxically increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Capitalizing on the complete sequence homology between human and mouse in the HBD, we created an analogous R213G SNP knockin mouse. The R213G SNP did not change enzyme activity, but shifted the distribution of EC-SOD from lung and vascular tissue to extracellular fluid (e.g. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma). This shift reduces susceptibility to lung disease (lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury) and increases susceptibility to cardiopulmonary disease (chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension). Conclusions We conclude that EC-SOD provides optimal protection when localized to the compartment subjected to extracellular oxidative stress: thus, the redistribution of EC-SOD from the lung and pulmonary circulation to the extracellular fluids is beneficial in alveolar lung disease but detrimental in pulmonary vascular disease. These findings account for the discrepant risk associated with R213G in humans with lung diseases compared with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25085920

  7. A new approach to assessing affect and the emotional implications of personal genomic testing for common disease risk

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Suzanne C.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Baytop, Chanza; Alford, Sharon Hensley; McBride, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Personal genomic testing (PGT) for common disease risk is becoming increasingly frequent, but little is known about people's array of emotional reactions to learning their genomic risk profiles and the psychological harms/benefits of PGT. We conducted a study of post-PGT affect, including positive, neutral, and negative states that may arise after testing. Methods Two hundred twenty-eight healthy adults received PGT for common disease variants and completed a semi-structured research interview within two weeks of disclosure. Study participants reported how PGT results made them feel in their own words. Using an iterative coding process, responses were organized into three broad affective categories (Negative, Neutral, and Positive affect). Results Neutral affect was the most prevalent response (53.9%), followed by Positive affect (26.9%) and Negative affect (19.2%). We found no differences by gender, race or education. Conclusions While <20% of participants reported negative affect in response to learning their genomic risk profile for common disease, a majority experience either neutral or positive emotions. These findings contribute to the growing evidence that PGT does not impose significant psychological harms. Moreover, they point to a need to better link theories and assessments in both emotional and cognitive processing to capitalize on PGT information for healthy behavior change. PMID:25612474

  8. Anger, Anxiety, and Depression as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The Problems and Implications of Overlapping Affective Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sul, Jerry; Bunde, James

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reviews (e.g., L. C. Gallo & K. Matthews, 2003; A. Rozanski, J. A. Blumenthal, & J. Kaplan, 1999; R. Rugulies, 2002) have identified 3 affective dispositions--depression, anxiety, and anger-hostility--as putative risk factors for coronary heart disease. There are, however, mixed and negative results. Following a critical summary of…

  9. Risk and protective haplotypes of the alpha-synuclein gene associated with Parkinson's disease differentially affect cognitive sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kéri, S; Nagy, H; Myers, C E; Benedek, G; Shohamy, D; Gluck, M A

    2008-02-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA) is a key factor in the regulation of dopaminergic transmission and is related to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of risk and protective SNCA haplotypes associated with Parkinson's disease on cognitive sequence learning in 204 healthy volunteers. We found that the 3'-block risk SNCA haplotypes are associated with less effective stimulus-reward learning of sequences and with superior context representation of sequences. In contrast, participants with protective haplotypes exhibit better stimulus-reward learning and worse context representation, which suggest that these functions are inversely affected by risk and protective haplotypes. The Rep1 promoter polymorphism does not influence cognitive sequence learning. Because stimulus-reward learning may be mediated by the basal ganglia and context learning may be related to the medial temporal lobe, our data raise the possibility that dopaminergic signals regulated by SNCA inversely affect these memory systems.

  10. Transcriptome Changes Affecting Hedgehog and Cytokine Signalling in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Stünkel, Walter; Tng, Emilia; Tan, Jun Hao; Chen, Li; Joseph, Roy; Cheong, Clara Y.; Ong, Mei-Lyn; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Kwek, Kenneth; Sheppard, Allan M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Holbrook, Joanna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Babies born at lower gestational ages or smaller birthweights have a greater risk of poorer health in later life. Both the causes of these sub-optimal birth outcomes and the mechanism by which the effects are transmitted over decades are the subject of extensive study. We investigated whether a transcriptomic signature of either birthweight or gestational age could be detected in umbilical cord RNA. Methods The gene expression patterns of 32 umbilical cords from Singaporean babies of Chinese ethnicity across a range of birthweights (1698–4151 g) and gestational ages (35–41 weeks) were determined. We confirmed the differential expression pattern by gestational age for 12 genes in a series of 127 umbilical cords of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity. Results We found that the transcriptome is substantially influenced by gestational age; but less so by birthweight. We show that some of the expression changes dependent on gestational age are enriched in signal transduction pathways, such as Hedgehog and in genes with roles in cytokine signalling and angiogenesis. We show that some of the gene expression changes we report are reflected in the epigenome. Conclusions We studied the umbilical cord which is peripheral to disease susceptible tissues. The results suggest that soma-wide transcriptome changes, preserved at the epigenetic level, may be a mechanism whereby birth outcomes are linked to the risk of adult metabolic and arthritic disease and suggest that greater attention be given to the association between premature birth and later disease risk. PMID:22808055

  11. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  12. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients with Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study).

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghei, Abbas

    2015-05-17

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases.

  13. Diversity, decoys and the dilution effect: how ecological communities affect disease risk.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P T J; Thieltges, D W

    2010-03-15

    Growing interest in ecology has recently focused on the hypothesis that community diversity can mediate infection levels and disease ('dilution effect'). In turn, biodiversity loss--a widespread consequence of environmental change--can indirectly promote increases in disease, including those of medical and veterinary importance. While this work has focused primarily on correlational studies involving vector-borne microparasite diseases (e.g. Lyme disease, West Nile virus), we argue that parasites with complex life cycles (e.g. helminths, protists, myxosporeans and many fungi) offer an excellent additional model in which to experimentally address mechanistic questions underlying the dilution effect. Here, we unite recent ecological research on the dilution effect in microparasites with decades of parasitological research on the decoy effect in macroparasites to explore key questions surrounding the relationship between community structure and disease. We find consistent evidence that community diversity significantly alters parasite transmission and pathology under laboratory as well as natural conditions. Empirical examples and simple transmission models highlight the diversity of mechanisms through which such changes occur, typically involving predators, parasite decoys, low competency hosts or other parasites. However, the degree of transmission reduction varies among diluting species, parasite stage, and across spatial scales, challenging efforts to make quantitative, taxon-specific predictions about disease. Taken together, this synthesis highlights the broad link between community structure and disease while underscoring the importance of mitigating ongoing changes in biological communities owing to species introductions and extirpations.

  14. Do beliefs of inner-city parents about disease and vaccine risks affect immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Trauth, Jeanette M.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Musa, Donald; Mainzer, Hugh; Nutini, Jean F.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand how low income, inner-city parents of preschool children think about childhood diseases and prevention and the impact that this has on late receipt of vaccines. METHODS: Parents of all children born between January 1, 1991, and May 31, 1995, whose child received medical assistance and health care at one of four inner-city, primary care clinics in Pittsburgh, PA, completed a telephone interview and gave consent for a vaccine record review. The main outcome measures were lateness for first and third diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccines (DTP) and not receiving at least four DTP, three polio virus containing and one measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) doses by 19 months. RESULTS: A total of 483 parents participated. Fifteen percent of children were late for the first DTP, 52% for the third DTP, and 40% had not received at least four DTP, three polio and one MMR by 19 months of age. Statistically significant factors associated with lateness at 19 months included: having three or more children, having two children, beliefs regarding the severity of immunization side effects, and being African American. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that a combination of life circumstances, as well as cognitive factors were associated with late immunization. PMID:12392046

  15. Do Beliefs of Inner-City Parents About Disease and Vaccine Risks Affect Immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Trauth, Jeanette M.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Musa, Donald; Mainzer, Hugh; Nutini, Jean F.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to understand how low income, inner-city parents of preschool children think about childhood diseases and prevention and the impact that this has on late receipt of vaccines. Methods. Parents of all children born between 1/1/91 and 5/31/95, whose child received medical assistance and their health care at one of four inner-city, primary care clinics in Pittsburgh, PA., completed a telephone interview and gave consent for a vaccine record review. The main outcome measures were lateness for first and third diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccines (DTP) and not receiving at least 4 DTP, 3 polio virus containing and 1 measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) doses by 19 months. Results. 483 parents participated. Fifteen percent of children were late for the first DTP, 52% for the third DTP and, 40% had not received at least 4 DTP, 3 polio and 1 MMR by 19 months of age. Statistically significant factors associated with lateness at 19 months included: having three or more children, having two children, beliefs regarding the severity of immunization side effects and, being African American. Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that a combination of life circumstances as well as cognitive factors were associated with late immunization.

  16. Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E

    2015-04-01

    This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.

  17. Genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R affect multiple sclerosis disease risk and progression

    PubMed Central

    Traboulsee, Anthony L.; Bernales, Cecily Q.; Ross, Jay P.; Lee, Joshua D.; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have associated genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study we describe the association between IL2RA (rs2104286) and IL7R (rs6897932) in the Canadian population. Genotyping 1,978 MS patients and 830 controls failed to identify any significant association between these variants and disease risk. However, stratified analysis for family history of disease, and disease course identified a trend towards association for IL2RA in patients without a family history (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 0.77), and a significant association between IL7R and patients who developed progressive MS (PrMS) (p = 0.002; odds ratio = 0.73). Although not statistically significant, the effect of IL2RA (rs2104286) in patients without a family history of MS indicates that the genetic components for familial and sporadic disease are perhaps distinct. This data suggests the onset of sporadic disease is likely determined by a large number of variants of small effect, whereas MS in patients with a family history of disease is caused by a few deleterious variants. In addition, the significant association between PrMS and rs6897932 indicates that IL7R may not be disease-causing but a determinant of disease course. Further characterization of the effect of IL2RA and IL7R genetic variants in defined MS subtypes is warranted to evaluate the effect of these genes on specific clinical outcomes and to further elucidate the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. PMID:24770783

  18. Rare Variants in PLD3 Do Not Affect Risk for Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease in a European Consortium Cohort.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Rita; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Geerts, Nathalie; Laureys, Annelies; Dillen, Lubina; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Gelpi, Ellen; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santana, Isabel; Tsolaki, Magda; Koutroumani, Maria; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Matej, Radoslav; Rohan, Zdenek; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P; Cras, Patrick; van der Zee, Julie; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Rare variants in the phospholipase D3 gene (PLD3) were associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). We identified a missense mutation in PLD3 in whole-genome sequence data of a patient with autopsy confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and onset age of 50 years. Subsequently, we sequenced PLD3 in a Belgian early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) patient (N = 261) and control (N = 319) cohort, as well as in European EOAD patients (N = 946) and control individuals (N = 1,209) ascertained in different European countries. Overall, we identified 22 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1%, 20 missense and two splicing mutations. Burden analysis did not provide significant evidence for an enrichment of rare PLD3 variants in EOAD patients in any of the patient/control cohorts. Also, meta-analysis of the PLD3 data, including a published dataset of a German EOAD cohort, was not significant (P = 0.43; OR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.60-3.31). Consequently, our data do not support a role for PLD3 rare variants in the genetic etiology of EOAD in European EOAD patients. Our data corroborate the negative replication data obtained in LOAD studies and therefore a genetic role of PLD3 in AD remains to be demonstrated.

  19. Rare Variants in PLD3 Do Not Affect Risk for Early‐Onset Alzheimer Disease in a European Consortium Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cacace, Rita; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Geerts, Nathalie; Laureys, Annelies; Dillen, Lubina; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Chiang, Huei‐Hsin; Pastor, Pau; Ortega‐Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A.; Diehl‐Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez‐Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Gelpi, Ellen; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santana, Isabel; Tsolaki, Magda; Koutroumani, Maria; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Matej, Radoslav; Rohan, Zdenek; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P.; Cras, Patrick; van der Zee, Julie; Sleegers, Kristel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rare variants in the phospholipase D3 gene (PLD3) were associated with increased risk for late‐onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). We identified a missense mutation in PLD3 in whole‐genome sequence data of a patient with autopsy confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and onset age of 50 years. Subsequently, we sequenced PLD3 in a Belgian early‐onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) patient (N = 261) and control (N = 319) cohort, as well as in European EOAD patients (N = 946) and control individuals (N = 1,209) ascertained in different European countries. Overall, we identified 22 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1%, 20 missense and two splicing mutations. Burden analysis did not provide significant evidence for an enrichment of rare PLD3 variants in EOAD patients in any of the patient/control cohorts. Also, meta‐analysis of the PLD3 data, including a published dataset of a German EOAD cohort, was not significant (P = 0.43; OR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.60–3.31). Consequently, our data do not support a role for PLD3 rare variants in the genetic etiology of EOAD in European EOAD patients. Our data corroborate the negative replication data obtained in LOAD studies and therefore a genetic role of PLD3 in AD remains to be demonstrated. PMID:26411346

  20. Deep Sequencing of the Nicastrin Gene in Pooled DNA, the Identification of Genetic Variants That Affect Risk of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lupton, Michelle K.; Proitsi, Petroula; Danillidou, Makrina; Tsolaki, Magda; Hamilton, Gillian; Wroe, Richard; Pritchard, Megan; Lord, Kathryn; Martin, Belinda M.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Harold, Denise; Hollingworth, Paul; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Nicastrin is an obligatory component of the γ-secretase; the enzyme complex that leads to the production of Aβ fragments critically central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analyses of the effects of common variation in this gene on risk for late onset AD have been inconclusive. We investigated the effect of rare variation in the coding regions of the Nicastrin gene in a cohort of AD patients and matched controls using an innovative pooling approach and next generation sequencing. Five SNPs were identified and validated by individual genotyping from 311 cases and 360 controls. Association analysis identified a non-synonymous rare SNP (N417Y) with a statistically higher frequency in cases compared to controls in the Greek population (OR 3.994, CI 1.105–14.439, p = 0.035). This finding warrants further investigation in a larger cohort and adds weight to the hypothesis that rare variation explains some of genetic heritability still to be identified in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21364883

  1. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian; Wang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  2. Familial Risk of Sjögren's Syndrome and Co‐aggregation of Autoimmune Diseases in Affected Families: A Nationwide Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chang‐Fu; Grainge, Matthew J.; Valdes, Ana M.; See, Lai‐Chu; Luo, Shue‐Fen; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate familial aggregation of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and the relative risks (RRs) of other autoimmune disease in relatives of patients with SS. Methods We identified 23,658,577 beneficiaries enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance system in 2010, of whom 12,754 had SS. We identified 21,009,551 parent–child relationships and 17,168,340 pairs of full siblings. The familial risks of SS and other autoimmune diseases, tetrachoric correlation, and familial transmission were estimated. Results We identified 105 patients with SS who had an affected first‐degree relative. The RR of SS was 18.99 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.76–36.93) in siblings of patients with SS, 11.31 (95% CI 8.34–15.33) in offspring, and 12.46 (95% CI 9.34–16.62) in parents. Tetrachoric correlation coefficients were 0.53 (95% CI 0.41–0.65) for cotwins of affected individuals and 0.21 (95% CI 0.16–0.26) for full siblings. The familial transmission (heritability plus shared environmental contribution) was 0.54 (95% CI 0.44–0.77). In first‐degree relatives of patients with SS, the RRs were 2.95 (95% CI 2.33–3.73) for rheumatoid arthritis, 6.25 (95% CI 5.15–7.58) for systemic lupus erythematosus, 2.39 (95% CI 0.77–7.41) for systemic sclerosis, 0.71 (95% CI 0.10–5.07) for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, 1.97 (95% CI 1.29–3.02) for type 1 diabetes mellitus, 3.38 (95% CI 1.26–9.05) for multiple sclerosis, 1.67 (95% CI 0.83–3.33) for myasthenia gravis, 1.25 (95% CI 1.04–1.50) for psoriasis, 1.21 (95% CI 0.39–3.76) for inflammatory bowel disease, and 2.29 (95% CI 1.19–4.40) for vasculitis. Conclusion The risk of SS and other autoimmune diseases is increased in relatives of patients with SS, and more than one‐half of phenotypic variance in SS can be explained by familial factors. PMID:25940005

  3. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Ringworm Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets ringworm? Ringworm is very common. Anyone can get ringworm, ...

  4. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  5. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    PubMed

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  6. Exploring Joint Disease Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk prediction has been a central topic of medical informatics. Although various risk prediction models have been studied in the literature, the vast majority were designed to be single-task, i.e. they only consider one target disease at a time. This becomes a limitation when in practice we are dealing with two or more diseases that are related to each other in terms of sharing common comorbidities, symptoms, risk factors, etc., because single-task prediction models are not equipped to identify these associations across different tasks. In this paper we address this limitation by exploring the application of multi-task learning framework to joint disease risk prediction. Specifically, we characterize the disease relatedness by assuming that the risk predictors underlying these diseases have overlap. We develop an optimization-based formulation that can simultaneously predict the risk for all diseases and learn the shared predictors. Our model is applied to a real Electronic Health Record (EHR) database with 7,839 patients, among which 1,127 developed Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and 477 developed Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We demonstrate that a properly designed multi-task learning algorithm is viable for joint disease risk prediction and it can discover clinical insights that single-task models would overlook. PMID:25954429

  7. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  8. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  9. Treatment of affective disorders in cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Mavrides, Nicole; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-06-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) commonly have syndromal major depression, and depression has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of depression is between 17% and 47% in CVD patients. Pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions have long been studied, and in general are safe and somewhat efficacious in decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with CVD. The impact on cardiac outcomes remains unclear. The evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that antidepressants, especially selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, are overwhelmingly safe, and likely to be effective in the treatment of depression in patients with CVD. This review describes the prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, the physiological links between depression and CVD, the treatment options for affective disorders, and the clinical trials that demonstrate efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications and psychotherapy in this patient population. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between major depressive disorder and CVD--both health behaviors and shared biological risks such as inflammation.

  10. Exploring the Factors That Affect Blood Cholesterol and Heart Disease Risk: Is Dietary Cholesterol as Bad for You as History Leads Us to Believe?12

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mitchell M.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vickers, Kasey C.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given at the 2011 Experimental Biology meetings about the latest research and a paleoanthropological perspective pertaining to the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. For much of the past 50 years, a great deal of the scientific literature regarding dietary fat and cholesterol intake has indicated a strong positive correlation with heart disease. In recent years, however, there have been a number of epidemiological studies that did not support a relationship between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease. Further, a number of recent clinical trials that looked at the effects of long-term egg consumption (as a vehicle for dietary cholesterol) reported no negative impact on various indices of cardiovascular health and disease. Coupled with data indicating that the impact of lowering dietary cholesterol intake on serum LDL levels is small compared with other dietary and lifestyle factors, there is a need to consider how otherwise healthy foods can be incorporated in the diet to meet current dietary cholesterol recommendations. Because eggs are a healthful food, it is particularly important that sensible strategies be recommended for inclusions of eggs in a healthy diet. PMID:22983850

  11. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    PubMed

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  12. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jamal A, Homa DH, O’Connor E, Babb SD, Caraballo RS, Singh T, et al. Current cigarette ... Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your Risk Factors Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  13. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  14. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  15. A multicenter prospective study on the risk of acquiring liver disease in anti-hepatitis C virus negative patients affected from homozygous beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Prati, D; Zanella, A; Farma, E; De Mattei, C; Bosoni, P; Zappa, M; Picone, A; Mozzi, F; Rebulla, P; Cappellini, M D; Allain, J P; Sirchia, G

    1998-11-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis has been recently reduced, transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients may still develop liver disease due to viral infection or iron overload. We assessed the frequency and causes of liver dysfunction in a cohort of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) negative thalassemics. Of 1,481 thalassemics enrolled in 31 centers, 219 (14.8%) tested anti-HCV- by second-generation assays; 181 completed a 3-year follow-up program consisting of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) measurement at each transfusion and anti-HCV determination by third-generation enzyme-immunoassay (EIA-3) at the end of study. Serum ferritin levels were determined at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Ten patients were anti-HCV+ by EIA-3 at the end of follow-up. Of them, seven were already positive in 1992 to 1993 when the initial sera were retested by EIA-3, one tested indeterminate by confirmatory assay, and two had true seroconversion (incidence, 4. 27/1,000 person years; risk of infection, 1/7,100 blood units, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 in 2,000-1 in 71,000 units). At baseline, 67 of 174 thalassemics had abnormal ALT. Of those with normal ALT, seven subsequently developed at least one episode of moderate ALT increase (incidence, 24.6/1,000 person-years). All of the 20 patients with ferritin values >/=3,000 ng/mL had clinically relevant ALT abnormalities, as compared with 53 of 151 with <3,000 ng/mL (P < .005). Hepatic dysfunction is still frequent in thalassemics. Although it is mainly attributable to siderosis and primary HCV infection, the role of undiscovered transmissible agents cannot be excluded.

  16. Chagas Disease Risk in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E.; Frank, David M.; Rivaldi, Chissa–Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez–Cordero, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. Methods and Findings The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five–stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post–1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc–minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence–based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag–York–Mollié model and post–1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk

  17. Legionnaires' disease--risk management.

    PubMed

    Mount, Steve

    2012-10-01

    Steve Mount, an independent Legionella management consultant and trainer with over 25 years' previous experience in microbiology and UKAS-accredited Legionella analysis, underlines the rising number of nosocomial cases of Legionnaires' disease in recent years, and explains the key risk assessment, management, and monitoring steps that must be taken by those responsible for hospital water systems to comply with legislation governing the 'control and management' of Legionella risk.

  18. Epigenetic Inheritance of Disease and Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic marks in an organism can be altered by environmental factors throughout life. Although changes in the epigenetic code can be positive, some are associated with severe diseases, in particular, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent evidence has indicated that certain epigenetic marks can be inherited, and reshape developmental and cellular features over generations. This review examines the challenging possibility that epigenetic changes induced by environmental factors can contribute to some of the inheritance of disease and disease risk. This concept has immense implications for the understanding of biological functions and disease etiology, and provides potential novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Examples of epigenetic inheritance relevant to human disease, such as the detrimental effects of traumatic stress or drug/toxic exposure on brain functions, are reviewed. Different possible routes of transmission of epigenetic information involving the germline or germline-independent transfer are discussed, and different mechanisms for the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic information like chromatin remodeling and small noncoding RNAs are considered. Future research directions and remaining major challenges in this field are also outlined. Finally, the adaptive value of epigenetic inheritance, and the cost and benefit of allowing acquired epigenetic marks to persist across generations is critically evaluated. PMID:22781843

  19. Timing Conception Might Help Reduce Zika Risk in Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160127.html Timing Conception Might Help Reduce Zika Risk in Affected Areas Researcher suggests attempting pregnancy ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women in Zika-affected countries might reduce their risk of infection ...

  1. Orange juice–derived flavanone and phenolic metabolites do not acutely affect cardiovascular risk biomarkers: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in men at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease12345

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Manuel Y; Curtis, Peter J; Hazim, Sara; Ostertag, Luisa M; Kay, Colin D; Potter, John F; Cassidy, Aedín

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic data suggest inverse associations between citrus flavanone intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, insufficient randomized controlled trial data limit our understanding of the mechanisms by which flavanones and their metabolites potentially reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: We examined the effects of orange juice or a dose-matched hesperidin supplement on plasma concentrations of established and novel flavanone metabolites and their effects on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in men at moderate CVD risk. Design: In an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 16 fasted participants (aged 51–69 y) received orange juice or a hesperidin supplement (both providing 320 mg hesperidin) or control (all matched for sugar and vitamin C content). At baseline and 5 h postintake, endothelial function (primary outcome), blood pressure, arterial stiffness, cardiac autonomic function, platelet activation, and NADPH oxidase gene expression and plasma flavanone metabolites were assessed. Before each intervention, a diet low in flavonoids, nitrate/nitrite, alcohol, and caffeine was followed, and a standardized low-flavonoid evening meal was consumed. Results: Orange juice intake significantly elevated mean ± SEM plasma concentrations of 8 flavanone (1.75 ± 0.35 μmol/L, P < 0.0001) and 15 phenolic (13.27 ± 2.22 μmol/L, P < 0.0001) metabolites compared with control at 5 h postconsumption. Despite increased plasma flavanone and phenolic metabolite concentrations, cardiovascular risk biomarkers were unaltered. After hesperidin supplement intake, flavanone metabolites were not different from the control, suggesting altered absorption/metabolism compared with the orange juice matrix. Conclusions: After single-dose flavanone intake within orange juice, circulating flavanone and phenolic metabolites collectively reached a concentration of 15.20 ± 2.15 μmol/L, but no effects were observed on cardiovascular risk

  2. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  3. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body. PMID:25026144

  4. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body.

  5. [Agriculture in Italy nowadays: ancient risks and emerging diseases].

    PubMed

    Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Since produce food using the environment, agricultural activities are fundamental for human and environmental health. They expose workers to all the known health and safety risks: pesticides and other chemicals, noise, vibrations, solar radiation, climate changes, organisational factors, biological, biomechanical and allergic risks. Also the risk of accidents is very relevant. Apart for these well-known risks, new risks and diseases are emerging, such as biological risk from vectors, modulated by climate changes, or risks related to new production modalities, such as the cases of peripheral neuropathy observed in pig butchers. The risks can affect particularly vulnerable groups, such as seasonal, temporary workers and migrants. Currently, in Italy, an increase in reports of occupational diseases in the sector is being observed, in particular for musculoskeletal disorders. Such increase finds an explanation not in a worsening situation at the workplace but in an increasing attention for rural workers accompanied by an increased reporting of occupational diseases. PMID:24303715

  6. Inherited metabolic diseases affecting the carrier.

    PubMed

    Endres, W

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this review is to draw attention to those inherited metabolic traits which are potentially harmful also for the carrier, and to outline preventive measures, at least for obligate heterozygotes, i.e. parents of homozygous children. Concerning carriers of food-dependent abnormalities, early vascular disease in homocystinuria, hyperammonaemic episodes in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, presenile cataracts in galactosaemia as well as galactokinase deficiency, spastic paraparesis in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and HELLP syndrome in mothers of babies with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency have to be mentioned. In the group of food-independent disorders, clinical features in carriers may be paraesthesias and corneal dystrophy in Fabry disease, lens clouding in Lowe syndrome, lung and/or liver diseases in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, and renal stones in cystinuria type II and III. Finally, two monogenic carrier states are known which in pregnant individuals could possibly afflict the developing fetus, i.e. heterozygosity for galactosaemia and for phenylketonuria. Elevated levels of galactose-1-phosphate have been found in red blood cells of infants heterozygous for galactosaemia born to heterozygous mothers. Aspartame in very high doses is reported to increase blood phenylalanine levels in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria, thus being a risk for the fetus of a heterozygous mother. For some of these carrier states preventive measures can be recommended, e.g. restriction of lactose in parents and heterozygous grandparents of children with galactosaemia and galactokinase deficiency as well as transiently in infants heterozygous for galactosaemia, dietary supplementation with monounsaturated fatty acids in symptomatic carriers for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, avoidance of smoking and alcohol in heterozygotes for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, avoidance of episodes of dehydration in heterozygotes for cystinuria, and

  7. Does Anticipation Training Affect Drivers' Risk Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Frank P.; Horswill, Mark S.; Alexander, Jane L.

    2006-01-01

    Skill and risk taking are argued to be independent and to require different remedial programs. However, it is possible to contend that skill-based training could be associated with an increase, a decrease, or no change in risk-taking behavior. In 3 experiments, the authors examined the influence of a skill-based training program (hazard…

  8. How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

    2013-01-01

    Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness.

  9. How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

    2013-01-01

    Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness. PMID:23495639

  10. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  11. Affect regulation and HIV risk among youth in therapeutic schools

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595

  12. Risk factors and early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Postma, Dirkje S; Bush, Andrew; van den Berge, Maarten

    2015-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly a smoking-related disorder and affects millions of people worldwide, with a large effect on individual patients and society as a whole. Although the disease becomes clinically apparent around the age of 40-50 years, its origins can begin very early in life. Different risk factors in very early life--ie, in utero and during early childhood--drive the development of clinically apparent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in later life. In discussions of which risk factors drive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is important to realise that the disease is very heterogeneous and at present is largely diagnosed by lung function only. In this Review, we will discuss the evidence for risk factors for the various phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during different stages of life.

  13. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xiangyuan; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  14. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Ng, Fu Liang; Chan, Kenneth; Pu, Xiangyuan; Poston, Robin N; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Wu, Jingchun; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T; Caulfield, Mark J; Ye, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  15. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  16. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

    2011-11-14

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information.

  17. Risk factors in familial forms of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2010-04-21

    Celiac disease has been reported in up to 2% of some European populations. A similar risk has been identified in the America and Australia where immigration of Europeans has occurred. Moreover, an increasing number of celiac disease patients are being identified in many Asian countries, including China and India. Finally, celiac disease has also been detected in Asian immigrants and their descendants to other countries, such as Canada. Within these so-called "general" celiac populations, however, there are specific high risk groups that have an even higher prevalence of celiac disease. Indeed, the single most important risk factor for celiac disease is having a first-degree relative with already-defined celiac disease, particularly a sibling. A rate up to 20% or more has been noted. Risk is even greater if a specific family has 2 siblings affected, particularly if a male carries the human leukocyte antigen-DQ2. Both structural changes in the small bowel architecture occur along with functional changes in permeability, even in asymptomatic first-degree relatives. Even if celiac disease is not evident, the risk of other autoimmune disorders seems significantly increased in first-degree relatives as well as intestinal lymphoma. Identification of celiac disease is important since recent long-term studies have shown that the mortality of celiac disease is increased, if it is unrecognized and untreated.

  18. Judging risk for multiple diseases: the role of disease worry.

    PubMed

    Senay, Ibrahim; Hensley-Alford, Sharon; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2013-04-01

    Risk perceptions and disease worry of 1,959 healthy adults were measured in a telephone-based survey. In the model for each of eight health conditions, people's perceived risk was related to their worry for that condition (p < .0001) and their worry for the other seven conditions (p < .001). There was also an interaction indicating that the less people were worried about a certain condition, the more their worry about the other seven conditions increased their risk perception for that condition (p < .0001). The results are important for preventing biased risk perceptions in multiple-disease contexts. PMID:22843634

  19. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  20. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. March 5, 2014​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  1. Analyzing disease risks associated with translocations.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Anthony W; Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca J

    2012-06-01

    Translocations of species are expected to be used increasingly to counter the undesirable effects of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, including loss of species. Methods to assess the risk of disease associated with translocations have been compiled in a comprehensive manual of disease-risk analysis for movement of domestic animals. We used this manual to devise a qualitative method for assessing the probability of the occurrence of disease in wild animals associated with translocations. We adapted the method such that we considered a parasite (any agent of infectious or noninfectious disease) a hazard if it or the host had crossed an ecological or geographical barrier and was novel to the host. We included in our analyses hazards present throughout the translocation pathway derived from the interactions between host immunity and the parasite, the effect of parasites on populations, the effect of noninfectious disease agents, and the effect of stressors on host-parasite interactions. We used the reintroduction of Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) to England to demonstrate our method. Of the 24 hazards identified, 1 was classified as high risk (coccidia) and 5 were medium risk (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, Mycobacterium avium, Aspergillus fumigatus, tracheal worms [Syngamus sp. and Cyathostoma sp.], and Tetrameres spp.). Seventeen other hazards were considered low or very low risk. In the absence of better information on the number, identity, distribution, and pathogenicity of parasites of wild animals, there is uncertainty in the risk of disease to translocated animals and recipient populations. Surveys of parasites in source and destination populations and detailed health monitoring after release will improve the information available for future analyses of disease risk. We believe our method can be adapted to assess the risks of disease in other translocated populations. PMID:22533691

  2. How pregnancy can affect autoimmune diseases progression?

    PubMed

    Piccinni, Marie-Pierre; Lombardelli, Letizia; Logiodice, Federica; Kullolli, Ornela; Parronchi, Paola; Romagnani, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune disorders are characterized by tissue damage, caused by self-reactivity of different effectors mechanisms of the immune system, namely antibodies and T cells. Their occurrence may be associated with genetic and/or environmental predisposition and to some extent, have implications for fertility and obstetrics. The relationship between autoimmunity and reproduction is bidirectional. This review only addresses the impact of pregnancy on autoimmune diseases and not the influence of autoimmunity on pregnancy development. Th17/Th1-type cells are aggressive and pathogenic in many autoimmune disorders and inflammatory diseases. The immunology of pregnancy underlies the role of Th2-type cytokines to maintain the tolerance of the mother towards the fetal semi-allograft. Non-specific factors, including hormonal changes, favor a switch to Th2-type cytokine profile. In pregnancy Th2, Th17/Th2 and Treg cells accumulate in the decidua but may also be present in the mother's circulation and can regulate autoimmune responses influencing the progression of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27651750

  3. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of people who have diabetes die of some type of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic women are at especially high risk for dying ... aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart ... levels—you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. But you can take steps to ...

  4. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Ginghina, C.; Bejan, I.; Ceck, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information. Abbreviations: ACS = acute coronary syndrome; AMI = acute myocardial infarction; BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; BP = blood pressure; BPs

  5. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  6. The risk of Parkinson's disease in type 1 Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Bultron, Gilberto; Kacena, Katherine; Pearson, Daniel; Boxer, Michael; Yang, Ruhua; Sathe, Swati; Pastores, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In Gaucher disease, defective lysosomal glucocerebrosidase due to mutations in the GBA1 gene results in lysosomal accumulation of glucocerebroside in mononuclear phagocytes and a multisystemic phenotype. Observations of occurrence of Parkinson's disease in some patients with non-neuronopathic type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) and their first degree relatives has led to the identification of GBA1 heterozygous mutations as a genetic risk factor for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the magnitude of risk of PD in patients with known GD1 has not been determined, and it is not known whether GD1/PD represents a specific sub-phenotype of GD1 with distinctive genotype/phenotype characteristics. We estimated the risk of PD in a cohort of 444 consecutively evaluated patients with GD1 compared to that in the general population. Eleven patients developed parkinsonian syndrome during a 12-year follow-up period. The adjusted life-time risk ratio of PD in GD1 compared to that in the general population was 21.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 10.7–38.3], with a higher risk in men compared to women. In our cohort, GD1/Parkinson's disease phenotype (GD1/PD) was characterized by higher GD1 severity score, due to higher incidence of avascular osteonecrosis. The clinical spectrum of PD varied from mild to potentially life-threatening disease. All but one patient with GD1/PD phenotype had at least one N370S GBA1 allele. In conclusion, compared to the general population, patients with GD1 have an almost 20-fold increased life-time risk of developing PD. PMID:20177787

  7. Analysis of genetics and risk factors of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Panpalli Ates, M; Karaman, Y; Guntekin, S; Ergun, M A

    2016-06-14

    Alzheimer's Disease is the leading neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood yet, is believed to be the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Consequently vascular risk factors and Apolipoprotein E genotyping are increasingly gaining importance. This study aimed at assessing the relationships between Alzheimer's Disease and Apolipoprotein E phenotype and vascular risk factors. Patients diagnosed with "possible Alzheimer's Disease" in the Gazi University, Department of Neurology, were included in the study and age-matched volunteer patients who attended the polyclinic were included as a control group. In this study, the risk factors including low education level, smoking, hyperlipidemia, higher serum total cholesterol levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia were found to be statistically significantly more common in the Alzheimer's Disease group in comparison to the Control Group, while all Apolipoprotein E ε4/ε4 genotypes were found in the Alzheimer's Disease group. The presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is believed to increase vascular risk factors as well as to affect Alzheimer's Disease directly. The biological indicators which are used in identifying the patients' genes will be probably used in the treatment plan of the patients in the future.

  8. How should environmental stress affect the population dynamics of disease?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Holt, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    We modelled how stress affects the population dynamics of infectious disease. We were specifically concerned with stress that increased susceptibility of uninfected hosts when exposed to infection. If such stresses also reduced resources, fecundity and/or survivorship, there was a reduction in the host carrying capacity. This lowered the contact between infected and uninfected hosts, thereby decreasing transmission. In addition, stress that increased parasite mortality decreased disease. The opposing effects of stress on disease dynamics made it difficult to predict the response of disease to environmental stress. We found analytical solutions with negative, positive, convex and concave associations between disease and stress. Numerical simulations with randomly generated parameter values suggested that the impact of host-specific diseases generally declined with stress while the impact of non-specific (or open) diseases increased with stress. These results help clarify predictions about the interaction between environmental stress and disease in natural populations.

  9. Predicting Disease Risk Using Bootstrap Ranking and Classification Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Ohad; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely used to search for genetic loci that underlie human disease. Another goal is to predict disease risk for different individuals given their genetic sequence. Such predictions could either be used as a “black box” in order to promote changes in life-style and screening for early diagnosis, or as a model that can be studied to better understand the mechanism of the disease. Current methods for risk prediction typically rank single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by the p-value of their association with the disease, and use the top-associated SNPs as input to a classification algorithm. However, the predictive power of such methods is relatively poor. To improve the predictive power, we devised BootRank, which uses bootstrapping in order to obtain a robust prioritization of SNPs for use in predictive models. We show that BootRank improves the ability to predict disease risk of unseen individuals in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data and results in a more robust set of SNPs and a larger number of enriched pathways being associated with the different diseases. Finally, we show that combining BootRank with seven different classification algorithms improves performance compared to previous studies that used the WTCCC data. Notably, diseases for which BootRank results in the largest improvements were recently shown to have more heritability than previously thought, likely due to contributions from variants with low minimum allele frequency (MAF), suggesting that BootRank can be beneficial in cases where SNPs affecting the disease are poorly tagged or have low MAF. Overall, our results show that improving disease risk prediction from genotypic information may be a tangible goal, with potential implications for personalized disease screening and treatment. PMID:23990773

  10. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals.

  11. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

  12. Maternal Positive Affect Mediates the Link Between Family Risk and Preschoolers’ Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Molly; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to further specify conceptual models of youth positive affect (PA) by examining mothers’ observed PA as a mediator of the relation between family risk (based on maternal reports of demographic factors) and children’s PA in a sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00% boys). Results yielded a significant, negative correlation between family risk and child PA. Mediation analyses indicated that family risk was related to child PA through its effects on maternal PA, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. Findings suggest that family risk and maternal PA are important factors to consider in understanding preschoolers’ PA development. Identifying children at risk for developing PA difficulties can aid in the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies for promoting young children’s PA specifically, and their psychosocial functioning more broadly. PMID:25326667

  13. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice. PMID:25569710

  14. Increased risk of Graves' disease after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Benhaim Rochester, Dana; Davies, Terry F

    2005-11-01

    The improvement in autoimmune thyroid disease during pregnancy and the subsequent exacerbation postpartum is secondary to immune system changes necessary to a normal pregnancy. Prior studies have shown that a clinically significant number of women develop Graves' disease (GD) in the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of post pregnancy GD and define patient characteristics that may impact the diagnosis and treatment strategies for this group. We performed a retrospective review of 152 consecutive women, aged 18-39 years when diagnosed with GD, to examine the relation between disease diagnosis and prior pregnancy. Differences in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes of women were analyzed. New York City population data were used to estimate a relative risk for the development of postpartum GD. We found that in parous women, 45% were diagnosed with GD in the postpartum period and 55% had an onset in subsequent years. No significant differences were noted in patient characteristics or treatment outcomes. We found that the risk of women developing post pregnancy GD was greatest in the older patients (35-39 years), with 56% developing GD compared to 42% of nulliparous women. These data, therefore, suggest an increased risk for older women. We were able to calculate the increase in estimated relative risk for postpartum disease by using control population data. The risk maximized at 5.6 for the age group 35-39 years when compared to the control population. These data support earlier studies that showed that a clinically significant number of women develop GD after childbirth compared to nulliparous women and extends this risk for many years. The mechanism of this long-standing increased susceptibility requires further delineation.

  15. TOXICOGENOMICS AND HUMAN DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Toxicogenomics and Human Disease Risk Assessment.

    Complete sequencing of human and other genomes, availability of large-scale gene
    expression arrays with ever-increasing numbers of genes displayed, and steady
    improvements in protein expression technology can hav...

  16. Lipoprotein subspecies and risk of coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Musliner, T A; Krauss, R M

    1988-01-01

    This review summarizes physical and chemical properties of major subspecies of very-low-, low-, intermediate, and high-density lipoproteins. Hypotheses regarding the metabolic origins of these subspecies and evidence for their associations with risk of coronary artery disease are presented.

  17. Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

    PubMed Central

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Vinterstare, Jerker; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Skov, Christian; Brodersen, Jakob; Baktoft, Henrik; Brönmark, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic tags to record the migration of individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a partially migratory fish, in the wild following exposure to manipulation of direct (predator presence/absence) and indirect (high/low roach density) perceived predation risk in experimental mesocosms. Following exposure, we released fish in their lake summer habitat and monitored individual migration to connected streams over an entire season. Individuals exposed to increased perceived direct predation risk (i.e. a live predator) showed a higher migratory propensity but no change in migratory timing, while indirect risk (i.e. roach density) affected timing but not propensity showing that elevated risk carried over to alter migratory behaviour in the wild. Our key finding demonstrates predator-driven migratory plasticity, highlighting the powerful role of predation risk for migratory decision-making and dynamics. PMID:26311158

  18. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  19. Exercise affects joint injury risk in young Thoroughbreds in training.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzanne R; Jackson, Brendan F; Wood, James L N; Price, Joanna S; Verheyen, Kristien L P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify exercise-related risk factors for carpal and metacarpo- and metatarso-phalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint injury occurrence in young Thoroughbreds in flat race training. In a 2-year prospective cohort study, daily exercise and joint injury data were collected from horses in 13 training yards in England. Four injury categories were defined: (1) localised to a carpal or MCP/MTP joint based on clinical examination and/or use of diagnostic analgesia with no diagnostic imaging performed; (2) localised to a carpal or MCP/MTP joint with no abnormalities detected on diagnostic images; (3) abnormality of subchondral bone and/or articular margin(s) identified using diagnostic imaging; (4) fracture or fragmentation identified by diagnostic imaging. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was conducted to determine risk factors for injury occurrence, by type (carpal or MCP/MTP) and category. Exercise distances at canter and high speed in different time periods were modelled as continuous time-varying variables. A total of 647 horses spent 7785months at risk of joint injury and 184 injuries were recorded. Increasing daily canter distance reduced the risk of Category 1 and Category 3 injuries whereas greater 30-day canter distances increased Category 4 injury risk. More weekly high-speed exercise increased Category 1 injury risk. MCP/MTP injury risk reduced with increasing daily canter distance but increased with accumulation of canter or high-speed exercise since entering training, whereas accumulation of canter exercise was marginally associated with reduced carpal injury risk. Risk of all injury types varied significantly between trainers. The results of this study suggest that regular canter exercise is generally beneficial for joint health, while accumulation of high-speed exercise detrimentally affects MCP/MTP joints.

  20. Gallstone Disease and the Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Yiping; Yang, Ling; Shen, Jie; Wang, Shanqing; Li, Mingqiang; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objective Gallstone disease (GSD) is related to multiple cardiovascular risk factors; the present study was to prospectively examine the association between GSD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Approach and Results We examined the association of GSD with IHD among 199,292 men and 288,081 women aged 30–79 years in the China Kadoorie Biobank study. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline were excluded. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the association of GSD with IHD. The prevalence of self-reported GSD was 3.7% in men and 7.3% in women at baseline. During 3,431,124 person-years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median, 7.2 years), we documented 10,245 incident IHD cases in men and 14,714 in women. As compared with men without GSD at baseline, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for IHD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.22) for men with GSD; the respective hazard ratio was 1.27 (95% CI, 1.20–1.34) in women and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17–1.28) in the whole cohort. The sex difference in IHD risk associated with GSD was statistically significant (P=0.009 for interaction with sex). In addition, we found the association between GSD and IHD was stronger in non-hypertensive than hypertensive women (P<0.001 for interaction). Conclusions In this large prospective study, the presence of GSD was associated with an increased risk of incident IHD, independent of other risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggest novel prevention strategy to mitigate heart disease through improvement of gastrointestinal health. PMID:26272939

  1. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care. PMID:27568314

  2. Risk of Disease Spread through Bioterrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.

    2006-08-01

    Bioterrorism is seen as a clear and present danger, although historically, acts of bioterrorism have been relatively unpredictable, rare and, thus far, small-scale events. The risk of an event is elevated by increasing contact among species and a global connectivity that provides rapid dissemination of infectious diseases regardless of origin. Virtually any pathogenic microbe could be used by bioterrorists. An attack may be difficult to distinguish from a naturally occurring infectious disease outbreak; however, consequences are likely to be similar. The U.S. agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to bioterrorist attacks because our animals and plants have little or no innate resistance to foreign pathogens and are not vaccinated or otherwise protected against these diseases. It is also important to note that weapons or delivery systems are not an issue because the animals and plants themselves are the primary vector for transferring agents. Most bioterrorism agents are zoonotic in origin, thus an attack on animal populations could pose a health risk to humans. Additionally, disease outbreaks resulting from bioterrorism could jump to wildlife species, persist in the environment, replace locally adapted enzootic strains, expand their range, or emerge as a new zoonotic disease in naïve human and animal populations.

  3. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care.

  4. Spatial forecasting of disease risk and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, L.

    2002-01-01

    Because maps typically represent the value of a single variable over 2-dimensional space, cartographers must simplify the display of multiscale complexity, temporal dynamics, and underlying uncertainty. A choropleth disease risk map based on data for polygonal regions might depict incidence (cases per 100,000 people) within each polygon for a year but ignore the uncertainty that results from finer-scale variation, generalization, misreporting, small numbers, and future unknowns. In response to such limitations, this paper reports on the bivariate mapping of data "quantity" and "quality" of Lyme disease forecasts for states of the United States. Historical state data for 1990-2000 are used in an autoregressive model to forecast 2001-2010 disease incidence and a probability index of confidence, each of which is then kriged to provide two spatial grids representing continuous values over the nation. A single bivariate map is produced from the combination of the incidence grid (using a blue-to-red hue spectrum), and a probabilistic confidence grid (used to control the saturation of the hue at each grid cell). The resultant maps are easily interpretable, and the approach may be applied to such problems as detecting unusual disease occurences, visualizing past and future incidence, and assembling a consistent regional disease atlas showing patterns of forecasted risks in light of probabilistic confidence.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Methods Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case–control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-test for independent samples or the Mann–Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. Results All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. Conclusion These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk. PMID:24011175

  6. Animal migration and infectious disease risk.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca; Han, Barbara A

    2011-01-21

    Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

  7. Vascular quality of care pilot study: how admission to a vascular surgery service affects evidence-based pharmacologic risk factor modification in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Steenhof, Naomi; Le Piane, Francesca; Leblanc, Kori; Eisenberg, Naomi R; Kwan, Yvonne; Malmberg, Christine; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Roche-Nagle, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) guidelines recommend aggressive risk factor modification to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Recommended pharmacologic therapies include antiplatelets, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins). Purpose We studied the degree to which patient admission to a vascular surgery service increased the use of these therapies. Patients and methods The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with PAD admitted to the vascular surgery service at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. The use of recommended pharmacologic therapies at the time of admission and discharge were compared. A multidisciplinary clinical team established criteria by which patients were deemed ineligible to receive any of the recommended therapies. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were considered an alternative to ACE inhibitors. Results Prior to hospital admission, 64% of patients were on antiplatelet therapy, 67% were on an ACE inhibitor or ARB, and 71% were on a statin. At the time of discharge, 91% of patients were on an antiplatelet (or not, with an acceptable reason), 77% were on an ACE inhibitor or an ARB (or not, with an acceptable reason), and 85% were on a statin (or not, with an acceptable reason). While new prescriptions were largely responsible for improved guideline adherence with antiplatelets and statins, most of the apparent improvement in ACE inhibitor and ARB use was the result of identifying an acceptable reason for not having them prescribed. Conclusion This hypothesis generating pilot study supports the findings of others that there is suboptimal prescription of pharmacologic risk reduction therapies in the PAD population. Admission to a vascular service increases these rates. Nevertheless, some patients are still not receiving evidence-based treatment at discharge even after consideration of acceptable reasons. Strategies are needed to improve PAD guideline

  8. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  9. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  10. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  11. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  12. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  13. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  14. A Novel Statistical Model to Estimate Host Genetic Effects Affecting Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Garcia-Cortés, Luis Alberto; Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that genetic diversity can affect the spread of diseases, potentially affecting plant and livestock disease control as well as the emergence of human disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, even though computational tools can guide the control of infectious diseases, few epidemiological models can simultaneously accommodate the inherent individual heterogeneity in multiple infectious disease traits influencing disease transmission, such as the frequently modeled propensity to become infected and infectivity, which describes the host ability to transmit the infection to susceptible individuals. Furthermore, current quantitative genetic models fail to fully capture the heritable variation in host infectivity, mainly because they cannot accommodate the nonlinear infection dynamics underlying epidemiological data. We present in this article a novel statistical model and an inference method to estimate genetic parameters associated with both host susceptibility and infectivity. Our methodology combines quantitative genetic models of social interactions with stochastic processes to model the random, nonlinear, and dynamic nature of infections and uses adaptive Bayesian computational techniques to estimate the model parameters. Results using simulated epidemic data show that our model can accurately estimate heritabilities and genetic risks not only of susceptibility but also of infectivity, therefore exploring a trait whose heritable variation is currently ignored in disease genetics and can greatly influence the spread of infectious diseases. Our proposed methodology offers potential impacts in areas such as livestock disease control through selective breeding and also in predicting and controlling the emergence of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:26405030

  15. Predation risk affects reproductive physiology and demography of elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Christianson, David; Liley, Stewart; Winnie, John A

    2007-02-16

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem alter patterns of aggregation, habitat selection, vigilance, and foraging in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Antipredator behaviors like these can reduce predation risk but are also likely to carry costs. Data from five elk populations studied for 16 site years showed that progesterone concentrations (from 1489 fecal samples) declined with the ratio of elk to wolves. In turn, progesterone concentrations were a good predictor of calf recruitment in the subsequent year. Together, these data suggest that wolves indirectly affect the reproductive physiology and the demography of elk through the costs of antipredator behavior. PMID:17303746

  16. A unifying hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. III. Risk factors.

    PubMed

    Heininger, Kurt

    2000-01-01

    Normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have many features in common and, in many respects, both conditions only differ by quantitative criteria. A variety of genetic, medical and environmental factors modulate the ageing-related processes leading the brain into the devastation of AD. In accordance with the concept that AD is a metabolic disease, these risk factors deteriorate the homeostasis of the Ca(2+)-energy-redox triangle and disrupt the cerebral reserve capacity under metabolic stress. The major genetic risk factors (APP and presenilin mutations, Down's syndrome, apolipoprotein E4) are associated with a compromise of the homeostatic triangle. The pathophysiological processes leading to this vulnerability remain elusive at present, while mitochondrial mutations can be plausibly integrated into the metabolic scenario. The metabolic leitmotif is particularly evident with medical risk factors which are associated with an impaired cerebral perfusion, such as cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, cardiovascular diseases, hypo- and hypertension. Traumatic brain injury represents another example due to the persistent metabolic stress following the acute event. Thyroid diseases have detrimental sequela for cerebral metabolism as well. Furthermore, major depression and presumably chronic stress endanger susceptible brain areas mediated by a host of hormonal imbalances, particularly the HPA-axis dysregulation. Sociocultural and lifestyle factors like education, physical activity, diet and smoking may also modulate the individual risk affecting both reserve capacity and vulnerability. The pathophysiological relevance of trace metals, including aluminum and iron, is highly controversial; at any rate, they may adversely affect cellular defences, antioxidant competence in particular. The relative contribution of these factors, however, is as individual as the pattern of the factors. In familial AD, the genetic factors clearly drive the sequence of events. A strong

  17. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress). PMID:27445901

  18. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception.

    PubMed

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress). PMID:27445901

  19. Microcephaly genes and risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Wilmot, Beth; Anur, Pavana; McWeeney, Shannon; Westaway, Shawn K; Silbert, Lisa; Kramer, Patricia; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Brain development in the early stages of life has been suggested to be one of the factors that may influence an individual's risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) later in life. Four microcephaly genes, which regulate brain development in utero and have been suggested to play a role in the evolution of the human brain, were selected as candidate genes that may modulate the risk of AD. We examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging common sequence variations in these genes and risk of AD in two case-control samples. We found that the G allele of rs2442607 in microcephalin 1 was associated with an increased risk of AD (under an additive genetic model, P=0.01; odds ratio=3.41; confidence interval, 1.77-6.57). However, this association was not replicated using another case-control sample research participants from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We conclude that the common variations we measured in the 4 microcephaly genes do not affect the risk of AD or that their effect size is small. PMID:21297427

  20. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. PMID:23910371

  1. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches.

  2. Pre-Transplant Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affect Kidney Allograft Survival: A Multi-Center Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Pyo; Bae, Eunjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Yong-Jin; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Young Hoon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-transplant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors affect the development of CV events even after successful kidney transplantation (KT). However, the impact of pre-transplant CV risk factors on allograft failure (GF) has not been reported. Methods and Findings We analyzed the graft outcomes of 2,902 KT recipients who were enrolled in a multi-center cohort from 1997 to 2012. We calculated the pre-transplant CV risk scores based on the Framingham risk model using age, gender, total cholesterol level, smoking status, and history of hypertension. Vascular disease (a composite of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease) was noted in 6.5% of the patients. During the median follow-up of 6.4 years, 286 (9.9%) patients had developed GF. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, pre-transplant vascular disease was associated with an increased risk of GF (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.66–3.80). The HR for GF (comparing the highest with the lowest tertile regarding the pre-transplant CV risk scores) was 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.23). In the competing risk model, both pre-transplant vascular disease and CV risk score were independent risk factors for GF. Moreover, the addition of the CV risk score, the pre-transplant vascular disease, or both had a better predictability for GF compared to the traditional GF risk factors. Conclusions In conclusion, both vascular disease and pre-transplant CV risk score were independently associated with GF in this multi-center study. Pre-transplant CV risk assessments could be useful in predicting GF in KT recipients. PMID:27501048

  3. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment. PMID:27438779

  4. Influenza vaccination in children at high risk of respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Patria, Maria Francesca; Tagliabue, Claudia; Longhi, Benedetta; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-05-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can affect the pediatric population and health authorities throughout the world recommend influenza vaccination because of the significant risk of influenza-related complications. However, despite this recommendation, vaccine coverage is generally unsatisfactory. The aim of this review is to analyze the impact of influenza on children at high risk of respiratory disease, and the immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination in such children. The results show that there is a significant risk of influenza-related complications in preterm neonates and infants, in whom influenza vaccines are immunogenic and safe (although their efficacy has not been specifically studied). There are conflicting data concerning the effect of influenza infection on asthma morbidity in children, and whether or not influenza vaccination helps to prevent asthma exacerbations. Recent data provide no evidence that influenza is more frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis than in healthy subjects, or that it is responsible for increased lower respiratory tract morbidity. The lack of any clear correlate of protection suggests that future studies should also consider the efficacy of the different influenza vaccines and not only evaluate them in terms of immunogenicity. Furthermore, there is a need for clinical studies to assess the effectiveness of the available vaccines in patients with other rare CRDs and other chronic underlying diseases with possibly severe respiratory involvement. It is also important to determine whether children with recurrent respiratory tract infections should be included in the list of those for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. In the meantime, given the increasing evidence of the burden of influenza on the population as a whole and the benefits associated with vaccination, annual influenza vaccinations should be recommended for all children at high risk of

  5. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show—by using two 8-d laboratory protocols—that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8–15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3–29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  6. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  7. CNS-disease affecting the heart: brain-heart disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-10-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS-disorders are epilepsy, stroke, subarachanoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis, and head injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest as arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, or autonomic dysfunction. Rarer cardiac complications of CNS disorders include heart failure, systolic or diastolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension. Cardiomyopathy induced by hereditary CNS disease mainly include stress-induced myocardial dysfunction, known as Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes epilepsy, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid bleeding, or PRES syndrome. Arrhythmias induced by hereditary CNS disease include supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias leading to palpitations, dizziness, vertigo, fainting, syncope, (near) sudden cardiac death, or sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Appropriate management of cardiac involvement in CNS-disorders is essential to improve outcome of affected patients. PMID:25034054

  8. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  9. State of the Art: Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Mellitus: Complication of the Disease or of Anti-hyperglycemic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carlos A.; Lingvay, Ildiko; Vuylsteke, Valerie; Koffarnus, Robin L.; McGuire, Darren K.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal complication and the leading cause of death for patients with diabetes (DM). The efficacy of anti-hyperglycemic treatments on cardiovascular disease risk remains uncertain. Cardiovascular risk factors are affected by anti-hyperglycemic medications, as are many intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize the evidence assessing the cardiovascular effects of anti-hyperglycemic medications with regards to risk factors, intermediate markers of disease, and clinical outcomes. PMID:25963811

  10. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

  11. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

  12. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-03-28

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  13. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  14. Genomic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease in five families with multiple affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stittrich, Anna B; Ashworth, Justin; Shi, Mude; Robinson, Max; Mauldin, Denise; Brunkow, Mary E; Biswas, Shameek; Kim, Jin-Man; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Jung, Jae U; Galas, David; Serikawa, Kyle; Duerr, Richard H; Guthery, Stephen L; Peschon, Jacques; Hood, Leroy; Roach, Jared C; Glusman, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the best clinical predictor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is family history. Over 163 sequence variants have been associated with IBD in genome-wide association studies, but they have weak effects and explain only a fraction of the observed heritability. It is expected that additional variants contribute to the genomic architecture of IBD, possibly including rare variants with effect sizes larger than the identified common variants. Here we applied a family study design and sequenced 38 individuals from five families, under the hypothesis that families with multiple IBD-affected individuals harbor one or more risk variants that (i) are shared among affected family members, (ii) are rare and (iii) have substantial effect on disease development. Our analysis revealed not only novel candidate risk variants but also high polygenic risk scores for common known risk variants in four out of the five families. Functional analysis of our top novel variant in the remaining family, a rare missense mutation in the ubiquitin ligase TRIM11, suggests that it leads to increased nuclear factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling. We conclude that an accumulation of common weak-effect variants accounts for the high incidence of IBD in most, but not all families we analyzed and that a family study design can identify novel rare variants conferring risk for IBD with potentially large effect size, such as the TRIM11 p.H414Y mutation. PMID:27081563

  15. Tropical amphibian populations experience higher disease risk in natural habitats

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C. Guilherme; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss and disease are main drivers of global amphibian declines, yet the interaction between them remains largely unexplored. Here we show that paradoxically, habitat loss is negatively associated with occurrence, prevalence, and infection intensity of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in amphibian populations in the tropics. At a large spatial scale, increased habitat loss predicted lower disease risk in amphibian populations across Costa Rica and eastern Australia, even after jointly considering the effect of potential biotic and abiotic correlates. Lower host-species richness and suboptimal microclimates for Bd in disturbed habitats are potential mechanisms underlying this pattern. Furthermore, we found that anthropogenic deforestation practices biased to lowlands and natural vegetation remaining in inaccessible highlands explain increased Bd occurrence at higher elevations. At a smaller spatial scale, holding constant elevation, latitude, and macroclimate, we also found a negative relationship between habitat loss, and both Bd prevalence and infection intensity in frog populations in two landscapes of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Our results indicate that amphibians will be disproportionately affected by emerging diseases in pristine environments, and that, paradoxically, disturbed habitats may act as shelters from disease, but only for the very few species that can tolerate deforestation. Thus, tropical amphibian faunas are threatened both by destruction of natural habitats as well as increased disease in pristine forests. To curb further extinctions and develop effective mitigation and restoration programs we must look to interactions between habitat loss and disease, the two main factors at the root of global amphibian declines. PMID:21628560

  16. Tropical amphibian populations experience higher disease risk in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Becker, C Guilherme; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2011-06-14

    Habitat loss and disease are main drivers of global amphibian declines, yet the interaction between them remains largely unexplored. Here we show that paradoxically, habitat loss is negatively associated with occurrence, prevalence, and infection intensity of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in amphibian populations in the tropics. At a large spatial scale, increased habitat loss predicted lower disease risk in amphibian populations across Costa Rica and eastern Australia, even after jointly considering the effect of potential biotic and abiotic correlates. Lower host-species richness and suboptimal microclimates for Bd in disturbed habitats are potential mechanisms underlying this pattern. Furthermore, we found that anthropogenic deforestation practices biased to lowlands and natural vegetation remaining in inaccessible highlands explain increased Bd occurrence at higher elevations. At a smaller spatial scale, holding constant elevation, latitude, and macroclimate, we also found a negative relationship between habitat loss, and both Bd prevalence and infection intensity in frog populations in two landscapes of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Our results indicate that amphibians will be disproportionately affected by emerging diseases in pristine environments, and that, paradoxically, disturbed habitats may act as shelters from disease, but only for the very few species that can tolerate deforestation. Thus, tropical amphibian faunas are threatened both by destruction of natural habitats as well as increased disease in pristine forests. To curb further extinctions and develop effective mitigation and restoration programs we must look to interactions between habitat loss and disease, the two main factors at the root of global amphibian declines.

  17. Men's sexual behaviour affects their wives' risk of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Various types of human papillomavirus have been implicated as causes of cervical cancer. However, researchers have suggested that the transmission of the virus can be reduced through condom use. At least 23% of all cervical cancer in Thailand may be attributed to the lack of condom use among the customers of prostitutes. The husbands of 225 women with cervical cancer and 791 controls in Bangkok and Chiang Mai were interviewed in a study to determine whether husbands' lack of condom use with prostitutes affects their wives' risk of developing cervical cancer. The cases studied were reported between 1979 and 1988 and were limited to women born after 1930 in Bangkok and after 1925 in Chiang Mai who had lived for at least 1 year in the areas served by the three hospitals which participated in the research. Among women whose husbands first had sex with a prostitute in their teens or 20s and who did not use condoms at that time, the risk of cervical cancer is twice that of women whose husbands had never visited a prostitute. All women reported having been married only once and having had sex only with their husbands. The period between date of marriage and diagnosis of cervical cancer ranged from 6 to 45 years, with a mean and median of 24 years.

  18. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Hälldin, Jonas; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease. PMID:25352340

  19. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Hälldin, Jonas; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-10-29

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease.

  20. Epidemiology of columnaris disease affecting fishes within the same watershed.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham H; Arias, Covadonga R

    2014-07-01

    In the southeastern USA, columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare) typically affects catfish raised in earthen ponds from early spring until late summer. Recently, unusually severe outbreaks of columnaris disease occurred at the E. W. Shell Fisheries Center located in Auburn, AL, USA. During these outbreaks, catfish and other aquaculture and sport fish species that were in ponds located within the same watershed were affected. Our objective was to investigate the genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates recovered from different sites, sources, and dates to clarify the origin of these outbreaks and, ultimately, to better understand the epidemiology of columnaris disease. A total of 102 F. columnare isolates were recovered from catfishes (channel catfish Ictalurus puntactus, blue catfish I. furcatus, and their hybrid), bluegill Lepomis microchirus, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, egg masses, and water during columnaris outbreaks (from spring 2010 to summer 2012). Putative F. columnare colonies were identified following standard protocols. All isolates were ascribed to Genomovar II following restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Genetic variability among the isolates was revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism. Date of isolation explained most of the variability among our isolates, while host was the least influential parameter, denoting a lack of host specificity within Genomovar II isolates. The susceptibility of each of the isolates against commonly used antibiotics was tested by antibiogram. Our data showed that 19.6 and 12.7% of the isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline and kanamycin, respectively. PMID:24991846

  1. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  2. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Utilizing Dental Electronic Health Records Data to Predict Risk for Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Vyawahare, Karnali; Darade, Pratiksha; Paranjape, Rhucha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major cause for tooth loss and adversely affects individuals' oral health and quality of life. Research shows its potential association with systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and social habits such as smoking. This study explores mining potential risk factors from dental electronic health records to predict and display patients' contextualized risk for periodontal disease. We retrieved relevant risk factors from structured and unstructured data on 2,370 patients who underwent comprehensive oral examinations at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Predicting overall risk and displaying relationships between risk factors and their influence on the patient's oral and general health can be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians at the point of care.

  4. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  5. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk for Endometriosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... people are affected by or at risk for endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... menstruates. Factors that May Increase the Risk of Endometriosis Studies show that women are at higher risk ...

  6. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    PubMed

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits.

  7. Heart Disease Risk Perception in College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John S.; Grant, Melinda; Hill, Kathy L.; Brizzolara, Jeff; Belmont, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to assess the perception of risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) in college men and women. They surveyed 470 undergraduates from 2 major 4-year institutions who completed a questionnaire that measured perceived risks for heart disease. Sixty-eight percent of the respondents rated their risks as lower or much lower than those…

  8. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots. PMID:23692371

  9. Associating changes in the immune system with clinical diseases for interpretation in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Luster, Michael I; Germolec, Dori R; Parks, Christine G; Blaciforti, Laura; Kashon, Michael; Luebke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This overview unit discusses the relationship between immunosuppression, a potential consequence of immunotoxicity, and disease progression. It also discusses other factors, such as stress and age, that affect disease susceptibility. These factors play an important role in risk assessment for exposures to environmental factors.

  10. Isotretinoin Exposure and Risk of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rashtak, Shadi; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Marietta, Eric V.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Larson, Joseph J.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is a metabolite of vitamin A and has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects; however, a recent publication by DePaolo et al. demonstrated that in the presence of IL-15, retinoic acid can act as an adjuvant and promote inflammation against dietary proteins. Objective To evaluate the risk of overt and latent celiac disease (CD) among users of isotretinoin. Material and Methods Medical records of patients from 1995 to 2011 who had a mention of isotretinoin in their records (N = 8393) were searched for CD diagnosis using ICD-09CM codes. Isotretinoin exposure was compared across overt CD patients and their age- and gender-matched controls from the same pool. To evaluate the risk of latent CD with isotretinoin exposure, patients were overlapped with a community-based list of patients with waste serum samples that were tested for CD serology, excluding those with overt CD (2006–2011). Isotretinoin exposure was defined as the use of isotretinoin prior to CD diagnosis or serology. Results Of 8393 patients, 25 had a confirmed CD diagnosis. Compared to matched controls (N = 75), isotretinoin exposure was not significantly different between overt CD patients versus controls (36% versus 39%, respectively; P = 0.712). Likewise, latent CD defined as positive serology was not statistically different between isotretinoin exposed (N = 506) versus non-exposed (N = 571) groups (1.8% versus 1.4%, respectively; P = 0.474). Conclusions There was no association between isotretinoin use and risk of either overt or latent CD. PMID:26287738

  11. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  12. APOL1 kidney disease risk variants – an evolving landscape

    PubMed Central

    Dummer, Patrick D.; Limou, Sophie; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Heymann, Jurgen; Nelson, George; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    APOL1 genetic variants account for much of the excess risk of chronic and end stage kidney disease, which results in a significant global health disparity for persons of African ancestry. We estimate the lifetime risk of kidney disease in APOL1 dual-risk allele individuals to be at least 15%. Experimental evidence suggests a direct role of APOL1 in pore formation, cellular injury, and programmed cell death in renal injury. The APOL1 BH3 motif, often associated with cell death, is unlikely to play a role in APOL1-induced cytotoxicity as it is not conserved within the APOL family and is dispensable for cell death in vitro. We discuss two models for APOL1 trypanolytic activity: one involving lysosome permeabilization and another colloid-osmotic swelling of the cell body, as well as their relevance to human pathophysiology. Experimental evidence from human cell culture models suggests that both mechanisms may be operative. A systems biology approach whereby APOL1-associated perturbations in gene and protein expression in affected individuals are correlated with molecular pathways may be productive to elucidate APOL1 function in vivo. PMID:26215860

  13. Prion protein polymorphisms affect chronic wasting disease progression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chad J; Herbst, Allen; Duque-Velasquez, Camilo; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Bochsler, Phil; Chappell, Rick; McKenzie, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the PRNP gene in cervids naturally infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) suggested that PRNP polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of deer to infection. To test this effect, we orally inoculated 12 white-tailed deer with CWD agent. Three different PRNP alleles, wild-type (wt; glutamine at amino acid 95 and glycine at 96), Q95H (glutamine to histidine at amino acid position 95) and G96S (glycine to serine at position 96) were represented in the study cohort with 5 wt/wt, 3 wt/G96S, and 1 each wt/Q95H and Q95H/G96S. Two animals were lost to follow-up due to intercurrent disease. The inoculum was prepared from Wisconsin hunter-harvested homozygous wt/wt animals. All infected deer presented with clinical signs of CWD; the orally infected wt/wt had an average survival period of 693 days post inoculation (dpi) and G96S/wt deer had an average survival period of 956 dpi. The Q95H/wt and Q95H/G96S deer succumbed to CWD at 1,508 and 1,596 dpi respectively. These data show that polymorphisms in the PRNP gene affect CWD incubation period. Deer heterozygous for the PRNP alleles had extended incubation periods with the Q95H allele having the greatest effect.

  14. Comparison of risk perceptions and beliefs across common chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Catharine; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rothrock, Nan; Gramling, Robert; Sen, Ananda; Acheson, Louise S.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Nease, Donald E.; Ruffin, Mack T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have compared perceptions of risk, worry, severity and control across multiple diseases. This paper examines how these perceptions vary for heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and colon, breast, and ovarian cancers. Methods The data for this study came from the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr), conducted in the United States from 2005 to 2007. Healthy adults (N = 2362) from primary care practices recorded their perceptions at baseline for each disease. Analyses were conducted controlling for study site and personal risk factors. Results Perceived risk was significantly higher for cancers than for other diseases. Men worried most about getting heart disease; women worried most about getting breast cancer, followed by heart disease. Diabetes was perceived to be the least severe condition. Heart disease was perceived to be the most controllable compared to cancers, which were perceived to be the least controllable. Women had higher perceived risk and worry ratings compared to men for several diseases. Conclusions These data highlight how individuals comparatively view chronic diseases. Addressing prior disease perceptions when communicating multiple disease risks may facilitate an accurate understanding of risk for diseases, and help individuals to effectively identify and engage in relevant behaviors to reduce their risk. PMID:19073208

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hodgkin disease, or some combination of these factors. Socioeconomic status The risk of Hodgkin disease is greater in people with a higher socioeconomic background. The reason for this is not clear. ...

  16. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F; Huon, R; Ziégler, M

    2000-04-01

    Hallucinations, mainly of a visual nature, are considered to affect about one-quarter of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are commonly viewed as a side-effect of antiparkinsonian treatment, but other factors may be involved. The aim of this study was to determine the phenomenology, prevalence and risk factors of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Two-hundred and sixteen consecutive patients fulfilling clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease were studied. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor and cognitive status, depressive symptoms and sleep-wake disturbances. Patients with and without hallucinations were compared using non-parametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Hallucinations had been present during the previous 3 months in 39.8% of the patients, and fell into three categories: minor forms, consisting of a sensation of a presence (person), a sideways passage (commonly of an animal) or illusions were present in 25.5% of the patients (an isolated occurrence in 14.3%), formed visual hallucinations were present in 22.2% (isolated in 9.3%) and auditory hallucinations were present in 9.7% (isolated in 2.3%). Patients with minor hallucinations had a higher depression score than non-hallucinators but did not differ in other respects. Logistic regression analysis identified three factors independently predictive of formed visual hallucinations: severe cognitive disorders, daytime somnolence and a long duration of Parkinson's disease. These findings indicate that, when minor hallucinations are included, the total prevalence is much higher than previously reported. A simple side-effect of dopaminergic treatment is not sufficient to explain the occurrence of all visual hallucinations. The main risk factor in treated patients is cognitive impairment, although sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and possibly other factors related to the duration of the disease, act as cofactors.

  17. On the difficulty to delimit disease risk hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charras-Garrido, M.; Azizi, L.; Forbes, F.; Doyle, S.; Peyrard, N.; Abrial, D.

    2013-06-01

    Representing the health state of a region is a helpful tool to highlight spatial heterogeneity and localize high risk areas. For ease of interpretation and to determine where to apply control procedures, we need to clearly identify and delineate homogeneous regions in terms of disease risk, and in particular disease risk hot spots. However, even if practical purposes require the delineation of different risk classes, such a classification does not correspond to a reality and is thus difficult to estimate. Working with grouped data, a first natural choice is to apply disease mapping models. We apply a usual disease mapping model, producing continuous estimations of the risks that requires a post-processing classification step to obtain clearly delimited risk zones. We also apply a risk partition model that build a classification of the risk levels in a one step procedure. Working with point data, we will focus on the scan statistic clustering method. We illustrate our article with a real example concerning the bovin spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) an animal disease whose zones at risk are well known by the epidemiologists. We show that in this difficult case of a rare disease and a very heterogeneous population, the different methods provide risk zones that are globally coherent. But, related to the dichotomy between the need and the reality, the exact delimitation of the risk zones, as well as the corresponding estimated risks are quite different.

  18. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities.

  19. The increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Catherine; Leonard, Erin; Koffi, Jules Konan; Pelcat, Yann; Peregrine, Andrew; Chilton, Neil; Rochon, Kateryn; Lysyk, Tim; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas Hume

    2015-07-01

    There is an increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. The objectives of this article are to i) raise public awareness with the help of veterinarians on the emerging and expanding risk of Lyme disease across Canada, ii) review the key clinical features of Lyme disease in dogs, and iii) provide recommendations for veterinarians on the management of Lyme disease in dogs.

  20. The increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Catherine; Leonard, Erin; Koffi, Jules Konan; Pelcat, Yann; Peregrine, Andrew; Chilton, Neil; Rochon, Kateryn; Lysyk, Tim; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas Hume

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. The objectives of this article are to i) raise public awareness with the help of veterinarians on the emerging and expanding risk of Lyme disease across Canada, ii) review the key clinical features of Lyme disease in dogs, and iii) provide recommendations for veterinarians on the management of Lyme disease in dogs. PMID:26130829

  1. Sociodemographic factors contribute to the depressive affect among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is common in end-stage renal disease and is associated with poor quality of life and higher mortality; however, little is known about depressive affect in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To measure this in a risk group burdened with hypertension and kidney disease, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals at enrollment in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. Depressive affect was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and quality of life by the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Beck Depression scores over 14 were deemed consistent with an increased depressive affect and linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with these scores. Among 628 subjects, 166 had scores over 14 but only 34 were prescribed antidepressants. The mean Beck Depression score of 11.0 varied with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from 10.7 (eGFR 50–60) to 16.0 (eGFR stage 5); however, there was no significant independent association between these. Unemployment, low income, and lower quality and satisfaction with life scale scores were independently and significantly associated with a higher Beck Depression score. Thus, our study shows that an increased depressive affect is highly prevalent in African Americans with chronic kidney disease, is infrequently treated with antidepressants, and is associated with poorer quality of life. Sociodemographic factors have especially strong associations with this increased depressive affect. Because this study was conducted in an African-American cohort, its findings may not be generalized to other ethnic groups. PMID:20200503

  2. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  4. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  5. Reduction of livelihood risk for river bank erosion affected villagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. Sen; Fox, D. M.; Chakrabari, S.; Bhandari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Bank erosion process of the Ganga River created a serious livelihood risk for the villagers situated on left bank of the river in Malda district of the State of West Bengal, India since last four decades. Due to the erosion of agriculture land by the river, most of the villagers having agriculture as their only means of livelihood became jobless suddenly. Presently they are living in a miserable condition. One of the main objectives of this paper is to find out an alternative means of livelihood for the victims to improve their miserable socio-economic condition. It has been found from field survey that some erosion affected villagers have started to live and practice agriculture temporarily on the riverine islands (large and stable since thirteen years) as these islands have very fertile soil. If the re-emerged land plots can again be demarcated on the newly formed islands and distributed among the landless people to practice agriculture over there, then it will be a useful alternative livelihood strategy for the victims. The demarcation of re-emerged plots can be achieved by georeferencing the cadastral maps and then overlaying the plots on the present river course. In the present study area geo-referencing process of the cadastral maps became a serious issue as the study area has been very dynamic in terms of land cover and land use. Most of the villages were lost into the river course. Thus the common permanent features, required for geo-referencing, shown in the cadastral maps (surveyed during 1954-1962) were not found in the present satellite images. The second important objective of the present study is to develop a proper methodology for geo-referencing the cadastral maps of this area. The Spatial Adjustment Transformation and Automatic Digitization tools of Arc GIS were used to prepare geo-referenced plot maps. In Projective Transformation method the geometrically corrected block maps having village boundaries were used as source file. Then the

  6. Recurrent miscarriage, antiphospholipid antibodies and the risk of thromboembolic disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M Ángeles; Cervera, Ricard; Balasch, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Miscarriage affects 15 % of women, and while most are sporadic, there is a subset comprising 2-5 % of couples that suffers recurrent miscarriage (RM). Much work has been carried out to try to identify the RM underlying mechanisms. A subgroup of women with RM has been demonstrated to be in a prothrombotic state before pregnancy. The long-term health implications of this hypercoagulability may imply an increased risk of thrombotic events, including ischemic heart disease. Moreover, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), rather than thrombophilic genetic defects (i.e., factor V Leiden or prothrombin G202010A mutation) in patients with RM, is a determinant of thrombotic events later in life, especially among those patients having also classic cardiovascular risk factors. These facts may have therapeutic implications. The efficacy of long-term thromboprophylaxis and its associated risk of bleeding is a complex problem in aPL-positive patients who have not developed previous thrombosis or in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome with isolated obstetric morbidity (i.e., RM). While most authors advocate the use of antithrombotic therapy only in patients with aPL and thromboembolic events, there is no consensus as to whether patients who have not experienced yet any thrombotic event might also be given prophylaxis. Low-dose aspirin may be effective in the prevention of thrombosis for asymptomatic, persistently aPL-positive individuals who have additional thrombosis risk factors, i.e., hypertension and lupus anticoagulant have been found to be independent risk factors for thrombosis in aPL carriers, and therefore, the use of thromboprophylaxis in these high-risk subjects could be recommend. PMID:22669753

  7. Ageism as a Risk Factor for Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, Julie Ober

    2016-08-01

    Ageism is one of the most socially condoned and institutionalized forms of prejudice in the United States. Older adults are discriminated against in employment, health care, and other domains. Exposure to unfavorable stereotypes adversely affects the attitudes, cognitions, and behavior of older adults. Recurrent experiences with negative stereotypes combined with discrimination may make ageism a chronic stressor in the lives of older adults. The way stress influences physical health is gaining increasing support. The weathering hypothesis (Geronimus, A. T. (1992) The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: Evidence and speculations. Ethnicity and Disease, 2, 207-221) posits that the cumulative effects of chronic objective and subjective stressors and high-effort coping cause deterioration of the body, premature aging, and associated health problems such as chronic diseases. Researchers have found empirical support for the weathering hypothesis as well as its theorized contribution to racial and ethnic health disparities. Although ageism is not experienced over the entire life course, as racism typically is, repeated exposure to chronic stressors associated with age stereotypes and discrimination may increase the risk of chronic disease, mortality, and other adverse health outcomes. I conclude with implications for practice in the helping professions and recommendations for future research. Ageism warrants greater recognition, social condemnation, and scientific study as a possible social determinant of chronic disease.

  8. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced. PMID:27626023

  9. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced.

  10. Attributable risk of exposures associated with sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Attributable risk combines information on the prevalence of an exposure with a measure of the associated increment in risk, providing an estimate of the proportion of incident or prevalent disease that might be avoided by eliminating the exposure. Thus, attributable risk identifies exposures most productively targeted by public health interventions. Attributable risk can be defined as the ratio of average excess risk to average risk. As with other measures of association between exposure and disease computed from observational data, adjustment must be made for confounding factors. Estimates of attributable risk are highly variable. Nonetheless, attributable risk retains its usefulness as an approximate measure of the public health significance of exposures associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted disease, provided it is estimated and interpreted cautiously. PMID:8843248

  11. Soy isoflavone intake is associated with risk of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michael A; Navarro, Sandi L; Bruce, Margaret E; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis affecting children. Incidence of KD varies according to ethnicity and is highest in Asian populations. Although genetic differences may explain this variation, dietary or environmental factors could also be responsible. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary soy and isoflavone consumption in a cohort of KD children just before disease onset and their mothers' intake during pregnancy and nursing. We tested the hypothesis that soy isoflavone consumption is associated with risk of KD in US children, potentially explaining some of the ethnic-cultural variation in incidence. We evaluated soy food intake and isoflavone consumption in nearly 200 US KD cases and 200 age-matched controls using a food frequency questionnaire for children and in their mothers. We used a logistic regression model to test the association of isoflavones and KD. Maternal surveys on soy intake during pregnancy and nursing showed no significant differences in isoflavone consumption between groups. However, we identified significantly increased KD risk in children for total isoflavone (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.96) and genistein (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.46-4.16) intakes, when comparing high soy consumers vs nonconsumers. In addition, significantly increased KD risk occurred in Asian-American children with the highest consumption (total isoflavones: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.73-30.75; genistein: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.92-36.24) compared to whites. These findings indicate that childhood dietary isoflavone consumption, but not maternal isoflavone intake during pregnancy and nursing, relates to KD risk in an ethnically diverse US population.

  12. Soy isoflavone intake is associated with risk of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michael A; Navarro, Sandi L; Bruce, Margaret E; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis affecting children. Incidence of KD varies according to ethnicity and is highest in Asian populations. Although genetic differences may explain this variation, dietary or environmental factors could also be responsible. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary soy and isoflavone consumption in a cohort of KD children just before disease onset and their mothers' intake during pregnancy and nursing. We tested the hypothesis that soy isoflavone consumption is associated with risk of KD in US children, potentially explaining some of the ethnic-cultural variation in incidence. We evaluated soy food intake and isoflavone consumption in nearly 200 US KD cases and 200 age-matched controls using a food frequency questionnaire for children and in their mothers. We used a logistic regression model to test the association of isoflavones and KD. Maternal surveys on soy intake during pregnancy and nursing showed no significant differences in isoflavone consumption between groups. However, we identified significantly increased KD risk in children for total isoflavone (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.96) and genistein (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.46-4.16) intakes, when comparing high soy consumers vs nonconsumers. In addition, significantly increased KD risk occurred in Asian-American children with the highest consumption (total isoflavones: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.73-30.75; genistein: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.92-36.24) compared to whites. These findings indicate that childhood dietary isoflavone consumption, but not maternal isoflavone intake during pregnancy and nursing, relates to KD risk in an ethnically diverse US population. PMID:27440537

  13. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

  14. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

    2012-03-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD.

  15. Prediction of disease-related mutations affecting protein localization

    PubMed Central

    Laurila, Kirsti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic cells contain numerous compartments, which have different protein constituents. Proteins are typically directed to compartments by short peptide sequences that act as targeting signals. Translocation to the proper compartment allows a protein to form the necessary interactions with its partners and take part in biological networks such as signalling and metabolic pathways. If a protein is not transported to the correct intracellular compartment either the reaction performed or information carried by the protein does not reach the proper site, causing either inactivation of central reactions or misregulation of signalling cascades, or the mislocalized active protein has harmful effects by acting in the wrong place. Results Numerous methods have been developed to predict protein subcellular localization with quite high accuracy. We applied bioinformatics methods to investigate the effects of known disease-related mutations on protein targeting and localization by analyzing over 22,000 missense mutations in more than 1,500 proteins with two complementary prediction approaches. Several hundred putative localization affecting mutations were identified and investigated statistically. Conclusion Although alterations to localization signals are rare, these effects should be taken into account when analyzing the consequences of disease-related mutations. PMID:19309509

  16. Predicting Disease Risk, Identifying Stakeholders, and Informing Control Strategies: A Case Study of Anthrax in Montana.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lillian R; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases that affect wildlife and livestock are challenging to manage and can lead to large-scale die-offs, economic losses, and threats to human health. The management of infectious diseases in wildlife and livestock is made easier with knowledge of disease risk across space and identifying stakeholders associated with high-risk landscapes. This study focuses on anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, risk to wildlife and livestock in Montana. There is a history of anthrax in Montana, but the spatial extent of disease risk and subsequent wildlife species at risk are not known. Our objective was to predict the potential geographic distribution of anthrax risk across Montana, identify wildlife species at risk and their distributions, and define stakeholders. We used an ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of anthrax risk. We overlaid susceptible wildlife species distributions and land ownership delineations on our risk map. We found that there was an extensive region across Montana predicted as potential anthrax risk. These potentially risky landscapes overlapped the ranges of all 6 ungulate species considered in the analysis and livestock grazing allotments, and this overlap was on public and private land for all species. Our findings suggest that there is the potential for a multi-species anthrax outbreak on multiple landscapes across Montana. Our potential anthrax risk map can be used to prioritize landscapes for surveillance and for implementing livestock vaccination programs. PMID:27169560

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Mutations Affecting the Interleukin-10 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Kotlarz, Daniel; Boztug, Kaan; Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Noyan, Fatih; Perro, Mario; Diestelhorst, Jana; Allroth, Anna; Murugan, Dhaarini; Hätscher, Nadine; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Sauer, Martin; Kreipe, Hans; Lacher, Martin; Nustede, Rainer; Woellner, Cristina; Baumann, Ulrich; Salzer, Ulrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Shah, Neil; Segal, Anthony W.; Sauerbrey, Axel; Buderus, Stephan; Snapper, Scott B.; Grimbacher, Bodo; Klein, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The molecular cause of inflammatory bowel disease is largely unknown. METHODS We performed genetic-linkage analysis and candidate-gene sequencing on samples from two unrelated consanguineous families with children who were affected by early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. We screened six additional patients with early-onset colitis for mutations in two candidate genes and carried out functional assays in patients’ peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. We performed an allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in one patient. RESULTS In four of nine patients with early-onset colitis, we identified three distinct homozygous mutations in genes IL10RA and IL10RB, encoding the IL10R1 and IL10R2 proteins, respectively, which form a heterotetramer to make up the interleukin-10 receptor. The mutations abrogate interleukin-10–induced signaling, as shown by deficient STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation on stimulation with interleukin-10. Consistent with this observation was the increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and other proinflammatory cytokines from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from patients who were deficient in IL10R subunit proteins, suggesting that interleukin-10–dependent “negative feedback” regulation is disrupted in these cells. The allogeneic stem-cell transplantation performed in one patient was successful. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in genes encoding the IL10R subunit proteins were found in patients with early-onset enterocolitis, involving hyperinflammatory immune responses in the intestine. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation resulted in disease remission in one patient. PMID:19890111

  18. Grandparents Affected by Parental Divorce: A Population at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Perrin, Novella

    1993-01-01

    When parents divorce, grandparents who have bonded with children may be affected, especially when denied visitation. Grandparenting roles and styles, family dynamics affecting grandparenthood, and other factors affecting the grandparent-grandchild bond are examined. Legal and ethical issues are discussed. Implications for counselors and human…

  19. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  20. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. Methods A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Results Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. Conclusion We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers. PMID:22935721

  1. The KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study: Baseline Associations between Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Whitney; Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Santoro, M. Nanette; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Taylor, Hugh; Naftolin, Frederick; Lobo, Rogerio; Merriam, George; Manson, JoAnn E.; Cedars, Marcelle; Miller, Virginia M.; Black, Dennis M.; Budoff, Matthew; Hodis, Howard N.; Harman, Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Midlife vascular risk factors influence later cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The decrease in serum estradiol levels during menopause has been associated with cognitive impairment and increased vascular risk, such as high blood pressure (BP), which independently contribute to cognitive dysfunction and AD. Methods We describe the extent to which vascular risk factors relate to cognition in healthy, middle–aged, recently postmenopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) at baseline. KEEPS-Cog is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, clinical trial, investigating the efficacy of low-dose, transdermal 17β-estradiol and oral conjugated equine estrogen on cognition. Results The KEEPS-Cog cohort (N=662) is healthy and free of cognitive dysfunction. Higher systolic BP was related to poorer performance in auditory working memory and attention (unadjusted p=0.004; adjusted p=0.10). This relationship was not associated with endogenous hormone levels. Conclusions Lower BP early in menopause may positively affect cognitive domains known to be associated with AD. PMID:24430001

  2. Evaluation of association methods for analysing modifiers of disease risk in carriers of high-risk mutations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Daniel R; Lee, Andrew; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2012-04-01

    There is considerable evidence indicating that disease risk in carriers of high-risk mutations (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2) varies by other genetic factors. Such mutations tend to be rare in the population and studies of genetic modifiers of risk have focused on sampling mutation carriers through clinical genetics centres. Genetic testing targets affected individuals from high-risk families, making ascertainment of mutation carriers non-random with respect to disease phenotype. Standard analytical methods can lead to biased estimates of associations. Methods proposed to address this problem include a weighted-cohort (WC) and retrospective likelihood (RL) approach. Their performance has not been evaluated systematically. We evaluate these methods by simulation and extend the RL to analysing associations of two diseases simultaneously (competing risks RL-CRRL). The standard cohort approach (Cox regression) yielded the most biased risk ratio (RR) estimates (relative bias-RB: -25% to -17%) and had the lowest power. The WC and RL approaches provided similar RR estimates, were least biased (RB: -2.6% to 2.5%), and had the lowest mean-squared errors. The RL method generally had more power than WC. When analysing associations with two diseases, ignoring a potential association with one disease leads to inflated type I errors for inferences with respect to the second disease and biased RR estimates. The CRRL generally gave unbiased RR estimates for both disease risks and had correct nominal type I errors. These methods are illustrated by analyses of genetic modifiers of breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22714938

  3. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

  4. ERα Variants Affect Age at Onset of Alzheimer's Disease in a Multiethnic Female Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, S.C.; Park, N.; Cheng, R.; Clark, L.N.; Lee, J. H.; Schupf, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies of gene variants that affect estrogen activity investigate their association with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women of different ethnicities. We investigated the influence of ESR1 polymorphisms on age at onset of AD in a multiethnic cohort of women. Methods Among 1,436 women participating in the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), association with age at AD onset was assessed for 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ESR1 gene using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for presence of an APOE ε4 allele, years of education, and body mass index (BMI). Results Six SNPs in self-identified White women were protectively associated with delayed age of AD onset in this self-identified group, including the two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) (HR range 0.420 – 0.483). Two separate SNPs were found to affect age of AD onset in self-identified Black women. Conclusions ESR1 polymorphisms affect age of onset for AD in women, and risk alleles vary by ethnicity. These effects are possibly due to different linkage disequilibrium patterns or differences in comorbid environmental or cultural risk factors mediating SNP effect on risk for AD. PMID:24732579

  5. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  6. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  8. Vascular risk factors: a ticking time bomb to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jack C

    2013-09-01

    Evidence is growing that vascular risk factors (VRFs) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect cerebral hemodynamics to launch a cascade of cellular and molecular changes that initiate cognitive deficits and eventual progression of AD. Neuroimaging studies have reported VRFs for AD to be accurate predictors of cognitive decline and dementia. In regions that participate in higher cognitive function, middle temporal, posterior cingulate, inferior parietal and precuneus regions, and neuroimaging studies indicate an association involving VRFs, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cognitive decline in elderly individuals who develop AD. The VRF can be present in cognitively intact individuals for decades before mild cognitive deficits or neuropathological signs are manifested. In that sense, they may be "ticking time bombs" before cognitive function is demolished. Preventive intervention of modifiable VRF may delay or block progression of AD. Intervention could target cerebral blood flow (CBF), since most VRFs act to lower CBF in aging individuals by promoting cerebrovascular dysfunction. PMID:23813612

  9. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk for Down Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... people are affected by or at risk for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... ethnicity. 4 , 5 Maternal Age and Risk for Down Syndrome Because the likelihood that an egg will contain ...

  10. Development and application of chronic disease risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea.

  11. Glomerulonephritis and managing the risks of chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet R

    2009-12-01

    The rising global burden of chronic renal disease, the high cost of providing renal replacement therapies, and renal disease also being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is increasing focus on renal disease prevention. This article focuses on the aspects of renal disease (specifically poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis [PSGN] and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in Indigenous populations in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States that diverge from those typically seen in the general population of those countries. The spectrum of renal and many other diseases seen in Indigenous people in developed countries is similar to that seen in developing countries. Diseases like PSGN that have largely disappeared in developed countries still occur frequently in Indigenous people. CKD during the childhood years is due to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in up to 70% of cases and occurs later in polycystic kidney disease and childhood-onset diabetes. Several risk factors for CKD in adulthood are already present in childhood.

  12. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Ramanathan, Murali; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    With the booming of healthcare industry and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we take advantage of EHR data to develop an effective disease risk management model that not only models the progression of the disease, but also predicts the risk of the disease for early disease control or prevention. Existing models for answering these questions usually fall into two categories: the expert knowledge based model or the handcrafted feature set based model. To fully utilize the whole EHR data, we will build a framework to construct an integrated representation of features from all available risk factors in the EHR data and use these integrated features to effectively predict osteoporosis and bone fractures. We will also develop a framework for informative risk factor selection of bone diseases. A pair of models for two contrast cohorts (e.g., diseased patients versus non-diseased patients) will be established to discriminate their characteristics and find the most informative risk factors. Several empirical results on a real bone disease data set show that the proposed framework can successfully predict bone diseases and select informative risk factors that are beneficial and useful to guide clinical decisions.

  13. Periodontitis as a risk factor for systemic disease: Are microparticles the missing link?

    PubMed

    Badran, Zahi; Struillou, Xavier; Verner, Christian; Clee, Thibaud; Rakic, Mia; Martinez, Maria C; Soueidan, Assem

    2015-06-01

    Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease affecting the teeth supportive tissue. Its bacterial infectious etiology is well established. Periodontitis has been associated with increased prevalence of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, preeclampsia, preterm birth and inflammatory bowel disease. The rational of considering periodontitis as risk factor for systemic disease is the passage of inflammatory cytokines and/or bacteria in the bloodstream, thus affecting distant organs. Membrane microparticles are released by multiple cells in inflammatory environment. Recent data suggested the role of these microparticles in the pathogenic process of many systemic diseases, that can be also associated to periodontitis. We hypothesized that periodontitis could be a chronic reservoir of microparticles, hence elucidating partially the interaction with systemic diseases initiation or progression.

  14. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks. PMID:26106311

  15. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  16. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  17. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects incentive salience attribution in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Serranová, Tereza; Jech, Robert; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen

    2011-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Twenty PD patients (all men; mean age ± SD, 58.3 ± 6 years) in bilateral STN DBS switched ON and OFF conditions and 18 matched controls rated pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System according to emotional valence (unpleasantness/pleasantness) and arousal on 2 independent visual scales ranging from 1 to 9. Eighty-four pictures depicting primary rewarding (erotica and food) and aversive fearful (victims and threat) and neutral stimuli were selected for this study. In the STN DBS ON condition, the PD patients attributed lower valence scores to the aversive pictures compared with the OFF condition (P < .01) and compared with controls (P < .01). The difference between the OFF condition and controls was less pronounced (P < .05). Furthermore, postoperative weight gain correlated with arousal ratings from the food pictures in the STN DBS ON condition (P < .05 compensated for OFF condition). Our results suggest that STN DBS increases activation of the aversive motivational system so that more relevance is attributed to aversive fearful stimuli. In addition, STN DBS-related sensitivity to food reward stimuli cues might drive DBS-treated patients to higher food intake and subsequent weight gain. PMID:21780183

  18. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  19. [THE MANIC DEPRESSIVE DISEASE: PSYCHODYNAMICS ASPECTS AND AFFECTIVE SYNTONY].

    PubMed

    Widakowich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In a time when manic-depressive disease became bipolar disorder, and it is conceptualized and treated almost as a fully medical illness, such as epilepsy, we found worth returning to some psychodynamic aspects underlying this condition. Conventionally, we depart from the concept of melancholy, to introduce in a second time, the mania, as a liberating solution of the depression. To Abraham (1912), mania is the liberation from suffering imposed by the reality principle For Freud (1915), mania becomes a leak from the ego face a tyrannical superego (the encounter of ego and the ego ideal). Klein (1934) explains that the mania serves to counter the depressive position and thus avoid the guilt inside of ego. For Racamier (1979), mania is clearly a frantic negation of the anguish and emotional suffering. Today, some authors as Chabot and Husain try to define the manic depression organization, with the help of projective tests. This personality structure would be between psychosis and borderline. An axial element of this structure is the research for an affective symbiosis with each other. These concept, strongly resemble the "syntony", from Bleuler. We trace the evolution of manic depression from a psychodynamic and structural point of view, with particular interesting in the concept of syntony. PMID:26323110

  20. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett’s esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  1. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas.

  2. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas. PMID:26080648

  3. Maternal preeclampsia and risk for cardiovascular disease in offspring.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Contag, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) has been associated with elevated lifetime cardiovascular risk, including stroke, myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. These two entities share common risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. This article will evaluate the current literature on the maternal and fetal cardiovascular risks posed by HDP. The landmark study by Barker et al. demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk in growth-restricted infants, which may also be associated with HDP. Research has demonstrated the effects that HDP may have on the vascular and nephron development in offspring, particularly with respect to endothelial and inflammatory markers. In order to control for confounding variables and better understand the relationship between HDP and lifetime cardiovascular risk, future research will require following blood pressure and metabolic profiles of the parturients and their offspring.

  4. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Turrone, Rosanna; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Bianchi, Marta; Poli, Loris; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Premi, Enrico; Formenti, Anna; Bigni, Barbara; Cosseddu, Maura; Cottini, Elisabetta; Berg, Daniela; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive deficits and incident dementia in the general population, but their role on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. The present study addresses the single and cumulative effect of vascular risk factors on cognition in PD patients, taking clinical confounders into account. Standardized neuropsychological assessment was performed in 238 consecutive PD patients. We evaluated the association of single and cumulative vascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and heart disease), with the diagnosis of PD normal cognition (PDNC, n = 94), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 111), and dementia (PDD, n = 33). The association between single neuropsychological tests and vascular risk factors was evaluated with covariance analyses adjusted for age at onset, educational levels, gender, disease duration, and motor performance. Age, educational levels, disease duration, and motor function were significantly different between PDNC, PD-MCI, and PDD. Heart disease was the only vascular factor significantly more prevalent in PDD compared with PDNC in adjusted analyses. Performance of tests assessing executive and attention functions were significantly worse in patients with hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes (p <  0.05). Heart disease is associated with dementia in PD, suggesting a potential window of intervention. Vascular risk factors act especially on attention and executive functions in PD. Vascular risk stratification may be useful in order to identify PD patients with a greater risk of developing dementia. These findings need to be verified in longitudinal studies. PMID:26890741

  5. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, G W; Stewart, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as controlling for all the usual factors also allowed for possible effects of three cancer modulating factors (exposure age, cancer latency, and year of exposure). This analysis was first applied to three distinct cohorts, and then to two sets of pooled data. RESULTS--From each study cohort there was evidence of a risk of cancer related to dose, and evidence that the extra radiogenic cancers had the same overall histological manifestations as naturally occurring cancers and were largely the result of exposures after 50 years of age causing deaths after 70 years. There were, however, significant differences between the five sets of risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS--Although the risks of cancer in nuclear workers were appreciably higher than estimates based on the cancer experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, some uncertainties remained as there were non-uniform standards of dosimetry in the nuclear sites. The differences between nuclear workers and survivors of the atomic bomb were largely the result of relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer being totally different for workers and survivors and, in the occupational data, there were no signs of the special risks of leukaemia found in atomic bomb data and other studies of effects of high doses. PMID:7663636

  6. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.

  7. Perspective: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Nestel, Paul J; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a clear risk factor for cardiovascular risk. Through its association with metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, NAFLD certainly has strong indirect associations with cardiovascular risk. Recent population studies have strengthened the association with prevalent coronary heart disease. Investigative cardiology has shown that NAFLD is also associated with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, such as diminished endothelial function and carotid artery intima-media thickening. Though causality between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease can only be tested in a clinical trial, these recent findings do emphasize the need to develop strategies including nutritional that may prevent NAFLD. PMID:23298957

  8. Non-Disease Specific Risk Factors Affecting Hospital Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ron L.; And Others

    Extended hospital stay after medical treatment has been completed represents a major problem in health care. Space misuse can occur late in the hospitalization, often because planning is not initiated until discharge is imminent. This study sought to determine if variables assessed soon after hospital admission could be used to screen patients at…

  9. Risk and Surveillance of Cancers in Primary Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hrad, Valery; Abebe, Yoftahe; Ali, Syed Haris; Velgersdyk, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review we will discuss in detail the risks and optimal surveillance strategies for patients with primary biliary diseases. PMID:27413366

  10. Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Rand, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Lyme disease test results for >9,000 dogs were collected from participating veterinary clinics. Testing was conducted by using the IDEXX 3Dx kit, used widely by Maine veterinarians to screen clinically normal dogs during heartworm season. This study demonstrates how this test can be a valuable public health disease surveillance tool. PMID:15890128

  11. SURVEYING THE RISKS FROM EMERGING DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite advances in sanitation and public health, new waterborne diseases have continued to cause outbreaks in humans. The reason why these organisms can cause disease outbreaks, is that their biology allows them to circumvent the safeguards put in place to prevent transmission ...

  12. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations affect risk of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T; Dimitriu, Pedro A; Thorson, Lisa; Russell, Shannon; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Gold, Matthew J; Britton, Heidi M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Subbarao, Padmaja; Mandhane, Piush; Becker, Allan; McNagny, Kelly M; Sears, Malcolm R; Kollmann, Tobias; Mohn, William W; Turvey, Stuart E; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-09-30

    Asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease and affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Recent evidence in mice has identified a "critical window" early in life where gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in experimental asthma. However, current research has yet to establish whether these changes precede or are involved in human asthma. We compared the gut microbiota of 319 subjects enrolled in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study, and show that infants at risk of asthma exhibited transient gut microbial dysbiosis during the first 100 days of life. The relative abundance of the bacterial genera Lachnospira, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, and Rothia was significantly decreased in children at risk of asthma. This reduction in bacterial taxa was accompanied by reduced levels of fecal acetate and dysregulation of enterohepatic metabolites. Inoculation of germ-free mice with these four bacterial taxa ameliorated airway inflammation in their adult progeny, demonstrating a causal role of these bacterial taxa in averting asthma development. These results enhance the potential for future microbe-based diagnostics and therapies, potentially in the form of probiotics, to prevent the development of asthma and other related allergic diseases in children.

  13. Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples’ interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic patients with high cholesterol interpret risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods Fourteen patients with high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease were interviewed, and patterns across patient accounts were identified and analysed from an ethnographic approach. Results Information from the general practitioner about high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease was reinterpreted in everyday social life. The risk associated with fatty foods was weighed against the pleasures of social and cultural events in which this type of food was common and cherished. A positive mindset was applied as a strategy to lower the risk of having high cholesterol, but knowledge about risk was viewed as a cause of anxiety and self-absorption, and this anxiety made the body susceptible to disease, hampering the chances for healthy life. Conclusion Interpretations of high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease are embedded in social relations and everyday life concerns. This should be addressed in general practice in preference-sensitive cases about risk-reducing medication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187056 PMID:24040920

  14. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  15. Prion diseases: risks, characteristics, and infection control considerations in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bali, Zarina; Bali, Rishi K; Nagrath, Saurabh

    2011-11-01

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are rapidly progressive and fatal, with no definite cure. There are no reported cases of prion disease transmission arising from dental procedures. Nevertheless, there is a theoretical but real risk of transmission of prion disease from dental instruments. A review was made of studies up to 2008 to provide an update of the characteristics, risk of transmission, and the infection-control implications of prions in the field of dentistry. As the prions are resistant to conventional sterilization methods, highly-specific, cross-infection control measures are required when managing patients infected with these.

  16. [Risk management of coronary heart disease-prevention].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Rieder, Anita

    2004-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is responsible for 45% of deaths in the western world and 24.5% of deaths in the developing countries. In the 21st century these diseases will continue to dominate the disease spectrum and death statistics in both the industrialised and developing worlds. Since 1975 mortality from cardiovascular disease has decreased by about 24 to 28% in most countries. About 45% of this reduction can be attributed to an improvement in treatment of coronary heart disease and around 55% are attributable to a reduction in risk factors, in particular, stopping smoking and control of hypertension. However, especially in the case of ischaemic heart disease, it is not clear whether the reduction in mortality reflects a reduction in incidence of this disease. Due to the aging population and the reduction in age-related mortality, it is expected that the absolute number of people with heart disease will increase. Furthermore, the increase in prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes as well as the higher prevalence of female smokers compared with thirty years ago could result in an increase in mortality over the next years and decades. It has been shown that prevention strategies, such as education campaigns aimed at the general public, can potentially greatly contribute to a reduction in incidence of cardiovascular disease at every stage. In order for such campaigns to be effective, it is necessary to understand and reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A large proportion of these risk factors are associated with lifestyle and are therefore modifiable. These modifiable risk factors include smoking, hypertension, poor diet, dyslipidemia, lack of exercise, overweight, adiposity and diabetes mellitus and optimisation of these should be a key aim for all adults. Gender differences also play a role in the incidence and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Incidence of myocardial

  17. Transfusion-transmitted diseases: risks, prevention and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moor, A C; Dubbelman, T M; VanSteveninck, J; Brand, A

    1999-01-01

    During the past decades major improvements in blood safety have been achieved, both in developed and developing countries. The introduction of donor counseling and screening for different pathogens has made blood a very safe product, especially in developed countries. However, even in these countries, there is still a residual risk for the transmission of several pathogens. For viruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the hepatitis viruses B and C, this is due mainly to window-period donations. Furthermore, the threat of newly emerging pathogens which can affect blood safety is always present. For example, the implications of the agent causing new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease for transfusion practice are not yet clear. Finally, there are several pathogens, e.g. CMV and parvo B19, which are common in the general donor population, and might pose a serious threat in selected groups of immunosuppressed patients. In the future, further improvements in blood safety are expected from the introduction of polymerase chain reaction for testing and from the implementation of photochemical decontamination for cellular blood products. The situation in transfusion medicine in the developing world is much less favorable, due mainly to a higher incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases.

  18. More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161841.html More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease: Study Researchers track ... say they can show that brain inflammation from football head trauma may lead to the development of ...

  19. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    PubMed

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  20. A new explained-variance based genetic risk score for predictive modeling of disease risk.

    PubMed

    Che, Ronglin; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A

    2012-09-25

    The goal of association mapping is to identify genetic variants that predict disease, and as the field of human genetics matures, the number of successful association studies is increasing. Many such studies have shown that for many diseases, risk is explained by a reasonably large number of variants that each explains a very small amount of disease risk. This is prompting the use of genetic risk scores in building predictive models, where information across several variants is combined for predictive modeling. In the current study, we compare the performance of four previously proposed genetic risk score methods and present a new method for constructing genetic risk score that incorporates explained variance information. The methods compared include: a simple count Genetic Risk Score, an odds ratio weighted Genetic Risk Score, a direct logistic regression Genetic Risk Score, a polygenic Genetic Risk Score, and the new explained variance weighted Genetic Risk Score. We compare the methods using a wide range of simulations in two steps, with a range of the number of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explaining disease risk, genetic modes, baseline penetrances, sample sizes, relative risks (RR) and minor allele frequencies (MAF). Several measures of model performance were compared including overall power, C-statistic and Akaike's Information Criterion. Our results show the relative performance of methods differs significantly, with the new explained variance weighted GRS (EV-GRS) generally performing favorably to the other methods.

  1. Adaptive genetic variation and heart disease risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review: Obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease are complex and determined by both genetic and environmental factors and their interrelationships. Many associations from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene approaches have described a multitude of polymorphis...

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  3. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity.

  4. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  5. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  6. [Arterial hypertension in gravidity - a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kováčová, M; Kiňová, S

    2012-12-01

    Gravidity is a dynamic process and complications may occur at any stage and anytime during a thus far physiological gravidity. Such gravidity puts the mother, the foetus and, later, the newborn at a greater risk. The incidence of arterial hypertension is between 7 and 15% and is one of the 4 main causes of maternal and perinatal mortality. Cardiovascular stress test, such as gravidity, might help to identify women at a greater risk of cardiovascular diseases or with a subclinical vascular disease. Women with a history of preeclampsia are more likely to develop chronic arterial hypertension in the future either alone or associated with a cardiovascular disease. Arterial hypertension during gravidity should be considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases during later stages of maternal life. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases should be a life-long aspiration.

  7. Decision aids for multiple-decision disease management as affected by weather input errors.

    PubMed

    Pfender, W F; Gent, D H; Mahaffee, W F; Coop, L B; Fox, A D

    2011-06-01

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSSs) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation, or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and management decision recommendations. The extent to which errors in weather inputs affect the quality of the final management outcome depends on a number of aspects of the disease management context, including whether management consists of a single dichotomous decision, or of a multi-decision process extending over the cropping season(s). Decision aids for multi-decision disease management typically are based on simple or complex algorithms of weather data which may be accumulated over several days or weeks. It is difficult to quantify accuracy of multi-decision DSSs due to temporally overlapping disease events, existence of more than one solution to optimizing the outcome, opportunities to take later recourse to modify earlier decisions, and the ongoing, complex decision process in which the DSS is only one component. One approach to assessing importance of weather input errors is to conduct an error analysis in which the DSS outcome from high-quality weather data is compared with that from weather data with various levels of bias and/or variance from the original data. We illustrate this analytical approach for two types of DSS, an infection risk index for hop powdery mildew and a simulation model for grass stem rust. Further exploration of analysis methods is needed to address problems associated with assessing uncertainty in multi-decision DSSs.

  8. Contagious Diseases in Competitive Sport: What Are the Risks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses fungal, bacterial, and viral infections that may strike athletes during competition, highlighting possible risks of hepatitis, herpes, and HIV. Athletes generally are more at risk off the playing field than while competing. Requiring immunizations against measles and hepatitis B prior to college admission would eliminate two diseases.…

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  10. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Dana M; McGinn, M Adrienne; Itoga, Christy A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a devastating psychiatric disease composed of multiple elemental features. As a biobehavioral disorder, escalation of drug and/or alcohol intake is both a cause and consequence of molecular neuroadaptations in central brain reinforcement circuitry. Multiple mesolimbic areas mediate a host of negative affective and motivational symptoms that appear to be central to the addiction process. Brain stress- and reinforcement-related regions such as the central amygdala (CeA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) also serve as central processors of ascending nociceptive input. We hypothesize that a sensitization of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of persistent and maladaptive pain contributes to a composite negative affective state to drive the enduring, relapsing nature of addiction, particularly in the case of alcohol and opioid use disorder. At the neurochemical level, pain activates central stress-related neuropeptide signaling, including the dynorphin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, and by this process may facilitate negative affect and escalated drug and alcohol use over time. Importantly, the widespread prevalence of unresolved pain and associated affective dysregulation in clinical populations highlights the need for more effective analgesic medications with reduced potential for tolerance and dependence. The burgeoning epidemic of prescription opioid abuse also demands a closer investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of how pain treatment could potentially represent a significant risk factor for addiction in vulnerable populations. Finally, the continuing convergence of sensory and affective neuroscience fields is expected to generate insight into the critical balance between pain relief and addiction liability, as well as provide more effective therapeutic strategies for chronic pain and addiction.

  11. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients.

  12. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26383179

  13. Determining and mitigating risks of disease introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosecurity can be defined as a system of processes (i.e., inputs, movements and other activities), each with a set of procedures, that taken together minimize the risk of introduction and spread of infectious organisms within or between aquatic animal populations. Biosecurity measures at the site l...

  14. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases. The key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases is a dysregulated immune response to commensal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Thus intestinal microbial dysbiosis, host genetics, and the external environment all play an important role in the development of incident disease and in determining subsequent disease behavior and outcomes. There are several well-defined or putative environmental risk factors including cigarette smoking, appendectomy, diet, stress and depression, vitamin D as well as hormonal influence. The effect of some of the risk factors appears to differ between CD and UC suggesting that despite shared genetic and immunologic mechanisms, distinct pathways of pathogenesis exist. There is a growing body of literature identifying risk factors for incident disease. There is less rigorous literature defining triggers of relapse, and few controlled clinical trials examining if modification of such risk factors results in an improvement in patient outcomes. This is an area of considerable patient, physician, and scientific interest, and there is an important unmet need for rigorous studies of the external environment in disease pathogenesis and subsequent course.

  15. Does ionizing radiation influence Alzheimer's disease risk?

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Nasrin; Wang, Bing; Mori, Masahiko; Vares, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a human neurodegenerative disease, and its global prevalence is predicted to increase dramatically in the following decades. There is mounting evidence describing the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on the brain, suggesting that exposure to IR might ultimately favor the development of AD. Therefore better understanding the possible connections between exposure to IR and AD pathogenesis is of utmost importance. In this review, recent developments in the research on the biological and cognitive effects of IR in the brain will be explored. Because AD is largely an age-related pathology, the effects of IR on ageing will be investigated. PMID:22872779

  16. Periodontal infections: a risk factor for various systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, B C; Praveen, Kudva; Chandrashekar, B R; Rani, R M Vatchala; Bhalla, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    A healthy periodontium is vital for the general well-being of an individual. However, periodontal diseases are common and periodontal infections are increasingly associated with systemic diseases. We aimed to critically evaluate the literature on the association between periodontal infections and systemic diseases. We searched the PubMed database over a 20-year period for literature on periodontal diseases and their links to various systemic diseases, and examined the strength of association between periodontal disease and each systemic disease, the dose-response relationship, and the biological plausibility. We found that individuals with periodontal disease may be at higher risk for adverse medical outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus. Many cohort, in vitro and animal studies suggest that systemic inflammation due to pathogens associated with periodontal disease may play a role in the initiation and progression of some systemic diseases. Periodontal infections should therefore be considered as a risk factor for various systemic diseases. PMID:22208140

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: An Important Risk Factor for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming commoner due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. Generally speaking, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without metabolic syndrome. Increasing oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and Parkinson's disease is mentioned in the comprehensive articles; however, the system review about clear relation between metabolic syndrome and Parkinson's disease is deficient. In this review, we will focus on the analysis that the metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and the preventions that reduce the incident of Parkinson's disease by regulating the oxidative stress. PMID:24955210

  18. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and PMID:26789555

  19. Sleep Duration and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Epidemiologic and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Naima; Singh, Prachi

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate sleep is increasingly pervasive, and the impact on health remains to be fully understood. The cardiovascular consequences alone appear to be substantial. This review summarizes epidemiologic evidence regarding the association between extremes of sleep duration and the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The adverse effects of experimental sleep loss on physiological functions are discussed, along with cardiovascular risk factors that may underlie the association with increased morbidity and mortality. Current data support the concept that inadequate sleep duration confers heightened cardiovascular risk. Thus implementation of preventative strategies may reduce the potential disease burden associated with this high-risk behavior. PMID:26972035

  20. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  1. Effect of Biodiversity Changes in Disease Risk: Exploring Disease Emergence in a Plant-Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

  2. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

  3. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  4. Periodontal disease as a risk marker in coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Monica A.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Over half a million Americans die each year from coronary heart disease (CHD), 26 million suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a large proportion have periodontal disease (PD), a chronic infection of the tissues surrounding teeth. Chronic inflammation contributes to CHD and CKD occurrence and progression, and PD contributes to the cumulated chronic systemic inflammatory burden. This review examines recent evidence regarding the role of PD in CHD and CKD. Recent findings Periodontal pathogens cause both local infection and bacteremia, eliciting local and systemic inflammatory responses. PD is associated with the systemic inflammatory reactant CRP, a major risk factor for both CHD and CKD. Non-surgical PD treatment is shown to improve periodontal health, endothelial function and levels of CRP and other inflammatory markers. Evidence for the association of PD with CKD consists of a small body of literature represented mainly by cross-sectional studies. No definitive randomized-controlled trials exist with either CHD or CKD as primary endpoints. Summary Recent evidence links PD with CHD and CKD. Adding oral health self-care and referral for professional periodontal assessment and therapy to the repertoire of medical care recommendations is prudent to improve patients’ oral health and possibly reduce CHD and CKD risk. PMID:20948377

  5. Perceived and actual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Sunjoo; Froelicher, Erika S.; Yun, Ju-Hui; Kim, Ye-Won; Jung, Ju-Yang; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purposes of this study were to compare the perceived and actual 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on perceived CVD risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Korea. Additionally, the attainment of CVD prevention guideline goals by 3 levels of CVD risk (low, moderate, and high) was presented. For this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 208 patients with RA. Actual CVD risk was estimated with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and goal attainment was assessed based on the European League Against Rheumatism guidelines. Actual CVD risk and perceived risk were compared with cross-tabulation. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate differences in cardiovascular risk factors by perceived risk. Levels of goal attainment were presented in percentages. Among patients with RA, 13.9% were identified as being at high risk for CVD, whereas 39.9% were at moderate risk, and 46.2% were at low risk. The majority of those at high risk (96.6%) underestimated their risk for CVD. The use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications and having a parental history of CVD significantly increased the likelihood that subjects with RA would perceive themselves as being at high risk for CVD. Diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity did not affect perceived risk. A substantial proportion of the subjects with RA did not meet the prevention guideline goals. Patients with RA who are at increased risk of developing CVD must be managed as soon as possible to attain the guideline goals and, accordingly, lower their risk of future CVD. PMID:27749595

  6. Non-HDL Cholesterol and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary heart disease (CHD), is the most frequent cause of death worldwide, especially in developed countries. The latest recommendations of European and American Cardiological Associations emphasize the role of non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in evaluating the risk of CVD. Although this parameter has a lot of advantages, it is rarely used by general practitioners in lipid profile assessment. The aim of this article is to present the recent informations on the usage of non-HDL-C in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and to compare its diagnostic value to traditional and new CVD risk factors.

  7. APOL1 Kidney Risk Alleles: Population Genetics and Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    Limou, Sophie; Nelson, George W.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Winkler, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    APOL1 kidney disease is a unique case in the field of the genetics of common disease: 2 variants (termed G1 and G2) with high population frequency have been repeatedly associated with nondiabetic CKDs, with very strong effect size (odds ratios 3–29) in populations of sub-Saharan African descent. This review provides an update on the spectrum of APOL1 kidney disease and on the worldwide distribution of these kidney risk variants. We also summarize the proper way to run a recessive analysis on joint and independent effects of APOL1 G1 and G2 kidney risk variants. PMID:25168832

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  9. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  10. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  11. Relations among affect, abstinence motivation and confidence, and daily smoking lapse risk.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M; Bold, Krysten W; Chapman, Gretchen B; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12-24 hr using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. One hundred and three adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries postquit. Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hr later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours although momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hr. Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments.

  12. Relations among Affect, Abstinence Motivation and Confidence, and Daily Smoking Lapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; McCarthy, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12–24 hours using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. Method 103 adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries post-quit. Results Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hours later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours while momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hours. Conclusion Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  13. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  14. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern. PMID:25251276

  15. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  16. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  17. Ischemic Heart Disease in Women: A Focus on Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985

  18. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  19. Is pregnancy a risk factor for rheumatic autoimmune diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Wendy; Somers, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the association of pregnancy with the risk of subsequent development of rheumatic autoimmune diseases in women, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Recent findings There is a small but growing literature related to the risk of autoimmune rheumatic disease in association with pregnancy history. However, results conflict both in terms of the direction and magnitude of risk of disease in relationship to prior pregnancy history. Although anecdotal evidence tends to favor the premise that pregnancy is protective against certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, the heterogeneity of results precludes the ability to confirm an association in either direction. There is indication that time elapsed since pregnancy may influence risk, with the postpartum year being of particular relevance. Summary To date, a clear pattern has not emerged regarding pregnancy and the future risk of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. This topic requires greater study, and given the strong female preponderance of these diseases, future research efforts should seek to resolve this important issue. PMID:24646947

  20. Use of Chronic Kidney Disease to Enhance Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Those at Medium Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2015-01-01

    Based on global cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic setting. Baseline CV risk profile and serum creatinine in 1998 were captured from patients record. Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS) for each patient was computed. All cardiovascular disease (CVD) events from 1998–2007 were captured. Overall, patients with CKD had higher FRS risk score (25.9% vs 20%, p = 0.001) and more CVD events (22.3% vs 11.9%, p = 0.002) over a 10-year period compared to patients without CKD. In patients with medium CV risk, there was no significant difference in the FRS score among those with and without CKD (14.4% vs 14.6%, p = 0.84) However, in this same medium risk group, patients with CKD had more CV events compared to those without CKD (26.7% vs 6.6%, p = 0.005). This is in contrast to patients in the low and high risk group where there was no difference in CVD events whether these patients had or did not have CKD. There were more CV events in the Framingham medium risk group when they also had CKD compared those in the same risk group without CKD. Hence factoring in CKD for those with medium risk helps to further stratify and identify those who are actually at greater risk, when treatment may be more likely to be indicated. PMID:26496190

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE CORAL MONTASTRAEA FAVEOLATE TO BLACK-BAND DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black-band disease affects many species of tropical reef-building corals, but it is unclear what factors contribute to the disease-susceptibility of individual corals or how the disease is transmitted between colonies. Studies have suggested that the ability of black-band disease...

  2. Recent Mitochondrial DNA Mutations Increase the Risk of Developing Common Late-Onset Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Gavin; Gomez-Duran, Aurora; Wilson, Ian J.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly polymorphic at the population level, and specific mtDNA variants affect mitochondrial function. With emerging evidence that mitochondrial mechanisms are central to common human diseases, it is plausible that mtDNA variants contribute to the “missing heritability” of several complex traits. Given the central role of mtDNA genes in oxidative phosphorylation, the same genetic variants would be expected to alter the risk of developing several different disorders, but this has not been shown to date. Here we studied 38,638 individuals with 11 major diseases, and 17,483 healthy controls. Imputing missing variants from 7,729 complete mitochondrial genomes, we captured 40.41% of European mtDNA variation. We show that mtDNA variants modifying the risk of developing one disease also modify the risk of developing other diseases, thus providing independent replication of a disease association in different case and control cohorts. High-risk alleles were more common than protective alleles, indicating that mtDNA is not at equilibrium in the human population, and that recent mutations interact with nuclear loci to modify the risk of developing multiple common diseases. PMID:24852434

  3. Zoonotic disease risk and the bushmeat trade: assessing awareness among hunters and traders in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among both conservationists and public health officials for its influence on zoonotic disease transmission and animal conservation. While the association between infectious diseases and the bushmeat trade is well established in the research community, risk perception among bushmeat hunters and traders has not been well characterized. I conducted surveys of 123 bushmeat hunters and traders in rural Sierra Leone to investigate hunting practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risk associated with the bushmeat trade. Twenty-four percent of bushmeat hunters and traders reported knowledge of disease transmission from animals to humans. Formal education did not significantly affect awareness of zoonotic disease transmission. Individuals who engaged exclusively in preparation and trading of bushmeat were more likely to accidentally cut themselves compared to those who primarily engaged in bushmeat hunting (P < 0.001). In addition, women involved in the bushmeat trade were at greater risk of exposing themselves to potential zoonotic pathogens through accidental self-cutting compared to men (P < 0.01). This study collected preliminary information on risk perception among bushmeat hunters that could guide the creation of a future public health-based education program to minimize zoonotic disease transmission risk among vulnerable communities.

  4. Zoonotic disease risk and the bushmeat trade: assessing awareness among hunters and traders in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among both conservationists and public health officials for its influence on zoonotic disease transmission and animal conservation. While the association between infectious diseases and the bushmeat trade is well established in the research community, risk perception among bushmeat hunters and traders has not been well characterized. I conducted surveys of 123 bushmeat hunters and traders in rural Sierra Leone to investigate hunting practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risk associated with the bushmeat trade. Twenty-four percent of bushmeat hunters and traders reported knowledge of disease transmission from animals to humans. Formal education did not significantly affect awareness of zoonotic disease transmission. Individuals who engaged exclusively in preparation and trading of bushmeat were more likely to accidentally cut themselves compared to those who primarily engaged in bushmeat hunting (P < 0.001). In addition, women involved in the bushmeat trade were at greater risk of exposing themselves to potential zoonotic pathogens through accidental self-cutting compared to men (P < 0.01). This study collected preliminary information on risk perception among bushmeat hunters that could guide the creation of a future public health-based education program to minimize zoonotic disease transmission risk among vulnerable communities. PMID:23408099

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk in young people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), despite modern advances in glycemic control and CVD risk factor modification. CVD risk identification is essential in this high-risk population, yet remains poorly understood. This review discusses the risk factors for CVD in young people with T1D, including hyperglycemia, traditional CVD risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, hypertension), as well as novel risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and hypoglycemia. We present evidence that adverse changes in cardiovascular function, arterial compliance, and atherosclerosis are present even during adolescence in people with T1D, highlighting the need for earlier intervention. The methods for investigating cardiovascular risk are discussed and reviewed. Finally, we discuss the observational studies and clinical trials which have thus far attempted to elucidate the best targets for early intervention in order to reduce the burden of CVD in people with T1D. PMID:22528676

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk in young people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), despite modern advances in glycemic control and CVD risk factor modification. CVD risk identification is essential in this high-risk population, yet remains poorly understood. This review discusses the risk factors for CVD in young people with T1D, including hyperglycemia, traditional CVD risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, hypertension), as well as novel risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and hypoglycemia. We present evidence that adverse changes in cardiovascular function, arterial compliance, and atherosclerosis are present even during adolescence in people with T1D, highlighting the need for earlier intervention. The methods for investigating cardiovascular risk are discussed and reviewed. Finally, we discuss the observational studies and clinical trials which have thus far attempted to elucidate the best targets for early intervention in order to reduce the burden of CVD in people with T1D.

  7. [Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence: study of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella R; de Vilhena, Marília Mello; de Paula, Mariana Campos

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are frequent in adolescence and facilitates HIV contamination. The early age limit of the first sexual intercourse, the diversity of partners, the habit of not using condoms and illicit drug abuse are pointed out as risk factors for sexual transmitted disease. We interviewed 356 adolescents who sought medical attendance at the Adolescent Health Study Center of The State University of Rio de Janeiro between August/2001 and July/2002 regarding their sexuality and to identify risk behaviors. Periodical analysis and chi-square tests were performed on the collected data. We observed statistically significant correlations between Sexual transmitted diseases and the variables of: slow learning, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse, sexual abuse and the habit of not using condoms during sexual intercourse. The results indicate multiple Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors in adolescence, and the failure to use condoms is the factor which is most possibly influenced by programs run by health workers.

  8. TRANSPORTER POLYMORPHISMS AFFECT NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY, DISEASES, AND PHARMACOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sissung, Tristan M.; Troutman, Sarah M.; Campbell, Tessa J; Pressler, Heather M.; Sung, Hyeyoung; Bates, Susan E.; Figg, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Drug transporters mediate the movement of endobiotics and xenobiotics across biological membranes in multiple organs and in most tissues. As such, they are involved in physiology, development of disease, drug pharmacokinetics, and ultimately the clinical response to myriad medications. Genetic variants in transporters cause population-specific differences in drug transport and are responsible for considerable inter-individual variation in physiology and pharmacotherapy. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of how inherited variants in transporters are associated with disease etiology, disease state, and the pharmacological treatment of diseases. Given that there are thousands of published papers related to the interplay between transporter genetics and medicine, this review will provide examples that exemplify the broader focus of the literature. PMID:22284781

  9. Risk of sudden cardiac death in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, Dimitrios; Banerjee, Debasish; Malik, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The review discusses the epidemiology and the possible underlying mechanisms of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and highlights the unmet clinical need for noninvasive risk stratification strategies in these patients. Although renal dysfunction shares common risk factors and often coexists with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, the presence of renal impairment increases the risk of arrhythmic complications to an extent that cannot be explained by the severity of the atherosclerotic process. Renal impairment is an independent risk factor for SCD from the early stages of CKD; the risk increases as renal function declines and reaches very high levels in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. Autonomic imbalance, uremic cardiomyopathy, and electrolyte disturbances likely play a role in increasing the arrhythmic risk and can be potential targets for treatment. Cardioverter defibrillator treatment could be offered as lifesaving treatment in selected patients, although selection strategies for this treatment mode are presently problematic in dialyzed patients. The review also examines the current experience with risk stratification tools in renal patients and suggests that noninvasive electrophysiological testing during dialysis may be of clinical value as it provides the necessary standardized environment for reproducible measurements for risk stratification purposes. PMID:24256575

  10. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Future Alzheimer’s Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Greg; Chester, Cariad; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Dudley, Joel T.; Leeper, Nicholas J.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the association of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the treatment of prostate cancer with subsequent Alzheimer’s disease risk. Methods We used a previously validated and implemented text-processing pipeline to analyze electronic medical record data in a retrospective cohort of patients at Stanford University and Mt. Sinai hospitals. Specifically, we extracted International Classification of Diseases-9th revision diagnosis and Current Procedural Terminology codes, medication lists, and positive-present mentions of drug and disease concepts from all clinical notes. We then tested the effect of ADT on risk of Alzheimer’s disease using 1:5 propensity score–matched and traditional multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The duration of ADT use was also tested for association with Alzheimer’s disease risk. Results There were 16,888 individuals with prostate cancer meeting all inclusion and exclusion criteria, with 2,397 (14.2%) receiving ADT during a median follow-up period of 2.7 years (interquartile range, 1.0-5.4 years). Propensity score–matched analysis (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.20; P = .021) and traditional multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.64; P = .031) both supported a statistically significant association between ADT use and Alzheimer’s disease risk. We also observed a statistically significant increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease with increasing duration of ADT (P = .016). Conclusion Our results support an association between the use of ADT in the treatment of prostate cancer and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease in a general population cohort. This study demonstrates the utility of novel methods to analyze electronic medical record data to generate practice-based evidence. PMID:26644522

  11. How do people judge risks: availability heuristic, affect heuristic, or both?

    PubMed

    Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Steinmann, Florian

    2012-09-01

    How does the public reckon which risks to be concerned about? The availability heuristic and the affect heuristic are key accounts of how laypeople judge risks. Yet, these two accounts have never been systematically tested against each other, nor have their predictive powers been examined across different measures of the public's risk perception. In two studies, we gauged risk perception in student samples by employing three measures (frequency, value of a statistical life, and perceived risk) and by using a homogeneous (cancer) and a classic set of heterogeneous causes of death. Based on these judgments of risk, we tested precise models of the availability heuristic and the affect heuristic and different definitions of availability and affect. Overall, availability-by-recall, a heuristic that exploits people's direct experience of occurrences of risks in their social network, conformed to people's responses best. We also found direct experience to carry a high degree of ecological validity (and one that clearly surpasses that of affective information). However, the relative impact of affective information (as compared to availability) proved more pronounced in value-of-a-statistical-life and perceived-risk judgments than in risk-frequency judgments. Encounters with risks in the media, in contrast, played a negligible role in people's judgments. Going beyond the assumption of exclusive reliance on either availability or affect, we also found evidence for mechanisms that combine both, either sequentially or in a composite fashion. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications of our results, including how to foster people's risk calibration and the success of education campaigns. PMID:22564084

  12. Variance in disease risk: rural populations and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, W D; Lipka, A E; Fogleman, A J; Delfino, K R; Malhi, R S; Hendricks, B

    2016-07-01

    Over 19% of the US population resides in rural areas, where studies of disease risk and disease outcomes are difficult to assess due to smaller populations and lower incidence. While some studies suggest rural disparities for different chronic diseases, the data are inconsistent across geography and definitions of rurality. We reviewed the literature to examine if local variations in population genomic diversity may plausibly explain inconsistencies in estimating disease risk. Many rural communities were founded over 150 years ago by small groups of ethnically and ancestrally similar families. These have since endured relative geographical isolation, similar to groups in other industrialized nations, perhaps resulting in founder effects impacting local disease susceptibility. Studies in Europe and Asia have found that observably different phenotypes may appear in isolated communities within 100 years, and that genomic variation can significantly vary over small geographical scales. Epidemiological studies utilizing common "rural" definitions may miss significant disease differences due to assumptions of risk homogeneity and misinterpretation of administrative definitions of rurality. Local genomic heterogeneity should be an important aspect of chronic disease epidemiology in rural areas, and it is important to consider for designing studies and interpreting results, enabling a better understanding of the heritable components of complex diseases. PMID:27334395

  13. Genetic variants associated with celiac disease and the risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Henning; Willenborg, Christina; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Ferrario, Paola G; König, Inke R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with celiac disease are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic-epidemiological analyses identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with celiac disease. If there is a causal relation between celiac disease and CAD, one might expect that risk alleles primarily associated with celiac disease also increase the risk of CAD. In this study we identified from literature 41 SNPs that have been previously described to be genome-wide associated with celiac disease (p < 5 × 10(-08)). These SNPs were evaluated for their association with CAD in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) dataset, a meta-analysis comprising genome-wide SNP association data from 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. 24 out of 41 (58.5 %) risk alleles for celiac disease displayed a positive association with CAD (CAD-OR range 1.001-1.081). The remaining risk alleles for celiac disease (n = 16) revealed CAD-ORs of ≤1.0 (range 0.951-1.0). The proportion of CAD associated alleles was greater but did not differ significantly from the proportion of 50 % expected by chance (p = 0.069). One SNP (rs653178 at the SH2B3/ATXN2 locus) displayed study-wise statistically significant association with CAD with directionality consistent effects on celiac disease and CAD. However, the effect of this locus is most likely driven by pleiotropic effects on multiple other diseases. In conclusion, this genetically based approach provided no convincing evidence that SNPs associated with celiac disease contribute to the risk of CAD. Hence, common non-genetic factors may play a more important role explaining the coincidence of these two complex disease conditions.

  14. Disparities in cardiovascular disease risk in the United States.

    PubMed

    Graham, Garth

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive narrative review of the literature on the current science and evidence of population-level differences in risk factors for heart disease among different racial and ethnic population in the United States (U.S.). It begins by discussing the importance of population-level risk assessment of heart disease in light of the growth rate of specific minority populations in the U.S. It describes the population-level dynamics for racial and ethnic minorities: a higher overall prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease that are unrecognized and therefore not treated, which increases their likelihood of experiencing adverse outcome and, therefore, potentially higher morbidity and mortality. It discusses the rate of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in minority communities. Minority patients with ACS are at greater risk of myocardial infarction (MI), rehospitalization, and death from ACS. They also are less likely than non-minority patients to receive potentially beneficial treatments such as angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. This paper looks at the data surrounding the increased rate of heart disease in racial and ethnic minorities, where the risk is related to the prevalence of comorbidities with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, which, in combination with environmental factors, may largely explain CHF disparity. The conclusion is that it is essential that healthcare providers understand these various communities, including nuances in disease presentation, risk factors, and treatment among different racial and ethnic groups. Awareness of these communities' attributes, as well as differences in incidence, risk factor burdens, prognosis and treatment are necessary to mitigate racial and ethnic disparities in heart disease.

  15. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  16. How Many People Are Affected By or Are at Risk for Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are affected by or are at risk for neural tube defects? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... with spina bifida. 1 The other types of neural tube defects are less common. About 340 infants are born ...

  17. Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk Researchers suggest steaming, poaching and stewing for ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Diets Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  18. Clinical Factors affecting Minor Amputation in Diabetic Foot Disease at Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan

    PubMed Central

    ZAKARIA, Zamzuri; AFIFI, Mustaqim; SHARIFUDIN, Mohd Ariff

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot disease poses a substantial problem in Malaysian diabetic population. We evaluate the clinical factors affecting minor amputation in diabetic foot disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolling patients admitted to orthopaedic wards of a single tertiary hospital for diabetic foot disease was conducted. Patients who had undergone major amputation or with medical condition above the ankle joint were not included. Clinical data were collected by measurement of ankle brachial systolic index and Semmes-Weinstein 5.07 gauge monofilament test with foot clinical evaluation using King’s classification respectively. Results: The total number of patients included was 138, with mean age of 59.7 years (range 29 to 94 years old). Fifty patients (36.2%) had minor amputations. Poor compliance to diabetic treatment, King’s classification stage 5, low measures of ankle brachial systolic index, sensory neuropathy, high serum C-Reactive protein and high serum creatinine are significant predictive factors for minor amputation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Identifying these risk factors may help in prevention of minor amputation and subsequently reduce limb loss in diabetic foot. PMID:26023294

  19. Radiation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, John E; Moulder, John E; Hopewell, John W

    2011-10-01

    Abstract population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7-6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease.

  20. Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956. PMID:21091078

  1. Radiation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, John E; Moulder, John E; Hopewell, John W

    2011-10-01

    Abstract population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7-6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. PMID:21091078

  2. Risk for travel-associated legionnaires' disease, Europe, 2009.

    PubMed

    Beauté, Julien; Zucs, Phillip; de Jong, Birgitta

    2012-11-01

    Legionnaires' disease is underreported in Europe; notification rates differ substantially among countries. Approximately 20% of reported cases are travel-associated. To assess the risk for travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) associated with travel patterns in European countries, we retrieved TALD surveillance data for 2009 from the European Surveillance System, and tourism denominator data from the Statistical Office of the European Union. Risk (number cases reported/number nights spent) was calculated by travel country. In 2009, the network reported 607 cases among European travelers, possibly associated with 825 accommodation sites in European Union countries. The overall risk associated with travel abroad was 0.3 cases/million nights. We observed an increasing trend in risk from northwestern to southeastern Europe; Greece had the highest risk (1.7). Our findings underscore the need for countries with high TALD risks to improve prevention and control of legionellosis; and for countries with high TALD risks, but low notification rates of Legionnaires' disease to improve diagnostics and reporting. PMID:23092591

  3. Shared Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Implications for Preventive Health and Clinical Care in Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher B; Davis, Margot K; Law, Angeline; Sulpher, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    The cardiovascular toxicity of cancer therapy has raised awareness of the importance of heart disease in cancer care among oncologists and cardiologists, leading to the new interdisciplinary field of cardio-oncology. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease are also related to an increased incidence of cancer and excess cancer mortality. We review the epidemiologic evidence that smoking, obesity, poor diet, and inactivity can cause both heart disease and cancer. The importance of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors in adversely affecting oncological outcomes and leading to increased cancer mortality is discussed. Cardiotoxicity prediction tools that incorporate cardiac disease and risk factors are described. Raising awareness about shared risk factors for cancer and heart disease may result in more effective advocacy to promote healthy lifestyle changes through the combined efforts of the historically separate specialties of cardiology and oncology. PMID:27343745

  4. Consequences of landscape fragmentation on Lyme disease risk: a cellular automata approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Hartemink, Nienke; Speybroeck, Niko; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial

  5. Early Huntington's Disease Affects Movements in Transformed Sensorimotor Mappings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, C.; Lemay, M.; Bedard, M.A.; Chouinard, M.J.; Chouinard, S.; Richer, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of transformed visual feedback on movement control in Huntington's disease (HD). Patients in the early stages of HD and controls performed aiming movements towards peripheral targets on a digitizing tablet and emphasizing precision. In a baseline condition, HD patients were slower but showed few precision problems in…

  6. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  7. Oxidative Risk for Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In the vasculature, reactive oxidant species including reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or halogenating species, and thiyl, tyrosyl, or protein radicals, may oxidatively modify lipids and proteins with deleterious consequences for vascular function. These biologically active free radical and non-radical species may be produced by increased activation of oxidant-generating sources and/or decreased cellular antioxidant capacity. Once formed, these species may engage in reactions to yield more potent oxidants that promote transition of the homeostatic vascular phenotype to a pathobiological state that is permissive for atherothrombogenesis. This dysfunctional vasculature is characterized by lipid peroxidation and aberrant lipid deposition, inflammation, immune cell activation, platelet activation, thrombus formation, and disturbed hemodynamic flow. Each of these pathobiological states is associated with an increase in the vascular burden of free radical species-derived oxidation products and, thereby, implicates increased oxidant stress in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:19751821

  8. How Do Alcohol and Relationship Type Affect Women's Risk Judgment of Partners with Differing Risk Histories?

    PubMed

    Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A; Morrison, Diane M; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Zawacki, Tina; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how women judge male partners' sexual risk is important to developing risk reduction programs. Applying a cognitive mediation model of sexual decision making, our study investigated effects of alcohol consumption (control, low dose, high dose) and relationship type (disrupted vs. new) on women's risk judgments of a male sexual partner in three sexual risk conditions (low, unknown, high). After random assignment to an experimental condition, 328 participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual interaction. The story was paused to assess primary appraisals of sexual and relationship potential and secondary appraisals of pleasure, health, and relationship concerns, followed by sexual risk judgments. In all risk conditions, alcohol and disrupted relationship increased sexual potential whereas disrupted relationship increased relationship potential in the low- and high-risk conditions. In the unknown-risk condition, women in the no-alcohol, new relationship condition had the lowest primary sexual appraisals. In all conditions, sexual appraisals predicted all secondary appraisals, but primary relationship appraisals predicted only secondary relationship appraisals. Secondary health appraisals led to increased risk judgments whereas relationship appraisals predicted lower risk judgments. Possible intervention points include helping women to re-evaluate their safety beliefs about past partners, as well as to develop behavioral strategies for decreasing hazardous drinking.

  9. Semantic Trouble Sources and Their Repair in Conversations Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika; Bloch, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dysarthria arising from Parkinson's disease may affect intelligibility in conversational interaction. Research has also shown that Parkinson's disease may affect cognition and cause word-retrieval difficulties and pragmatic problems in the use of language. However, it is not known whether or how these…

  10. A new estimate of family disease history providing improved prediction of disease risks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui; McClure, Leslie A.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Howard, George

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex diseases often aggregate within families and using the history of family members’ disease can potentially increase the accuracy of the risk assessment and allow clinicians to better target on high risk individuals. However, available family risk scores do not reflect the age of disease onset, gender and family structures simultaneously. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for a family risk score, the stratified log-rank family score (SLFS), which incorporates the age of disease onset of family members, gender differences and the relationship among family members. Via simulation, we demonstrate that the new SLFS is more closely associated with the true family risk for the disease and more robust to family sizes than two existing methods. We apply our proposed method and the two existing methods to a study of stroke and heart disease. The results show that assessing family history can improve the prediction of disease risks and the SLFS has strongest positive associations with both myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:19170247

  11. On the relationship between personal experience, affect and risk perception: The case of climate change

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Examining the conceptual relationship between personal experience, affect, and risk perception is crucial in improving our understanding of how emotional and cognitive process mechanisms shape public perceptions of climate change. This study is the first to investigate the interrelated nature of these variables by contrasting three prominent social-psychological theories. In the first model, affect is viewed as a fast and associative information processing heuristic that guides perceptions of risk. In the second model, affect is seen as flowing from cognitive appraisals (i.e., affect is thought of as a post-cognitive process). Lastly, a third, dual-process model is advanced that integrates aspects from both theoretical perspectives. Four structural equation models were tested on a national sample (N = 808) of British respondents. Results initially provide support for the “cognitive” model, where personal experience with extreme weather is best conceptualized as a predictor of climate change risk perception and, in turn, risk perception a predictor of affect. Yet, closer examination strongly indicates that at the same time, risk perception and affect reciprocally influence each other in a stable feedback system. It is therefore concluded that both theoretical claims are valid and that a dual-process perspective provides a superior fit to the data. Implications for theory and risk communication are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25678723

  12. Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2007-01-01

    The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

  13. Negative Affect and HIV Risk in Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucenko, Barbara A.; Malow, Robert M.; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario; Jennings, Terri; Devieux, Jessy G.

    2003-01-01

    Various depressive symptoms have been linked to elevated levels of HIV risk across diverse adult populations in multiple studies. However, this link has been examined in a much more limited manner among adolescents, despite an exceedingly heightened risk of both HIV and negative affect in this age group. To address the current lack of clinically…

  14. Joint attention initiation with and without positive affect: risk group differences and associations with ASD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Devon N; Ibañez, Lisa V; Messinger, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of anticipatory smiling at 8, 10, and 12 months in infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) and without ASD (low-risk siblings). High-risk siblings produced less anticipatory smiling than low-risk siblings, suggesting early differences in communicating preexisting positive affect. While early anticipatory smiling distinguished the risk groups, IJA not accompanied by smiling best predicted later severity of ASD-related behavioral characteristics among high-risk siblings. High-risk infants appear to show lower levels of motivation to share positive affect with others. However, facility with initiating joint attention in the absence of a clear index of positive affective motivation appears to be central to the prediction of ASD symptoms. PMID:24281421

  15. Examining the relationship between affect and implicit associations: implications for risk perception.

    PubMed

    Dohle, Simone; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that affect may play an important role in risk perception. Slovic et al. argued that people make use of the "affect heuristic" when assessing risks because it is easier and more efficient to rely on spontaneous affective reactions than to analyze all available information. In the present studies, a single category implicit association test (SC-IAT) to measure associations evoked by different hazards was employed. In the first study, we tested the extent to which the SC-IAT corresponds to the theoretical construct of affect in a risk framework. Specifically, we found that the SC-IAT correlates with other explicit measures that claim to measure affect, as well as with a measure of trust, but not with a measure that captures a different construct (subjective knowledge). In the second study, we addressed the question of whether hazards that vary along the dread dimension of the psychometric paradigm also differ in the affect they evoke. The results of the SC-IAT indicated that a high-dread hazard (nuclear power) elicits negative associations. Moreover, the high-dread hazard evoked more negative associations than a medium-dread hazard (hydroelectric power). In contrast, a nondread hazard (home appliances) led to positive associations. The results of our study highlight the importance of affect in shaping attitudes and opinions toward risks. The results further suggest that implicit measures may provide valuable insight into people's risk perception above and beyond explicit measures. PMID:20409044

  16. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Harlak, Ali; Mentes, Oner; Kilic, Selim; Coskun, Kagan; Duman, Kazim; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001). With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001), body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible. PMID:20186294

  17. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  18. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  19. Issues affecting minority participation in research studies of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Kathleen A; Ballard, Edna; Nash, Florence; Raiford, Kate; Harrell, Lindy

    1994-01-01

    Despite the need for minority subjects in research studies of Alzheimer disease (AD), the successful involvement of minority patients in such studies has been difficult. This report discusses the many societal, economic, logistical, and attitudinal barriers that have inhibited the participation of minority patients and their families in medical research programs of AD. Special consideration is given to the unique cultural issues that arise when conducting studies involving African-American elderly subjects. Methods are considered for overcoming the barriers to participation gleaned from the national study CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer Disease) and other investigations of AD. Recommendations are made for future research programs targeted on the specific health care needs and concerns of the minority segments of our population.

  20. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  1. Does life history mediate changing disease risk when communities disassemble?

    PubMed

    Joseph, Maxwell B; Mihaljevic, Joseph R; Orlofske, Sarah A; Paull, Sara H

    2013-11-01

    Biodiversity loss sometimes increases disease risk or parasite transmission in humans, wildlife and plants. Some have suggested that this pattern can emerge when host species that persist throughout community disassembly show high host competence - the ability to acquire and transmit infections. Here, we briefly assess the current empirical evidence for covariance between host competence and extirpation risk, and evaluate the consequences for disease dynamics in host communities undergoing disassembly. We find evidence for such covariance, but the mechanisms for and variability around this relationship have received limited consideration. This deficit could lead to spurious assumptions about how and why disease dynamics respond to community disassembly. Using a stochastic simulation model, we demonstrate that weak covariance between competence and extirpation risk may account for inconsistent effects of host diversity on disease risk that have been observed empirically. This model highlights the predictive utility of understanding the degree to which host competence relates to extirpation risk, and the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying such relationships.

  2. Overview of selected infectious disease risks for the corporate traveler.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T Warner; Fortuna, Joseph

    2008-08-01

    International business travel to under-developed and developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Most of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, many of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both and the nonimmune, unprepared corporate traveler is at risk. Comprehensive pretravel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including regions of endemicity, assessment of risk, and available means of prevention. In addition, we discuss data concerning current practices and attitudes of travelers, along with some of the issues surrounding the counseling of corporate travelers.

  3. Genetic risk factors and Mendelian randomization in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Daniel I; Hingorani, Aroon D; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease encompasses several diverse pathological states that place a heavy burden on individual and population health. The aetiological basis of many cardiovascular disorders is not fully understood. Growing knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias and peripheral vascular disease has confirmed some suspected causal pathways in these conditions but also uncovered many previously unknown mechanisms. Here, we consider the contribution of genetics to the understanding of cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluate the utility and relevance of findings from genome-wide association studies and explore the role that Mendelian randomisation has to play in exploiting these. Mendelian randomisation permits robust causal inference in an area of research where this has been hampered by bias and confounding in observational studies. In doing so, it provides evidence for causal processes in cardiovascular disease that could represent novel targets for much-needed new drugs for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:25894797

  4. Risks of population antimicrobial resistance associated with chronic macrolide use for inflammatory airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Serisier, David J

    2013-05-01

    Macrolide antibiotics have established efficacy in the management of cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis-uncommon lung diseases with substantial morbidity and the potential for rapid progression to death. Emerging evidence suggests benefits of maintenance macrolide treatment in more indolent respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. In view of the greater patient population affected by these disorders (and potential for macrolide use to spread to disorders such as chronic cough), widespread use of macrolides, particularly azithromycin, has the potential to substantially influence antimicrobial resistance rates of a range of respiratory microbes. In this Personal View, I explore theories around population (rather than patient) macrolide resistance, appraise evidence linking macrolide use with development of resistance, and highlight the risks posed by injudicious broadening of their use, particularly of azithromycin. These risks are weighed against the potential benefits of macrolides in less aggressive inflammatory airway disorders. A far-sighted approach to maintenance macrolide use in non-cystic fibrosis inflammatory airway diseases is needed, which minimises risks of adversely affecting community macrolide resistance: combining preferential use of erythromycin and restriction of macrolide use to those patients at greatest risk represents an appropriately cautious management approach. PMID:24429132

  5. Risks of population antimicrobial resistance associated with chronic macrolide use for inflammatory airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Serisier, David J

    2013-05-01

    Macrolide antibiotics have established efficacy in the management of cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis-uncommon lung diseases with substantial morbidity and the potential for rapid progression to death. Emerging evidence suggests benefits of maintenance macrolide treatment in more indolent respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. In view of the greater patient population affected by these disorders (and potential for macrolide use to spread to disorders such as chronic cough), widespread use of macrolides, particularly azithromycin, has the potential to substantially influence antimicrobial resistance rates of a range of respiratory microbes. In this Personal View, I explore theories around population (rather than patient) macrolide resistance, appraise evidence linking macrolide use with development of resistance, and highlight the risks posed by injudicious broadening of their use, particularly of azithromycin. These risks are weighed against the potential benefits of macrolides in less aggressive inflammatory airway disorders. A far-sighted approach to maintenance macrolide use in non-cystic fibrosis inflammatory airway diseases is needed, which minimises risks of adversely affecting community macrolide resistance: combining preferential use of erythromycin and restriction of macrolide use to those patients at greatest risk represents an appropriately cautious management approach.

  6. Risk factors for lung diseases after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045

  7. [Shift work and risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch

    2014-01-20

    Shift and night work are among the most frequent occupational exposures. Such work schedules involve exposure to light-at-night, which may reduce normal nocturnal melatonin production, create circadian rhythm disruption, sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle. There is strong experimental evidence that light-at-night and circadian disruption may increase the risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases. There is emerging, but limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift work may increase breast cancer and certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24629681

  8. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  9. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  10. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  11. Vector-borne pathogens: New and emerging arboviral diseases affecting public health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dengue and Zika have quickly become two of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting Public health around the world. This presentation will introduce vector-borne diseases and all the vectors implicated. A focus will be made on the most important arboviral diseases (Zika and dengue) describ...

  12. The role of health-risk appraisals in disease management.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Laurel R; Pope, James E

    2006-02-01

    Managed care organizations and disease management vendors often find themselves in the position of responding to employers who want to administer a health-risk appraisal (HRA) without committing to implementation of a comprehensive health promotion program. The assumption appears to be that information on health risks is sufficient to motivate employees to change their health behaviors in order to reduce estimated health risks. A review of the relevant literature does not substantiate the efficacy of a stand-alone HRA for motivating behavior change. The challenge is to engage employers in informed conversations on what works in health promotion and achieve cost-effective benefits.

  13. Military risk factors for cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Dallas P; Friedl, Karl E; Weiner, Michael W

    2013-11-01

    Delayed neurological health consequences of environmental exposures during military service have been generally underappreciated. The rapidly expanding understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis now makes it possible to quantitate some of the likely long-term health risks associated with military service. Military risk factors for AD include both factors elevated in military personnel such as tobacco use, traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other nonspecific risk factors for AD including, vascular risk factors such as obesity and obesity-related diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome), education and physical fitness. The degree of combat exposure, Vietnam era Agent Orange exposure and Gulf War Illness may also influence risk for AD. Using available data on the association of AD and specific exposures and risk factors, the authors have conservatively estimated 423,000 new cases of AD in veterans by 2020, including 140,000 excess cases associated with specific military exposures. The cost associated with these excess cases is approximately $5.8 billion to $7.8 billion. Mitigation of the potential impact of military exposures on the cognitive function of veterans and management of modifiable risk factors through specifically designed programs will be instrumental in minimizing the impact of AD in veterans in the future decades. PMID:23906002

  14. From hyperglycemia to the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2006-01-01

    Blood glucose is a continuous, progressive risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) throughout the dysglycemic range. There is also evidence that post-prandial hyperglycemia may be a better predictor of CVD risk than fasting plasma glucose or A1C. Targeting normoglycemia appears to reduce CVD events in diabetes mellitus (DM), although definitive studies in type 2 DM, as well as in prediabetes, are ongoing. Prediabetes has some, but not total, overlaps with the metabolic syndrome. Patients with the metabolic syndrome are at a significantly increased risk for both CVD and DM. Although the individual components of the syndrome predict risk for CVD to approximately equal degree, increased blood glucose, perhaps not surprisingly, is the best predictor of diabetes. Finally, there are multiple mechanisms by which hyperglycemia can increase the risk for CVD.

  15. Bone imaging and fracture risk assessment in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Sophie A; Nickolas, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Fractures are more common and are associated with greater morbidity and morality in patients with kidney disease than in members of the general population. Thus, it is troubling that in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients there has been a paradoxical increase in fracture rates over the past 20 years compared to the general population. Increased fracture incidence in CKD patients may be driven in part by the lack of screening for fracture risk. In the general population, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the clinical standard to stratify fracture risk, and its use has contributed to decreases in fracture incidence. In contrast, in CKD, fracture risk screening with DXA has been uncommon due to its unclear efficacy in predicting fracture and its inability to predict type of renal osteodystrophy. Recently, several prospective studies conducted in patients across the spectrum of kidney disease have demonstrated that bone mineral density measured by DXA predicts future fracture risk and that clinically relevant information regarding fracture risk is provided by application of the World Health Organization cutoffs for osteopenia and osteoporosis to DXA measures. Furthermore, novel high-resolution imaging tools, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have been used to elucidate the effects of kidney disease on cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and bone strength and to identify potential targets for strategies that protect against fractures. This review will discuss the updated epidemiology of fractures in CKD, fracture risk screening by DXA, and the utility of state-of-the art imaging methods to uncover the effects of kidney disease on the skeleton. PMID:25744703

  16. Climate Warming and Disease Risks for Terrestrial and Marine Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvell, C. Drew; Mitchell, Charles E.; Ward, Jessica R.; Altizer, Sonia; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2002-06-01

    Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

  17. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvell, C.D.; Mitchell, C.E.; Ward, J.R.; Altizer, S.; Dobson, A.P.; Ostfeld, R.S.; Samuel, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño–Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

  18. Common polygenic variation enhances risk prediction for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Escott-Price, Valentina; Sims, Rebecca; Bannister, Christian; Harold, Denise; Vronskaya, Maria; Majounie, Elisa; Badarinarayan, Nandini; Morgan, Kevin; Passmore, Peter; Holmes, Clive; Powell, John; Brayne, Carol; Gill, Michael; Mead, Simon; Goate, Alison; Cruchaga, Carlos; Lambert, Jean-Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia; Maier, Wolfgang; Ramirez, Alfredo; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Hardy, John; Seshadri, Sudha; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe; Williams, Julie

    2015-12-01

    The identification of subjects at high risk for Alzheimer's disease is important for prognosis and early intervention. We investigated the polygenic architecture of Alzheimer's disease and the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease prediction models, including and excluding the polygenic component in the model. This study used genotype data from the powerful dataset comprising 17 008 cases and 37 154 controls obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). Polygenic score analysis tested whether the alleles identified to associate with disease in one sample set were significantly enriched in the cases relative to the controls in an independent sample. The disease prediction accuracy was investigated in a subset of the IGAP data, a sample of 3049 cases and 1554 controls (for whom APOE genotype data were available) by means of sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive and negative predictive values. We observed significant evidence for a polygenic component enriched in Alzheimer's disease (P = 4.9 × 10(-26)). This enrichment remained significant after APOE and other genome-wide associated regions were excluded (P = 3.4 × 10(-19)). The best prediction accuracy AUC = 78.2% (95% confidence interval 77-80%) was achieved by a logistic regression model with APOE, the polygenic score, sex and age as predictors. In conclusion, Alzheimer's disease has a significant polygenic component, which has predictive utility for Alzheimer's disease risk and could be a valuable research tool complementing experimental designs, including preventative clinical trials, stem cell selection and high/low risk clinical studies. In modelling a range of sample disease prevalences, we found that polygenic scores almost doubles case prediction from chance with increased prediction at polygenic extremes.

  19. No fear no risk! Human risk behavior is affected by chemosensory anxiety signals.

    PubMed

    Haegler, Katrin; Zernecke, Rebekka; Kleemann, Anna Maria; Albrecht, Jessica; Pollatos, Olga; Brückmann, Hartmut; Wiesmann, Martin

    2010-11-01

    An important aspect of cognitive functioning is decision-making, which depends on the correct interpretation of emotional processes. High trait anxiety has been associated with increased risk taking behavior in decision-making tasks. An interesting fact is that anxiety and anxiety-related chemosignals as well as decision-making share similar regions of neuronal activation. In order to ascertain if chemosensory anxiety signals have similar effects on risk taking behavior of healthy participants as high trait anxiety we used a novel computerized decision-making task, called Haegler's Risk Game (HRG). This task measures risk taking behavior based on contingencies and can be played repeatedly without a learning effect. To obtain chemosensory signals the sweat of 21 male donors was collected in a high rope course (anxiety condition). For the chemosensory control condition sweat was collected during an ergometer workout (exercise condition). In a double-blind study, 30 healthy recipients (16 females) had to play HRG while being exposed to sweat samples or empty control samples (control condition) in three sessions of randomized order. Comparison of the risk taking behavior of the three conditions showed significantly higher risk taking behavior in participants for the most risky choices during the anxiety condition compared to the control conditions. Additionally, recipients showed significantly higher latency before making their decision in the most risky choices during the anxiety condition. This experiment gives evidence that chemosensory anxiety signals are communicated between humans thereby increasing participants' risk taking behavior. PMID:20875438

  20. Lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk associated with glucose-lowering medications.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Barbara E; Gebhard, Catherine; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic, associated with a high burden of complications and 4.6 million deaths annually worldwide. As a result of decreasing levels of physical activity and increasing rates of obesity, diabetes is shifting from a disease affecting the elderly to one that affects younger patients or even children. Thus, aggressive treatment and optimal control of risk factors is the key to improve outcomes in those patients. Accumulating evidence of the cardiovascular and lipid effects of glucose-lowering medications suggest that treatment efficacy in diabetes can be further improved. This review provides an overview of the lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk of current anti-diabetic medications and highlights opportunities and challenges in clinical practice. PMID:26031672

  1. Laughing it off? Humour, affect and emotion work in communities living with nuclear risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, K A; Henwood, K L; Pidgeon, N F; Simmons, P

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, an increasing number of risk researchers have recognized that risks are not simply objective hazards but that the meanings of risk are discursively negotiated, dynamic and embedded within the wider social relations that constitute everyday life. A growing interest in the complexity and nuances of risk subjectivities has alerted sociocultural researchers not only to what is said in a risk situation, but also to how it is said and to what is unsaid and even, in a particular context, unsayable; to the intangible qualities of discourse that communicate additional meanings. Humour is both an intangible and marks such intangible meanings, yet it has largely been ignored and insufficiently theorized by risk researchers. In this paper, we draw upon insights from the humour literature - suspending the belief that humour is inherently good - to analyse and theorize humour as a way of examining the meanings and functions of risk. We show how humour can both mask and carefully reveal affectively charged states about living with nuclear risk. As such, it helps risk subjects to live with risk by suppressing vulnerabilities, enabling the negotiation of what constitutes a threat, and engendering a sense of empowerment. We conclude that humorous talk can be serious talk which can enrich our understandings of the lived experience of risk and of risk subjectivities. PMID:21631461

  2. Laughing it off? Humour, affect and emotion work in communities living with nuclear risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, K A; Henwood, K L; Pidgeon, N F; Simmons, P

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, an increasing number of risk researchers have recognized that risks are not simply objective hazards but that the meanings of risk are discursively negotiated, dynamic and embedded within the wider social relations that constitute everyday life. A growing interest in the complexity and nuances of risk subjectivities has alerted sociocultural researchers not only to what is said in a risk situation, but also to how it is said and to what is unsaid and even, in a particular context, unsayable; to the intangible qualities of discourse that communicate additional meanings. Humour is both an intangible and marks such intangible meanings, yet it has largely been ignored and insufficiently theorized by risk researchers. In this paper, we draw upon insights from the humour literature - suspending the belief that humour is inherently good - to analyse and theorize humour as a way of examining the meanings and functions of risk. We show how humour can both mask and carefully reveal affectively charged states about living with nuclear risk. As such, it helps risk subjects to live with risk by suppressing vulnerabilities, enabling the negotiation of what constitutes a threat, and engendering a sense of empowerment. We conclude that humorous talk can be serious talk which can enrich our understandings of the lived experience of risk and of risk subjectivities.

  3. Managing the Endogenous Risk of Disease Outbreaks with Non-Constant Background Risk

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Kevin; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D.; Shogren, Jason F.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern that risks of disease outbreak and pandemics are increasing over time. We consider optimal investments in prevention before an outbreak using an endogenous risk approach within an optimal control setting. Using the threat of pandemic influenza as an illustrative example, we demonstrate that prevention expenditures are relatively small in comparison to the potential losses facing the USA, and these expenditures need to be flexible and responsive to changes in background risk. Failure to adjust these expenditures to changes in background risk poses a significant threat to social welfare into the future. PMID:27642202

  4. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  5. Lyme disease risk in dogs in New Brunswick.

    PubMed

    Bjurman, Natalie K; Bradet, Gina; Lloyd, Vett K

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in New Brunswick dogs. Testing of 699 serum samples from dogs across the province revealed a 6% province-wide seropositivity, more than 6 times higher than that found in 2008. The rapid increase in seropositivity indicates increased Lyme disease risk to both canine and human health. PMID:27587892

  6. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  7. Modulation of stroke risk in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Julia; Sims, Don; Ferro, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of neurological disability worldwide, with huge economic costs and tragic human consequences. Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease are associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke. However, to date this has generated far less interest compared with the better-recognized links between cardiac and renal disease. Common risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and atrial fibrillation, are shared with the general population but are more prevalent in renal patients. In addition, factors unique to these patients, such as disorders of mineral and bone metabolism, anaemia and its treatments as well as the process of dialysis itself, are all also postulated to further increase the risk of stroke. In the general population, advances in medical therapies mean that effective primary and secondary prevention therapies are available for many patients. The development of specialist stroke clinics and acute stroke units has also improved outcomes after a stroke. Emerging therapies such as thrombolysis and thrombectomy are showing increasingly beneficial results. However, patients with CKD and on dialysis have different risk profiles that must be taken into account when considering the potential benefits and risks of these treatments. Unfortunately, these patients are either not recruited or formally excluded from major clinical trials. There is still much work to be done to harness effective stroke treatments with an acceptable safety profile for patients with CKD and those on dialysis. PMID:26798458

  8. Centralized obesity and cardiovascular disease risk in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Reichley, K B; Mueller, W H; Hanis, C L; Joos, S K; Tulloch, B R; Barton, S; Schull, W J

    1987-03-01

    The association between body fat distribution patterns and cardiovascular disease risk variables (high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressures, and fasting blood glucose levels) was sought in a sample of Mexican American adults who were studied during 1981-1983 in Starr County, Texas. In the sample, all diabetics were excluded to see whether centralized obesity carried any risk for cardiovascular disease independent of diabetes. A component of centralized body fat distribution was identified through the use of principal components analysis of five skinfold measurements, which included the upper and lower extremities and trunk areas. The centralized obese were compared with generalized (peripheral) obese and nonobese controls in four subgroups of the population: younger and older adult males and females. The means of all cardiovascular risk variables were in a direction indicating that the centralized obese were significantly at greater risk than nonobese controls (in particular, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood glucose levels). The generalized obese differed from the centralized obese in having significantly lower blood glucose levels, and tended to be intermediate between centralized obese and nonobese controls in the other variables. The data confirm that centralized obesity as defined by a linear combination of skinfold measures works in the same way as the waist-to-hip circumference ratio in describing a body build factor which heightens the risk of cardiovascular disease in the obese independent of the clinical diabetic state. PMID:3812446

  9. The impact of communicating genetic risks of disease on risk-reducing health behaviour: systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; French, David P; Griffin, Simon J; Prevost, A Toby; Sutton, Stephen; King, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of communicating DNA based disease risk estimates on risk-reducing health behaviours and motivation to engage in such behaviours. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis, using Cochrane methods. Data sources Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to 25 February 2015. Backward and forward citation searches were also conducted. Study selection Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving adults in which one group received personalised DNA based estimates of disease risk for conditions where risk could be reduced by behaviour change. Eligible studies included a measure of risk-reducing behaviour. Results We examined 10 515 abstracts and included 18 studies that reported on seven behavioural outcomes, including smoking cessation (six studies; n=2663), diet (seven studies; n=1784), and physical activity (six studies; n=1704). Meta-analysis revealed no significant effects of communicating DNA based risk estimates on smoking cessation (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.35, P=0.67), diet (standardised mean difference 0.12, 95% confidence interval −0.00 to 0.24, P=0.05), or physical activity (standardised mean difference −0.03, 95% confidence interval −0.13 to 0.08, P=0.62). There were also no effects on any other behaviours (alcohol use, medication use, sun protection behaviours, and attendance at screening or behavioural support programmes) or on motivation to change behaviour, and no adverse effects, such as depression and anxiety. Subgroup analyses provided no clear evidence that communication of a risk-conferring genotype affected behaviour more than communication of the absence of such a genotype. However, studies were predominantly at high or unclear risk of bias, and evidence was typically of low quality. Conclusions Expectations that communicating DNA based risk estimates changes behaviour is not supported by existing evidence

  10. Analysis of optical neural stimulation effects on neural networks affected by neurodegenerative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, M.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    The number of people in risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease increases as the life expectancy grows due to medical advances. Multiple techniques have been developed to improve patient's condition, from pharmacological to invasive electrodes approaches, but no definite cure has yet been discovered. In this work Optical Neural Stimulation (ONS) has been studied. ONS stimulates noninvasively the outer regions of the brain, mainly the neocortex. The relationship between the stimulation parameters and the therapeutic response is not totally clear. In order to find optimal ONS parameters to treat a particular neurodegenerative disease, mathematical modeling is necessary. Neural networks models have been employed to study the neural spiking activity change induced by ONS. Healthy and pathological neocortical networks have been considered to study the required stimulation to restore the normal activity. The network consisted of a group of interconnected neurons, which were assigned 2D spatial coordinates. The optical stimulation spatial profile was assumed to be Gaussian. The stimulation effects were modeled as synaptic current increases in the affected neurons, proportional to the stimulation fluence. Pathological networks were defined as the healthy ones with some neurons being inactivated, which presented no synaptic conductance. Neurons' electrical activity was also studied in the frequency domain, focusing specially on the changes of the spectral bands corresponding to brain waves. The complete model could be used to determine the optimal ONS parameters in order to achieve the specific neural spiking patterns or the required local neural activity increase to treat particular neurodegenerative pathologies.

  11. Proteomics of juvenile senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) affected by gas bubble disease in hyperoxygenated ponds.

    PubMed

    Salas-Leiton, E; Cánovas-Conesa, B; Zerolo, R; López-Barea, J; Cañavate, J P; Alhama, J

    2009-01-01

    Solea senegalensis is a commercial flat fish traditionally farmed in earth ponds in coastal wetlands that might also become important to more intensive aquaculture. Gas bubble disease (GBD) is a potential risk for outdoor fish farming, particularly in certain periods of the year, related to improper management leading to macroalgae blooms. Physical-chemical conditions inducing hyperoxia, including radiation, temperature, and high levels of dissolved oxygen, have been monitored in fish affected by GBD together with observed symptoms. Exophthalmia, subcutaneous emphysemas, obstruction of gill lamellae, hemorrhages, and anomalous swimming were the main effects of oxygen supersaturation. A proteomic study was carried out for the first time under aquaculture conditions and protein expression changes are described for fish that were subject to hyperoxic conditions. Proteins identified in gill of GBD-affected fish are related to oxidative alteration of cytoskeleton structure/function (beta-tubulin, beta-actin), motility (light myosin chain, alpha-tropomyosin), or regulatory pathways (calmodulin, Raf kinase inhibitor protein), reflecting the central role of gill in oxygen exchange. Hepatic proteins identified are related to protein oxidative damages (beta-globin, FABPs), protection from oxidative stress (DCXR, GNMT), and inflammatory response (C3), in agreement with the predominant metabolic role of liver. Comparison of protein expression patterns and protein identification are suggested as potentially specific hyperoxia biomarkers that would facilitate prevention of GBD outbreaks.

  12. Perceptions of disease risk: from social construction of subjective judgments to rational decision making.

    PubMed

    McRoberts, N; Hall, C; Madden, L V; Hughes, G

    2011-06-01

    Many factors influence how people form risk perceptions. Farmers' perceptions of risk and levels of risk aversion impact on decision-making about such things as technology adoption and disease management practices. Irrespective of the underlying factors that affect risk perceptions, those perceptions can be summarized by variables capturing impact and uncertainty components of risk. We discuss a new framework that has the subjective probability of disease and the cost of decision errors as its central features, which might allow a better integration of social science and epidemiology, to the benefit of plant disease management. By focusing on the probability and cost (or impact) dimensions of risk, the framework integrates research from the social sciences, economics, decision theory, and epidemiology. In particular, we review some useful properties of expected regret and skill value, two measures of expected cost that are particularly useful in the evaluation of decision tools. We highlight decision-theoretic constraints on the usefulness of decision tools that may partly explain cases of failure of adoption. We extend this analysis by considering information-theoretic criteria that link model complexity and relative performance and which might explain why users reject forecasters that impose even moderate increases in the complexity of decision making despite improvements in performance or accept very simple decision tools that have relatively poor performance.

  13. [Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular risk profile in ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease comorbidity patients].

    PubMed

    Zharkova, A V; Orlovs'kyĭ, V F

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the study of the clinic features of ischemic heart desease associated with acid peptic disease. It was shown the more evident increase of myocardial infarction risk in associated pathology patients. Such results have to be caused by the special risk factor. As such factor we desided to study the hyperhomosysteinemia. During research there were discovered that the lowest vitamin B12 serum level and the highest homocysteine serum level have been registrated in associated pathology (ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease according to long-term proton pump inhibitor use) patients. It was shown evident correlation between that changes and dyslipidemia. PMID:24908957

  14. [Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular risk profile in ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease comorbidity patients].

    PubMed

    Zharkova, A V; Orlovs'kyĭ, V F

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the study of the clinic features of ischemic heart desease associated with acid peptic disease. It was shown the more evident increase of myocardial infarction risk in associated pathology patients. Such results have to be caused by the special risk factor. As such factor we desided to study the hyperhomosysteinemia. During research there were discovered that the lowest vitamin B12 serum level and the highest homocysteine serum level have been registrated in associated pathology (ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease according to long-term proton pump inhibitor use) patients. It was shown evident correlation between that changes and dyslipidemia.

  15. Investigation of the risk factors for sporadically occurring Legionnaires` disease

    SciTech Connect

    Plouffe, J.F.; Breiman, R.F.; File, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    The potential of acquiring Legionnaires` disease in the home environment was studied using a case-control design with 146 cases of Legionnaires` disease and 275 matched controls living in two counties in Ohio. By multivariate analysis, cases were more likely than controls to have Legionellae cultured from water sources in the home, to have non-municipal water supplied to their home, and to have had recent plumbing work on their home. Franklin county residents with underlying health conditions had strongest associations with domestic risk of acquiring Legionnaires` disease presence of Legionellae in home (p<0.001), non-municipal water supply (p=0.031), and recent plumbing work (p=0.058). Use of electric home hot water heaters was more common in case homes, but was not a significant risk factor in multivariate analysis, because use of electric tanks was strongly associated with non-municipal water source (p=0.01). The authors feel that a portion of community acquired Legionnaires` disease is acquired in the home and that interventional studies which address means to decrease the risk of domestic acquisition of Legionnaires` disease need to be performed.

  16. Cerebrovascular accidents in sickle cell disease: rates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ohene-Frempong, K; Weiner, S J; Sleeper, L A; Miller, S T; Embury, S; Moohr, J W; Wethers, D L; Pegelow, C H; Gill, F M

    1998-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a major complication of sickle cell disease. The incidence and mortality of and risk factors for CVA in sickle cell disease patients in the United States have been reported only in small patient samples. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease collected clinical data on 4,082 sickle cell disease patients enrolled from 1978 to 1988. Patients were followed for an average of 5.2 +/- 2.0 years. Age-specific prevalence and incidence rates of CVA in patients with the common genotypes of sickle cell disease were determined, and the effects of hematologic and clinical events on the risk of CVA were analyzed. The highest rates of prevalence of CVA (4.01%) and incidence (0.61 per 100 patient-years) were in sickle cell anemia (SS) patients, but CVA occurred in all common genotypes. The incidence of infarctive CVA was lowest in SS patients 20 to 29 years of age and higher in children and older patients. Conversely, the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in SS patients was highest among patients aged 20 to 29 years. Across all ages the mortality rate was 26% in the 2 weeks after hemorrhagic stroke. No deaths occurred after infarctive stroke. Risk factors for infarctive stroke included prior transient ischemic attack, low steady-state hemoglobin concentration and rate of and recent episode of acute chest syndrome, and elevated systolic blood pressure. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with low steady-state hemoglobin and high leukocyte count.

  17. Management of cardiovascular disease risk in chronic inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mariana J

    2009-04-01

    Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders are at increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the effects of inflammatory pathways on the vasculature, clear guidelines on the management of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic autoimmunity are lacking. Thus, rigorous studies assessing the individual contributions of the various treatments used in autoimmune disorders, as well as their effects on atherosclerosis development in these conditions, are needed. Furthermore, effective screening methods are needed to identify those patients with inflammatory disease who are at the highest risk for atherosclerotic complications, and who would benefit from early intervention. There is a clear need for a unifying explanation of the factors that promote premature cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders. Nevertheless, ongoing advances in the understanding of immune-mediated vascular damage mean that we are edging closer to the development of disease-specific preventive strategies to ameliorate or abrogate premature cardiovascular disease in these patients.

  18. Neuroimaging and Genetic Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease and Addiction-Related Degenerative Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we describe how multimodal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear. PMID:24142306

  19. Using expert judgments to improve chronic wasting disease risk management in Canada.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Tyshenko, Michael G; Westphal, Margit; Darshan, Shalu; Croteau, Maxine C; Aspinall, Willy; Elsaadany, Susie; Cashman, Neil; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTARCT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative, protein misfolding disease affecting cervids in North America in epidemic proportions. While the existence of CWD has been known for more than 40 years, risk management efforts to date have not been able to curtail the spread of this condition. An expert elicitation exercise was carried out in May 2011 to obtain the views of international experts on both the etiology of CWD and possible CWD risk management strategies. This study presents the results of the following three components of the elicitation exercise: (1) expert views of the most likely scenarios for the evolution of the CWD among cervid populations in Canada, (2) ranking analyses of the importance of direct and indirect transmission routes, and (3) rating analyses of CWD control measures in farmed and wild cervids. The implications of these findings for the development of CWD risk management strategies are described in a Canadian context. PMID:27556565

  20. Neuroimaging and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and addiction-related degenerative brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-06-01

    Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we describe how multi-modal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear.

  1. Prognostic Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, Cara M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the annual mortality rate for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is decreasing, likely due to an increase in kidney transplantation rate, the survival probability for ESRD patients from day one of dialysis has not changed, and is still poor with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 34%. This is contributed to by a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in ESRD patients. In order to improve survival outcomes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular related mortality need to be identified. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreceptor sensitivity, and baroreceptor reflex effectiveness index can be used to assess heart rate control and may predict cardiovascular mortality. This paper will discuss how HRV, baroreceptor sensitivity, and baroreceptor reflex effectiveness index are altered in renal disease and the utility of these indices as markers of cardiac risk in this patient population. PMID:22294981

  2. The epidemiology and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yulan; Pang, Zhi; Chen, Weichang; Ju, Songwen; Zhou, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    This review aimed to summarize the epidemiology (incidence, prevalence and morality) and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and includes Crohn’s Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD has increasing incidence and prevalence in most of countries and becomes a global emerging disease. A westernized lifestyle or habits and some environmental factors have been found to contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. The relevant risk factors include Smoking, hygiene hypothesis, microorganisms, appendectomy, medication, nutrition, and stress have all been found to be associated with the modality of IBD, but results are inconsistent on this issue in available studies. Therefore, more studies are required to identify and understand the environmental determinants of IBD. PMID:26885239

  3. The epidemiology and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yulan; Pang, Zhi; Chen, Weichang; Ju, Songwen; Zhou, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    This review aimed to summarize the epidemiology (incidence, prevalence and morality) and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and includes Crohn's Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD has increasing incidence and prevalence in most of countries and becomes a global emerging disease. A westernized lifestyle or habits and some environmental factors have been found to contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. The relevant risk factors include Smoking, hygiene hypothesis, microorganisms, appendectomy, medication, nutrition, and stress have all been found to be associated with the modality of IBD, but results are inconsistent on this issue in available studies. Therefore, more studies are required to identify and understand the environmental determinants of IBD. PMID:26885239

  4. Low risk of coronary artery disease in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Silva, Cintia Marques; Lima, G A B; Volschan, I C M; Gottlieb, I; Kasuki, L; Neto, L Vieira; Gadelha, M R

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in acromegalic patients and to investigate the relationship between the coronary artery calcium score (CS) and acromegaly status and clinical parameters [Framingham risk score (FRS)]. Fifty-six acromegalic patients and paired non-acromegalic volunteers were stratified according to the FRS into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. CS was assessed using multidetector computed tomography. The patients were considered to have controlled or active acromegaly at the time they were submitted to evaluation. Sixty-six percent of acromegalic patients exhibited arterial hypertension, 36 % had diabetes mellitus, and 34 % had hypercholesterolemia. The median FRS and the median risk for cardiovascular event within the next 10 years were similar in the acromegalics and the controls. The median total CS and CS >75th percentile didn't differ significantly between these groups. In patients with controlled acromegaly, a low, intermediate, or high FRS risk was observed in 86, 14, and 0 %, respectively. In patients with active disease, a low, intermediate, or high FRS risk was verified in 94, 3, and 3 %, respectively, and differences between the controlled and active groups were not significant. Seventy-two percent of the patients had total CS = 0, and there were no differences between the controlled and active groups. The risk of coronary artery disease in acromegalic patients, determined according to FRS and CS, is low despite the high prevalence of metabolic abnormalities.

  5. Developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Wu, Yougui; Mortimer, James A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; McCormick, Wayne C; Bowen, James D; McCurry, Susan; Larson, Eric B

    2005-03-01

    To investigate developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 90 incident cases of probable AD in a cohort of 1859 individuals followed prospectively for six years. The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele was the strongest risk factor, and with increasing survival age, the effect of epsilon4 diminished. Among epsilon4 positives, developmental risk factors such as smaller head circumference (< or =54.4 cm) and having more than four children in the household at age 2-3 were independently associated with incident AD (hazard ratio (HR)=2.6 (95% CI 1.04-6.3) and 3.3 (1.2-9.2), respectively). Among epsilon4 negatives, vascular risk factors were related to AD risk (self-reported diagnoses of transient ischemic attack and diabetes (HR=5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.5; HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.1)). These findings indicate that clinical AD is a result of early life as well as later life risk factors, and that genetic predisposition to the disease may modify the constellation of predictors.

  6. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians - a population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes.

    PubMed

    Enas, Enas A; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C S; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-10-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (<1% per year) risk of a MACE. In addition to preventing myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death, primary prevention with statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians.

  7. [Risk factors of ischemic heart disease in various occupational groups. II. Complex analysis of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Z; Kolarzyk, E; Stepniewski, M; Salwińska-Ciećkiewicz, B; Szpak, D

    1991-01-01

    Four hundred four men aged 30 to 59 years, belonging to one of 4 occupational groups were investigated in a standard clinical conditions. Two from those groups were characteristic for steel mill professions: 121 blast furnace workers; exerting strenuous physical effort and working in hot microclimate. 131 operators (the second group) performed work in comfort microclimate conditions not demanding much effort. The third group comprised 73 executives of industry. The fourth group consisted of 79 monks. For all subjects of investigations 8 selected risk factors of ischemic heart disease were evaluated. They included: age, sex, family history, habit of smoking, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood cholesterol level, obesity index and professional physical activity. The level of each risk factor had numerical value in a span from "0" to "8". The sum of all points was decisive to which of 3 groups of risk given man should be accounted. Those 3 groups were arbitrary divided into "low, intermediate and high risk". The highest risk was found for the executives group, and the lowest for blast furnace workers. From the risk factors under investigation highest overall influence on incidence of ischemic heart disease had habit of smoking and obesity. Described here point classification system seems to be very simple and useful for estimation of risk of ischemic heart disease in a given population. PMID:1845321

  8. Are centenarians genetically predisposed to lower disease risk?

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Buxens, Amaya; Cano-Nieto, Amalia; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Santiago, Catalina; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Garatachea, Nuria; Lao, José I; Morán, María; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-10-01

    Our study purpose was to compare a disease-related polygenic profile that combined a total of 62 genetic variants among (i) people reaching exceptional longevity, i.e., centenarians (n = 54, 100-108 years, 48 women) and (ii) ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 87, 19-43 years, 47 women). We computed a 'global' genotype score (GS) for 62 genetic variants (mutations/polymorphisms) related to cardiometabolic diseases, cancer or exceptional longevity, and also specific GS for main disease categories (cardiometabolic risk and cancer risk, including 36 and 24 genetic variations, respectively) and for exceptional longevity (7 genetic variants). The 'global' GS was similar among groups (centenarians: 31.0 ± 0.6; controls 32.0 ± 0.5, P = 0.263). We observed that the GS for hypertension, cancer (global risk), and other types of cancer was lower in the centenarians group compared with the control group (all P < 0.05), yet the difference became non significant after adjusting for sex. We observed significant between-group differences in the frequency of GSTT1 and GSTM1 (presence/absence) genotypes after adjusting for multiple comparisons. The likelihood of having the GSTT1 low-risk (functional) allele was higher in centenarians (odds ratio [OR] 5.005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.810-13.839), whereas the likelihood of having the GSTMI low-risk (functional) allele was similar in both groups (OR 1.295; 95% CI, 0.868 -1.931). In conclusion, we found preliminary evidence that Spanish centenarians have a lower genetic predisposition for cancer risk. The wild-type (i.e., functional) genotype of GSTT1, which is associated with lower cancer risk, might be associated with exceptional longevity, yet further studies with larger sample sizes must confirm these findings.

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Abdominal Obesity versus Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; McGinn, Aileen P.; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W.; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities which often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity versus metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) versus metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (standard deviation 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.09 [0.98, 1.20]). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1–2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 [1.80, 2.50], 2.82 [1.92, 4.12] and 5.33 [3.37, 8.41], respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk. PMID:20725064

  10. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  11. Lymphoma risk in inflammatory bowel disease: is it the disease or its treatment?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer L; Loftus, Edward V

    2007-10-01

    With the increasingly widespread use of immunosuppressive and biologic agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis come concerns about potential long-term consequences of such therapies. Disentangling the potential confounding effects of the underlying disease, its extent, severity, duration, and behavior, and concomitant medical therapy has proven to be exceedingly difficult. Unlike the case in rheumatoid arthritis, the overwhelming preponderance of population-based evidence suggests that a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not associated with an increased relative risk of lymphoma. However, well-designed studies that evaluate the potential modifying effect of IBD severity have yet to be performed. Although the results from hospital- and population-based studies have conflicted, the results of a recent meta-analysis suggest that patients receiving purine analogs for the treatment of IBD have a lymphoma risk approximately 4-fold higher than expected. Analyses of lymphoma risk in patients receiving biologic agents directed against tumor necrosis factor-alpha are confounded by concomitant use of immunosuppressive agents in most of these patients. Nevertheless, there may be a small but real risk of lymphoma associated with these therapies. Although the relative risk of lymphoma may be elevated in association with some of the medical therapies used in the treatment of IBD, this absolute risk is low. Weighing the potential risk of lymphoma associated with select medical therapies against the risk of undertreating IBD will help physicians and patients to make more informed decisions pertaining to the medical management of IBD.

  12. Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States

    PubMed Central

    Schloegel, Lisa M.; Daszak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The United States is the world’s largest wildlife importer, and imported wild animals represent a potential source of zoonotic pathogens. Using data on mammals imported during 2000–2005, we assessed their potential to host 27 selected risk zoonoses and created a risk assessment that could inform policy making for wildlife importation and zoonotic disease surveillance. A total of 246,772 mammals in 190 genera (68 families) were imported. The most widespread agents of risk zoonoses were rabies virus (in 78 genera of mammals), Bacillus anthracis (57), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (48), Echinococcus spp. (41), and Leptospira spp. (35). Genera capable of harboring the greatest number of risk zoonoses were Canis and Felis (14 each), Rattus (13), Equus (11), and Macaca and Lepus (10 each). These findings demonstrate the myriad opportunities for zoonotic pathogens to be imported and suggest that, to ensure public safety, immediate proactive changes are needed at multiple levels. PMID:19891857

  13. Proteinuria: an underappreciated risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Campo, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis M

    2002-11-01

    Changes in renal function produced by hypertension appear to be associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Indices of altered renal function (eg, microalbuminuria, increased serum creatinine concentrations, decrease in estimated creatinine clearance, or overt proteinuria) are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Framingham Heart Study documented the relevance of proteinuria for cardiovascular prognosis in the community. The International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study assessed the role of proteinuria as a very powerful risk factor. Several studies demonstrated that microalbuminuria is a predictor of cardiovascular disease. It has been shown that the presence of microalbuminuria in primary hypertension carries an elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, recent data indicate that even minor derangements of renal function are associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors, and promote progression of atherosclerosis. All these parameters should routinely be evaluated in clinical practice, and in the future must be considered in any stratification of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.

  14. Kimura’s disease: risk factors of recurrence and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Li; Dwa, Srijana; Gong, Zhong-Cheng; Abasi, Keremu; Ling, Bin; Liu, Hui; Hu, Lu-Lu; Shao, Bo; Lin, Zhao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for recurrence and prognosis of Kimura’s disease. Methods: In this study, 32 patients received surgery alone, surgery followed by steroids orally and surgery followed by radiotherapy respectively from 2003 to 2015 (male/female: 27/5, ages: 6-64 years). Retrieval of clinical data and follow-ups have been done. The clinical features used as variables include age, gender, location, multiplicity, laterality, size, duration, primary outbreak, smoking, eosinophils, systemic disease and remedies. Statistical analysis including Kaplan-Meier method, Fisher’s exact test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Cox proportional hazard regression model were performed with the SPSS 17.0. The threshold of statistical significance was set at P=0.05. Results: Median recurrence time was 29 months (2.42 years) after discharged and 56.3% patients relapsed. High recurrence rate was significantly associated with smoking habit (P=0.036). Patients who were diagnosed systemic disease (P=0.027) and were treated with surgery alone (P=0.025) or surgery followed by steroids orally (P=0.025) had short disease-free time. Furthermore, smoking habit (HR=3.383, 95% CI: 1.213-9.433, P=0.02), systemic disease (HR=4.462, 95% CI: 1.443-13.794, P=0.009), surgery alone (HR=4.668, 95% CI: 1.506-14.470, P=0.008) and surgery followed by steroids orally (HR=6.053, 95% CI: 1.330-27.556, P=0.02) were identified as risk factors for the prognosis of Kimura’s disease. Conclusions: Smoking habit, systemic diseases, surgery alone and surgery followed by steroids orally were associated with poor prognosis of Kimura’s disease, and they might be prognostic markers of Kimura’s disease. PMID:26885085

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: The Role of Social Cognitive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jennifer E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine existing research on social cognitive factors that may, in part, mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We focus on how social status is ‘carried’ in the mental systems of individuals, and how these systems differentially affect CHD risk and associated behaviors. To this end, literatures documenting the association of various social cognitive factors (e.g., social comparison, perceived discrimination, and self-efficacy) with cardiovascular disease are reviewed as are literatures regarding the relationship of these factors to SES. Possible mechanisms through which social cognitions may affect health are addressed. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, and a model identifying the possible associations between social cognitive factors, SES, and coronary disease is provided. PMID:21785652

  16. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country.

  17. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. PMID:26614986

  18. A common variant on chromosome 9p21 affects the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, Anna; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Manolescu, Andrei; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Blondal, Thorarinn; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Baker, Adam; Palsson, Arnar; Masson, Gisli; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Kristinn P; Andersen, Karl; Levey, Allan I; Backman, Valgerdur M; Matthiasdottir, Sigurborg; Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Palsson, Stefan; Einarsdottir, Helga; Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Vaccarino, Viola; Hooper, W Craig; Reilly, Muredach P; Granger, Christopher B; Austin, Harland; Rader, Daniel J; Shah, Svati H; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2007-06-01

    The global endemic of cardiovascular diseases calls for improved risk assessment and treatment. Here, we describe an association between myocardial infarction (MI) and a common sequence variant on chromosome 9p21. This study included a total of 4587 cases and 12,767 controls. The identified variant, adjacent to the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B, was associated with the disease with high significance. Approximately 21% of individuals in the population are homozygous for this variant, and their estimated risk of suffering myocardial infarction is 1.64 times as great as that of noncarriers. The corresponding risk is 2.02 times as great for early-onset cases. The population attributable risk is 21% for MI in general and 31% for early-onset cases.

  19. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson’s disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24–1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07–1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46–2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk. PMID:27412825

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus epigenetically affects genes predominantly involved in metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Houde, Andrée-Anne; Voisin, Grégory; St-Pierre, Julie; Perron, Patrice; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Gaudet, Daniel; Hivert, Marie-France; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk for chronic diseases, and one promising mechanism for fetal metabolic programming is epigenetics. Therefore, we postulated that GDM exposure impacts the offspring’s methylome and used an epigenomic approach to explore this hypothesis. Placenta and cord blood samples were obtained from 44 newborns, including 30 exposed to GDM. Women were recruited at first trimester of pregnancy and followed until delivery. GDM was assessed after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of pregnancy. DNA methylation was measured at > 485,000 CpG sites (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted to identify metabolic pathways epigenetically affected by GDM. Our results showed that 3,271 and 3,758 genes in placenta and cord blood, respectively, were potentially differentially methylated between samples exposed or not to GDM (p-values down to 1 × 10−06; none reached the genome-wide significance levels), with more than 25% (n = 1,029) being common to both tissues. Mean DNA methylation differences between groups were 5.7 ± 3.2% and 3.4 ± 1.9% for placenta and cord blood, respectively. These genes were likely involved in the metabolic diseases pathway (up to 115 genes (11%), p-values for pathways = 1.9 × 10−13 < p < 4.0 × 10−03; including diabetes mellitus p = 4.3 × 10−11). Among the differentially methylated genes, 326 in placenta and 117 in cord blood were also associated with newborn weight. Our results therefore suggest that GDM has epigenetic effects on genes preferentially involved in the metabolic diseases pathway, with consequences on fetal growth and development, and provide supportive evidence that DNA methylation is involved in fetal metabolic programming. PMID:23975224

  1. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  2. Affective Disorders, Psychosis and Dementia in a Community Sample of Older Men with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; McCaul, Kieran; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia and affective and psychotic symptoms are commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease, but information about their prevalence and incidence in community representative samples remains sparse. Methods We recruited a community-representative sample 38173 older men aged 65–85 years in 1996 and used data linkage to ascertain the presence of PD, affective disorders, psychotic disorders and dementia. Diagnoses followed the International Classification of Disease coding system. Age was recorded in years. Follow up data were available until December 2011. Results The mean age of participants was 72.5 years and 333 men (0.9%) had PD at study entry. Affective and psychotic disorders and dementia were more frequent in men with than without PD (respective odds ratios: 6.3 [95%CI = 4.7, 8.4]; 14.2 [95%CI = 8.4, 24.0] and 18.2 [95%CI = 13.4, 24.6]). Incidence rate ratios of affective and psychotic disorders were higher among men with than without PD, although ratios decreased with increasing age. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of an affective episode associated with PD was 5.0 (95%CI = 4.2, 5.9). PD was associated with an age-adjusted HR of 8.6 (95%CI = 6.1, 12.0) for psychotic disorders and 6.1 (95%CI = 5.5, 6.8) for dementia. PD and dementia increased the HR of depressive and psychotic disorders. Conclusions PD increases the risk of affective and psychotic disorders, as well as dementia, among community dwelling older men. The risk of a recorded diagnosis of affective and psychotic disorders decreases with increasing age. PMID:27689715

  3. Suicide Risk in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Calcagno, Pietro; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a common cause of death in the elderly and is often accompanied in this population by disabilities and psychosocial impairment. Alzheimer's-related neuropathological changes are commonly found in the brains of older people. Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported to be a potential predictor for suicidal behavior, the relationship between suicidal behavior and AD has not been systematically explored. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the association between suicide risk and AD in an effort to identify the most relevant risk and protective factors for suicide. A detailed strategy was used to search for relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Science Direct on suicidal behavior and AD for the period of January 1980 to August 2015. The search yielded 164 articles, of which 21 met our inclusion criteria. Eight crosssectional, two longitudinal, 3 retrospective, and eight case reports (of 11 patients) examined the association between suicide risk and AD. Suicide occurs in AD even many years after the diagnosis of dementia, and patients who have attempted suicide once are at a higher risk of dying from suicide. AD is associated with a moderate risk of suicide, and clinicians working with AD patients should undertake an appropriate assessment of their suicidal risk. However, more prospective studies are needed to clarify the association between AD and suicide risk. PMID:27449996

  4. Nutritional Risk Screening in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rongshao; Long, Jianting; Fang, Shi; Mai, Haiyan; Lu, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wei, Jianrui; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) has been used to evaluate the nutritional aspects of patients according to the recommendation of European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Here we aim to assess the prevalence and characteristics of nutritional risk in CKD patients by using NRS-2002. NRS-2002 scores of 292 CDK patients were recorded in first 24 hours subsequent to their admission to hospital. All patients have never been on dialysis. BMI, weight and various biochemical parameters were also characterized for these patients. Possible correlations between these parameters and NRS-2002 score were investigated. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 44.9% (53.6% in CKD stage 4-5 patients and 38.3% in stage 1-3 patients). Statistically significant differences were found in serum Albumin, Haemoglobin B, and lymphocyte counts between patients with or without increased nutritional risk. Under the situation that attending physicians were completely unaware of NRS-2002 scores, only 35.1% of the patients at risk received nutritional support. The nutritional risk status was associated with CKD stages but independent from primary diagnosis type. More attention should be paid to the nutritional status in CKD patients (including early stage patients). We recommended using NRS-2002 for nutritional risk assessment among non-dialysis CKD patients in routine clinical practice. PMID:27222407

  5. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.

  6. [Are we underestimating occupational risks for neurodegenerative diseases?].

    PubMed

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a great number of studies suggests that occupational exposures could play a role in the onset of some neurodegenerative diseases. The literature data are more numerous for Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, although to date no specific occupational exposure was proved to be a definite causal factor. This lack of information is attributable both to the complex patogenesis of these diseases and to a delay regarding this field of research with respect to others pathologies. Nevertheless, available evidence oblige researchers to deepen the studies of occupational exposures as risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases, in order to provide a solid basis possible preventive measures for a class of pathologies with high social impact, both in terms of therapies and in terms of disability.

  7. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease among subjects with cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chen, Ming-Fong; Chang, Kuan-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Association between cataract and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) development is not completely clear. Purpose: The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the association between cataract and the risk of incident IHD. The secondary aim was to investigate the subsequent IHD risk of patients with cataracts undergoing cataract surgery. Methods: Retrospective data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) was analyzed. Study participants were composed of patients with cataracts (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 366) (n = 32,456), and a comparison cohort without the cataracts (n = 32,456) from 2000 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to address the hazard ratio (HR) of IHD associated with cataract. Results: Within 12 years of follow up, the overall incidence rates of IHD were 24.2 per 1000 person-years in the cataract cohort and 18.2 per 1000 person-years in the noncataract cohort with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.29–1.41; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the cataract patients undergoing cataract surgery were associated with a higher risk of IHD compared with those cataract patients without surgery (aHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.14; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our finding suggested that patients with cataracts are at an increased risk of subsequent IHD development. PMID:27428198

  8. An insidious risk factor for cardiovascular disease: benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2010-10-29

    Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) have a considerably higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population in old age. Many hypotheses have been created to explain traditional clinical risk factors of CVD, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, inheritance, high blood pressure (BP), obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, decreased physical activity and metabolic syndrome; or nontraditional risk factors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular calcification, malnutrition, homocysteine and genetic variation. Although these risk factors are important in CVD pathophysiology and clinical presentation, there is still no single theory sufficient to provide an adequate explanation for all the properties of CVD. We speculate that by causing nocturia-induced sleep disturbances, BP variability, increased sympathetic activity, non-dipping BP variations; BPH may be an insidious risk factor for CVD. Benign prostate hyperplasia may be related to increased BP, coronary ischemic hearth disease or other cardiovascular pathologic conditions. This attention on BPH may produce a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of CVD. Although the underlying mechanisms are still exactly unclear, further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to identify if patients with BPH/LUTS is higher risk for CVD. PMID:19359054

  9. Understanding variation in disease risk: the elusive concept of frailty

    PubMed Central

    Aalen, Odd O; Valberg, Morten; Grotmol, Tom; Tretli, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    The concept of frailty plays a major role in the statistical field of survival analysis. Frailty variation refers to differences in risk between individuals which go beyond known or measured risk factors. In other words, frailty variation is unobserved heterogeneity. Although understanding frailty is of interest in its own right, the literature on survival analysis has demonstrated that existence of frailty variation can lead to surprising artefacts in statistical estimation that are important to examine. We present literature that demonstrates the presence and significance of frailty variation between individuals. We discuss the practical content of frailty variation, and show the link between frailty and biological concepts like (epi)genetics and heterogeneity in disease risk. There are numerous suggestions in the literature that a good deal of this variation may be due to randomness, in addition to genetic and/or environmental factors. Heterogeneity often manifests itself as clustering of cases in families more than would be expected by chance. We emphasize that apparently moderate familial relative risks can only be explained by strong underlying variation in disease risk between families and individuals. Finally, we highlight the potential impact of frailty variation in the interpretation of standard epidemiological measures such as hazard and incidence rates. PMID:25501685

  10. Genetic risk factors for sclerotic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E D; Lee, Stephanie J; Carpenter, Paul A; Warren, Edus H; Geraghty, Daniel E; Lee, Ni; Boeckh, Michael J; Storer, Barry E; Levine, David M; Fan, Wenhong; Zhao, Lue-Ping; Hansen, John A

    2016-09-15

    Sclerotic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a distinctive phenotype of chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, characterized by fibrosis of skin or fascia. Sclerotic GVHD has clinical and histopathological similarities with systemic sclerosis, an autoimmune disease whose risk is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We examined 13 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have a well-documented association with systemic sclerosis to determine whether these SNPs are also associated with the risk of sclerotic GVHD. The study cohort included 847 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with chronic GVHD. Genotyping was performed using microarrays, followed by imputation of unobserved SNPs. The donor rs10516487 (BANK1: B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats 1) TT genotype was associated with lower risk of sclerotic GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.87; P = .02). Donor and recipient rs2056626 (CD247: T-cell receptor ζ subunit) GG or GT genotypes were associated with higher risk of sclerotic GVHD (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.13-2.18; P = .007 and HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.19-2.32; P = .003, respectively). Donor and recipient rs987870 (5'-flanking region of HLA-DPA1) CC genotypes were associated with higher risk of sclerotic GVHD (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.22-5.11; P = .01 and HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.00-4.54; P = .05, respectively). In further analyses, the recipient DPA1*01:03∼DPB1*04:01 haplotype and certain amino acid substitutions in the recipient P1 peptide-binding pocket of the HLA-DP heterodimer were associated with risk of sclerotic GVHD. Genetic components associated with systemic sclerosis are also associated with sclerotic GVHD. HLA-DP-mediated antigen presentation, T-cell response, and B-cell activation have important roles in the pathogenic mechanisms of both diseases. PMID:27313329

  11. [Adipokines: adiponectin, leptin, resistin and coronary heart disease risk].

    PubMed

    Kopff, Barbara; Jegier, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Visceral obesity is among the known risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. As long as adipose tissue was considered only an inert store of excess energy, accumulated in triglycerides, explanation of the mechanisms causing increased cardiovascular risk in obesity was difficult. Finding that the adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ and that the adipokines secreted in it influence several metabolic processes, allowed better understanding of this correlation. Several disturbances in secretion, function and balance of adipokines occur in the course of obesity. Changes of adiponectin, leptin and resistin concentrations are among the reasons of accelerated atherosclerosis occurring in the visceral adiposity. Adiponectin concentrations are decreased in visceral adiposity. Adiponectin is adipokine possessing antiatherogenic properties. It's effects exerted though the specific receptors in skeletal muscles and liver include decreased insulin resistance and improved plasma lipid profile. Acting directly in the vessel wall adiponectin prevents development of atheromatic lesions by inhibiting production of adhesive molecules and formation of foam cells. It has been found that decreased adiponectin concentrations are connected not only with increased coronary risk but also with progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vessels. Moreover it was found that adiponectin plasma concentration is significantly decreased in acute coronary incidences. Leptin regulates energy metabolism and balance. The concentrations of this adipokine are increased in obesity and correlate with insulin resistance. Hiperleptinemia has been also recognized as cardiovascular diseases risk factor. Resistin is considered to be a substance increasing insulin resistance, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Resistin plasma concentrations are increased in obese subjects and correlate with the inflammatory state that underlies the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic

  12. Wilson disease: changes in methionine metabolism and inflammation affect global DNA methylation in early liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Woods, Rima; Liu, Sarah; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Török, Natalie J.; Jiang, Joy X.; Havel, Peter J.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Halsted, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic methionine metabolism may play an essential role in regulating methylation status and liver injury in Wilson disease (WD) through the inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) by copper (Cu) and the consequent accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). We studied the transcript levels of selected genes related to liver injury, levels of SAHH, SAH, DNA methyltransferases genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) and global DNA methylation in the tx-j mouse (tx-j), an animal model of WD. Findings were compared to those in control C3H mice, and in response to Cu chelation by penicillamine (PCA) and dietary supplementation of the methyl donor betaine to modulate inflammatory and methylation status. Transcript levels of selected genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation were down-regulated at baseline in tx-j mice, further down-regulated in response to PCA, and showed little to no response to betaine. Hepatic Sahh transcript and protein levels were reduced in tx-j mice with consequent increase of SAH levels. Hepatic Cu accumulation was associated with inflammation, as indicated by histopathology and elevated serum ALT and liver tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α) levels. Dnmt3b was down-regulated in tx-j mice together with global DNA hypomethylation. PCA treatment of tx-j mice reduced Tnf-α and ALT levels, betaine treatment increased S-adenosylmethionine and up-regulated Dnmt3b levels, and both treatments restored global DNA methylation levels. Conclusion: reduced hepatic Sahh expression was associated with increased liver SAH levels in the tx-j model of WD, with consequent global DNA hypomethylation. Increased global DNA methylation was achieved by reducing inflammation by Cu chelation or by providing methyl groups. We propose that increased SAH levels and inflammation affect widespread epigenetic regulation of gene expression in WD. PMID:22945834

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in native Americans: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Campos-Outcalt, D

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the leading cause of death for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle) have been studied in a number of Native American tribes, and such studies are increasing as the CVD mortality rate rises. This article reviews the literature between 1980 and 1991 concerning the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population. In addition to summarizing the data, we describe limitations inherent in comparison and address the need for standardization of methodology in future studies. PMID:7848673

  14. Risk factors for frequent falls in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Paul, Serene S; Allen, Natalie E; Sherrington, Cathie; Heller, Gillian; Fung, Victor S C; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R; Canning, Colleen G

    2014-01-01

    Fall frequency varies among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to determine whether risk factors that distinguish PD fallers from non-fallers are influenced by frequent falls. 205 people with PD participated in a 6-month prospective study. Factors in previously published fall risk models were analyzed for their associations with fall rates and frequent fallers. Fall history, freezing and impaired reactive balance were associated with fall rates and the proportion of frequent fallers (p < 0.05). These models were highly accurate in discriminating frequent fallers (area under curve 0.84-0.87). Interventions to manage freezing and reduce balance impairment may reduce fall frequency.

  15. Kennedy Space Center Coronary Heart Disease Risk Screening Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.; Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one cause of death in the U.S. It is a likely cause of death and disability in the lives of employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as well. The KSC Biomedical Office used a multifactorial formula developed by the Framingham Heart Study to calculate CHD risk probabilities for individuals in a segment of the KSC population who require medical evaluation for job certification. Those individuals assessed to have a high risk probability will be targeted for intervention.

  16. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2007-11-01

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the three commercially important fruits native to North America. Cranberries are a particularly rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, including phenolic acids (benzoic, hydroxycinnamic, and ellagic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols). A growing body of evidence suggests that polyphenols, including those found in cranberries, may contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by increasing the resistance of LDL to oxidation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing blood pressure, and via other anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Research regarding the bioactivity of cranberries and their constituents on risk factors for CVD is reviewed.

  17. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

    2013-10-15

    Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ∼40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases.

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: non-invasive investigation and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Dyson, J K; McPherson, S; Anstee, Q M

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a histological spectrum of liver disease, from simple steatosis through to cirrhosis. As the worldwide rates of obesity have increased, NAFLD has become the commonest cause of liver disease in many developed countries, affecting up to a third of the population. The majority of patients have simple steatosis that carries a relatively benign prognosis. However, a significant minority have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and have increased liver related and cardiovascular mortality. Identifying those at risk of progressive disease is crucial. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard investigation for assessing stage of disease but its invasive nature makes it impractical for widespread use as a prognostic tool. Non-invasive tools for diagnosis and disease staging are required, reserving liver biopsy for those patients where it offers clinically relevant additional information. This review discusses the non-invasive modalities available for assessing steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. We propose a pragmatic approach for the assessment of patients with NAFLD to identify those at high risk of progressive disease who require referral to specialist services. PMID:23940130

  19. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yutian; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shili; Zhang, Huiping; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI) than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn), potassium (K), copper (Ca), and sodium (Na) as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05) were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se), and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038). Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33). Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98) but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02). Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95% CI = 1

  20. Metabolic Risk Factors of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications in the Pathology, Pathogenesis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Banerjee, Anindita; Chatterjee, Gargi; Ganguly, Anirban; Biswas, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the major cause of dementia among the elderly world-wide, manifests in familial and sporadic forms, and the latter variety accounts for the majority of the patients affected by this disease. The etiopathogenesis of sporadic AD is complex and uncertain. The autopsy studies of AD brain have provided limited understanding of the antemortem pathogenesis of the disease. Experimental AD research with transgenic animal or various cell based models has so far failed to explain the complex and varied spectrum of AD dementia. The review, therefore, emphasizes the importance of AD related risk factors, especially those with metabolic implications, identified from various epidemiological studies, in providing clues to the pathogenesis of this complex disorder. Several metabolic risk factors of AD like hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and type 2 diabetes have been studied extensively both in epidemiology and experimental research, while much less is known about the role of adipokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and vitamin D in this context. Moreover, the results from many of these studies have shown a degree of variability which has hindered our understanding of the role of AD related risk factors in the disease progression. The review also encompasses the recent recommendations regarding clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of AD and brings out the inherent uncertainty and ambiguity in this area which may have a distinct impact on the outcome of various population-based studies on AD-related risk factors. PMID:26236550

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal in Oslo harbor.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Ellen, Gerald Jan; Duijn, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The management of environmental pollution has changed considerably since the growth of environmental awareness in the late 1960s. The general increased environmental concern and involvement of stakeholders in today's environmental issues may enhance the need to consider risk in a much broader social context rather than just as an estimate of ecological hazard. Risk perception and the constructs and images of risks held by stakeholders and society are important items to address in the management of environmental projects, including the management of contaminated sediments. Here we present a retrospective case study that evaluates factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal that occurred during a remediation project in Oslo harbor, Norway. The choice to dispose dredged contaminated sediments in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site rather than at a land disposal site has received a lot of societal attention, attracted large media coverage, and caused many public discussions. A mixed method approach is used to investigate how risk perceptive affective factors (PAF), socio-demographic aspects, and participatory aspects have influenced the various stakeholders' preferences for the two different disposal options. Risk perceptive factors such as transparency in the decision making process and controllability of the disposal options have been identified as important for risk perception. The results of the study also support the view that there is no sharp distinction in risk perception between experts and other parties and emphasizes the importance of addressing risk perceptive affective factors in similar environmental decision-making processes. Indeed, PAFs such as transparency, openness, and information are fundamental to address in sensitive environmental decisions, such as sediment disposal alternatives, in order to progress to more technical questions such as the controllability and safety.

  2. Invited commentary: Discrimination--an emerging target for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Albert, Michelle A; Williams, David R

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of research suggests that perceived discrimination, in multiple societies, is a neglected but important predictor of increased risk of disease for a broad range of health status indicators. Several prior studies propose that discrimination is adversely related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The studies by Hunte (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(11):1223-1231) and Lewis et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(11):1232-1239) find that self-reported discrimination is associated with increased risk of adiposity for men and women. These studies highlight the potentially important role of discrimination as a risk factor for excess fat but also raise important research questions regarding the role of fat in cardiovascular disease and racial differences in these processes. More generally, they also provide an important reminder to epidemiologists and medical professionals that discrimination and other aspects of racism persist in contemporary society and that increased efforts are needed to document the extent to which they may have pathogenic consequences and to identify the most promising initiatives to reduce any observed negative effects. Equally important, these studies remind us that, although social stressors are difficult to measure accurately and comprehensively, understanding how multiple stressors combine over the life course to affect the risk of morbidity and mortality remains an important priority for concerted research attention.

  3. Reduced Risk of Disease During Postsecondary Dengue Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Olkowski, Sandra; Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Antibodies induced by infection with any 1 of 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1–4) may influence the clinical outcome of subsequent heterologous infections. To quantify potential cross-protective effects, we estimated disease risk as a function of DENV infection, using data from longitudinal studies performed from September 2006 through February 2011 in Iquitos, Peru, during periods of DENV-3 and DENV-4 transmission. Methods. DENV infections before and during the study period were determined by analysis of serial serum samples with virus neutralization tests. Third and fourth infections were classified as postsecondary infections. Dengue fever cases were detected by door-to-door surveillance for acute febrile illness. Results. Among susceptible participants, 39% (420/1077) and 53% (1595/2997) seroconverted to DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively. Disease was detected in 7% of DENV-3 infections and 10% of DENV-4 infections. Disease during postsecondary infections was reduced by 93% for DENV-3 and 64% for DENV-4, compared with primary and secondary infections. Despite lower disease rates, postsecondary infections constituted a significant proportion of apparent infections (14% [for DENV-3 infections], 45% [for DENV-4 infections]). Conclusions. Preexisting heterotypic antibodies markedly reduced but did not eliminate the risk of disease in this study population. These results improve understanding of how preinfection history can be associated with dengue outcomes and DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:23776195

  4. Circulating Markers of Liver Function and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Targher, Giovanni; Byrne, Christopher D

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of serum concentrations of various liver enzymes and other nonenzymatic proteins and metabolites of heme metabolism (eg, bilirubin) is often undertaken in clinical practice. Measurement of these liver function tests is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive. However, interpreting the liver function test results in patients without evidence of liver disease is often challenging. Concentrations of some of liver enzymes, such as γ-glutamyltransferase or alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of liver-derived metabolites, such as bilirubin, may be influenced by metabolic processes beyond the liver, sometimes making interpretation of the test results difficult. This scenario frequently occurs both in individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and in patients with known cardiovascular disease, often resulting in the clinicians ignoring the test results. In this brief review, we discuss the evidence for associations between key serum liver function tests and cardiovascular disease risk and where associations are robust; we provide an interpretation for possible mechanistic links between the liver function test and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?

    PubMed Central

    West, Sheila K.; Bates, Michael N.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Lee, David J.; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Chen, Dong Feng; Araj, Houmam

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted. PMID:24284355

  6. Neuropsychological assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Steven W; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y; Johnson, Amy M; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. A total of 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with no neurologic disease (N = 185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N = 40), Parkinson's disease (N = 91), or stroke (N = 29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18-mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems.

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  8. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  9. Cosegregation of Christmas disease and major affective disorder in a pedigree.

    PubMed

    Gill, M; Castle, D; Duggan, C

    1992-01-01

    Three males with factor-IX deficiency (Christmas disease) in one pedigree all had severe affective disorder. This apparent cosegregation, if true, would support the hypothesis that in some pedigrees, a gene for major affective disorder is located on the X chromosome.

  10. Financial and risk considerations for successful disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, A L

    1999-11-01

    Results for disease management [DM] programs have not been as positive as hoped because of clinical issues, lack of access to capital, and administrative issues. The financial experience of DM programs can be quite volatile. Financial projections that are protocol-based, rather than experience-based, may understate the revenue required and the range of possible costs for a DM program by understating the impact of complicating conditions and comorbidities. Actuarial tools (risk analysis and risk projection models) support better understanding of DM contracts. In particular, these models can provide the ability to quantify the impact of the factors that drive costs of a contract and the volatility of those costs. This analysis can assist DM companies in setting appropriate revenue and capital targets. Similar analysis by health plans can identify diseases that are good candidates for DM programs and can provide the basis for performance targets.

  11. A nutritional strategy for reducing disease and obesity risks.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Petroni, Paolo; Rodio, Giuseppe; Pina, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are the most common nutritional disorders in our age and are becoming more and more common worldwide. The most harmful consequences of an incorrect diet leading to overweight or obesity are a series of cardio-vascular diseases often leading to disability and death. In recent years various studies have shown that a reduction in caloric intake is the main factor involved in reduction of pathology risk. In this article, a nutrition strategy, based on the Zone diet by US biochemist Dr. Barry Sears is proposed. It underlines the importance of choosing certain types of foods over others, their beneficial physiological effects on the human body and how they can reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.

  12. Heart disease risk factors and hormone use in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E; Brown, W V; Turner, J; Austin, M; Criqui, M H

    1979-05-18

    A population of 1,496 women aged 55 to 74 years was studied for the distribution of heart disease risk factors in the presence or absence of postmenopausal estrogens. Current hormone use was reported by 39%. Hormone users were significantly slimmer than nonusers at all ages. After adjustment for the effect of obesity, hormone users had significantly lower mean levels of plasma cholesterol and higher mean levels of plasma triglycerides than nonusers. Blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration tended to be lower among hormone users, although the differences were not statistically significant in all age groups. This article discusses the theoretical implications of these observations for cardiovascular disease mortality and contrasts them with the cancer risk of postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:430817

  13. Heart disease risk factors and hormone use in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E; Brown, W V; Turner, J; Austin, M; Criqui, M H

    1979-05-18

    A population of 1,496 women aged 55 to 74 years was studied for the distribution of heart disease risk factors in the presence or absence of postmenopausal estrogens. Current hormone use was reported by 39%. Hormone users were significantly slimmer than nonusers at all ages. After adjustment for the effect of obesity, hormone users had significantly lower mean levels of plasma cholesterol and higher mean levels of plasma triglycerides than nonusers. Blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration tended to be lower among hormone users, although the differences were not statistically significant in all age groups. This article discusses the theoretical implications of these observations for cardiovascular disease mortality and contrasts them with the cancer risk of postmenopausal estrogen use.

  14. Osteoarthritis in the XXIst Century: Risk Factors and Behaviours that Influence Disease Onset and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Rosa, Michelino; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing public health problem across the globe, affecting more than half of the over 65 population. In the past, OA was considered a wear and tear disease, leading to the loss of articular cartilage and joint disability. Nowadays, thanks to advancements in molecular biology, OA is believed to be a very complex multifactorial disease. OA is a degenerative disease characterized by “low-grade inflammation” in cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive deterioration of cartilage. Although the disease can be dependent on genetic and epigenetic factors, sex, ethnicity, and age (cellular senescence, apoptosis and lubricin), it is also associated with obesity and overweight, dietary factors, sedentary lifestyle and sport injuries. The aim of this review is to highlight how certain behaviors, habits and lifestyles may be involved in the onset and progression of OA and to summarize the principal risk factors involved in the development of this complicated joint disorder. PMID:25785564

  15. Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Amy; Wong, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Provides an overview of the identified risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression emphasizing the pediatric population. Recent findings Over the past ten years, there have been significant changes to our understanding and study of pre-terminal kidney failure. Recent refinements in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and GFR estimating equations are important tools for identification and association of risk factors for CKD progression in children. In pediatric CKD, lower level of kidney function at presentation, higher levels of proteinuria, and hypertension are known markers for a more rapid decline in GFR. Anemia and other reported risk factors from the pre-genomic era have need for further study and validation. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci which have provided novel genetic risk factors for CKD progression. Summary With cohort studies of children with CKD becoming mature, they have started to yield important refinements to the assessment of CKD progression. While many of the traditional risk factors for renal progression will certainly be assessed, such cohorts will be important for evaluating novel risk factors identified by genome-wide studies. PMID:20090523

  16. Living with a `women's disease': risk appraisal and management among men with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Solimeo, Samantha L.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is clear evidence that men suffer from osteoporosis (OP) in increasing numbers, but that men commonly remain underdiagnosed, undertreated and experience poorer outcomes than do women. The widespread sociocultural association of OP with postmenopausal women reflects their greater risk for developing the disorder, but the sexing of OP as a women's disease disadvantages at-risk men. Methods This paper reports on qualitative data gathered from 23 community-residing men who have an OP diagnosis. Results Interviews with men reveal that the sexing of OP as a female disease may affect men's risk appraisal. Men clearly associate OP risk factors with women and accordingly may feel protected from the disorder. Subsequent to diagnosis, men's OP-related risk management strategies reveal that men's gender identity constrains their ability to enact risk-reducing behavior. Conclusions Men may internalize the association of OP with women and incorporate it into a sense of perceived invulnerability to the condition, which, in turn, contributes to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Limited male-specific treatment and support options as well as social expectations of male gender performance play roles in men's health behavior. PMID:22125585

  17. [Influence of health education on the occurrence of risk factors for coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Cisek, Maria M; Brzostek, Tomasz; Górkiewicz, Maciej

    2004-01-01

    Despite many prophylactic activities, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the main health problem in Poland and the most common cause of death among men. Risk factors related to life style are the target for the modification of prophylaxis. The main task of health education is to develop the skills and knowledge affecting the future behavior and habits of healthy lifestyle. The aim of this project was to assess the influence of health education on the occurrence of CHD risk factors among healthy young men. Sixty four men (31 submitted to education and physical training group and 33 to the control group) up to 50 years of age, without recognized cardiovascular diseases were selected for the study. At the beginning the presence of risk factors was recorded in each participant. The education (6 weeks) and training program (25 weeks) was conducted and it was finally evaluated after six months by comparing experimental versus control groups. The background data showed that 95% of men had at least one risk factor, the mean number of risk factors in average participant was 8.8, minimum 2 and maximum 17, there was no difference between the experimental and control groups. The educational program limited amount of risk factors in the experimental group (p<0.0001). Positive changes concerned physical activities (p=2E-09), knowledge (p=0.01) and stress management (p<0.05).

  18. A Social Ecological Model of Syndemic Risk affecting Women with and At-Risk for HIV in Impoverished Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, A W; Gonzalez, J S; Palma, A; Schoenbaum, E; Lounsbury, D W

    2015-12-01

    Syndemic risk is an ecological construct, defined by co-occurring interdependent socio-environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants. We posited syndemic risk to be a function of violence, substance use, perceived financial hardship, emotional distress and self-worth among women with and at-risk for HIV in an impoverished urban community. In order to better understand these interrelationships, we developed and validated a system dynamics (SD) model based upon peer-reviewed literature; secondary data analyses of a cohort dataset including women living with and at-risk of HIV in Bronx, NY (N = 620); and input from a Bronx-based community advisory board. Simulated model output revealed divergent levels and patterns of syndemic risk over time across different sample profiles. Outputs generated new insights about how to effectively explore multicomponent multi-level programs in order to strategically develop more effective services for this population. Specifically, the model indicated that effective multi-level interventions might bolster women's resilience by increasing self-worth, which may result in decreased perceived financial hardship and risk of violence. Overall, our stakeholder-informed model depicts how self-worth may be a major driver of vulnerability and a meaningful addition to syndemic theory affecting this population. PMID:26370203

  19. Mining disease risk patterns from nationwide clinical databases for the assessment of early rheumatoid arthritis risk.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chu Yu; Weng, Meng Yu; Lin, Tzu Chieh; Cheng, Shyr Yuan; Yang, Yea Huei Kao; Tseng, Vincent S

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease that can cause painful swelling in the joint lining, morning stiffness, and joint deformation/destruction. These symptoms decrease both quality of life and life expectancy. However, if RA can be diagnosed in the early stages, it can be controlled with pharmacotherapy. Although many studies have examined the possibility of early assessment and diagnosis, few have considered the relationship between significant risk factors and the early assessment of RA. In this paper, we present a novel framework for early RA assessment that utilizes data preprocessing, risk pattern mining, validation, and analysis. Under our proposed framework, two risk patterns can be discovered. Type I refers to well-known risk patterns that have been identified by existing studies, whereas Type II denotes unknown relationship risk patterns that have rarely or never been reported in the literature. These Type II patterns are very valuable in supporting novel hypotheses in clinical trials of RA, and constitute the main contribution of this work. To ensure the robustness of our experimental evaluation, we use a nationwide clinical database containing information on 1,314 RA-diagnosed patients over a 12-year follow-up period (1997-2008) and 965,279 non-RA patients. Our proposed framework is employed on this large-scale population-based dataset, and is shown to effectively discover rich RA risk patterns. These patterns may assist physicians in patient assessment, and enhance opportunities for early detection of RA. The proposed framework is broadly applicable to the mining of risk patterns for major disease assessments. This enables the identification of early risk patterns that are significantly associated with a target disease.

  20. Mining Disease Risk Patterns from Nationwide Clinical Databases for the Assessment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Chu Yu; Weng, Meng Yu; Lin, Tzu Chieh; Cheng, Shyr Yuan; Yang, Yea Huei Kao; Tseng, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease that can cause painful swelling in the joint lining, morning stiffness, and joint deformation/destruction. These symptoms decrease both quality of life and life expectancy. However, if RA can be diagnosed in the early stages, it can be controlled with pharmacotherapy. Although many studies have examined the possibility of early assessment and diagnosis, few have considered the relationship between significant risk factors and the early assessment of RA. In this paper, we present a novel framework for early RA assessment that utilizes data preprocessing, risk pattern mining, validation, and analysis. Under our proposed framework, two risk patterns can be discovered. Type I refers to well-known risk patterns that have been identified by existing studies, whereas Type II denotes unknown relationship risk patterns that have rarely or never been reported in the literature. These Type II patterns are very valuable in supporting novel hypotheses in clinical trials of RA, and constitute the main contribution of this work. To ensure the robustness of our experimental evaluation, we use a nationwide clinical database containing information on 1,314 RA-diagnosed patients over a 12-year follow-up period (1997–2008) and 965,279 non-RA patients. Our proposed framework is employed on this large-scale population-based dataset, and is shown to effectively discover rich RA risk patterns. These patterns may assist physicians in patient assessment, and enhance opportunities for early detection of RA. The proposed framework is broadly applicable to the mining of risk patterns for major disease assessments. This enables the identification of early risk patterns that are significantly associated with a target disease. PMID:25875441

  1. Management of the aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Oliver T

    2014-04-01

    The aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease is described in terms of specific disease markers including mitochondrial and gene dysfunctions relevant to energy metabolism. This review details evidence for the ability of nutritional agents to manage these aging risk factors. The combination of alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin supports energy metabolism via carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization, assists electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis, counters oxidative and nitrosative stress, and raises defenses against protein misfolding, inflammatory stimuli, iron, and other endogenous or xenobiotic toxins. These effects are supported by gene expression via the antioxidant response element (ARE; Keap/Nrf2 pathway), and by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a transcription coactivator, which regulates gene expression for energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintains the structural integrity of mitochondria. The effectiveness and synergies of the combination against disease risks are discussed in relation to gene action, dopamine cell loss, and the accumulation and spread of pathology via misfolded alpha-synuclein. In addition there are potential synergies to support a neurorestorative role via glial derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  2. Impact of host community composition on Lyme disease risk.

    PubMed

    LoGiudice, Kathleen; Duerr, Shannon T K; Newhouse, Michael J; Schmidt, Kenneth A; Killilea, Mary E; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2008-10-01

    The drivers of variable disease risk in complex multi-host disease systems have proved very difficult to identify. Here we test a model that explains the entomological risk of Lyme disease (LD) in terms of host community composition. The model was parameterized in a continuous forest tract at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies (formerly the Institute of Ecosystem Studies) in New York State, U.S.A. We report the results of continuing longitudinal observations (10 years) at the Cary Institute, and of a shorter-term study conducted in forest fragments in LD endemic areas of Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York, USA. Model predictions were significantly correlated with the observed nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) in both studies, although the relationship was stronger in the longer-term Cary Institute study. Species richness was negatively, albeit weakly, correlated with NIP (logistic regression), and there was no relationship between the Shannon diversity index (H') and NIP. Although these results suggest that LD risk is in fact dependent on host diversity, the relationship relies explicitly on the identities and frequencies of host species such that conventional uses of the term biodiversity (i.e., richness, evenness, H') are less appropriate than are metrics that include species identity. This underscores the importance of constructing interaction webs for vertebrates and exploring the direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic stressors on host community composition.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and disease risk among aboriginal Arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangita; Barr, Alison B; Macdonald, Helen M; Sheehy, Tony; Novotny, Rachel; Corriveau, Andre

    2011-08-01

    Aboriginal populations living above the Arctic Circle are at particularly high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited ultraviolet B exposure (related to geographic latitude) and inadequate dietary intake (recently related to decreased traditional food consumption). Major changes in diet and lifestyle over the past 50 years in these populations have coincided with increased prevalence rates of rickets, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, each of which may be associated with vitamin D inadequacy. This review examines the risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy, the associations between vitamin D and disease risk at high geographic latitudes, and the recommendations for improving vitamin D status particularly among aboriginal Arctic populations. Traditional foods, such as fatty fish and marine mammals, are rich sources of vitamin D and should continue to be promoted to improve dietary vitamin D intake. Supplementation protocols may also be necessary to ensure adequate vitamin D status in the Arctic. PMID:21790613

  4. Immigration disparities in cardiovascular disease risk factor awareness.

    PubMed

    Langellier, Brent A; Garza, Jeremiah R; Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael L; Brookmeyer, Ron; Roberts, Christian K; Peters, Anne; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-12-01

    The association between immigration status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor awareness is unknown. Using physical examination-based data and participants' self-report of prior diagnosis, we assessed immigration-based disparities in awareness of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight among 12,124 participants in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Unawareness of CVD risk factors is high among all groups, but tends to be higher among foreign-born English and non-English speaking participants than among US-born participants. After adjusting for demographic factors and access to health care, foreign-born participants appear more likely to be unaware of their hypertension and overweight than US-born participants. Immigrants are more likely than those born in the US to be unaware of their CVD risk factors, and therefore may be less motivated to seek treatment and modify their behavior to prevent negative CVD outcomes.

  5. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well. PMID:25893031

  6. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    García-López, Elvia; Carrero, Juan J; Suliman, Mohamed E; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are at high cardiovascular risk. Although some risk factors are unmodifiable (for example, age, sex, genetics), others are exacerbated in the unfriendly uremic milieu (inflammation, oxidative stress, mineral disturbances) or contribute per se to kidney disease and cardiovascular progression (diabetes mellitus, hypertension). Moreover, several factors associated with PD therapy may both increase (by altered lipid profile, hyperinsulinemia, and formation of advanced glycation end-products) and decrease (by better blood pressure control and anemia management) cardiovascular risk. The present review discusses recent findings and therapy trends in cardiovascular research on the PD population, with emphasis on the roles of inflammation, insulin resistance, homocysteinemia, dyslipidemia, vascular calcification, and genetics/epigenetics.

  7. NOS3 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular disease risk: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) activity and cigarette smoking significantly influence endothelial function. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking modified the association between NOS3 polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. All 1085 incident coronary heart di...

  8. Rare coding variants in the phospholipase D3 gene confer risk for Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). These common variants have replicable but small effects on LOAD risk and generally do not have obvious functional effects. Low-frequency coding variants, not detected by GWAS, are predicted to include functional variants with larger effects on risk. To identify low-frequency coding variants with large effects on LOAD risk, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 14 large LOAD families and follow-up analyses of the candidate variants in several large LOAD case-control data sets. A rare variant in PLD3 (phospholipase D3; Val232Met) segregated with disease status in two independent families and doubled risk for Alzheimer's disease in seven independent case-control series with a total of more than 11,000 cases and controls of European descent. Gene-based burden analyses in 4,387 cases and controls of European descent and 302 African American cases and controls, with complete sequence data for PLD3, reveal that several variants in this gene increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in both populations. PLD3 is highly expressed in brain regions that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology, including hippocampus and cortex, and is expressed at significantly lower levels in neurons from Alzheimer's disease brains compared to control brains. Overexpression of PLD3 leads to a significant decrease in intracellular amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and extracellular Aβ42 and Aβ40 (the 42- and 40-residue isoforms of the amyloid-β peptide), and knockdown of PLD3 leads to a significant increase in extracellular Aβ42 and Aβ40. Together, our genetic and functional data indicate that carriers of PLD3 coding variants have a twofold increased risk for LOAD and that PLD3 influences APP processing. This study provides an example of how densely affected families may help to identify rare variants with large effects on risk for disease or other complex

  9. Living at Risk: Concealing Risk and Preserving Hope in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Sharon L.; Swenson, Melinda M.; Harrison, Joan M.; Moskowitz, Carol; Stepanov, Nonna; Suter, Gregory W.; Westphal, Beryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the qualitative research on Huntington disease has focused on the genetic testing aspects of HD. The overall purpose of this qualitative study was to gather information about the everyday experience of living with the risk of developing Huntington disease in a sample of individuals at risk for HD who have chosen not to pursue genetic testing. Data for this article was obtained from unstructured, open-ended qualitative interviews of a sample of people participating in the PHAROS study. PHAROS, the Prospective Huntington At-Risk Observational Study, is a multi-site study that aims to establish whether experienced clinicians can reliably determine the earliest clinical symptoms of Huntington disease in individuals at 50% risk for HD who have chosen not to undergo genetic testing. Interviews were conducted at six PHAROS research sites across the United States. In this paper, the research team used qualitative description to construct and explore two main themes: (1) careful concealment of risk as an act of self-preservation and (2) preserving hope. PMID:17943424

  10. Cardiovascular disease in HIV: traditional and nontraditional risk factors.

    PubMed

    Grinspoon, Steven K

    2014-01-01

    A new paradigm for atherogenesis in HIV infection is emerging, in which viral replication and microbial translocation result in ongoing T-cell and monocyte activation, with persistent inflammation leading to the development of atypical, high-risk morphology plaques. These plaques, characterized by low attenuation and positive remodeling, can be found even among HIV-infected patients who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease based on traditional risk factors. Prevention of cardiovascular events in HIV infection requires modulation of traditional risk factors and is also likely to require effective antiinflammatory treatment strategies. Statins, which are traditionally used to treat dyslipidemia, have also been shown to exert antiinflammatory effects associated with clinical benefit and may be useful to treat and prevent cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. However, large-scale studies of statins in the context of HIV infection must be conducted. This article summarizes a presentation by Steven K. Grinspoon, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in Chicago, Illinois, in May 2014. PMID:25398068

  11. Joint Attention Initiation with and without Positive Affect: Risk Group Differences and Associations with ASD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Devon N.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of…

  12. Positive affect and mortality risk in older adults: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing; Han, Buxin

    2016-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between positive affect (PA) and mortality risk in older adults (55 years and older) and reviewed evidence on the Main Effect Model and the Stress-buffering Model of PA. Four databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, APA PsycNET, PubMed, and Embase) were used to identify potential studies. Three types of effect sizes (ESs), odds ratio, relative risk, and hazard ratio (OR, RR, and HR), were calculated and analyzed within a random effects model. The analysis of the studies in which the effects of other variables were not controlled indicated that older adults with higher levels of positive affect had lower mortality risk (75%, HR = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.85) than those with lower positive affect. In studies in which the effects of covariates were controlled, this rate was 85% (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.81-0.89), which was still significant. These results suggest that higher positive affect is associated with lower mortality risk in community-dwelling older adults, even after controlling for medical, psychological, and social factors. The results point to potential methods of improving longevity, and to achieving healthy aging in older adults. PMID:27113246

  13. Exercise Decreases Risk of Future Active Disease in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patricia D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Chen, Wenli; Sandler, Robert S.; Long, Millie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exercise impacts quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about its role in disease activity. Among IBD patients in remission, we aimed to evaluate the association between exercise and subsequent active disease. Methods We performed a prospective study using the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) Partners Internet-based cohort of individuals with self-reported IBD. We identified participants in remission, defined as short Crohn's disease activity index (sCDAI) <150 or simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI) ≤2. The primary exposure was exercise status, measured using the validated Godin leisure time activity index. The primary study outcome, assessed after six months, was active disease defined using the above disease activity index thresholds. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to describe the independent association between exercise and risk of active disease. Results We identified 1308 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 549 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) in remission, of whom 227(17.4%) with CD and 135 (24.6%) with UC/IC developed active disease after 6 months. Higher exercise level was associated with decreased risk of active disease for CD (adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94) and UC/IC (adjusted RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54-1.13). Conclusions In patients with CD in remission, those with higher exercise levels were significantly less likely to develop active disease at six months. In patients with UC/IC in remission, patients with higher exercise levels were less likely to develop active disease at six months, however this was not statistically significant. PMID:25723616

  14. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  15. Use of ibuprofen and risk of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background: Neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in general, and possibly ibuprofen in particular, has been shown to be related to lower PD risk in previous epidemiologic studies. Methods: We prospectively examined whether use of ibuprofen or other NSAIDs is associated with lower PD risk among 136,197 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) free of PD at baseline (1998 for NHS and 2000 for HPFS). NSAIDs use was assessed via questionnaire. Results were combined in a meta-analysis with those of published prospective investigations. Results: We identified 291 incident PD cases during 6 years of follow-up. Users of ibuprofen had a significantly lower PD risk than nonusers (relative risk [RR], adjusted for age, smoking, caffeine, and other covariates = 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42–0.93; p = 0.02). There was a dose–response relationship between tablets of ibuprofen taken per week and PD risk (p trend = 0.01). In contrast, PD risk was not significantly related to use of aspirin (RR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.78–1.26), other NSAIDs (RR = 1.26; 95% CI 0.86–1.84), or acetaminophen (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.62–1.18). Similar results were obtained in the meta-analyses: the pooled RR was 0.73 (95% CI 0.63–0.85; p < 0.0001) for ibuprofen use, whereas use of other types of analgesics was not associated with lower PD risk. Conclusions: The association between use of ibuprofen and lower PD risks, not shared by other NSAIDs or acetaminophen, suggests ibuprofen should be further investigated as a potential neuroprotective agent against PD. PMID:21368281

  16. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  17. Increased Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chai, Chee-Yin; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Kuo, Keng-Liang; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate osteoporosis risk in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. This Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) analysis included 27,132 patients aged 18 years and older who had been diagnosed with PUD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 531–534) during 1996 to 2010. The control group consisted of 27,132 randomly selected (age- and gender)-matched patients without PUD. The association between PUD and the risk of developing osteoporosis was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, osteoporosis was diagnosed in 2538 (9.35 %) patients in the PUD group and in 2259 (8.33 %) participants in the non-PUD group. After adjusting for covariates, osteoporosis risk was 1.85 times greater in the PUD group compared to the non-PUD group (13.99 vs 5.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Osteoporosis developed 1 year after PUD diagnosis. The 1-year follow-up period exhibited the highest significance between the 2 groups (hazard ratio [HR] = 63.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.19–142.74, P < 0.001). Osteoporosis risk was significantly higher in PUD patients with proton-pump-inhibitors (PPIs) use (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03–1.34) compared to PUD patients without PPIs use. This study revealed a significant association between PUD and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, PUD patients, especially those treated with PPIs, should be evaluated for subsequent risk of osteoporosis to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. PMID:27100415

  18. [Changes in range of mosquito-borne diseases affected by global climatic fluctuations].

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kiewra, Dorota; Lonc, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    Climate models suggest the strong possibility of range increase of the diseases transmitted by parasitic arthropods, mostly mosquitoes. In predicting processes of malaria and Dengue diseases dispersion the estimation of risk is based mostly on reproduction rate of vector species. These models allow to calculate the critical threshold of host density which is necessary to maintain parasites and pathogens transmission. Such studies based on integrated mathematical modelling indicate widespread increase of risk due to expansion of the areas suitable for mosquito-borne diseases transmission. This predicted increase is the most pronounced at the borders of the endemic areas and at higher altitudes within malaria and Dengue areas. The simulated change in mosquito-borne diseases risk must be interpreted on the basis of local environmental conditions as well as the effects of socio-economic developments and control disease programs. Apart from mathematical models the sequencing of proteins and DNA of vectors and their pathogens as well as satellite technology (GIS) are taken into consideration. It is supposed that potential impact of global climate change on malaria and Dengue risk can be reduced by constant warning system based on biological monitoring of mosquito vector species and their pathogens. Efficient care system connected with full diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of transmission diseases are also required.

  19. Positive Affect Processing and Joint Attention in Infants at High Risk for Autism: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Ibanez, Lisa V; Henderson, Heather A; Warren, Zachary; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2015-12-01

    Few behavioral indices of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are present before 12 months, and potential biomarkers remain largely unexamined. This prospective study of infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 16) and low-risk comparison infants (n = 15) examined group differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing processing of facial positive affect (N290/P400, Nc) at 9 months and their relation to joint attention at 15 months. Group differences were most pronounced for subtle facial expressions, in that the low-risk group exhibited relatively longer processing (P400 latency) and greater attention resource allocation (Nc amplitude). Exploratory analyses found associations between ERP responses and later joint attention, suggesting that attention to positive affect cues may support the development of other social competencies.

  20. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen S; Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Danaei, Goodarz; Shibuya, Kenji; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus; Anderson, H Ross; Andrews, Kathryn G; Aryee, Martin; Atkinson, Charles; Bacchus, Loraine J; Bahalim, Adil N; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Baxter, Amanda; Bell, Michelle L; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona; Bonner, Carissa; Borges, Guilherme; Bourne, Rupert; Boussinesq, Michel; Brauer, Michael; Brooks, Peter; Bruce, Nigel G; Brunekreef, Bert; Bryan-Hancock, Claire; Bucello, Chiara; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bull, Fiona; Burnett, Richard T; Byers, Tim E; Calabria, Bianca; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carnahan, Emily; Chafe, Zoe; Charlson, Fiona; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jian Shen; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann; Child, Jennifer Christine; Cohen, Aaron; Colson, K Ellicott; Cowie, Benjamin C; Darby, Sarah; Darling, Susan; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dentener, Frank; Des Jarlais, Don C; Devries, Karen; Dherani, Mukesh; Ding, Eric L; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim; Edmond, Karen; Ali, Suad Eltahir; Engell, Rebecca E; Erwin, Patricia J; Fahimi, Saman; Falder, Gail; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ferrari, Alize; Finucane, Mariel M; Flaxman, Seth; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R; Freedman, Greg; Freeman, Michael K; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ghosh, Santu; Giovannucci, Edward; Gmel, Gerhard; Graham, Kathryn; Grainger, Rebecca; Grant, Bridget; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Hall, Wayne; Hoek, Hans W; Hogan, Anthony; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian; Hu, Howard; Hubbell, Bryan J; Hutchings, Sally J; Ibeanusi, Sydney E; Jacklyn, Gemma L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Jonas, Jost B; Kan, Haidong; Kanis, John A; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kawakami, Norito; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khoo, Jon-Paul; Kok, Cindy; Laden, Francine; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lan, Qing; Lathlean, Tim; Leasher, Janet L; Leigh, James; Li, Yang; Lin, John Kent; Lipshultz, Steven E; London, Stephanie; Lozano, Rafael; Lu, Yuan; Mak, Joelle; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mallinger, Leslie; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn; Marks, Robin; Martin, Randall; McGale, Paul; McGrath, John; Mehta, Sumi; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Micha, Renata; Michaud, Catherine; Mishra, Vinod; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Mokdad, Ali A; Morawska, Lidia; Mozaff arian, Dariush; Murphy, Tasha; Naghavi, Mohsen; Neal, Bruce; Nelson, Paul K; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Norman, Rosana; Olives, Casey; Omer, Saad B; Orchard, Jessica; Osborne, Richard; Ostro, Bart; Page, Andrew; Pandey, Kiran D; Parry, Charles D H; Passmore, Erin; Patra, Jayadeep; Pearce, Neil; Pelizzari, Pamela M; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Pope, Dan; Pope III, C Arden; Powles, John; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rehm, Jürgen T; Ritz, Beate; Rivara, Frederick P; Roberts, Thomas; Robinson, Carolyn; Rodriguez-Portales, Jose A; Romieu, Isabelle; Room, Robin; Rosenfeld, Lisa C; Roy, Ananya; Rushton, Lesley; Salomon, Joshua A; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sanman, Ella; Sapkota, Amir; Seedat, Soraya; Shi, Peilin; Shield, Kevin; Shivakoti, Rupak; Singh, Gitanjali M; Sleet, David A; Smith, Emma; Smith, Kirk R; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Steenland, Kyle; Stöckl, Heidi; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Straif, Kurt; Straney, Lahn; Thurston, George D; Tran, Jimmy H; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Veerman, J Lennert; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Weintraub, Robert; Weissman, Myrna M; White, Richard A; Whiteford, Harvey; Wiersma, Steven T; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Warwick; Wilson, Nicholas; Woolf, Anthony D; Yip, Paul; Zielinski, Jan M; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time. Methods We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. We estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specific deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. Findings In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2–7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5–7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0–5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8–9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6–8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4–6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2–10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect

  1. Implications of host genetic variation on the risk and prevalence of infectious diseases transmitted through the environment.

    PubMed

    Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B; Davidson, R; Conington, J; Roughsedge, T; Hutchings, M R; Villanueva, B

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that host genetic heterogeneity in the response to infectious challenge can affect the emergence risk and the severity of diseases transmitted through direct contact between individuals. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the degree and direction of influence owing to different definitions of genetic variation, most of which are not in line with the current understanding of the genetic architecture of disease traits. Also, the relevance of previous results for diseases transmitted through environmental sources is unclear. In this article a compartmental genetic-epidemiological model was developed to quantify the impact of host genetic diversity on epidemiological characteristics of diseases transmitted through a contaminated environment. The model was parameterized for footrot in sheep. Genetic variation was defined through continuous distributions with varying shape and degree of dispersion for different disease traits. The model predicts a strong impact of genetic heterogeneity on the disease risk and its progression and severity, as well as on observable host phenotypes, when dispersion in key epidemiological parameters is high. The impact of host variation depends on the disease trait for which variation occurs and on environmental conditions affecting pathogen survival. In particular, compared to homogeneous populations with the same average susceptibility, disease risk and severity are substantially higher in populations containing a large proportion of highly susceptible individuals, and the differences are strongest when environmental contamination is low. The implications of our results for the recording and analysis of disease data and for predicting response to selection are discussed.

  2. Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

  3. [McArdle disease or glycogen storage disease type v: Should it affect anaesthetic management?].

    PubMed

    Ayerza-Casas, V; Ferreira-Laso, L; Alloza-Fortun, M C; Fraile-Jimenez, A E

    2015-02-01

    McArdle disease is a metabolic myopathy that can may lead to severe perioperative problems. A case is reported of a woman with a history of McArdle disease, who was scheduled for a mastectomy. An understanding of the physiology and pathology, and the application of appropriate preventive measures can avoid complications. A overview of the complications and the management are described.

  4. The Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease after Parathyroidectomy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The changes of the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with end-stage renal disease after parathyroidectomy are scant. Methods We used a nationwide health insurance claims database to select all dialysis-dependent patients with end-stage renal disease aged 18 years and older for the study population in 2000 to 2006. Of the patients with end-stage renal disease, we selected 947 patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy as the parathyroidectomy group and frequency matched 3746 patients with end-stage renal disease by sex, age, years since the disease diagnosis, and the year of index date as the non-parathyroidectomy group. We used a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with the use of a robust sandwich covariance matrix estimate, accounting for the intra-cluster dependence of hospitals or clinics, to measure the risk of peripheral arterial disease for the parathyroidectomy group compared with the non-parathyroidectomy group after adjusting for sex, age, premium-based income, urbanization, and comorbidity. Results The mean post-op follow-up periods were 5.08 and 4.52 years for the parathyroidectomy and non-parathyroidectomy groups, respectively; the incidence density rate of PAD in the PTX group was 12.26 per 1000 person-years, significantly lower than the data in the non-PTX group (24.09 per 1000 person-years, adjusted HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). Conclusion Parathyroidectomy is associated with reduced risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with end-stage renal disease complicated with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27284924

  5. Assessing the risk of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J; Johnson, David; Popovic, Tanja; Miller, J Michael; Downes, Frances; Somsel, Patricia; Weyant, Robbin; Stephens, David S; Perkins, Bradley A; Rosenstein, Nancy E

    2005-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is infrequently reported as a laboratory-acquired infection. Prompted by two cases in the United States in 2000, we assessed this risk among laboratorians. We identified cases of meningococcal disease that were possibly acquired or suspected of being acquired in a laboratory by placing an information request on e-mail discussion groups of infectious disease, microbiology, and infection control professional organizations. A probable case of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease was defined as illness meeting the case definition for meningococcal disease in a laboratorian who had occupational exposure to an N. meningitidis isolate of the same serogroup within 14 days of illness onset. Sixteen cases of probable laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease occurring worldwide between 1985 and 2001 were identified, including six U.S. cases between 1996 and 2000. Nine cases (56%) were serogroup B; seven (44%) were serogroup C. Eight cases (50%) were fatal. All cases occurred among clinical microbiologists. In 15 cases (94%), isolate manipulation was performed without respiratory protection. We estimated that an average of three microbiologists are exposed to the 3,000 meningococcal isolates seen in U.S. laboratories yearly and calculated an attack rate of 13/100,000 microbiologists between 1996 and 2001, compared to 0.2/100,000 among U.S. adults in general. The rate and case/fatality ratio of meningococcal disease among microbiologists are higher than those in the general U.S. population. Specific risk factors for laboratory-acquired infection are likely associated with exposure to droplets or aerosols containing N. meningitidis. Prevention should focus on the implementation of class II biological safety cabinets or additional respiratory protection during manipulation of suspected meningococcal isolates.

  6. Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score to Improve Risk Prediction for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chouraki, Vincent; Reitz, Christiane; Maury, Fleur; Bis, Joshua C.; Bellenguez, Celine; Yu, Lei; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Adams, Hieab H.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Larson, Eric B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; de Jager, Philip L.; Hofman, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Vardarajan, Badri; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; van der Lee, Sven J.; Lopez, Oscar; Dartigues, Jean-François; Berr, Claudine; Amouyel, Philippe; Bennett, David A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; DeStefano, Anita L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Crane, Paul K.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Mayeux, Richard; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requires the development of risk prediction tools permitting preclinical intervention. We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising common genetic variants associated with AD, evaluated its association with incident AD and assessed its capacity to improve risk prediction over traditional models based on age, sex, education, and APOE ε4. In eight prospective cohorts included in the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (IGAP), we derived weighted sum of risk alleles from the 19 top SNPs reported by the IGAP GWAS in participants aged 65 and older without prevalent dementia. Hazard ratios (HR) of incident AD were estimated in Cox models. Improvement in risk prediction was measured by the difference in C-index (Δ–C), the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI>0). Overall, 19,687 participants at risk were included, of whom 2,782 developed AD. The GRS was associated with a 17% increase in AD risk (pooled HR = 1.17; 95%CI = [1.13–1.21] per standard deviation increase in GRS; p-value = 2.86 × 10−16). This association was stronger among persons with at least one APOE ε4 allele (HRGRS = 1.24; 95%CI = [1.15–1.34]) than in others (HRGRS = 1.13; 95%CI = [1.08–1.18]; pinteraction = 3.45 × 10−2). Risk prediction after seven years of follow-up showed a small improvement when adding the GRS to age, sex, APOE ε4, and education (Δ–Cindex = 0.0043 [0.0019–0.0067]). Similar patterns were observed for IDI and NRI>0. In conclusion, a risk score incorporating common genetic variation outside the APOE ε4 locus improved AD risk prediction and may facilitate risk stratification for prevention trials. PMID:27340842

  7. Historical Perspective and Risk of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases in Coastal Tanzania: Compositional and Contextual Determinants of Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Quansah, Reginald; Luginaah, Isaac; Chuenpagdee, Ratana; Hambati, Herbert; Campbell, Gwyn

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania. Methods and Findings We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual) factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural) factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks. Conclusions NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national) levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing

  8. Herpes zoster infection increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Te-Yu; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tse-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Varicella-zoster virus infection can cause meningoencephalitis, myelitis, ocular disorders, and vasculopathy. However, no study has investigated the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We identified newly diagnosed HZ from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database recorded during 2000 to 2010, with a follow-up period extending until December 31, 2011. In addition, we included a comparison cohort that was randomly frequency-matched with the HZ cohort according to age, sex, and index year. We analyzed the risk of PAD with respect to sex, age, and comorbidities by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models. In total, 35,391 HZ patients and 141,556 controls were enrolled in this study. The risk of PAD was 13% increased in the HZ cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that the risk of PAD was significantly higher in the HZ cohort than in the non-HZ cohort (P < 0.001). This nationwide population-based cohort study revealed a higher risk of PAD in patients with HZ infection than in those without the infection. Careful follow-up and aggressive treatment is recommended for patients with HZ to reduce the risk of PAD. PMID:27583856

  9. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms and therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Liu, Chia-Chan; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun

    2013-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a major cholesterol carrier that supports lipid transport and injury repair in the brain. APOE polymorphic alleles are the main genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk: individuals carrying the ε4 allele are at increased risk of AD compared with those carrying the more common ε3 allele, whereas the ε2 allele decreases risk. Presence of the APOE ε4 allele is also associated with increased risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and age-related cognitive decline during normal ageing. Apo-E-lipoproteins bind to several cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids, and also to hydrophobic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is thought to initiate toxic events that lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in AD. Apo-E isoforms differentially regulate Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain, and have distinct functions in regulating brain lipid transport, glucose metabolism, neuronal signalling, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial function. In this Review, we describe current knowledge on Apo-E in the CNS, with a particular emphasis on the clinical and pathological features associated with carriers of different Apo-E isoforms. We also discuss Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms that link Apo-E4 status with AD risk, and consider how to design effective strategies for AD therapy by targeting Apo-E. PMID:23296339

  10. Dietary fat intake and risk for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jing; Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Park, YikYung; Huang, Xuemei; Blair, Aaron; Kamel, Freya; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary fat intakes and risk for Parkinson’s disease (PD). We therefore prospectively examined these associations in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS A 124-item food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline in 1995–1996, and PD diagnosis was self-reported at the follow-up survey in 2004–2006. A total of 1,087 cases with a PD diagnosis between 2000 and 2006 and 299,617 controls were included in the analyses. RESULTS Overall, intakes of fats and other macronutrients were not associated with PD risk. However, we found a weak positive association between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the risk for PD. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between extreme quintiles of n-6 PUFA intake was 1.23 (95% CI=1.02–1.49, P for trend=0.02). A similar association was observed for the intake of linoleic acid. Results were similar among men and among women. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that fat intake in general is not related to the risk for PD. The weak positive association between intake of n-6 PUFA and PD risk needs further investigation. PMID:25186946

  11. Dyslipidemias in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: risks and causality.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian; Cooney, Marie-Therese; Bradley, David; Dudina, Alexandra; Reiner, Zeljko

    2012-12-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is now the major global cause of death, despite reductions in CVD deaths in developed societies. Dyslipidemias are a major contributor, but the mass occurrence of CVD relates to the combined effects of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol relate to CVD risk in an independent and graded manner and fulfill the criteria for causality. Therapeutic reduction of these lipid fractions is associated with improved outcomes. There is good evidence that HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and Lp(a) relate to CVD although the evidence for a causal relationship is weaker. The HDL association with CVD is largely independent of other risk factors whereas triglycerides may be more important as signaling a need to look intensively for other measures of risk such as central obesity, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, and glucose intolerance. Lp(a) is an inherited risk marker. The benefit of lowering it is uncertain, but it may be that its impact on risk is attenuated if LDL-cholesterol is low.

  12. Risk of ischemic heart disease among primary aluminum production workers

    SciTech Connect

    Theriault, G.P.; Tremblay, C.G.; Armstrong, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been studied in relation to working conditions encountered in a primary aluminum smelter employing over 6,000 men. During the period 1975-1983, 306 new cases of IHD were identified which were matched with 575 referents. A logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for differences in smoking habits, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity. Results from this showed that white collar workers had a significantly lower risk of IHD (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.70). Among blue collar workers, a significantly higher risk was observed for workers in the reduction division of the plant (OR 1.72, CI 1.09-2.97) including, in particular, Soderberg (OR 1.71, CI 1.07-2.72) and prebake (OR 2.26, CI. 1.27-4.02) potroom workers. The risk of IHD did not increase with the length of time worked in these occupations. The search for associations (among blue collar workers) of risk with nine specific contaminants (benzene soluble material, fluoride, total dust, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, thermal stress, noise, physical load, and mental load) proved inconclusive, with no association reaching statistical significance.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Noori, Nazanin; Zavareh, Maryam Beheshti; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-04-01

    The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intakes as means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, only limited data are available on the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors in a community-based population. The aim of this study was to examine whether, and to what extent, intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with CVD risk factors in adults. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 840 Tehranian adults (male and female) aged 18 to 74 years was randomly selected in 1998. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders was used in 2 models. After adjusting for confounders, dietary fruit and vegetable were found to be significantly and inversely associated with CVD risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio for high low-density lipoprotein concentrations were 1.00, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.75 (P for trend < .01) in the first model, which was adjusted for age, sex, keys score, body mass index, energy intake, smoking status, dietary cholesterol, and history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, a trend which was not appreciably altered by additional adjustment for education, physical activity, and saturated, polyunsaturated, and total fat intakes. This association was observed across categories of smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of the Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner.

  14. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism--risk of fractures, psychiatric diseases, cancer, cataract, and infections.

    PubMed

    Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Data on co-morbidity in patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) are sparse. We aimed to assess risk of fractures, spinal stenosis, cataract, neuropsychiatric diseases, cancer, and infections within the historic cohort of patients with postsurgical HypoPT due to non-malignant causes that we previously have characterized. Patients were identified through the Danish National Patient Registry and regional prescription databases, with subsequent validation of their individual hospital records. Identified cases were matched with three age- (± 2 yr) and gender-matched controls from the general background population. Compared with controls, patients did not have an increased risk of cataract (p = 0.52), spinal stenosis (p = 0.59), or any fracture (p = 0.98). However, the risk of fractures at the upper extremities was significantly decreased in patients (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97). Compared with controls, patients had a significantly increased risk of hospitalization due to infections (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.20-1.67) and depression/bipolar affective disorders (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.14-3.46). The risk of malignant diseases did not differ between groups although the risk of gastrointestinal cancers was significantly lower in patients compared with controls (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.93). In conclusion, HypoPT is associated with an increased risk of depression and other types of neuropsychiatric diseases as well as infections, whereas patients seem to be protected against fractures at the upper extremities and gastrointestinal malignancies.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in subjects at high risk for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Pilotto, Andrea; Müller, Katharina; Bormann, Christian; Gauss, Katharina; Wurster, Isabel; Streffer, Johannes; Berg, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aim of this project was to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in subjects proposed to be at high risk to develop Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to control subjects and PD patients at different disease stages. Combinations of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) assessed by transcranial ultrasound (TCS), hyposmia, lifetime prevalence of depression and mild PD-specific motor signs were used to identify subjects at high risk for motor Parkinson's disease (HR-PD). Supine and standing blood pressure (BP), hearth rate (HR), orthostatic, urinary, sexual and bowel symptoms were evaluated in HR-PD, healthy control subjects and PD patients, divided into mild and advanced stages. The study group consisted of 113 PD patients (mild PD n = 71, advanced PD, n = 42), 40 HR-PD individuals and 50 controls. Compared to controls, HR-PD subjects complained more often about urinary (p = 0.002) and bowel dysfunction (p = 0.001) and had a higher diastolic BP drop after standing (p = 0.01). The cumulative number of autonomic symptoms differentiated PD as well as HR-PD significantly from controls (p < 0.001). Advanced PD patients presented often and severe orthostatic symptoms, not significantly different from mild PD after concomitant medication correction. Our results support the presence of urinary and bowel dysfunction in subjects at high risk for motor PD. Presence and severity of orthostatic symptoms was higher during stages and increase in advanced stages, at least partly due to increase in dopaminergic and conflicting medication. Understanding the progression of non-motor aspects in PD might offer the possibility to use them as targets for disease-modifying therapies.

  16. Dietary intake in adults at risk for Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, K; Zhao, H; Eberly, S; Tanner, C M.; Oakes, D; Shoulson, I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine caloric intake, dietary composition, and body mass index (BMI) in participants in the Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS). Methods: Caloric intake and macronutrient composition were measured using the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in 652 participants at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who did not meet clinical criteria for HD. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between macronutrients, BMI, caloric intake, and genetic status (CAG <37 vs CAG ≥37), adjusting for age, gender, and education. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between caloric intake, BMI, and CAG repeat length. Results: A total of 435 participants with CAG <37 and 217 with CAG ≥37 completed the FFQ. Individuals in the CAG ≥37 group had a twofold odds of being represented in the second, third, or fourth quartile of caloric intake compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, gender, education, and BMI. This relationship was attenuated in the highest quartile when additionally adjusted for total motor score. In subjects with CAG ≥37, higher caloric intake, but not BMI, was associated with both higher CAG repeat length (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.26, p = 0.032) and 5-year probability of onset of HD (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.024; p = 0.013). Adjusted analyses showed no differences in macronutrient composition between groups. Conclusions: Increased caloric intake may be necessary to maintain body mass index in clinically unaffected individuals with CAG repeat length ≥37. This may be related to increased energy expenditure due to subtle motor impairment or a hypermetabolic state. GLOSSARY BEE = basal energy expenditure; BMI = body mass index; FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; HD = Huntington disease; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; PHAROS = Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study; TEE = total energy expenditure; UHDRS = Unified

  17. Ambient Air Pollution Exposures and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Young, Michael T.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Kaufman, Joel D.; Chen, Honglei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Objective: We investigated the associations of long-term residential concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) < 10 μm in diameter (PM10) and < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in relation to PD risk. Methods: Our nested case–control analysis included 1,556 self-reported physician-diagnosed PD cases identified between 1995 and 2006 and 3,313 controls frequency-matched on age, sex, and race. We geocoded home addresses reported in 1995–1996 and estimated the average ambient concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 using a national fine-scale geostatistical model incorporating roadway information and other geographic covariates. Air pollutant exposures were analyzed as both quintiles and continuous variables, adjusting for matching variables and potential confounders. Results: We observed no statistically significant overall association between PM or NO2 exposures and PD risk. However, in preplanned subgroup analyses, a higher risk of PD was associated with higher exposure to PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45; p-trend = 0.02) among women, and with higher exposure to PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.76; p-trend = 0.04) among never smokers. In post hoc analyses among female never smokers, both PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.17; p-trend = 0.05) and PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.29, 4.26; p-trend = 0.01) showed positive associations with PD risk. Analyses based on continuous exposure variables generally showed similar but nonsignificant associations. Conclusions: Overall, we found limited evidence for an association between exposures to ambient PM10, PM2.5, or NO2 and PD risk. The suggestive evidence that exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 may increase PD risk among female never smokers warrants further investigation. Citation: Liu R, Young MT, Chen JC, Kaufman JD, Chen H. 2016. Ambient

  18. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding of the differences between immunisers' and non-immunisers' health beliefs and behaviours. Methods In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted. Results We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health. Conclusion This study has found that health messages about the risks of disease

  19. Delayed diagnosis of coeliac disease increases cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Silano, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Mecchia, Anna Maria; Dessì, Mariarita; Di Benedetto, Rita; De Vincenzi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The association between coeliac disease (CD) and neoplasms has been long established, but few data are available about the risk factors. The aim of this paper is to estimate the risk of developing a neoplasm among non diagnosed coeliac patients and to evaluate if this risk correlates with the age of patients at diagnosis of coeliac disease. Methods The study population consists of patients (n = 1968) diagnosed with CD at 20 Italian gastroenterology referral Centers between 1st January 1982 and 31st March 2005. Results The SIR for all cancers resulted to be 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.7 p < 0.001. The specific SIRs for non Hodgkin lymphoma was 4.7; 95% CI = 2.9–7.3 p < 0.001, for the small bowel carcinoma 25; 95% CI = 8.5–51.4 p < 0.001, for non Hodgkin lymphoma 10; 95% CI = 2.7–25 p = 0.01, finally for the stomach carcinoma 3; 95% CI = 1.3–4.9 p < 0.08. The mean age at diagnosis of CD of patients that developed sooner or later a neoplasm was 47,6 ± 10.2 years versus 28.6 ± 18.2 years of patients who did not. Conclusion Coeliac patients have an increased risk of developing cancer in relation to the age of diagnosis of CD. This risk results higher for malignancies of the gastro-intestinal sites. An accurate screening for tumors should be performed in patients diagnosed with CD in adulthood and in advancing age. PMID:17349035

  20. Ecological risk assessment of boreal sediments affected by metal mining: Metal geochemistry, seasonality, and comparison of several risk assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Kristiina; Kauppila, Tommi; Mäkinen, Jari; Leppänen, Matti T; Lyytikäinen, Merja; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-10-01

    The mining industry is a common source of environmental metal emissions, which cause long-lasting effects in aquatic ecosystems. Metal risk assessment is challenging due to variations in metal distribution, speciation, and bioavailability. Therefore, seasonal effects must be better understood, especially in boreal regions in which seasonal changes are large. We sampled 4 Finnish lakes and sediments affected by mining for metals and geochemical characteristics in autumn and late winter, to evaluate seasonal changes in metal behavior, the importance of seasonality in risk assessment, and the sensitivity and suitability of different risk assessment methods. We compared metal concentrations in sediment, overlying water, and porewater against environmental quality guidelines (EQGs). We also evaluated the toxicity of metal mixtures using simultaneously extracted metals and an acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS) approach together with water quality criteria (US Environmental Protection Agency equilibrium partitioning benchmarks). Finally, site-specific risks for 3 metals (Cu, Ni, Zn) were assessed using 2 biotic ligand models (BLMs). The metal concentrations in the impacted lakes were elevated. During winter stratification, the hypolimnetic O2 saturation levels were low (<6%) and the pH was acidic (3.5-6.5); however, abundant O2 (>89%) and neutral pH (6.1-7.5) were found after the autumnal water overturn. Guidelines were the most conservative benchmark for showing an increased risk of toxicity in the all of the lakes. The situation remained stable between seasons. On the other hand, SEM-AVS, equilibrium partition sediment benchmarks (ESBs), and BLMs provided a clearer distinction between lakes and revealed a seasonal variation in risk among some of the lakes, which evidenced a higher risk during late winter. If a sediment risk assessment is based on the situation in the autumn, the overall risk may be underestimated. It is advisable to carry out sampling and risk assessment

  1. Preeclampsia and Vascular Function: A Window to Future Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Enkhmaa, Davaasambuu; Wall, Danielle; Mehta, Puja K; Stuart, Jennifer J; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Shufelt, Chrisandra

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia affects ∼3%-7% of all pregnancies and is the third leading cause of maternal mortality globally. Growing evidence indicates that preeclampsia results from vascular dysfunction, which also increases the risk for future cardiovascular events. Until recently, preeclampsia was considered a disorder limited to pregnancy, which fully resolved with the delivery of the placenta; however, it is now clear that women with a history of preeclampsia have approximately double the risk of future cardiovascular events compared to women with normotensive pregnancies. The aims of this review were to describe the hemodynamic and vascular changes that occur in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies, to review noninvasive methods to test vascular function, and to discuss the associated increased cardiovascular disease risk related to preeclampsia. PMID:26779584

  2. Does Predation Risk Affect Mating Behavior? An Experimental Test in Dumpling Squid (Euprymna tasmanica)

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Amanda M.; Squires, Zoe E.; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One of the most important trade-offs for many animals is that between survival and reproduction. This is particularly apparent when mating increases the risk of predation, either by increasing conspicuousness, reducing mobility or inhibiting an individual's ability to detect predators. Individuals may mitigate the risk of predation by altering their reproductive behavior (e.g. increasing anti-predator responses to reduce conspicuousness). The degree to which individuals modulate their reproductive behavior in relation to predation risk is difficult to predict because both the optimal investment in current and future reproduction (due to life-history strategies) and level of predation risk may differ between the sexes and among species. Here, we investigate the effect of increased predation risk on the reproductive behavior of dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica). Results Females, but not males, showed a substantial increase in the number of inks (an anti-predator behavior) before mating commenced in the presence of a predator (sand flathead Platycephalus bassensis). However, predation risk did not affect copulation duration, the likelihood of mating, female anti-predator behavior during or after mating or male anti-predator behavior at any time. Conclusions Inking is a common anti-predator defense in cephalopods, thought to act like a smokescreen, decoy or distraction. Female dumpling squid are probably using this form of defense in response to the increase in predation risk prior to mating. Conversely, males were undeterred by the increase in predation risk. A lack of change in these variables may occur if the benefit of completing mating outweighs the risk of predation. Prioritizing current reproduction, even under predation risk, can occur when the chance of future reproduction is low, there is substantial energetic investment into mating, or the potential fitness payoffs of mating are high. PMID:25551378

  3. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence.

  4. Intervening on risk factors for coronary heart disease: an application of the parametric g-formula.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Sarah L; Robins, James M; Mittleman, Murray A; Hernán, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    Estimating the population risk of disease under hypothetical interventions--such as the population risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) were everyone to quit smoking and start exercising or to start exercising if diagnosed with diabetes--may not be possible using standard analytic techniques. The parametric g-formula, which appropriately adjusts for time-varying confounders affected by prior exposures, is especially well suited to estimating effects when the intervention involves multiple factors (joint interventions) or when the intervention involves decisions that depend on the value of evolving time-dependent factors (dynamic interventions). We describe the parametric g-formula, and use it to estimate the effect of various hypothetical lifestyle interventions on the risk of CHD using data from the Nurses' Health Study. Over the period 1982-2002, the 20-year risk of CHD in this cohort was 3.50%. Under a joint intervention of no smoking, increased exercise, improved diet, moderate alcohol consumption and reduced body mass index, the estimated risk was 1.89% (95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.41). We discuss whether the assumptions required for the validity of the parametric g-formula hold in the Nurses' Health Study data. This work represents the first large-scale application of the parametric g-formula in an epidemiologic cohort study.

  5. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-10-09

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Perception and Knowledge: A Comparison of Hispanic and White College Students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.

    2007-01-01

    There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,…

  7. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    PubMed

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence. PMID:26294048

  8. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations

    PubMed Central

    Roznik, Elizabeth A.; Sapsford, Sarah J.; Pike, David A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11–28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence. PMID:26294048

  9. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    PubMed

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  10. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Saleh, Christian; Fontaine, Denys

    2015-05-01

    Despite the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as an efficient treatment modality for psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), and treatment refractory major depression (TRD), few patients are operated or included in clinical trials, often for fear of the potential risks of an approach deemed too dangerous. To assess the surgical risks, we conducted an analysis of publications on DBS for psychiatric disorders. A PubMed search was conducted on reports on DBS for OCD, GTS, and TRD. Forty-nine articles were included. Only reports on complications related to DBS were selected and analyzed. Two hundred seventy-two patients with a mean follow-up of 22 months were included in our analysis. Surgical mortality was nil. The overall mortality was 1.1 %: two suicides were unrelated to DBS and one death was reported to be unlikely due to DBS. The majority of complications were transient and related to stimulation. Long-term morbidity occurred in 16.5 % of cases. Three patients had permanent neurological complications due to intracerebral hemorrhage (2.2 %). Complications reported in DBS for psychiatric diseases appear to be similar to those reported for DBS in movement disorders. But class I evidence is lacking. Our analysis was based mainly on small non-randomized studies. A significant number of patients (approximately 150 patients) who were treated with DBS for psychiatric diseases had to be excluded from our analysis as no data on complications was available. The exact prevalence of complications of DBS in psychiatric diseases could not be established. DBS for psychiatric diseases is promising, but remains an experimental technique in need of further evaluation. A close surveillance of patients undergoing DBS for psychiatric diseases is mandatory. PMID:25795265

  11. PARKINSON'S DISEASE PATIENTS WITH DOMINANT HEMIBODY AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE RELY MORE ON VISION TO MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.

  12. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  13. Immunosuppressive agents and interstitial lung disease: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is unlikely to respond to immunosuppressive therapies, and patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be harmed by such therapy. In contrast, some forms of interstitial lung disease can respond well to treatment with immunosuppressive drug therapies. Such agents can, however, be associated with significant risk of adverse effects such as infection, diabetes, osteoporosis, myopathy, bone marrow suppression, hepatitis, urinary tract injury, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Treating clinicians must be aware of potential adverse reactions to any immunosuppressive drug that they prescribe for their patients, and they should implement appropriate pre-therapy screening (e.g., tuberculosis, hepatitis, renal insufficiency) and monitoring that is recommended to avoid/minimize risk during the treatment period. Some disorders (e.g., cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, or sarcoidosis) may respond very well to immunosuppressive therapies including corticosteroids as monotherapy, and the use of steroid-sparing agents can minimize corticosteroid side effects and may enhance treatment efficacy for disorders such as sarcoidosis or connective tissue disease-associated forms of interstitial lung disease.

  14. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Anssi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Jokela, Jukka; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2010-11-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of infection and more widespread epidemics. However, to date, general understanding of these relationships is limited due to scarcity of long-term empirical data. Here, we present one of the first long-term multi-pathogen data sets on the occurrence of pathogenic bacterial and parasitic infections in relation to increasing temperatures in aquatic systems. We analyse a time-series of disease dynamics on two fish farms in northern Finland from 1986 to 2006. We first demonstrate that the annual mean water temperature increased significantly on both farms over the study period and that the increase was most pronounced in the late summer (July-September). Second, we show that the prevalence of infection (i.e. proportion of fish tanks infected each year) increased with temperature. Interestingly, this pattern was observed in some of the diseases (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Flavobacterium columnare), whereas in the other diseases, the pattern was the opposite (Ichthyobodo necator) or absent (Chilodonella spp.). These results demonstrate the effect of increasing water temperature on aquatic disease dynamics, but also emphasise the importance of the biology of each disease, as well as the role of local conditions, in determining the direction and magnitude of these effects.

  15. Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons accounts for the motivational and affective deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Drui, G; Carnicella, S; Carcenac, C; Favier, M; Bertrand, A; Boulet, S; Savasta, M

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) that is thought to cause the classical motor symptoms of this disease. However, motivational and affective impairments are also often observed in PD patients. These are usually attributed to a psychological reaction to the general motor impairment and to a loss of some of the neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We induced selective lesions of the VTA and SNc DA neurons that did not provoke motor deficits, and showed that bilateral dopamine loss within the SNc, but not within the VTA, induces motivational deficits and affective impairments that mimicked the symptoms of PD patients. Thus, motivational and affective deficits are a core impairment of PD, as they stem from the loss of the major group of neurons that degenerates in this disease (DA SNc neurons) and are independent of motor deficits.

  16. Kennedy Space Center Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

    2008-01-01

    This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors.

  17. Gender differences in cardiovascular diseases risk for physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Duraković, Zijad; Ruzić, Lana; Findak, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of habitual physical activity in Croatian physical education (PE) teachers, as well as the existence of some other risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The sample consisted of 191 PE teachers aged 24 to 59 years (122 men, mean age 42.6+/-8.76 and 69 women, mean age 40.3+/-8.84;p=0.09). In order to assess the level of habitual physical activity, the teachers were asked to fill in Baecke's questionnaire. The questionnaire comprises 16 items testing physical loads at work, during sport activity and during leisure time. The questionnaire also contains 8 items, each of them representing a certain cardiovascular risk factor. In comparison to average adult employed population, PE teachers have a significantly higher level of sport and leisure time activity, which could have a favorable impact on the incidence of particular risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, systolic hypertension and blood cholesterol level. This is more obvious in females PE teachers who pay more attention to the principles of healthy life style: optimal body weight regulation, low fat diet and higher amount of leisure time physical activity (significantly higher than in male teachers). Female PE teachers who have maintained their active life style decrease the risk of CVD, particularly after the age of 55. Although it is necessary to keep in mind all the limitations of a questionnaire study, this preliminary report leads to the conclusion that male PE teachers, although physically active at job, have still kept sedentary habits, often have maintained heavy smoking habits, are slightly overweight, thus minimizing the positive effects of their demanding workplace. Consequently, average male PE teachers' risk for CVD development corresponds to the risk of general male population.

  18. Kennedy Space Center Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

    2008-01-01

    This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors. PMID:18561517

  19. Kennedy Space Center Coronary Heart Disease Risk Screening Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.; Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    The number one cause of death in the U.S. is coronary heart disease (CHD). It is probably a major cause of death and disability in the lives of employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as well. The KSC Biomedical Office used a multifactorial mathematical formula from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate CHD risk probabilities for individuals in a segment of the KSC population that required medical evaluation for job certification. Those assessed to be high-risk probabilities will be targeted for intervention. Every year, several thousand KSC employees require medical evaluations for job related certifications. Most medical information for these evaluations is gathered on-site at one of the KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) medical clinics. The formula used in the Framingham Heart Study allows calculation of a person's probability of acquiring CHD within 10 years. The formula contains the following variables: Age, Diabetes, Smoking, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Blood Pressure (Systolic or Diastolic), Cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The formula is also gender specific. It was used to calculate the 10-year probabilities of CHD in KSC employees who required medical evaluations for job certifications during a one-year time frame. This KSC population was profiled and CHD risk reduction interventions could be targeted to those at high risk. Population risk could also be periodically reevaluated to determine the effectiveness of intervention. A 10-year CHD risk probability can be calculated for an individual quite easily while gathering routine medical information. An employee population's CHD risk probability can be profiled graphically revealing high risk segments of the population which can be targeted for risk reduction intervention. The small audience of NASA/contractor physicians, nurses and exercise/fitness professionals at the breakout session received the lecture very well. Approximately one third indicated by a show of hands that they would be

  20. Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Lauren D.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56% female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:25870113

  1. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Josh; Farmer, John

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and clinical trials have demonstrated that successful reduction of elevated blood pressure to target levels translates into decreased risk for the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The arterial system had previously been regarded as a passive conduit for the transportation of arterial blood to peripheral tissues. The physiologic role the arterial system was greatly expanded by the recognition of the central role of the endothelial function in a variety of physiologic processes. The role of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology was expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes, and have been classified as an emerging risk factor that provides prognostic information beyond standard stratification strategies involving hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Multiple epidemiologic studies have correlated markers of arterial stiffness such as pulse-wave velocity, augmentation index and pulse pressure with risk for the development of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Additionally, measurements of arterial stiffness had clarified the results of clinical trials that demonstrated differing impacts on clinical outcomes, despite similar reductions in blood pressure, as measured by brachial and sphygmomanometry.

  2. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  3. Does a vegan diet reduce risk for Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-09-01

    Three recent case-control studies conclude that diets high in animal fat or cholesterol are associated with a substantial increase in risk for Parkinson's disease (PD); in contrast, fat of plant origin does not appear to increase risk. Whereas reported age-adjusted prevalence rates of PD tend to be relatively uniform throughout Europe and the Americas, sub-Saharan black Africans, rural Chinese, and Japanese, groups whose diets tend to be vegan or quasi-vegan, appear to enjoy substantially lower rates. Since current PD prevalence in African-Americans is little different from that in whites, environmental factors are likely to be responsible for the low PD risk in black Africans. In aggregate, these findings suggest that vegan diets may be notably protective with respect to PD. However, they offer no insight into whether saturated fat, compounds associated with animal fat, animal protein, or the integrated impact of the components of animal products mediates the risk associated with animal fat consumption. Caloric restriction has recently been shown to protect the central dopaminergic neurons of mice from neurotoxins, at least in part by induction of heat-shock proteins; conceivably, the protection afforded by vegan diets reflects a similar mechanism. The possibility that vegan diets could be therapeutically beneficial in PD, by slowing the loss of surviving dopaminergic neurons, thus retarding progression of the syndrome, may merit examination. Vegan diets could also be helpful to PD patients by promoting vascular health and aiding blood-brain barrier transport of L-dopa. PMID:11516224

  4. [Is hypertriglyceridaemia a risk factor for coronary heart disease?].

    PubMed

    Reiner, Zeljko; Muacević-Katanec, Diana; Katanec, Davor; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Although it is still not clear whether elevated serum triglycerides are directly atherogenic or not, the results of many studies indicate that they are undoubtedly an important risk factor/biomarker for coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, targeting hypertriglyceridaemia should be beneficial for subjects at high risk for CHD. Elevated triglycerides are often accompanied with low HDL cholesterol, particularly in high risk patients with diabetes type 2 and/or metabolic syndrome. Such a disturbance is called atherogenic dyslipidaemia and has an increasing prevalence. The treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia has to be focused primarily on intensive lifestyle changes (weight reduction in obesity, reduction of alcohol consumption as well as reduction of added sugars, fructose and trans-fatty acids, regular aerobic physical activity) by which reduction of up to 50% in triglycerides can be achieved. Subjects with high CHD risk who cannot lower hypertriglyceridaemia by lifestyle measures should be treated with pharmacological therapy. The available medications include fibrates, niacin and prescription omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. If LDL cholesterol is elevated too, combination therapy is needed. Based upon recent studies in such patients a combination of a statin with fenofibrate and/or omega-3 fatty acids can be recommended.

  5. Smoking, death, and Alzheimer disease: a case of competing risks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Chou H; Zhao, Yongyun; Lee, Ching-Wen; Ganguli, Mary

    2012-01-01

    If smoking is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) but a smoker dies of another cause before developing or manifesting AD, smoking-related mortality may mask the relationship between smoking and AD. This phenomenon, referred to as competing risk, complicates efforts to model the effect of smoking on AD. Typical survival regression models assume that censorship from analysis is unrelated to an individual's probability for developing AD (ie, censoring is noninformative). However, if individuals who die before developing AD are younger than those who survive long enough to develop AD, and if they include a higher percentage of smokers than nonsmokers, the incidence of AD will appear to be higher in older individuals and in nonsmokers. Further, age-specific mortality rates are higher in smokers because they die earlier than nonsmokers. Therefore, if we fail to take into account the competing risk of death when we estimate the effect of smoking on AD, we bias the results and are in fact only comparing the incidence of AD in nonsmokers with that in the healthiest smokers. In this study, we demonstrate that the effect of smoking on AD differs in models that are and are not adjusted for competing risks.

  6. Genetic determinants of quantitative traits associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Smolková, Božena; Bonassi, Stefano; Buociková, Verona; Dušinská, Mária; Horská, Alexandra; Kuba, Daniel; Džupinková, Zuzana; Rašlová, Katarína; Gašparovič, Juraj; Slíž, Ivan; Ceppi, Marcello; Vohnout, Branislav; Wsólová, Ladislava; Volkovová, Katarína

    2015-08-01

    Established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may be moderated by genetic variants. In 2403 unrelated individuals from general practice (mean age 40.5 years), we evaluated the influence of 15 variants in 12 candidate genes on quantitative traits (QT) associated with CVD (body mass index, abdominal obesity, glucose, serum lipids, and blood pressure). Prior to multiple testing correction, univariate analysis associated APOE rs429358, rs7412 and ATG16L1 rs2241880 variants with serum lipid levels, while LEPR rs1137100 and ATG16L1 rs2241880 variants were linked to obesity related QTs. After taking into account confounding factors and correcting for multiple comparisons only APOE rs429358 and rs7412 variants remained significantly associated with risk of dyslipidemia. APOE rs429358 variant almost tripled the risk in homozygous subjects (OR = 2.97; 95% CI 1.09-8.10, p < 0.03) and had a lesser but still highly significant association also in heterozygous individuals (OR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.24-2.10; p < 0.001). Associations with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome were not significant after Bonferroni correction. The influence of genetic variation is more evident in dyslipidemia than in other analyzed QTs. These results may contribute to strategic research aimed at including genetic variation in the set of data required to identify subjects at high risk of CVD. PMID:26043189

  7. Depression risk in patients with coronary heart disease in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Marcel; Jacob, Louis; Rapp, Michael A; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of depression and its risk factors among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) treated in German primary care practices. METHODS Longitudinal data from nationwide general practices in Germany (n = 1072) were analyzed. Individuals initially diagnosed with CHD (2009-2013) were identified, and 59992 patients were included and matched (1:1) to 59992 controls. The primary outcome measure was an initial diagnosis of depression within five years after the index date among patients with and without CHD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for confounders. RESULTS Mean age was equal to 68.0 years (SD = 11.3). A total of 55.9% of patients were men. After a five-year follow-up, 21.8% of the CHD group and 14.2% of the control group were diagnosed with depression (P < 0.001). In the multivariate regression model, CHD was a strong risk factor for developing depression (HR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.49-1.59, P < 0.001). Prior depressive episodes, dementia, and eight other chronic conditions were associated with a higher risk of developing depression. Interestingly, older patients and women were also more likely to be diagnosed with depression compared with younger patients and men, respectively. CONCLUSION The risk of depression is significantly increased among patients with CHD compared with patients without CHD treated in primary care practices in Germany. CHD patients should be routinely screened for depression to ensure improved treatment and management. PMID:27721937

  8. Smoking, death, and Alzheimer disease: a case of competing risks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Chou H; Zhao, Yongyun; Lee, Ching-Wen; Ganguli, Mary

    2012-01-01

    If smoking is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) but a smoker dies of another cause before developing or manifesting AD, smoking-related mortality may mask the relationship between smoking and AD. This phenomenon, referred to as competing risk, complicates efforts to model the effect of smoking on AD. Typical survival regression models assume that censorship from analysis is unrelated to an individual's probability for developing AD (ie, censoring is noninformative). However, if individuals who die before developing AD are younger than those who survive long enough to develop AD, and if they include a higher percentage of smokers than nonsmokers, the incidence of AD will appear to be higher in older individuals and in nonsmokers. Further, age-specific mortality rates are higher in smokers because they die earlier than nonsmokers. Therefore, if we fail to take into account the competing risk of death when we estimate the effect of smoking on AD, we bias the results and are in fact only comparing the incidence of AD in nonsmokers with that in the healthiest smokers. In this study, we demonstrate that the effect of smoking on AD differs in models that are and are not adjusted for competing risks. PMID:22185783

  9. Can stress increase Alzheimer's disease risk in women?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lena

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptides and neurofibrilllary tangles in brain, resulting in neuronal death and loss of cognitive abilities. It has been hypothesized that longstanding psychological stress can result in neural degeneration and AD due to pathological alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In recent years several epidemiological studies been published on stress as a risk factor for AD. As women are more likely to suffer from stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and clinical burnout syndrome, special effort has been made according to the gender differences in risk of AD. However, few studies have stratified for gender, due to small sample sizes and limited statistic power, and no reliable findings have been found. Additional longitudinal studies are therefore needed for studying gender differences and for determining what mediates the stress and AD association, in both genders.

  10. Creating a genetic risk score for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Sonny; Roberts, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its sequelae represent a significant health burden. Over the past two decades, numerous studies have attempted to link DNA sequence variation with the risk of CAD and related phenotypes. There has been significant evolution in technology from the early linkage studies within kindreds, and now we are able to use high-density genotyping to facilitate large-scale genome-wide association studies. The first novel genetic risk factor for CAD, 9p21.3, has been confirmed, and other loci are awaiting replication studies. The relative importance of each locus from a global standpoint and the incremental information conferred by testing for genetic variants remain to be determined. PMID:19361348

  11. Risk associated with heparin withdrawal in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Slivka, A; Levy, D E; Lapinski, R H

    1989-01-01

    Intravenous heparin is frequently used to treat thromboembolic disease, but the consequences of stopping heparin have not been studied systematically. To determine whether discontinuing heparin poses a clinical risk, we examined the charts of 378 patients treated with heparin for transient ischaemic attack (TIA), reversible ischaemic neurological deficit, or ischaemic stroke from October 1979 to June 1985. Clinical deterioration, or a new TIA or stroke was more likely (p = 0.01) during the 24 hours after heparin was stopped in patients not already on aspirin or warfarin (10/143, 7%) than in patients receiving aspirin or warfarin before heparin withdrawal (3/215, 1%). Stopping heparin in patients not receiving aspirin or warfarin appears to expose them to an increased risk for TIA, stroke, or clinical deterioration. PMID:2614427

  12. Role of childhood food patterns on adult cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Jari E; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that childhood nutrition plays a role in the adulthood cardiovascular health. A lifelong tracking of dietary habits, following a long-term exposure to unhealthy dietary patterns or independent effects, is a potential effect-mediating mechanism. Dietary patterns have been studied by data-driven and hypothesis-based approaches. Typically, either data-driven healthy or prudent childhood dietary patterns have been characterized and found to be associated with lower adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the published cohort studies. With regard to the individual food groups or food quality indices, intakes particularly of vegetables and fruits (or fiber indicating plant food intake) and polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown protective effects. The evidence which could confirm the long-term healthiness of a hypothesis-based Mediterranean diet is limited, requiring further investigation. Overall, the recent literature strengthens the view that a healthy childhood diet is associated with lowered adulthood CVD risk.

  13. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that

  14. Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Viktoria; Keil, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Malzahn, Uwe; Prugger, Christof; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of absolute risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably with population-specific risk charts, has become a cornerstone of CVD primary prevention. Regular recalibration of risk charts may be necessary due to decreasing CVD rates and CVD risk factor levels. The SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment were first calibrated for Germany with 1998 risk factor level data and 1999 mortality statistics. We present an update of these risk charts based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012. Competing risks methods were applied and estimates were independently validated. Updated risk charts were calculated based on cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure risk factor levels, sex and 5-year age-groups. The absolute 10-year risk estimates of fatal CVD were lower according to the updated risk charts compared to the first calibration for Germany. In a nationwide sample of 3062 adults aged 40–65 years free of major CVD from DEGS1, the mean 10-year risk of fatal CVD estimated by the updated charts was lower by 29% and the estimated proportion of high risk people (10-year risk > = 5%) by 50% compared to the older risk charts. This recalibration shows a need for regular updates of risk charts according to changes in mortality and risk factor levels in order to sustain the identification of people with a high CVD risk. PMID:27612145

  15. Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Viktoria; Keil, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Malzahn, Uwe; Prugger, Christof; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of absolute risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably with population-specific risk charts, has become a cornerstone of CVD primary prevention. Regular recalibration of risk charts may be necessary due to decreasing CVD rates and CVD risk factor levels. The SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment were first calibrated for Germany with 1998 risk factor level data and 1999 mortality statistics. We present an update of these risk charts based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012. Competing risks methods were applied and estimates were independently validated. Updated risk charts were calculated based on cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure risk factor levels, sex and 5-year age-groups. The absolute 10-year risk estimates of fatal CVD were lower according to the updated risk charts compared to the first calibration for Germany. In a nationwide sample of 3062 adults aged 40-65 years free of major CVD from DEGS1, the mean 10-year risk of fatal CVD estimated by the updated charts was lower by 29% and the estimated proportion of high risk people (10-year risk > = 5%) by 50% compared to the older risk charts. This recalibration shows a need for regular updates of risk charts according to changes in mortality and risk factor levels in order to sustain the identification of people with a high CVD risk. PMID:27612145

  16. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles comparison among dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sharabas, Islam; Siddiqi, Nauman

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the prevalent peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients and their association with cardiovascular events (CVEs) in a Saudi end-stage renal disease cohort. This was a prospective, observational, single-center study. A total of 192 patients were screened of which 157 patients were eligible (HD = 121, PD = 36). All patients underwent assessment of cardiovascular risk factors at the time of enrollment including electrocardiogram and echocardiography, lipid profile, homocysteine, and insulin levels. Patients were followed for one year and CVE [acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and congestive heart failure] and mortality were recorded. SPSS ® Version 16 was used for the analysis. T-test and ANOVA were used for continuous data; categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The primary end-point of CVE and all-cause mortality was compared in the two groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. HD patients were older and had been longer on dialysis. While PD patients had higher urine output and better Kt/V values, they were more edematous and using more antihypertensive medications. PD patients also had a lower ejection fraction (EF). Age >57 years and the use of more than one antihypertensive medication were associated with higher risk of CVE, while EF >53 was found to be protective. Age >57 years and EF <53 at enrollment were predictive of all-cause mortality. Saudi patients undergoing PD have worse CVD risk profiles compared to HD patients. Age less than 57 years and an EF >53 were cardioprotective.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles comparison among dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sharabas, Islam; Siddiqi, Nauman

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the prevalent peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients and their association with cardiovascular events (CVEs) in a Saudi end-stage renal disease cohort. This was a prospective, observational, single-center study. A total of 192 patients were screened of which 157 patients were eligible (HD = 121, PD = 36). All patients underwent assessment of cardiovascular risk factors at the time of enrollment including electrocardiogram and echocardiography, lipid profile, homocysteine, and insulin levels. Patients were followed for one year and CVE [acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and congestive heart failure] and mortality were recorded. SPSS ® Version 16 was used for the analysis. T-test and ANOVA were used for continuous data; categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The primary end-point of CVE and all-cause mortality was compared in the two groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. HD patients were older and had been longer on dialysis. While PD patients had higher urine output and better Kt/V values, they were more edematous and using more antihypertensive medications. PD patients also had a lower ejection fraction (EF). Age >57 years and the use of more than one antihypertensive medication were associated with higher risk of CVE, while EF >53 was found to be protective. Age >57 years and EF <53 at enrollment were predictive of all-cause mortality. Saudi patients undergoing PD have worse CVD risk profiles compared to HD patients. Age less than 57 years and an EF >53 were cardioprotective. PMID:27424685

  18. An Update on the Utility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Umapathi, Priya; Graham, Garth; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is necessary for determining the potential net benefit of primary prevention pharmacotherapy. Risk estimation relying exclusively on traditional CVD risk factors may misclassify risk, resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring personalizes risk prediction through direct visualization of calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques and provides improved accuracy for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CVD risk estimation. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies on CAC, which unlike historical studies, focus sharply on clinical application. We describe the MESA CHD risk calculator, a recently developed CAC-based 10-year CHD risk estimator, which can help guide preventive therapy allocation by better identifying both high- and low-risk individuals. In closing, we discuss calcium density, regional distribution of CAC, and extra-coronary calcification, which represent the future of CAC and CVD risk assessment research and may lead to further improvements in risk prediction.

  19. Low Testosterone Level and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease in the Elderly Men: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenshan; Du, Na; Liu, Ying; Fan, Xinyi; Wang, Yunyang; Jia, Xiujuan; Hou, Xu; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Sex steroids can positively affect the brain function, and low levels of sex steroids may be associated with worse cognitive function in the elderly men. However, previous studies reported contrary findings on the relationship between testosterone level and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly men. The objective of this study was to comprehensively assess the relationship between low testosterone level and Alzheimer's disease risk in the elderly men using a meta-analysis. Only prospective cohort studies assessing the influence of low testosterone level on Alzheimer's disease risk in elderly men were considered eligible. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled to assess the risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly men with low testosterone level. Seven prospective cohort studies with a total of 5251 elderly men and 240 cases of Alzheimer's disease were included into the meta-analysis. There was moderate degree of heterogeneity among those included studies (I(2) = 47.2%). Meta-analysis using random effect model showed that low plasma testosterone level was significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly men (random RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96, P = 0.006). Sensitivity analysis by omitting one study by turns showed that there was no obvious change in the pooled risk estimates, and all pooled RRs were statistically significant. This meta-analysis supports that low plasma testosterone level is significantly associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly men. Low testosterone level is a risk factor of worse cognitive function in the elderly men.

  20. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  1. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  2. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  3. Dietary Carbohydrates and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Nicola M.; Meigs, James B.; Liu, Simin; Rogers, Gail; Yoshida, Makiko; Saltzman, Edward; Jacques, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations between total carbohydrate and dietary glycemic index (GI) intakes and several cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD) in a sample of 2,941 Framingham Offspring Participants. CVD risk factors included waist, blood pressure, lipids, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120). Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized by quintiles of dietary intake. Results After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary GI was positively associated with fasting triglycerides (mean: 115mg/dL in the lowest and 127 mg/dL in the highest quintile of intake; P for trend < 0.001), fasting insulin (26.8 and 28.9 μu/mL, respectively, P for trend < 0.0001), and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (49 and 47 mg/dL, respectively, P for trend 0.003) and ISI0,120 (26.8 and 25.1, P for trend < 0.001). There was no significant relationship between dietary GI and waist circumference, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and fasting glucose. Intakes of total carbohydrate were inversely associated with waist circumference and HDL cholesterol, and positively associated with fasting triglycerides. Conclusion These cross-sectional findings support the hypothesis that a high GI diet unfavorably affects CVD risk factors and therefore, substitution of high with low GI dietary carbohydrates may have reduce the risk of CVD. PMID:19828900

  4. Risk perception of the "mad cow disease" in France: determinants and consequences.

    PubMed

    Setbon, Michel; Raude, Jocelyn; Fischler, Claude; Flahault, Antoine

    2005-08-01

    Since 1996, when bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was assessed as a possible human transmissible disease, a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), French people have entered into a long period of fear and avoidance of beef and bovine byproducts, which produced an unprecedented collapse in the beef market. This article deals with the perceived risk of the "mad cow disease" (MCD) in the French general population. Two surveys were conducted on a representative sample of the adult population, the first one in 2000 during the peak of the crisis and the second one 13 months later in a quieter period. The main assumption we made was that changes in beef consumption are strongly related to the perceived risk of MCD, which we defined as people's cognitive and affective responses to hazard. Our objective was to identify the determinants and consequences of this perceived risk and to compare them in different sociopolitical contexts. The results issued from a bivariate and multivariate analysis show that: (i) the distribution of most of the variables significantly related to the perceived risk identified in the first survey had changed in the second survey, in relation with the reduction of worry and the resumption of national beef consumption; (ii) the propensity for self-protection through avoiding or ceasing beef eating was more related to feelings of worry than to subjective vCJD risk assessments; and (iii) the main determinant of less avoidance to beef products was the preference for beef, a feeling identified prior to emergence of the risk of MCD, remaining unchanged in various contexts. PMID:16268931

  5. Risk perception of the "mad cow disease" in France: determinants and consequences.

    PubMed

    Setbon, Michel; Raude, Jocelyn; Fischler, Claude; Flahault, Antoine

    2005-08-01

    Since 1996, when bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was assessed as a possible human transmissible disease, a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), French people have entered into a long period of fear and avoidance of beef and bovine byproducts, which produced an unprecedented collapse in the beef market. This article deals with the perceived risk of the "mad cow disease" (MCD) in the French general population. Two surveys were conducted on a representative sample of the adult population, the first one in 2000 during the peak of the crisis and the second one 13 months later in a quieter period. The main assumption we made was that changes in beef consumption are strongly related to the perceived risk of MCD, which we defined as people's cognitive and affective responses to hazard. Our objective was to identify the determinants and consequences of this perceived risk and to compare them in different sociopolitical contexts. The results issued from a bivariate and multivariate analysis show that: (i) the distribution of most of the variables significantly related to the perceived risk identified in the first survey had changed in the second survey, in relation with the reduction of worry and the resumption of national beef consumption; (ii) the propensity for self-protection through avoiding or ceasing beef eating was more related to feelings of worry than to subjective vCJD risk assessments; and (iii) the main determinant of less avoidance to beef products was the preference for beef, a feeling identified prior to emergence of the risk of MCD, remaining unchanged in various contexts.

  6. Haematuria as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression in glomerular diseases: A review.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Antonio; Yuste, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Sevillano, Ángel M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Haematuria has long been considered to be a benign condition associated with glomerular diseases. However, new evidences suggest that haematuria has a pathogenic role in promoting kidney disease progression. An increased risk for end-stage renal disease has been reported in adolescents and young adults with persistent microscopic haematuria. A persistent impairment of renal function has been also reported following macroscopic haematuria-associated acute kidney injury in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Haematuria-induced renal damage has been related to oxidant, cytotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by haemoglobin or haem released from red blood cells. The pathophysiological origin of haematuria may be due to a more fragile and easily ruptured glomerular filtration barrier, as reported in several glomerular diseases. In this review we describe a number of the key issues associated with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuria-associated diseases, provide an update of recent knowledge on the role of haematuria on renal function outcome and discuss specific therapeutic approaches in this setting. KEY SUMMARY POINTS: 1. Glomerular haematuria is a common observation in a number of renal diseases that may lead to persistent renal injury. 2. Haematuria in children differs from that in adults in specific aspects, particularly in the frequency of glomerular diseases and renal disease outcome. 3. Regular follow-up of renal function in children with isolated microhaematuria may be recommended. PMID:25980470

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Bannaga, Ayman S; Selinger, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD) in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25848313

  8. Risk Factors for Development and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The risk factors influencing the natural course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are complex and heterogeneous, and few systematic reviews to date have focused on this issue. The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors for disease development and progression in each stage of CKD. We conducted electronic literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library up to October 15, 2012, for observational studies evaluating the risk factors on the development or progression of CKD. Eligible studies should have collected repeated information that could evaluate changes in renal function. Extracted information from all the included studies was synthesized narratively. Quality assessments were performed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. An exploratory random-effects meta-analysis was performed where feasible to pool effect sizes across studies for a specific risk factor in a specific outcome. We identified 38 cohort studies and 2 case-control studies from 40 articles, with a total of 318,898 participants from 14 countries. The follow-up duration ranged from 1.5 to 16 years. The majority of the included studies were of high quality. The baseline CKD stages of the included studies ranged from normal to later stages, and only 19 studies could be classified into a specific range of CKD stages during follow-up. Three risk factors from studies of the same baseline and follow-up CKD stages were eligible for the exploratory meta-analysis, including male sex, substantial proteinuria, and diabetes. The hazard ratios for the progression from CKD stages 3–5 to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.17–1.62), 1.64 (1.01–2.66), and 1.16 (0.98–1.38) for male sex, substantial proteinuria, and diabetes, respectively. In conclusion, our analyses comprehensively summarize the initiating and perpetuating factors for CKD. Male sex and substantial proteinuria are significant perpetuating factors for the progression from

  9. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit; Afzal, Veena; Gong, Elaine; Attanasio, Catia; Blow, Matthew J.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation properties of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.

  10. Frameworks for risk communication and disease management: the case of Lyme disease and countryside users

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Christopher P.; Barnett, Julie; Dobson, Andrew D. M.; Marcu, Afrodita; Marzano, Mariella; Moseley, Darren; O'Brien, Liz; Randolph, Sarah E.; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Uzzell, David

    2011-01-01

    Management of zoonotic