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  1. Experimental factors affecting the robustness of DNA methylation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pharo, Heidi D.; Honne, Hilde; Vedeld, Hege M.; Dahl, Christina; Andresen, Kim; Liestøl, Knut; Jeanmougin, Marine; Guldberg, Per; Lind, Guro E.

    2016-01-01

    Diverging methylation frequencies are often reported for the same locus in the same disease, underscoring the need for limiting technical variability in DNA methylation analyses. We have investigated seven likely sources of variability at different steps of bisulfite PCR-based DNA methylation analyses using a fully automated quantitative methylation-specific PCR setup of six gene promoters across 20 colon cancer cell lines. Based on >15,000 individual PCRs, all tested parameters affected the normalized percent of methylated reference (PMR) differences, with a fourfold varying magnitude. Additionally, large variations were observed across the six genes analyzed. The highest variation was seen using single-copy genes as reference for normalization, followed by different amounts of template in the PCR, different amounts of DNA in the bisulfite reaction, and storage of bisulfite converted samples. Finally, when a highly standardized pipeline was repeated, the difference in PMR value for the same assay in the same cell line was on average limited to five (on a 0–100 scale). In conclusion, a standardized pipeline is essential for consistent methylation results, where parameters are kept constant for all samples. Nevertheless, a certain level of variation in methylation values must be expected, underscoring the need for careful interpretation of data. PMID:27671843

  2. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  3. Nutri-epigenomic Studies Related to Neural Tube Defects: Does Folate Affect Neural Tube Closure Via Changes in DNA Methylation?

    PubMed

    Rochtus, Anne; Jansen, Katrien; Van Geet, Chris; Freson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), affecting 1-2 per 1000 pregnancies, are severe congenital malformations that arise from the failure of neurulation during early embryonic development. The methylation hypothesis suggests that folate prevents NTDs by stimulating cellular methylation reactions. Folate is central to the one-carbon metabolism that produces pyrimidines and purines for DNA synthesis and for the generation of the methyldonor S-adenosyl-methionine. This review focuses on the relation between the folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, DNA methylation and NTDs. Studies will be discussed that investigated global or locus-specific DNA methylation differences in patients with NTDs. Folate deficiency may increase NTD risk by decreasing DNA methylation, but to date, human studies vary widely in study design in terms of analyzing different clinical subtypes of NTDs, using different methylation quantification assays and using DNA isolated from diverse types of tissues. Some studies have focused mainly on global DNA methylation differences while others have quantified specific methylation differences for imprinted genes, transposable elements and DNA repair enzymes. Findings of global DNA hypomethylation and LINE-1 hypomethylation suggest that epigenetic alterations may disrupt neural tube closure. However, current research does not support a linear relation between red blood cell folate concentration and DNA methylation. Further studies are required to better understand the interaction between folate, DNA methylation changes and NTDs.

  4. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  5. [DNA methylation and epigenetics].

    PubMed

    Vaniushin, B F

    2006-09-01

    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear DNA is subject to enzymatic methylation with the formation of 5-methylcytosine residues, mostly within the CG and CNG sequences. In plants and animals this DNA methylation is species-, tissue-, and organelle-specific. It changes (decreases) with age and is regulated by hormones. On the other hand, genome methylation can control hormonal signal. Replicative and post-replicative DNA methylation types are distinguished. They are mediated by multiple DNA methyltransferases with different site-specificity. Replication is accompanied by the appearance of hemimethylated DNA sites. Pronounced asymmetry of the DNA strand methylation disappears to the end of the cell cycle. A model of methylation-regulated DNA replication is proposed. DNA methylation controls all genetic processes in the cell (replication, transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and gene transposition). It is the mechanism of cell differentiation, gene discrimination and silencing. In animals, suppression of DNA methylation stops development (embryogenesis), switches on apoptosis, and is usually lethal. Disruption of DNA methylation pattern results in the malignant cell transformation and serves as one of the early diagnostic features of carcinogenesis. In malignant cell the pattern of DNA methylation, as well as the set of DNA methyltransferase activities, differs from that in normal cell. In plants inhibition of DNA methylation is accompanied by the induction of seed storage and florescence genes. In eukaryotes one and the same gene can be simultaneously methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues. It can be thus suggested, that the plant cell contains at least two different, and probably, interdependent systems of DNA methylation. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA methyltransferase was isolated from plants. This enzyme methylates DNA with the formation of N6-methyladenine residues in the sequence TGATCA (TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA). Plants possess AdoMet-dependent endonucleases

  6. DNA Methylation Affects the Efficiency of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases-Mediated Genome Editing in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hidetaka; Numa, Hisataka; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Toki, Seiichi; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing in plants becomes popular since the advent of sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) that are simple to set up and efficient in various plant species. Although transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are one of the most prevalent SSNs and have a potential to provide higher target specificity by their dimeric property, TALENs are sensitive to methylated cytosines that are present not only in transposons but also in active genes in plants. In mammalian cells, the methylation sensitivity of TALENs could be overcome by using a base-recognition module (N∗) that has a higher affinity to methylated cytosine. In contrast to mammals, plants carry DNA methylation at all cytosine contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H represents A, C, or T) with various degrees and effectiveness of N∗ module in genome editing in plants has not been explored. In this study, we designed sets of TALENs with or without N∗ modules and examined their efficiency in genome editing of methylated regions in rice. Although improvement in genome editing efficiency was observed with N∗-TALENs designed to a stably methylated target, another target carrying cytosines with various levels of methylation showed resistance to both normal and N∗-TALENs. The results suggest that variability of cytosine methylation in target regions is an additional factor affecting the genome editing efficiency of TALENs. PMID:28348570

  7. DNA methylation and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1989-01-01

    The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable. PMID:2466640

  8. Extended in vitro maturation affects gene expression and DNA methylation in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Julia; Mattern, Felix; Aldag, Patrick; Bernal-Ulloa, Sandra Milena; Schneider, Tamara; Haaf, Thomas; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-10-01

    To mimic post-ovulatory ageing, we have extended the in vitro maturation (IVM) phase to 48 h and examined effects on (i) developmental potential, (ii) expression of a panel of developmentally important genes and (iii) gene-specific epigenetic marks. Results were compared with the 24 h IVM protocol (control) usually employed for bovine oocytes. Cleavage rates and blastocyst yields were significantly reduced in oocytes after extended IVM. No significant differences were observed in the methylation of entire alleles in oocytes for the genes bH19, bSNRPN, bZAR1, bOct4 and bDNMT3A. However, we found differentially methylated CpG sites in the bDNMT3Ls locus in oocytes after extended IVM and in embryos derived from them compared with controls. Moreover, embryos derived from the 48 h matured oocyte group were significantly less methylated at CpG5 and CpG7 compared with the 24 h group. CpG7 was significantly hypermethylated in embryos produced from the control oocytes, but not in oocytes matured for 48 h. Furthermore, methylation for CpG5-CpG8 of bDNMT3Ls was significantly lower in oocytes of the 24 h group compared with embryos derived therefrom, whereas no such difference was found for oocytes and embryos of the in vitro aged group. Expression of most of the selected genes was not affected by duration of IVM. However, transcript abundance for the imprinted gene bIGF2R was significantly reduced in oocytes analyzed after extended IVM compared with control oocytes. Transcript levels for bPRDX1, bDNMT3A and bBCLXL were significantly reduced in 4- to 8-cell embryos derived from in vitro aged oocytes. These results indicate that extended IVM leads to ageing-like alterations and demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms are critically involved in ageing of bovine oocytes, which warrants further studies into epigenetic mechanisms involved in ageing of female germ cells, including humans.

  9. Diet and Cell Size Both Affect Queen-Worker Differentiation through DNA Methylation in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhi Jiang; Wang, Zi Long; Wu, Xiao Bo; Yan, Wei Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background Young larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are totipotent; they can become either queens (reproductives) or workers (largely sterile helpers). DNA methylation has been shown to play an important role in this differentiation. In this study, we examine the contributions of diet and cell size to caste differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the activity and gene expression of one key enzyme involved in methylation, Dnmt3; the rates of methylation in the gene dynactin p62; as well as morphological characteristics of adult bees developed either from larvae fed with worker jelly or royal jelly; and larvae raised in either queen or worker cells. We show that both diet type and cell size contributed to the queen-worker differentiation, and that the two factors affected different methylation sites inside the same gene dynactin p62. Conclusions/Significance We confirm previous findings that Dnmt3 plays a critical role in honey bee caste differentiation. Further, we show for the first time that cell size also plays a role in influencing larval development when diet is kept the same. PMID:21541319

  10. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  11. Nutrients and DNA Methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epigenetics is a new mechanism responsible for development, aging, and disease process such as cancer development. One major epigenetic phenomenon is DNA methylation, which attributes to gene expression and integrity. Deepening the knowledge on one-carbon metabolism is very important to understandin...

  12. DNA Methylation within Transcribed Regions

    PubMed Central

    To, Taiko K.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Kakutani, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation within transcribed genes is commonly found in diverse animals and plants. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances and the remaining mystery regarding intragenic DNA methylation. PMID:26143255

  13. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  14. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  15. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-02-24

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research.

  16. DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqin; Tang, Beisha; He, Yuquan; Jin, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Neurogenesis is not limited to the embryonic stage, but continually proceeds in the adult brain throughout life. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNA, play important roles in neurogenesis. For decades, DNA methylation was thought to be a stable modification, except for demethylation in the early embryo. In recent years, DNA methylation has proved to be dynamic during development. In this review, we summarize the latest understanding about DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis, including the roles of different methylation forms (5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine), as well as their 'writers', 'readers' and interactions with histone modifications.

  17. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  18. TET2 mutations affect non-CpG island DNA methylation at enhancers and transcription factor binding sites in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Jumpei; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Lu, Yue; Cesaroni, Matteo; Madzo, Jozef; Neumann, Frank; He, Rong; Taby, Rodolphe; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Macrae, Trisha; Ostler, Kelly R.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Liang, Shoudan; Estecio, Marcos R.; Godley, Lucy A.; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    TET2 enzymatically converts 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine as well as other covalently-modified cytosines and its mutations are common in myeloid leukemia. However, the exact mechanism and the extent to which TET2 mutations affect DNA methylation remain in question. Here we report on DNA methylomes in TET2 wild type (TET2-WT) and mutant (TET2-MT) cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We analyzed 85,134 CpG sites (28,114 sites in CpG islands (CGIs) and 57,020 in non-CpG islands (NCGIs)). TET2 mutations do not explain genome-wide differences in DNA methylation in CMML, and we found few and inconsistent differences at CGIs between TET2-WT and TET2-MT cases. By contrast, we identified 409 (0.71%) TET2-specific differentially methylated CpGs (tet2-DMCs) in NCGIs, 86% of which were hypermethylated in TET2-MT cases, suggesting a strikingly different biology of the effects of TET2 mutations at CGIs and NCGIs. DNA methylation of tet2-DMCs at promoters and non-promoters repressed gene expression. Tet2-DMCs showed significant enrichment at hematopoietic-specific enhancers marked by H3K4me1, and at binding sites for the transcription factor p300. Tet2-DMCs showed significantly lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in TET2-MT cases. We conclude that leukemia-associated TET2 mutations affect DNA methylation at NCGI regions containing hematopoietic-specific enhancers and transcription factor binding sites. PMID:25972343

  19. Influence of DNA methylation on positioning and DNA flexibility of nucleosomes with pericentric satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Akihisa; Adachi, Fumiya; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    DNA methylation occurs on CpG sites and is important to form pericentric heterochromatin domains. The satellite 2 sequence, containing seven CpG sites, is located in the pericentric region of human chromosome 1 and is highly methylated in normal cells. In contrast, the satellite 2 region is reportedly hypomethylated in cancer cells, suggesting that the methylation status may affect the chromatin structure around the pericentric regions in tumours. In this study, we mapped the nucleosome positioning on the satellite 2 sequence in vitro and found that DNA methylation modestly affects the distribution of the nucleosome positioning. The micrococcal nuclease assay revealed that the DNA end flexibility of the nucleosomes changes, depending on the DNA methylation status. However, the structures and thermal stabilities of the nucleosomes are unaffected by DNA methylation. These findings provide new information to understand how DNA methylation functions in regulating pericentric heterochromatin formation and maintenance in normal and malignant cells.

  20. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology.

  1. Stability of single copy transgene expression in CHOK1 cells is affected by histone modifications but not by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Shawal; Gugliotta, Agustina; Koenitzer, Jennifer; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2015-02-10

    Intraclonal heterogeneity of genetically modified mammalian cells has been observed as a phenomenon that has a strong impact on overall transgene expression levels and that limits the predictability of transgene expression in genetically modified cells, thereby hampering single cell based screening approaches. The underlying mechanism(s) leading to this variance are poorly understood. To study the dynamics and mechanisms of heterogeneity of early stage silencing we analyzed the expression in more than 100 independent clones of CHOK1 cells that harbour genetically stable integrates of single copy reporter cassettes driven by EF1α and CMV promoters. Single cell analysis showed intraclonal variability with heterogeneity in expression in genetically uniform populations. DNA methylation is a well known mechanism responsible for silencing of gene expression. Interestingly, loss of expression was not associated with DNA methylation of the CMV promoter. However, in most of the clonal populations expression could be increased by inhibitors of the histone deacetylases (HDACi) suggesting that heterogeneity of transgene expression is crucially governed by histone modifications. Further, to determine if the epigenetic status of transgene expression is governed by the chromosomal integration locus we targeted heterologous expression cassettes into two chromosomal sites using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). The expression status of a particular clone was faithfully re-established when the same promoter used. In this way the problem of early stage cell clone instability can be bypassed. However, upon introduction of an unrelated promoter methylation-independent silencing was observed. Together, these results suggest that histone modifications are the relevant mechanisms by which epigenetic modulation of transgene expression cassettes is governed in the early phase of clone generation.

  2. Methods of DNA methylation analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review was to provide guidance for investigators who are new to the field of DNA methylation analysis. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not mediated by changes in DNA sequence. Recently, it has become clear that n...

  3. A common mutation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene affects genomic DNA methylation through an interaction with folate status

    PubMed Central

    Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon; Girelli, Domenico; Mason, Joel B.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Bagley, Pamela J.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Jacques, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Corrocher, Roberto; Selhub, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    DNA methylation, an essential epigenetic feature of DNA that modulates gene expression and genomic integrity, is catalyzed by methyltransferases that use the universal methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine and precursor of S-adenosyl-l-methionine. In the present study we sought to determine the effect of folate status on genomic DNA methylation with an emphasis on the interaction with the common C677T mutation in the MTHFR gene. A liquid chromatography/MS method for the analysis of nucleotide bases was used to assess genomic DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 105 subjects homozygous for this mutation (T/T) and 187 homozygous for the wild-type (C/C) MTHFR genotype. The results show that genomic DNA methylation directly correlates with folate status and inversely with plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels (P < 0.01). T/T genotypes had a diminished level of DNA methylation compared with those with the C/C wild-type (32.23 vs.62.24 ng 5-methylcytosine/μg DNA, P < 0.0001). When analyzed according to folate status, however, only the T/T subjects with low levels of folate accounted for the diminished DNA methylation (P < 0.0001). Moreover, in T/T subjects DNA methylation status correlated with the methylated proportion of red blood cell folate and was inversely related to the formylated proportion of red blood cell folates (P < 0.03) that is known to be solely represented in those individuals. These results indicate that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism influences DNA methylation status through an interaction with folate status. PMID:11929966

  4. Alcohol, DNA Methylation, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Rey, Marta; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Martinez-Chantar, Maria-Luz; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most significant diseases associated with chronic alcohol consumption, and chronic drinking is a strong risk factor for cancer, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectum, and breast. Several factors contribute to alcohol-induced cancer development (i.e., carcinogenesis), including the actions of acetaldehyde, the first and primary metabolite of ethanol, and oxidative stress. However, increasing evidence suggests that aberrant patterns of DNA methylation, an important epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control, also could be part of the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to alcohol-induced cancer development. The effects of alcohol on global and local DNA methylation patterns likely are mediated by its ability to interfere with the availability of the principal biological methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), as well as pathways related to it. Several mechanisms may mediate the effects of alcohol on DNA methylation, including reduced folate levels and inhibition of key enzymes in one-carbon metabolism that ultimately lead to lower SAMe levels, as well as inhibition of activity and expression of enzymes involved in DNA methylation (i.e., DNA methyltransferases). Finally, variations (i.e., polymorphisms) of several genes involved in one-carbon metabolism also modulate the risk of alcohol-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24313162

  5. Aberrant DNA Methylation and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sunipa; Buckles, Eric; Estrada, John; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer, a significant contributor to morbidity and a leading cause of cancer-related death in men in Western industrialized countries. In contrast to genetic changes that vary among individual cases, somatic epigenetic alterations are early and highly consistent events. Epigenetics encompasses several different phenomena, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, RNA interference, and genomic imprinting. Epigenetic processes regulate gene expression and can change malignancy-associated phenotypes such as growth, migration, invasion, or angiogenesis. Methylations of certain genes are associated with PCa progression. Compared to normal prostate tissues, several hypermethylated genes have also been identified in benign prostate hyperplasia, which suggests a role for aberrant methylation in this growth dysfunction. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation could be affected by environmental and dietary factors. Among other epigenetic changes, aberrant DNA methylation might have a great potential as diagnostic or prognostic marker for PCa and could be tested in tumor tissues and various body fluids (e.g., serum, urine). The DNA methylation markers are simple in nature, have high sensitivity, and could be detected either quantitatively or qualitatively. Availability of genome-wide screening methodologies also allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in high throughput population studies. Unlike irreversible genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are reversible and could be used for PCa targeted therapies. PMID:22547956

  6. DNA methylation in endometriosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOUKOURA, OURANIA; SIFAKIS, STAVROS; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, outside the uterine cavity, primarily in the ovaries, pelvic peritoneum and rectovaginal septum. Although it is a benign disease, it presents with malignant characteristics, such as invasion to surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant locations and recurrence following treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that various epigenetic aberrations may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant DNA methylation represents a possible mechanism repsonsible for this disease, linking gene expression alterations observed in endometriosis with hormonal and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis may partially be due to selective epigenetic deregulations influenced by extrinsic factors. Previous studies have shed light into the epigenetic component of endometriosis, reporting variations in the epigenetic patterns of genes known to be involved in the aberrant hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory status of endometriosis. Although recent studies, utilizing advanced molecular techniques, have allowed us to further elucidate the possible association of DNA methylation with altered gene expression, whether these molecular changes represent the cause or merely the consequence of the disease is a question which remains to be answered. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology and malignant evolution of endometriosis. We also provide insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation-modifying agents may be the next step in the research of the pharmaceutical treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26934855

  7. DNA methylation in an engineered heart tissue model of cardiac hypertrophy: common signatures and effects of DNA methylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stenzig, Justus; Hirt, Marc N; Löser, Alexandra; Bartholdt, Lena M; Hensel, Jan-Tobias; Werner, Tessa R; Riemenschneider, Mona; Indenbirken, Daniela; Guenther, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Hübner, Norbert; Stoll, Monika; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation affects transcriptional regulation and constitutes a drug target in cancer biology. In cardiac hypertrophy, DNA methylation may control the fetal gene program. We therefore investigated DNA methylation signatures and their dynamics in an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy based on engineered heart tissue (EHT). We exposed EHTs from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to a 12-fold increased afterload (AE) or to phenylephrine (PE 20 µM) and compared DNA methylation signatures to control EHT by pull-down assay and DNA methylation microarray. A 7-day intervention sufficed to induce contractile dysfunction and significantly decrease promoter methylation of hypertrophy-associated upregulated genes such as Nppa (encoding ANP) and Acta1 (α-skeletal actin) in both intervention groups. To evaluate whether pathological consequences of AE are affected by inhibiting de novo DNA methylation we applied AE in the absence and presence of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors: 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza, 100 µM, nucleosidic inhibitor), RG108 (60 µM, non-nucleosidic) or methylene disalicylic acid (MDSA, 25 µM, non-nucleosidic). Aza had no effect on EHT function, but RG108 and MDSA partially prevented the detrimental consequences of AE on force, contraction and relaxation velocity. RG108 reduced AE-induced Atp2a2 (SERCA2a) promoter methylation. The results provide evidence for dynamic DNA methylation in cardiac hypertrophy and warrant further investigation of the potential of DNA methylation in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

  8. Genome-wide DNA methylation profile in mungbean

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jae; Bae, Ahra; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Satyawan, Dani; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation on cytosine residues is known to affect gene expression and is potentially responsible for the phenotypic variations among different crop cultivars. Here, we present the whole-genome DNA methylation profiles and assess the potential effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two mungbean cultivars, Sunhwanogdu (VC1973A) and Kyunggijaerae#5 (V2984). By measuring the DNA methylation levels in leaf tissue with the bisulfite sequencing (BSseq) approach, we show both the frequencies of the various types of DNA methylation and the distribution of weighted gene methylation levels. SNPs that cause nucleotide changes from/to CHH – where C is cytosine and H is any other nucleotide – were found to affect DNA methylation status in VC1973A and V2984. In order to better understand the correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation levels, we surveyed gene expression in leaf tissues of VC1973A and V2984 using RNAseq. Transcript expressions of paralogous genes were controlled by DNA methylation within the VC1973A genome. Moreover, genes that were differentially expressed between the two cultivars showed distinct DNA methylation patterns. Our mungbean genome-wide methylation profiles will be valuable resources for understanding the phenotypic variations between different cultivars, as well as for molecular breeding. PMID:28084412

  9. Quantitative DNA Methylation Profiling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ammerpohl, Ole; Haake, Andrea; Kolarova, Julia; Siebert, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are fundamental for the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic alterations can lead to the development and the evolution of malignant tumors as well as the emergence of phenotypically different cancer cells or metastasis from one single tumor cell. Here we describe bisulfite pyrosequencing, a technology to perform quantitative DNA methylation analyses, to detect aberrant DNA methylation in malignant tumors.

  10. DNA methylation profiling identifies CG methylation clusters in Arabidopsis genes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Robert K; Henikoff, Jorja G; Zilberman, Daniel; Ditt, Renata F; Jacobsen, Steven E; Henikoff, Steven

    2005-01-26

    Cytosine DNA methylation in vertebrates is widespread, but methylation in plants is found almost exclusively at transposable elements and repetitive DNA. Within regions of methylation, methylcytosines are typically found in CG, CNG, and asymmetric contexts. CG sites are maintained by a plant homolog of mammalian Dnmt1 acting on hemi-methylated DNA after replication. Methylation of CNG and asymmetric sites appears to be maintained at each cell cycle by other mechanisms. We report a new type of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis, dense CG methylation clusters found at scattered sites throughout the genome. These clusters lack non-CG methylation and are preferentially found in genes, although they are relatively deficient toward the 5' end. CG methylation clusters are present in lines derived from different accessions and in mutants that eliminate de novo methylation, indicating that CG methylation clusters are stably maintained at specific sites. Because 5-methylcytosine is mutagenic, the appearance of CG methylation clusters over evolutionary time predicts a genome-wide deficiency of CG dinucleotides and an excess of C(A/T)G trinucleotides within transcribed regions. This is exactly what we find, implying that CG methylation clusters have contributed profoundly to plant gene evolution. We suggest that CG methylation clusters silence cryptic promoters that arise sporadically within transcription units.

  11. Methods in DNA methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Tycko, Benjamin; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lin, Juey-Jen L; Huang, Tim H-M

    2009-12-01

    Metastable and somatically heritable patterns of DNA methylation provide an important level of genomic regulation. In this article, we review methods for analyzing these genome-wide epigenetic patterns and offer a perspective on the ever-expanding literature, which we hope will be useful for investigators who are new to this area. The historical aspects that we cover will be helpful in interpreting this literature and we hope that our discussion of the newest analytical methods will stimulate future progress. We emphasize that no single approach can provide a complete view of the overall methylome, and that combinations of several modalities applied to the same sample set will give the clearest picture. Given the unexpected epigenomic patterns and new biological principles, as well as new disease markers, that have been uncovered in recent studies, it is likely that important discoveries will continue to be made using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling.

  12. Natural history of eukaryotic DNA methylation systems.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2011-01-01

    a terminal DNA modification, with enzymes of the Tet/JBP family of 2-oxoglutarate- and iron-dependent dioxygenases further hydroxylating it to form 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). These enzymes emerged first in bacteriophages and appear to have been transferred to eukaryotes on one or more occasions. Eukaryotes appear to have recruited three major types of DNA-binding domains (SRA/SAD, TAM/MBD, and CXXC) in discriminating DNA with methylated or unmethylated cytosines. Analysis of the domain architectures of these domains and the DNA methylases suggests that early in eukaryotic evolution they developed a close functional link with SET-domain methylases and Jumonji-related demethylases that operate on peptides in chromatin proteins. In several eukaryotes, other functional connections were elaborated in the form of various combinations between domains related to DNA methylation and those involved in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and RNAi. In certain eukaryotes, such as mammals and angiosperms, novel dependencies on the DNA methylation system emerged, which resulted in it affecting unexpected aspects of the biology of these organisms such as parent-offspring interactions. In genomic terms, this was reflected in the emergence of new proteins related to methylation, such as Stella. The well-developed methylation systems of certain heteroloboseans, stramenopiles, chlorophytes, and haptophyte indicate that these might be new model systems to explore the relevance of DNA modifications in eukaryotes.

  13. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  14. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L. Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  15. DNA methylation profiling of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Begtrup, Amber Hogart

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark that is essential for properly functioning hematopoietic stem cells. Determining where functionally relevant DNA methylation marks exist in the genome is crucial to understanding the role that methylation plays in hematopoiesis. This chapter describes a method to profile DNA methylation by selectively enriching methylated DNA sequences that are bound in vitro by methyl-binding domain (MBD) proteins. The MBD-pulldown approach selects for DNA sequences that have the potential to be "read" by the endogenous machinery involved in epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, this approach is feasible with very small quantities of DNA, and is compatible with the use of any downstream high-throughput sequencing approach. This technique offers a reliable, simple, and powerful tool for exploration of the role of DNA methylation in hematopoietic stem cells.

  16. Methylation profiling using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and tiling array hybridization.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Rennert, Owen M; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates development and plays a role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. It is dynamically changed during germline development. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is an efficient, cost-effective method for locus-specific and genome-wide analysis. Methylated DNA fragments are enriched by a 5-methylcytidine-recognizing antibody, therefore allowing the analysis of both CpG and non-CpG methylation. The enriched DNA fragments can be amplified and hybridized to tiling arrays covering CpG islands, promoters, or the entire genome. Comparison of different methylomes permits the discovery of differentially methylated regions that might be important in disease- or tissue-specific expression. Here, we describe an established MeDIP protocol and tiling array hybridization method for profiling methylation of testicular germ cells.

  17. Identifying DNA methylation in a nanochannel

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyin; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kaji, Noritada; Rahong, Sakon; Kanai, Masaki; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic modification, which is well known to be involved in gene expression regulation. In general, however, analyzing DNA methylation requires rather time consuming processes (24–96 h) via DNA replication and protein modification. Here we demonstrate a methodology to analyze DNA methylation at a single DNA molecule level without any protein modifications by measuring the contracted length and relaxation time of DNA within a nanochannel. Our methodology is based on the fact that methylation makes DNA molecules stiffer, resulting in a longer contracted length and a longer relaxation time (a slower contraction rate). The present methodology offers a promising way to identify DNA methylation without any protein modification at a single DNA molecule level within 2 h. PMID:27877910

  18. MTHFD1 controls DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Martin; Moissiard, Guillaume; Wirtz, Markus; Wang, Haifeng; Garcia-Salinas, Carolina; Ramos-Parra, Perla A.; Bischof, Sylvain; Feng, Suhua; Cokus, Shawn J.; John, Amala; Smith, Danielle C.; Zhai, Jixian; Hale, Christopher J.; Long, Jeff A.; Hell, Ruediger; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has important functions in transcriptional silencing and is associated with repressive histone methylation (H3K9me). To further investigate silencing mechanisms, we screened a mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana population for expression of SDCpro-GFP, redundantly controlled by DNA methyltransferases DRM2 and CMT3. Here, we identify the hypomorphic mutant mthfd1-1, carrying a mutation (R175Q) in the cytoplasmic bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (MTHFD1). Decreased levels of oxidized tetrahydrofolates in mthfd1-1 and lethality of loss-of-function demonstrate the essential enzymatic role of MTHFD1 in Arabidopsis. Accumulation of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine, genome-wide DNA hypomethylation, loss of H3K9me and transposon derepression indicate that S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation is inhibited in mthfd1-1. Comparative analysis of DNA methylation revealed that the CMT3 and CMT2 pathways involving positive feedback with H3K9me are mostly affected. Our work highlights the sensitivity of epigenetic networks to one-carbon metabolism due to their common S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation and has implications for human MTHFD1-associated diseases. PMID:27291711

  19. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  20. Relationship between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chodavarapu, Ramakrishna K.; Feng, Suhua; Bernatavichute, Yana V.; Chen, Pao-Yang; Stroud, Hume; Yu, Yanchun; Hetzel, Jonathan; Kuo, Frank; Kim, Jin; Cokus, Shawn J.; Casero, David; Bernal, Maria; Huijser, Peter; Clark, Amander T.; Krämer, Ute; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosomes compact and regulate access to DNA in the nucleus, and are composed of approximately 147 bases of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer1, 2. Here we report a genome-wide nucleosome positioning analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana utilizing massively parallel sequencing of mononucleosomes. By combining this data with profiles of DNA methylation at single base resolution, we identified ten base periodicities in the DNA methylation status of nucleosome-bound DNA and found that nucleosomal DNA was more highly methylated than flanking DNA. These results suggest that nucleosome positioning strongly influences DNA methylation patterning throughout the genome and that DNA methyltransferases preferentially target nucleosome-bound DNA. We also observed similar trends in human nucleosomal DNA suggesting that the relationships between nucleosomes and DNA methyltransferases are conserved. Finally, as has been observed in animals, nucleosomes were highly enriched on exons, and preferentially positioned at intron-exon and exon-intron boundaries. RNA Pol II was also enriched on exons relative to introns, consistent with the hypothesis that nucleosome positioning regulates Pol II processivity. DNA methylation is enriched on exons, consistent with the targeting of DNA methylation to nucleosomes, and suggesting a role for DNA methylation in exon definition. PMID:20512117

  1. Chimeric DNA methyltransferases target DNA methylation to specific DNA sequences and repress expression of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyang; Papworth, Monika; Minczuk, Michal; Rohde, Christian; Zhang, Yingying; Ragozin, Sergei; Jeltsch, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Gene silencing by targeted DNA methylation has potential applications in basic research and therapy. To establish targeted methylation in human cell lines, the catalytic domains (CDs) of mouse Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b DNA methyltransferases (MTases) were fused to different DNA binding domains (DBD) of GAL4 and an engineered Cys2His2 zinc finger domain. We demonstrated that (i) Dense DNA methylation can be targeted to specific regions in gene promoters using chimeric DNA MTases. (ii) Site-specific methylation leads to repression of genes controlled by various cellular or viral promoters. (iii) Mutations affecting any of the DBD, MTase or target DNA sequences reduce targeted methylation and gene silencing. (iv) Targeted DNA methylation is effective in repressing Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in cell culture with the viral titer reduced by at least 18-fold in the presence of an MTase fused to an engineered zinc finger DBD, which binds a single site in the promoter of HSV-1 gene IE175k. In short, we show here that it is possible to direct DNA MTase activity to predetermined sites in DNA, achieve targeted gene silencing in mammalian cell lines and interfere with HSV-1 propagation. PMID:17151075

  2. Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R Ryley; Buckingham, Susan C; Mascia, Katherine L; Johnson, Jarvis J; Matyjasik, Michal M; Lockhart, Roxanne M; Lubin, Farah D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients exhibit signs of memory impairments even when seizures are pharmacologically controlled. Surprisingly, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in TLE-associated memory impairments remain elusive. Memory consolidation requires epigenetic transcriptional regulation of genes in the hippocampus; therefore, we aimed to determine how epigenetic DNA methylation mechanisms affect learning-induced transcription of memory-permissive genes in the epileptic hippocampus. Methods Using the kainate rodent model of TLE and focusing on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene as a candidate of DNA methylation-mediated transcription, we analyzed DNA methylation levels in epileptic rats following learning. After detection of aberrant DNA methylation at the Bdnf gene, we investigated functional effects of altered DNA methylation on hippocampus-dependent memory formation in our TLE rodent model. Results We found that behaviorally driven BdnfDNA methylation was associated with hippocampus-dependent memory deficits. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that decreased BdnfDNA methylation levels strongly correlated with abnormally high levels of BdnfmRNA in the epileptic hippocampus during memory consolidation. Methyl supplementation via methionine (Met) increased BdnfDNA methylation and reduced BdnfmRNA levels in the epileptic hippocampus during memory consolidation. Met administration reduced interictal spike activity, increased theta rhythm power, and reversed memory deficits in epileptic animals. The rescue effect of Met treatment on learning-induced BdnfDNA methylation, Bdnf gene expression, and hippocampus-dependent memory, were attenuated by DNA methyltransferase blockade. Interpretation Our findings suggest that manipulation of DNA methylation in the epileptic hippocampus should be considered as a viable treatment option to ameliorate memory impairments associated with TLE. PMID:25909085

  3. Increased DNA methylation in the suicide brain.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Xin, Yurong; Chanrion, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Anne H; Ge, Yongchao; Dwork, Andrew J; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J John

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies find that childhood adversity and stressful life events in adulthood increase the risk for major depression and for suicide. The predispositions to either major depression or suicide are thought to depend on genetic risk factors or epigenetic effects. We investigated DNA methylation signatures postmortem in brains of suicides with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. DNA methylation levels were determined at single C-phosphate-G (CpG) resolution sites within ventral prefrontal cortex of 53 suicides and nonpsychiatric controls, aged 16 to 89 years. We found that DNA methylation increases throughout the lifespan. Suicides showed an 8-fold greater number of methylated CpG sites relative to controls (P < 2.2 x 10(-16)), with greater DNA methylation changes over and above the increased methylation observed in normal aging. This increased DNA methylation may be a significant contributor to the neuropathology and psychopathology underlying the risk of suicide in depression.

  4. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development.

    PubMed

    Slieker, Roderick C; Roost, Matthias S; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2015-10-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA methylation landscape using the 450k array of four human tissues (amnion, muscle, adrenal and pancreas) during the first and second trimester of gestation (9,18 and 22 weeks). We show that a tissue-specific signature, constituted by tissue-specific hypomethylated CpG sites, was already present at 9 weeks of gestation (W9). Furthermore, we report large-scale remodelling of DNA methylation from W9 to W22. Gain of DNA methylation preferentially occurred near genes involved in general developmental processes, whereas loss of DNA methylation mapped to genes with tissue-specific functions. Dynamic DNA methylation was associated with enhancers, but not promoters. Comparison of our data with external fetal adrenal, brain and liver revealed striking similarities in the trajectory of DNA methylation during fetal development. The analysis of gene expression data indicated that dynamic DNA methylation was associated with the progressive repression of developmental programs and the activation of genes involved in tissue-specific processes. The DNA methylation landscape of human fetal development provides insight into regulatory elements that guide tissue specification and lead to organ functionality.

  5. Conventional and nanotechniques for DNA methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasree; Basheer, Nazeema B; Amirthalingam, Laxmi; Muthukumar, Harshiny; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Shanmugam, Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is critical for gene silencing and is associated with the incidence of many diseases, including cancer. Underlying molecular mechanisms of human diseases and tissue-specific gene expression have been elucidated based on DNA methylation studies. This review highlights the advantages and drawbacks of various methylation screening techniques: blotting, genomic sequencing, bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, microarray analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, nanowire transistor detection procedure, quantum dot-based nanoassay, single-molecule real-time detection, fluorimetric assay, electrochemical detection, and atomic force spectroscopy. The review provides insight for selecting a method or a combination of methods for DNA methylation analysis. Convergence of conventional and contemporary nanotechniques to enumerate methylation at specific CpG sites of oncogene would fill the gap in diagnosis of cancer.

  6. Altered DNA methylation in PAH deficient phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Steven F; Lyons-Weiler, James; Spridik, Kayla; Biery, Amy; Breck, Jane; Vockley, Jerry; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Sultana, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    While phenylalanine (PHE) is the toxic insult in phenylketonuria (PKU), mechanisms underlying PHE toxicity remain ill-defined. Altered DNA methylation in response to toxic exposures is well-recognized. DNA methylation patterns were assessed in blood and brain from PKU patients to determine if PHE toxicity impacts methylation. Methylome assessment, utilizing methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing, was performed in DNA obtained from brain tissue of classical PKU patients, leukocytes from poorly controlled PKU patients, leukocytes from well controlled PKU patients, and appropriate control tissues. In PKU brain tissue, expression analysis determined the impact of methylation on gene function. Differential methylation was observed in brain tissue of PKU patients and expression studies identified downstream impact on gene expression. Altered patterns of methylation were observed in leukocytes of well controlled and poorly controlled patients with more extensive methylation in patients with high PHE exposure. Differential methylation of noncoding RNA genes was extensive in patients with high PHE exposure but minimal in well controlled patients. Methylome repatterning leading to altered gene expression was present in brain tissue of PKU patients, suggesting a role in neuropathology. Aberrant methylation is observed in leukocytes of PKU patients and is influenced by PHE exposure. DNA methylation may provide a biomarker relating to historic PHE exposure.

  7. RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Aufsatz, Werner; Mette, M. Florian; van der Winden, Johannes; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2002-01-01

    In plants, double-stranded RNA that is processed to short RNAs ≈21–24 nt in length can trigger two types of epigenetic gene silencing. Posttranscriptional gene silencing, which is related to RNA interference in animals and quelling in fungi, involves targeted elimination of homologous mRNA in the cytoplasm. RNA-directed DNA methylation involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues within a region of RNA–DNA sequence identity. RNA-directed DNA methylation is presumed to be responsible for the methylation observed in protein coding regions of posttranscriptionally silenced genes. Moreover, a type of transcriptional gene silencing and de novo methylation of homologous promoters in trans can occur if a double-stranded RNA contains promoter sequences. Although RNA-directed DNA methylation has been described so far only in plants, there is increasing evidence that RNA can also target genome modifications in other organisms. To understand how RNA directs methylation to identical DNA sequences and how changes in chromatin configuration contribute to initiating or maintaining DNA methylation induced by RNA, a promoter double-stranded RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing system has been established in Arabidopsis. A genetic analysis of this system is helping to unravel the relationships among RNA signals, DNA methylation, and chromatin structure. PMID:12169664

  8. DNA Methylation Dynamics in Blood after Hematopoietic Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ramon M.; Suarez-Alvarez, Beatriz; Salvanés, Rubén; Muro, Manuel; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Colado, Enrique; Sánchez, Miguel Alcoceba; Díaz, Marcos González; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Fraga, Mario F.; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is considered a common hallmark of cancer. Nevertheless, recent publications have demonstrated its association with a large array of human diseases. Here, we explore the DNA methylation dynamics in blood samples during hematopoietic cell transplant and how they are affected by pathophysiological events during transplant evolution. We analyzed global DNA methylation in a cohort of 47 patients with allogenic transplant up to 12 months post-transplant. Recipients stably maintained the donor’s global methylation levels after transplant. Nonetheless, global methylation is affected by chimerism status. Methylation analysis of promoters revealed that methylation in more than 200 genes is altered 1 month post-transplant when compared with non-pathological methylation levels in the donor. This number decreased by 6 months post-transplant. Finally, we analyzed methylation in IFN-γ, FASL, IL-10, and PRF1 and found association with the severity of the acute graft-versus-host disease. Our results provide strong evidence that methylation changes in blood are linked to underlying physiological events and demonstrate that DNA methylation analysis is a viable strategy for the study of transplantation and for development of biomarkers. PMID:23451113

  9. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  10. Electrochemical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Tanvir; Mahmudunnabi, Golam; Masud, Mostafa Kamal; Islam, Md Nazmul; Ooi, Lezanne; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Martinac, Boris; Alici, Gursel; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-02-17

    DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic modifications of DNA that results from the enzymatic addition of a methyl group at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base. It plays a crucial role in cellular development, genomic stability and gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation is responsible for the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancers. Over the past several decades, many methodologies have been developed to detect DNA methylation. These methodologies range from classical molecular biology and optical approaches, such as bisulfite sequencing, microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR, colorimetry, Raman spectroscopy to the more recent electrochemical approaches. Among these, electrochemical approaches offer sensitive, simple, specific, rapid, and cost-effective analysis of DNA methylation. Additionally, electrochemical methods are highly amenable to miniaturization and possess the potential to be multiplexed. In recent years, several reviews have provided information on the detection strategies of DNA methylation. However, to date, there is no comprehensive evaluation of electrochemical DNA methylation detection strategies. Herein, we address the recent developments of electrochemical DNA methylation detection approaches. Furthermore, we highlight the major technical and biological challenges involved in these strategies and provide suggestions for the future direction of this important field.

  11. DNA methylation as a universal biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Victor V

    2010-01-01

    Cell-free circulating DNA carries not only tumor-specific changes in its sequence but also distinctive epigenetic marks, namely DNA methylation, in certain GC-rich fragments. These fragments are usually located within the promoters and first exons of many genes, comprising CpG islands. Analysis of DNA methylation using cell-free circulating DNA can facilitate development of very accurate biomarkers for detection, diagnosis, prediction of response to therapy and prognosis of outcomes. Recent data suggest that benign and inflammatory diseases have very specific methylation patterns within cell-free circulating DNA, which are different from the pattern of a malignant tumor of the same organ. In addition, specific methylation patterns have been detected for cancers of different organs, so a differential diagnosis of site-specific cancer appears feasible. Currently, cancer-related applications dominate the field, although methylation-based biomarkers may also be possible for other diseases, including neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. PMID:20465502

  12. DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiamu; Johnson, Lianna M.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal connections between these two epigenetic marks, and these domains mediate much of the crosstalk. PMID:26296162

  13. Optical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nazmul Islam, Md; Yadav, Sharda; Hakimul Haque, Md; Munaz, Ahmed; Islam, Farhadul; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred K; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-06-15

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA, where a methyl group is added at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base to form 5 methyl cytosine (5mC) without altering the DNA sequences. It plays important roles in regulating many cellular processes by modulating key genes expression. Alteration in DNA methylation patterns becomes particularly important in the aetiology of different diseases including cancers. Abnormal methylation pattern could contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer either by silencing key tumor suppressor genes or by activating oncogenes. Thus, DNA methylation biosensing can help in the better understanding of cancer prognosis and diagnosis and aid the development of therapies. Over the last few decades, a plethora of optical detection techniques have been developed for analyzing DNA methylation using fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrochemiluminescence and colorimetric readouts. This paper aims to comprehensively review the optical strategies for DNA methylation detection. We also present an overview of the remaining challenges of optical strategies that still need to be focused along with the lesson learnt while working with these techniques.

  14. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I2 statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating “hub genes” – heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:27688708

  15. DNA methylation testing and marker validation using PCR: diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Egger, Gerda; Wielscher, Matthias; Pulverer, Walter; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation provides a fundamental epigenetic mechanism to establish and promote cell-specific gene-expression patterns, which are inherited by subsequent cell generations. Thus, the epigenome determines the differentiation into a cell lineage but can also program cells to become abnormal or malignant. In humans, different germline and somatic diseases have been linked to faulty DNA methylation. In this article, we will discuss the available PCR-based technologies to assess differences in DNA methylation levels mainly affecting 5-methylcytosine in the CpG dinucleotide context in hereditary syndromal and somatic pathological conditions. We will discuss some of the current diagnostic applications and provide an outlook on how DNA methylation-based biomarkers might provide novel tools for diagnosis, prognosis or patient stratification for diseases such as cancer.

  16. Profiling genome-wide DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Yong, Wai-Shin; Hsu, Fei-Man; Chen, Pao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in regulating gene expression and therefore a broad range of biological processes and diseases. DNA methylation is tissue-specific, dynamic, sequence-context-dependent and trans-generationally heritable, and these complex patterns of methylation highlight the significance of profiling DNA methylation to answer biological questions. In this review, we surveyed major methylation assays, along with comparisons and biological examples, to provide an overview of DNA methylation profiling techniques. The advances in microarray and sequencing technologies make genome-wide profiling possible at a single-nucleotide or even a single-cell resolution. These profiling approaches vary in many aspects, such as DNA input, resolution, genomic region coverage, and bioinformatics analysis, and selecting a feasible method requires knowledge of these methods. We first introduce the biological background of DNA methylation and its pattern in plants, animals and fungi. We present an overview of major experimental approaches to profiling genome-wide DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and then extend to the single-cell methylome. To evaluate these methods, we outline their strengths and weaknesses and perform comparisons across the different platforms. Due to the increasing need to compute high-throughput epigenomic data, we interrogate the computational pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data and also discuss the concept of identifying differentially methylated regions (DMRs). This review summarizes the experimental and computational concepts for profiling genome-wide DNA methylation, followed by biological examples. Overall, this review provides researchers useful guidance for the selection of a profiling method suited to specific research questions.

  17. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  18. DNA methylation of retrotransposons, DNA transposons and genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schmidt, Martin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2017-03-03

    The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression, and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of the worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%) in particular, satellite DNA, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. Genome-wide cytosine methylation in the sugar beet genome was studied in leaves and leaf-derived callus with a focus on repetitive sequences, including retrotransposons and DNA transposons, the major groups of repetitive DNA sequences and compared with gene methylation. Genes showed a specific methylation pattern for CG, CHG (H=A, C, and T), and CHH sites, whereas the TE pattern differed, depending on the classes 1 (retrotransposons) and 2 (DNA transposons), respectively. Along genes and TEs, the CG and CHG methylation was higher than that of adjacent genomic regions. In contrast to the relatively low CHH methylation in retrotransposons and genes, the level of CHH methylation in DNA transposons was strongly increased, pointing toward a functional role of asymmetric methylation in DNA transposon silencing. Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation between sugar beet leaves and callus revealed a differential methylation upon tissue culture. Potential epialleles were hypomethylated (lower methylation) at CG and CHG sites in retrotransposons and genes and hypermethylated (higher methylation) at CHH sites in DNA transposons of callus when compared to leaves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA Methylation of BDNF Gene in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; Igci, Mehri; Bozgeyik, Esra; Kokaçya, M Hanifi; İğci, Yusuf Ziya; Dokuyucu, Recep; Ari, Mustafa; Savaş, Haluk A

    2016-02-06

    BACKGROUND Although genetic factors are risk factors for schizophrenia, some environmental factors are thought to be required for the manifestation of disease. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene functions without causing a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. It has been suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It is established that methylation status of the BDNF gene is associated with fear learning, memory, and stressful social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the DNA methylation status of BDNF gene in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 49 patients (33 male and 16 female) with schizophrenia and 65 unrelated healthy controls (46 male and 19 female). Determination of methylation pattern of CpG islands was based on the principle that bisulfite treatment of DNA results in conversion of unmethylated cytosine residues into uracil, whereas methylated cytosine residues remain unmodified. Methylation-specific PCR was performed with primers specific for either methylated or unmethylated DNA. RESULTS There was no significant difference in methylated or un-methylated status for BDNF promoters between schizophrenia patients and controls. The mean duration of illness was significantly lower in the hemi-methylated group compared to the non-methylated group for BDNF gene CpG island-1 in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSIONS Although there were no differences in BDNF gene methylation status between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, there was an association between duration of illness and DNA methylation.

  20. DNA Methylation of BDNF Gene in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; İğci, Mehri; Bozgeyik, Esra; Kokaçya, M. Hanifi; İğci, Yusuf Ziya; Dokuyucu, Recep; Arı, Mustafa; Savaş, Haluk A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although genetic factors are risk factors for schizophrenia, some environmental factors are thought to be required for the manifestation of disease. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene functions without causing a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. It has been suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It is established that methylation status of the BDNF gene is associated with fear learning, memory, and stressful social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the DNA methylation status of BDNF gene in patients with schizophrenia. Material/Methods The study included 49 patients (33 male and 16 female) with schizophrenia and 65 unrelated healthy controls (46 male and 19 female). Determination of methylation pattern of CpG islands was based on the principle that bisulfite treatment of DNA results in conversion of unmethylated cytosine residues into uracil, whereas methylated cytosine residues remain unmodified. Methylation-specific PCR was performed with primers specific for either methylated or unmethylated DNA. Results There was no significant difference in methylated or un-methylated status for BDNF promoters between schizophrenia patients and controls. The mean duration of illness was significantly lower in the hemi-methylated group compared to the non-methylated group for BDNF gene CpG island-1 in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Although there were no differences in BDNF gene methylation status between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, there was an association between duration of illness and DNA methylation. PMID:26851233

  1. Effects of DNA methylation on nucleosome stability.

    PubMed

    Collings, Clayton K; Waddell, Peter J; Anderson, John N

    2013-03-01

    Methylation of DNA at CpG dinucleotides represents one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms involved in the control of gene expression in vertebrate cells. In this report, we conducted nucleosome reconstitution experiments in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing on 572 KB of human DNA and 668 KB of mouse DNA that was unmethylated or methylated in order to investigate the effects of this epigenetic modification on the positioning and stability of nucleosomes. The results demonstrated that a subset of nucleosomes positioned by nucleotide sequence was sensitive to methylation where the modification increased the affinity of these sequences for the histone octamer. The features that distinguished these nucleosomes from the bulk of the methylation-insensitive nucleosomes were an increase in the frequency of CpG dinucleotides and a unique rotational orientation of CpGs such that their minor grooves tended to face toward the histones in the nucleosome rather than away. These methylation-sensitive nucleosomes were preferentially associated with exons as compared to introns while unmethylated CpG islands near transcription start sites became enriched in nucleosomes upon methylation. The results of this study suggest that the effects of DNA methylation on nucleosome stability in vitro can recapitulate what has been observed in the cell and provide a direct link between DNA methylation and the structure and function of chromatin.

  2. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease. PMID:25229548

  3. DNA methylation biomarkers: cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2014-09-16

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient's response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  4. High-Resolution Analysis of Cytosine Methylation in Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cropley, Jennifer E.; Cooper, Alan; Suter, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic changes to gene expression can result in heritable phenotypic characteristics that are not encoded in the DNA itself, but rather by biochemical modifications to the DNA or associated chromatin proteins. Interposed between genes and environment, these epigenetic modifications can be influenced by environmental factors to affect phenotype for multiple generations. This raises the possibility that epigenetic states provide a substrate for natural selection, with the potential to participate in the rapid adaptation of species to changes in environment. Any direct test of this hypothesis would require the ability to measure epigenetic states over evolutionary timescales. Here we describe the first single-base resolution of cytosine methylation patterns in an ancient mammalian genome, by bisulphite allelic sequencing of loci from late Pleistocene Bison priscus remains. Retrotransposons and the differentially methylated regions of imprinted loci displayed methylation patterns identical to those derived from fresh bovine tissue, indicating that methylation patterns are preserved in the ancient DNA. Our findings establish the biochemical stability of methylated cytosines over extensive time frames, and provide the first direct evidence that cytosine methylation patterns are retained in DNA from ancient specimens. The ability to resolve cytosine methylation in ancient DNA provides a powerful means to study the role of epigenetics in evolution. PMID:22276161

  5. Whole genome methylation profiling by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    I provide a protocol for DNA methylation profiling based on immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA using commercially available monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize 5-methylcytosine. Quantification of the level of enrichment of the resulting DNA enables DNA methylation to be assayed for any genomic locus, including entire chromosomes or genomes if appropriate microarray or high-throughput sequencing platforms are used. In previous studies (1, 2), I have used hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays from Roche Nimblegen Inc, which allow any genomic region of interest to be interrogated, dependent on the array design. For example, using modern tiling arrays comprising millions of oligonucleotide probes, several complete human chromosomes can be assayed at densities of one probe per 100 bp or greater, sufficient to yield high-quality data. However, other methods such as quantitative real-time PCR or high-throughput sequencing can be used, giving either measurement of methylation at a single locus or across the entire genome, respectively. While the data produced by single locus assays is relatively simple to analyze and interpret, global assays such as microarrays or high-throughput sequencing require more complex statistical approaches in order to effectively identify regions of differential methylation, and a brief outline of some approaches is given.

  6. A simple modification to the luminometric methylation assay to control for the effects of DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Duman, Elif Aysimi; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Dunn, John J; Hatchwell, Eli

    2015-05-01

    Variations in DNA methylation have been implicated in a number of disorders. Changes in global DNA methylation levels have long been associated with various types of cancer. One of the recently described methods for determining global DNA methylation levels is the LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA), which utilizes methylation sensitive and insensitive restriction endonucleases and pyrosequencing technology for quantification. Here we provide evidence suggesting that the global methylation level reported by LUMA is affected by the integrity of the DNA being analyzed. The less intact the DNA, the lower the global methylation levels reported by LUMA. In order to overcome this problem, we propose the use of undigested DNA alongside digested samples. Finally, we demonstrate that this results in a more accurate assessment of global DNA methylation levels.

  7. Oxidative Stress and DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Young, Charles Y. F.; Tindall, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The protective effects of fruits, vegetables, and other foods on prostate cancer may be due to their antioxidant properties. An imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status is observed in prostate cancer patients. Genome oxidative damage in prostate cancer patients is associated with higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels. Oxygen radicals are associated with different steps of carcinogenesis, including structural DNA damage, epigenetic changes, and protein and lipid alterations. Epigenetics affects genetic regulation, cellular differentiation, embryology, aging, cancer, and other diseases. DNA methylation is perhaps the most extensively studied epigenetic modification, which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin architecture, in association with histone modification and other chromatin-associated proteins. This review will provide a broad overview of the interplay of oxidative stress and DNA methylation, DNA methylation changes in regulation of gene expression, lifestyle changes for prostate cancer prevention, DNA methylation as biomarkers for prostate cancer, methods for detection of methylation, and clinical application of DNA methylation inhibitors for epigenetic therapy. PMID:20671914

  8. Methylation matters? Decreased methylation status of genomic DNA in the blood of schizophrenic twins.

    PubMed

    Bönsch, Dominikus; Wunschel, Michael; Lenz, Bernd; Janssen, Gesa; Weisbrod, Matthias; Sauer, Heinrich

    2012-08-15

    Studies of schizophrenia inheritance in identical twins show a concordance of about 50%, which supports an epigenetic model. In our present study we investigated methylation of genomic DNA and promoter methylation of Reelin and SOX10 genes in peripheral blood of twins suffering from schizophrenia. Global DNA methylation was reduced (52.3%) in schizophrenic twins if compared with healthy control twins (65.7%). The reduced methylation was significant in males only. We also found a similar hypomethylation in the non-affected twins of discordant pairs and a mixed group of psychiatric controls. In discordant twins there was a relative hypermethylation of the SOX10 promoter. Within-pair-difference of methylation of Reelin promoter was significantly lower in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins.

  9. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  10. DNA Methylation Signatures of the Plant Chromomethyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Baulcombe, David C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation in plants is traditionally partitioned into CG, CHG and CHH contexts (with H any nucleotide but G). By investigating DNA methylation patterns in trinucleotide contexts in four angiosperm species, we show that such a representation hides spatial and functional partitioning of different methylation pathways and is incomplete. CG methylation (mCG) is largely context-independent whereas, at CHG motifs, there is under-representation of mCCG in pericentric regions of A. thaliana and tomato and throughout the chromosomes of maize and rice. In A. thaliana the biased representation of mCCG in heterochromatin is related to specificities of H3K9 methyltransferase SUVH family members. At CHH motifs there is an over-representation of different variant forms of mCHH that, similarly to mCCG hypomethylation, is partitioned into the pericentric regions of the two dicots but dispersed in the monocot chromosomes. The over-represented mCHH motifs in A. thaliana associate with specific types of transposon including both class I and II elements. At mCHH the contextual bias is due to the involvement of various chromomethyltransferases whereas the context-independent CHH methylation in A. thaliana and tomato is mediated by the RNA-directed DNA methylation process that is most active in the gene-rich euchromatin. This analysis therefore reveals that the sequence context of the methylome of plant genomes is informative about the mechanisms associated with maintenance of methylation and the overlying chromatin structure. PMID:27997534

  11. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis.

  12. Allele-specific DNA methylation: beyond imprinting.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Benjamin

    2010-10-15

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) and allele-specific gene expression (ASE) have long been studied in genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. But these types of allelic asymmetries, along with allele-specific transcription factor binding (ASTF), have turned out to be far more pervasive-affecting many non-imprinted autosomal genes in normal human tissues. ASM, ASE and ASTF have now been mapped genome-wide by microarray-based methods and NextGen sequencing. Multiple studies agree that all three types of allelic asymmetries, as well as the related phenomena of expression and methylation quantitative trait loci, are mostly accounted for by cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms. The precise mechanisms by which this occurs are not yet understood, but there are some testable hypotheses and already a few direct clues. Future challenges include achieving higher resolution maps to locate the epicenters of cis-regulated ASM, using this information to test mechanistic models, and applying genome-wide maps of ASE/ASM/ASTF to pinpoint functional regulatory polymorphisms influencing disease susceptibility.

  13. An endoparasitoid wasp influences host DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-01-01

    Parasitism by endoparasitoid wasps changes the expression of various host genes, and alters host immune and developmental processes. However, it is not clearly understood how parasitism changes host gene expression in a whole genome scale. This study focused on an epigenetic control of Cotesia plutellae, an endoparasitoid wasp, against its host, Plutella xylostella. Two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-2) are encoded in the genome of P. xylostella. In addition, methyl-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and DNA demethylation factor, ten-eleven translation protein (TET) are encoded. DNA methylation of P. xylostella genomic DNA was confirmed by restriction digestion with Gla I specific to 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation intensity in parasitized (P) larvae was decreased compared to that in nonparasitized (NP) larvae, especially at late parasitic stage, at which expression levels of both DNMT-1 and DNMT-2 were also decreased. DNA demethylation of P. xylostella was confirmed in both NP and P larvae by restriction digestion with PvuRts1I recognizing 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine. Parasitism also suppressed expression levels of TET and MBDs. Treatment of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (AZA) reduced DNA methylation intensity of NP larvae, causing suppression of hemocyte-spreading behavior and delay of immature development. RNA interference of DNMT-1 or DNMT-2 mimicked the adverse effects of AZA. PMID:28230192

  14. Histone Methylation by Temozolomide; A Classic DNA Methylating Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Diaz, Anthony Joseph; Mura, Hugo; Nyuwen, Lila; Coello, Daniel; Sheva, Saif; Maria, Nava; Gallo, James M.; Wang, Tieli

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim The alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is considered the standard-of-care for high-grade astrocytomas –known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)– an aggressive type of tumor with poor prognosis. The therapeutic benefit of TMZ is attributed to formation of DNA adducts involving the methylation of purine bases in DNA. We investigated the effects of TMZ on arginine and lysine amino acids, histone H3 peptides and histone H3 proteins. Materials and Methods Chemical modification of amino acids, histone H3 peptide and protein by TMZ was performed in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. The reaction products were examined by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. Results Our results showed that TMZ following conversion to a methylating cation, can methylate histone H3 peptide and histone H3 protein, suggesting that TMZ exerts its anticancer activity not only through its interaction with DNA, but also through alterations of protein post-translational modifications. Conclusion The possibility that TMZ can methylate histones involved with epigenetic regulation of protein indicates a potentially unique mechanism of action. The study will contribute to the understanding the anticancer activity of TMZ in order to develop novel targeted molecular strategies to advance the cancer treatment. PMID:27354585

  15. DNA methylation in memory formation: Emerging insights

    PubMed Central

    Heyward, Frankie D.; Sweatt, J. David

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory requires lasting cellular and molecular modifications that, as a whole, must endure despite the rapid turnover of their constituent parts. Such a molecular feat must be mediated by a stable, self-perpetuating, cellular information storage mechanism. DNA methylation, being the archetypal cellular information storage mechanism, has been heavily implicated as being necessary for stable activity-dependent transcriptional alterations within the central nervous system (CNS). This review details the foundational discoveries from both gene-targeted, as well as whole-genome sequencing, studies that have successfully brought DNA methylation to our attention as a chief regulator of activity- and experience-dependent transcriptional alterations within the CNS. We present a hypothetical framework with which the disparate experimental findings dealing with distinct manipulations of the DNA methylation, and their effect on memory, might be resolved while taking into account the unique impact activity-dependent alterations in DNA methylation potentially have on both memory promoting and memory-suppressing gene expression. And last, we discuss potential avenues for future inquiry into the role of DNA methylation during remote memory formation. PMID:25832671

  16. Developmental modulation of DNA methylation in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    PubMed Central

    Antequera, F; Tamame, M; Vilanueva, J R; Santos, T

    1985-01-01

    DNA methylation is a rather sparse event among fungi. Phycomyces blakesleeanus seems to be one of the few exceptions in this context. 5-Methylcytosine represents 2.9% of the total cytosine in spore DNA and is located in approximately the same amount at any of the four CA, CT, CC or CG dinucleotides. A progressive and gradual drop in total 5-methylcytosine parallels the development of the fungus. This demethylation is non random but sequence specific and is not accounted for equally by the four different methylated dinucleotides, CG being much less affected (20% demethylated) than CA, CT and CC (more than 90% demethylated at the same time). "De novo" methylation to restore the initial pattern probably takes place during spore maturation. By using specific hybridization probes we have been able to show that the rRNA genes are not significantly methylated at any stage of development, regardless of their transcription status. Images PMID:2997714

  17. DNA methylation, a hand behind neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haoyang; Liu, Xinzhou; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations represent a sort of functional modifications related to the genome that are not responsible for changes in the nucleotide sequence. DNA methylation is one of such epigenetic modifications that have been studied intensively for the past several decades. The transfer of a methyl group to the 5 position of a cytosine is the key feature of DNA methylation. A simple change as such can be caused by a variety of factors, which can be the cause of many serious diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we have reviewed and summarized recent progress regarding DNA methylation in four major neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The studies of these four major neurodegenerative diseases conclude the strong suggestion of the important role DNA methylation plays in these diseases. However, each of these diseases has not yet been understood completely as details in some areas remain unclear, and will be investigated in future studies. We hope this review can provide new insights into the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases from the epigenetic perspective. PMID:24367332

  18. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Caporali, Leonardo; Carelli, Valerio; Zanna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia-deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E) are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however, mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is regulated and

  19. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  20. Increased DNA methylation of Dnmt3b targets impairs leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Isabell; Rohde, Christian; Scheller-Wendorff, Marina; Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Herbst, Friederike; Riemke, Pia; Hebestreit, Katja; Tschanter, Petra; Lin, Qiong; Linhart, Heinz; Godley, Lucy A; Glimm, Hanno; Dugas, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Rosenbauer, Frank; Müller-Tidow, Carsten

    2016-03-24

    The de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are of crucial importance in hematopoietic stem cells. Dnmt3b has recently been shown to play a role in genic methylation. To investigate how Dnmt3b-mediated DNA methylation affects leukemogenesis, we analyzed leukemia development under conditions of high and physiological methylation levels in a tetracycline-inducible knock-in mouse model. High expression of Dnmt3b slowed leukemia development in serial transplantations and impaired leukemia stem cell (LSC) function. Forced Dnmt3b expression induced widespread DNA hypermethylation inMyc-Bcl2-induced leukemias, preferentially at gene bodies.MLL-AF9-induced leukemogenesis showed much less pronounced DNA hypermethylation upon Dnmt3b expression. Nonetheless, leukemogenesis was delayed in both models with a shared core set of DNA hypermethylated regions and suppression of stem cell-related genes. Acute myeloid leukemia patients with high expression of Dnmt3b target genes showed inferior survival. Together, these findings indicate a critical role for Dnmt3b-mediated DNA methylation in leukemia development and maintenance of LSC function.

  1. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies.

  2. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background (“noise”) induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer’s principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do

  3. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ("noise") induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer's principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do current

  4. NLRP7 affects trophoblast lineage differentiation, binds to overexpressed YY1 and alters CpG methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal-effect mutations in NLRP7 cause rare biparentally inherited hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA methylation patterns affecting maternally methylated germline differentially methy...

  5. Exposure to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine affects histone and RNA polymerase II modifications, but not DNA methylation status, in the regulatory region of the Xenopus laevis thyroid hormone receptor βΑ gene.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kentaro; Nishiyama, Norihito; Izumi, Yushi; Otsuka, Shunsuke; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-06

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in amphibian metamorphosis, during which the TH receptor (TR) gene, thrb, is upregulated in a tissue-specific manner. The Xenopus laevis thrb gene has 3 TH response elements (TREs) in the 5' flanking regulatory region and 1 TRE in the exon b region, around which CpG sites are highly distributed. To clarify whether exposure to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) affects histone and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) modifications and the level of DNA methylation in the 5' regulatory region, we conducted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using X. laevis cultured cells and premetamorphic tadpoles treated with or without 2 nM T3. Exposure to T3 increased the amount of the thrb transcript, in parallel with enhanced histone H4 acetylation and RNAPII recruitment, and probably phosphorylation of RNAPII at serine 5, in the 5' regulatory and exon b regions. However, the 5' regulatory region remained hypermethylated even with exposure to T3, and there was no significant difference in the methylation status between DNAs from T3-untreated and -treated cultured cells or tadpole tissues. Our results demonstrate that exposure to T3 induced euchromatin-associated epigenetic marks by enhancing histone acetylation and RNAPII recruitment, but not by decreasing the level of DNA methylation, in the 5' regulatory region of the X. laevis thrb gene.

  6. DNA methylation in psychosis: insights into etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Christina A; Melka, Melkaye G; Diehl, Eric J; Laufer, Benjamin I; O'Reilly, Richard L; Singh, Shiva M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for involvement of DNA methylation in psychosis forms the focus of this perspective. Of interest are results from two independent sets of experiments including rats treated with antipsychotic drugs and monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. The results show that DNA methylation is increased in rats treated with antipsychotic drugs, reflecting the global effect of the drugs. Some of these changes are also seen in affected schizophrenic twins that were treated with antipsychotics. The genes and pathways identified in the unrelated experiments are relevant to neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders. The common cause is hypothesized to be aberrations resulting from medication use. However, this needs to be established by future studies that address the origin of methylation changes in psychosis.

  7. Regulation of maintenance DNA methylation via histone ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Atsuya; Yamaguchi, Luna; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most stable but dynamically regulated epigenetic marks that act as determinants of cell fates during embryonic development through regulation of various forms of gene expression. DNA methylation patterns must be faithfully propagated throughout successive cell divisions in order to maintain cell-specific function. We have recently demonstrated that Uhrf1-dependent ubiquitylation of histone H3 at lysine 23 is critical for Dnmt1 recruitment to DNA replication sites, which catalyzes the conversion of hemi-methylated DNA to fully methylated DNA. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding the mechanism underlying maintenance DNA methylation. PMID:26590302

  8. Effects of DNA methylation on the structure of nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Tae-Hee

    2012-01-11

    Nucleosomes are the fundamental packing units of the eukaryotic genome. Understanding the dynamic structure of a nucleosome is a key to the elucidation of genome packaging in eukaryotes, which is tied to the mechanisms of gene regulation. CpG methylation of DNA is an epigenetic modification associated with the inactivation of transcription and the formation of a repressive chromatin structure. Unraveling the changes in the structure of nucleosomes upon CpG methylation is an essential step toward the understanding of the mechanisms of gene repression and silencing by CpG methylation. Here we report single-molecule and ensemble fluorescence studies showing how the structure of a nucleosome is affected by CpG methylation. The results indicate that CpG methylation induces tighter wrapping of DNA around the histone core accompanied by a topology change. These findings suggest that changes in the physical properties of nucleosomes induced upon CpG methylation may contribute directly to the formation of a repressive chromatin structure.

  9. DNA methylation in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Vanessa Derenji Ferreira; Pulkkinen, Leena; Lalli, Marianne; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti

    2014-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other degenerative diseases at a molecular level, a better understanding of the changes in the chromatin structure and the corresponding functional changes in molecular pathways is still needed. For example, persons with low birth weight are at a high risk for development of T2D later in life, suggesting that the intrauterine environment contributes to the disease. One of the hypotheses is that epigenetic regulation, including changes in DNA methylation leading to modifications in chromatin structure, are behind metabolic alterations, e.g. leading to the phenomenon termed metabolic memory. Altered DNA methylation has been shown to affect healthy aging and also to promote age-related health problems. There is suggestive evidence that lifestyle changes including weight loss can have an impact on DNA methylation and consequently gene expression. In this review we provide an overview of human studies investigating DNA methylation in obesity and T2D and associated risk factors behind these diseases.

  10. RNA Splicing Factors and RNA-Directed DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Feng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-03-26

    RNA-directed histone and/or DNA modification is a conserved mechanism for the establishment of epigenetic marks from yeasts and plants to mammals. The heterochromation formation in yeast is mediated by RNAi-directed silencing mechanism, while the establishment of DNA methylation in plants is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Recently, splicing factors are reported to be involved in both RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation in yeast and the RdDM pathway in plants. In yeast, splicing factors may provide a platform for facilitating the siRNA generation through an interaction with RDRC and thereby affect the heterochromatin formation, whereas in plants, various splicing factors seem to act at different steps in the RdDM pathway.

  11. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  12. DNA Methylation Analysis: Choosing the Right Method

    PubMed Central

    Kurdyukov, Sergey; Bullock, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    In the burgeoning field of epigenetics, there are several methods available to determine the methylation status of DNA samples. However, choosing the method that is best suited to answering a particular biological question still proves to be a difficult task. This review aims to provide biologists, particularly those new to the field of epigenetics, with a simple algorithm to help guide them in the selection of the most appropriate assay to meet their research needs. First of all, we have separated all methods into two categories: those that are used for: (1) the discovery of unknown epigenetic changes; and (2) the assessment of DNA methylation within particular regulatory regions/genes of interest. The techniques are then scrutinized and ranked according to their robustness, high throughput capabilities and cost. This review includes the majority of methods available to date, but with a particular focus on commercially available kits or other simple and straightforward solutions that have proven to be useful. PMID:26751487

  13. DNA Methylation Analysis: Choosing the Right Method.

    PubMed

    Kurdyukov, Sergey; Bullock, Martyn

    2016-01-06

    In the burgeoning field of epigenetics, there are several methods available to determine the methylation status of DNA samples. However, choosing the method that is best suited to answering a particular biological question still proves to be a difficult task. This review aims to provide biologists, particularly those new to the field of epigenetics, with a simple algorithm to help guide them in the selection of the most appropriate assay to meet their research needs. First of all, we have separated all methods into two categories: those that are used for: (1) the discovery of unknown epigenetic changes; and (2) the assessment of DNA methylation within particular regulatory regions/genes of interest. The techniques are then scrutinized and ranked according to their robustness, high throughput capabilities and cost. This review includes the majority of methods available to date, but with a particular focus on commercially available kits or other simple and straightforward solutions that have proven to be useful.

  14. Ancestry Dependent DNA Methylation and Influence of Maternal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mozhui, Khyobeni; Smith, Alicia K.; Tylavsky, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive variation in DNA methylation between individuals and ethnic groups. These differences arise from a combination of genetic and non-genetic influences and potential modifiers include nutritional cues, early life experience, and social and physical environments. Here we compare genome-wide DNA methylation in neonatal cord blood from African American (AA; N = 112) and European American (EA; N = 91) participants of the CANDLE Study (Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood). Our goal is to determine if there are replicable ancestry-specific methylation patterns that may implicate risk factors for diseases that have differential prevalence between populations. To identify the most robust ancestry-specific CpG sites, we replicate our results in lymphoblastoid cell lines from Yoruba African and CEPH European panels of HapMap. We also evaluate the influence of maternal nutrition—specifically, plasma levels of vitamin D and folate during pregnancy—on methylation in newborns. We define stable ancestry-dependent methylation of genes that include tumor suppressors and cell cycle regulators (e.g., APC, BRCA1, MCC). Overall, there is lower global methylation in African ancestral groups. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are also considerably lower among AA mothers and about 60% of AA and 40% of EA mothers have concentrations below 20 ng/ml. Using a weighted correlation analysis, we define a network of CpG sites that is jointly modulated by ancestry and maternal vitamin D. Our results show that differences in DNA methylation patterns are remarkably stable and maternal micronutrients can exert an influence on the child epigenome. PMID:25742137

  15. Intraindividual dynamics of transcriptome and genome-wide stability of DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Ryohei; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Ohmomo, Hideki; Shiwa, Yuh; Ono, Kanako; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Satoh, Mamoru; Hitomi, Jiro; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mechanism that affects the gene expression profiles responsible for the functional differences in various cells and tissues. Although gene expression patterns are dynamically altered in response to various stimuli, the intraindividual dynamics of DNA methylation in human cells are yet to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the extent to which DNA methylation contributes to the dynamics of gene expression by collecting 24 blood samples from two individuals over a period of 3 months. Transcriptome and methylome association analyses revealed that only ~2% of dynamic changes in gene expression could be explained by the intraindividual variation of DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified monocytes. These results showed that DNA methylation levels remain stable for at least several months, suggesting that disease-associated DNA methylation markers are useful for estimating the risk of disease manifestation. PMID:27192970

  16. A context dependent role for DNA methylation in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Gavery, Mackenzie R; Roberts, Steven B

    2014-05-01

    The function of DNA methylation in species such as bivalves where the limited amount of DNA methylation is predominantly found in gene bodies remains unclear. An emerging possible explanation is that the role of gene body DNA methylation is dependent on gene function, a potential phenomenon that has arisen from selective pressure on lineage-specific life history traits. In genes contributing to phenotypes that benefit from increased plasticity, the absence of DNA methylation could contribute to stochastic transcriptional opportunities and increased transposable element activity. In genes where regulated control of activity is essential, DNA methylation may also play a role in targeted, predictable genome regulation. Here, we review the current knowledge concerning DNA methylation in bivalves and explore the putative role of DNA methylation in both an evolutionary and ecological context.

  17. Diabetes: a candidate disease for efficient DNA methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Maier, Sabine; Olek, Alexander

    2002-08-01

    Methylation has been implied in a number of biological processes and has been shown to vary under environmental influences as well as in age. Most results on the correlation of methylation patterns with phenotypic characteristics of cells have been obtained by analysis of very few or even single genomic fragments for methylation. However, variation of methylation may more often than not be a phenomenon that affects multiple genomic loci. The role of methylation has been most conclusively demonstrated in complex disease, with cancer being the most prominent example. The influence of aging and environmental influences such as diet seems to be on global methylation patterns, in turn exerting local effects on groups of genes. Hence, methylation seems literally to be orchestrating complex genetic systems. It could, therefore, be considered an archetypal "genomics" parameter. In consequence, technologies used to analyze methylation patterns should be as industrialized as possible to capture the local events across the entire genome. Epigenomics' research team is the first to have achieved the industrialized production of genome sequence-specific wide methylation data. Our microarray and mass-spectrometry-based detection platform currently allow the analysis of up to 50,000 methylation positions per day, for the first time making methylation data amenable to sophisticated information mining. The information content of methylation position has never been analyzed using the high-dimensional statistical methods that are recognized to be required for the analysis of, for example, mRNA expression profiles or proteomic data. As methylation patterns are nothing but a quasi-digital form of expression data, their information content must be evaluated using similar but adapted algorithms. This article presents a broad set of studies that demonstrate that methylation yields information that is comparable or even superior to the current state of the art, namely, mRNA profiling. We

  18. Global methylation profiles in DNA from different blood cell types.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Flom, Julie D; Kappil, Maya; Ferris, Jennifer S; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation measured in white blood cell DNA is increasingly being used as in studies of cancer susceptibility. However, little is known about the correlation between different assays to measure global methylation and whether the source of DNA matters when examining methylation profiles in different blood cell types. Using information from 620 women, 217 and 403 women with DNA available from granulocytes (Gran), and total white blood cells (WBC), respectively, and 48 women with DNA available from four different sources (WBC, Gran, mononuclear (MN), and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL)), we compared DNA methylation for three repetitive elements (LINE1, Sat2, Alu) by MethyLight, luminometric methylation assay (LUMA), and [(3)H]-methyl acceptance assay. For four of the five assays, DNA methylation levels measured in Gran were not correlated with methylation in LBC, MN, or WBC; the exception was Sat2. DNA methylation in LCL was correlated with methylation in MN and WBC for the [(3)H]-methyl acceptance, LINE1, and Alu assays. Methylation in MN was correlated with methylation in WBC for the [(3)H]-methyl acceptance and LUMA assays. When we compared the five assays to each other by source of DNA, we observed statistically significant positive correlations ranging from 0.3-0.7 for each cell type with one exception (Sat2 and Alu in MN). Among the 620 women stratified by DNA source, correlations among assays were highest for the three repetitive elements (range 0.39-0.64). Results from the LUMA assay were modestly correlated with LINE1 (0.18-0.20). These results suggest that both assay and source of DNA are critical components in the interpretation of global DNA methylation patterns from WBC.

  19. Genome-Wide Prediction of DNA Methylation Using DNA Composition and Sequence Complexity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengchao; Yao, Shixin; Li, Xinghao; Chen, Chujia; Hu, Xuehai

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation by repressing activity. Change of the DNA methylation level is an important factor affecting the expression of target genes and downstream phenotypes. Because current experimental technologies can only assay a small proportion of CpG sites in the human genome, it is urgent to develop reliable computational models for predicting genome-wide DNA methylation. Here, we proposed a novel algorithm that accurately extracted sequence complexity features (seven features) and developed a support-vector-machine-based prediction model with integration of the reported DNA composition features (trinucleotide frequency and GC content, 65 features) by utilizing the methylation profiles of embryonic stem cells in human. The prediction results from 22 human chromosomes with size-varied windows showed that the 600-bp window achieved the best average accuracy of 94.7%. Moreover, comparisons with two existing methods further showed the superiority of our model, and cross-species predictions on mouse data also demonstrated that our model has certain generalization ability. Finally, a statistical test of the experimental data and the predicted data on functional regions annotated by ChromHMM found that six out of 10 regions were consistent, which implies reliable prediction of unassayed CpG sites. Accordingly, we believe that our novel model will be useful and reliable in predicting DNA methylation. PMID:28212312

  20. Synthesis of methyl-substituted xanthotoxol to clarify prooxidant effect of methyl on radical-induced oxidation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan; Song, Zhi-Guang; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2010-06-01

    4-methyl-8-hydroxylpsoralen (MXan) and 4,9-dimethyl-8-hydroxylpsoralen (DMXan) were synthesized in order to clarify the effect of methyl on the antioxidant effectiveness of xanthotoxol (8-hydroxylpsoralen, Xan), which were assessed by bleaching beta-carotene in linoleic acid-Triton emulsion, by interacting with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical (ABTS+), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), and galvinoxyl radical, and by protecting DNA against the oxidation induced by Cu2+/glutathione (GSH) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). Methyl attaching to xanthotoxol did not affect its ability to protect linoleic acid against autoxidation and to inhibit Cu2+/GSH-induced oxidation DNA, but decreased its ability to scavenge ABTS+ and DPPH, and to protect DNA against AAPH-induced oxidation. Therefore, methyl attenuated the antioxidant effectiveness of xanthotoxol in radical-induced oxidation of DNA.

  1. In situ analysis of DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kathiria, Palak; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in the plant genome are associated with differential genome methylation, histone modifications, and the binding of various chromatin-binding factors. Methylation of cytosine residues is one of the most versatile mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. The analysis of DNA methylation can be performed in different ways. However, most of these procedures involve the extraction of chromatin from cells with further isolation and analysis of DNA. Modest success has been achieved in DNA methylation analysis in plant tissues in situ. Here, we present an in situ method for DNA methylation analysis, which has high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

  2. DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Cai, Rui; Chen, Qiu-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in southern China and south-eastern Asia. Effective strategies for the prevention or screening of NPC are limited. Exploring effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of NPC continues to be a rigorous challenge. Evidence is accumulating that DNA methylation alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of NPC. Over the past few decades, aberrant DNA methylation in single or multiple tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in various biologic samples have been described in NPC, which potentially represents useful biomarkers. Recently, large-scale DNA methylation analysis by genome-wide methylation platform provides a new way to identify candidate DNA methylated markers of NPC. This review summarizes the published research on the diagnostic and prognostic potential biomarkers of DNA methylation for NPC and discusses the current knowledge on DNA methylation as a biomarker for the early detection and monitoring of progression of NPC.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoiesis by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Aniket V; Athans, Brett; Iben, James R; Johnson, Kristin; Russanova, Valya; Castranova, Daniel; Pham, Van N; Butler, Matthew G; Williams-Simons, Lisa; Nichols, James T; Bresciani, Erica; Feldman, Bejamin; Kimmel, Charles B; Liu, Paul P; Weinstein, Brant M

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, cell type-specific transcription factors promote cell identities, while epigenetic modifications are thought to contribute to maintain these cell fates. Our understanding of how genetic and epigenetic modes of regulation work together to establish and maintain cellular identity is still limited, however. Here, we show that DNA methyltransferase 3bb.1 (dnmt3bb.1) is essential for maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) fate as part of an early Notch-runx1-cmyb HSPC specification pathway in the zebrafish. Dnmt3bb.1 is expressed in HSPC downstream from Notch1 and runx1, and loss of Dnmt3bb.1 activity leads to reduced cmyb locus methylation, reduced cmyb expression, and gradual reduction in HSPCs. Ectopic overexpression of dnmt3bb.1 in non-hematopoietic cells is sufficient to methylate the cmyb locus, promote cmyb expression, and promote hematopoietic development. Our results reveal an epigenetic mechanism supporting the maintenance of hematopoietic cell fate via DNA methylation-mediated perdurance of a key transcription factor in HSPCs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11813.001 PMID:26814702

  4. The Role of Methylation of DNA in Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Kevin B.; Wolschin, Florian; Amdam, Gro V.

    2013-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is an epigenetic mechanism that influences patterns of gene expression. DNA methylation marks contribute to adaptive phenotypic variation but are erased during development. The role of DNA methylation in adaptive evolution is therefore unclear. We propose that environmentally-induced DNA methylation causes phenotypic heterogeneity that provides a substrate for selection via forces that act on the epigenetic machinery. For example, selection can alter environmentally-induced methylation of DNA by acting on the molecular mechanisms used for the genomic targeting of DNA methylation. Another possibility is that specific methylation marks that are environmentally-induced, yet non-heritable, could influence preferential survival and lead to consistent methylation of the same genomic regions over time. As methylation of DNA is known to increase the likelihood of cytosine-to-thymine transitions, non-heritable adaptive methylation marks can drive an increased likelihood of mutations targeted to regions that are consistently marked across several generations. Some of these mutations could capture, genetically, the phenotypic advantage of the epigenetic mark. Thereby, selectively favored transitory alterations in the genome invoked by DNA methylation could ultimately become selectable genetic variation through mutation. We provide evidence for these concepts using examples from different taxa, but focus on experimental data on large-scale DNA sequencing that expose between-group genetic variation after bidirectional selection on honeybees, Apis mellifera. PMID:23620251

  5. DNA methylation in higher plants: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, Boris F; Ashapkin, Vasili V

    2011-08-01

    A relatively high degree of nuclear DNA (nDNA) methylation is a specific feature of plant genomes. Targets for cytosine DNA methylation in plant genomes are CG, CHG and CHH (H is A, T, C) sequences. More than 30% total m(5)C in plant DNA is located in non-CG sites. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific; it is involved in the control of all genetic functions including transcription, replication, DNA repair, gene transposition and cell differentiation. DNA methylation is engaged in gene silencing and parental imprinting, it controls expression of transgenes and foreign DNA in cell. Plants have much more complicated and sophisticated system of the multicomponent genome methylations compared to animals; DNA methylation in plant mitochondria is performed in other fashion as compared to that in nuclei. The nDNA methylation is carried out by cytosine DNA methyltransferases of, at least, three families. In contrast to animals the plants with the major maintenance methyltransferase MET1 (similar to animal Dnmt1) inactivated do survive. One and the same plant gene may be methylated at both adenine and cytosine residues; specific plant adenine DNA methyltransferase was described. Thus, two different systems of the genome modification based on methylation of cytosines and adenines seem to coexist in higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Epigenetic control of cellular and developmental processes in plants.

  6. DNA Methylation: Insights into Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Andrew J.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental initiative for evolutionary biologists is to understand the molecular basis underlying phenotypic diversity. A long-standing hypothesis states that species-specific traits may be explained by differences in gene regulation rather than differences at the protein level. Over the past few years, evolutionary studies have shifted from mere sequence comparisons to integrative analyses in which gene regulation is key to understanding species evolution. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes. Nevertheless, the evolution of the human methylome and the processes driving such changes are poorly understood. Here, we review the close interplay between Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) methylation and the underlying genome sequence, as well as its evolutionary impact. We also summarize the latest advances in the field, revisiting the main literature on human and nonhuman primates. We hope to encourage the scientific community to address the many challenges posed by the field of comparative epigenomics. PMID:26658498

  7. Butyl paraben-induced changes in DNA methylation in rat epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Park, C J; Nah, W H; Lee, J E; Oh, Y S; Gye, M C

    2012-05-01

    Parabens have been shown to affect male rodent reproductive parameters, including testosterone levels and sperm production. In this study, we examined the effect of long-term exposure to butyl paraben (BP) on rat epididymal sperm DNA methylation. Adult male rats were exposed to BP (0, 10, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) per day) according to OECD TG407 for a repeated 28-day oral toxicity study. Sperm DNA methylation was examined by differential display random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) following methylation-specific restriction digestion of DNA. Among the 57 RAPD amplicons, six were methylation specific. Of these, five amplicons increased by 1.4- to 3.8-fold in epididymal sperm DNA at testing dose of BP. This indicates that BP can cause DNA hypermethylation in germ cells from the mitotic through post-meiotic stage in adult rat testes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the epigenetic modification of sperm DNA by parabens.

  8. Whole-genome DNA methylation profiling using MethylCap-seq.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Arie B; Simmer, Femke; Ma, Kelong; Kaan, Anita; Zhu, Jingde; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2010-11-01

    MethylCap-seq is a robust procedure for genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation. The approach consists of the capture of methylated DNA using the MBD domain of MeCP2, and subsequent next-generation sequencing of eluted DNA. Elution of the captured methylated DNA is done in steps using a salt gradient, which stratifies the genome into fractions with different CpG density. The enrichment reached within the individual eluates allows for cost-effective deep sequence coverage. The profiles together yield a detailed genome-wide map of methylated regions and readily allows detection of DNA methylation in known and novel regions. Here, we describe principles and details of the MethylCap-seq procedure using different sources of starting material.

  9. DNA methylation profiling using the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA).

    PubMed

    Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2010-11-01

    The methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA) exploits the intrinsic specificity and the high affinity of a methylated-CpG-binding protein complex (MBD2B and MBD3L1) to methylated CpG dinucleotides in genomic DNA. The MIRA approach works on double-stranded DNA and does not depend on the application of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. It can be performed on a few hundred nanograms of genomic DNA. Recently, the MIRA technique has been used to profile DNA methylation patterns at a resolution of 100 base pairs along the entire genome of normal human B-lymphocytes. The MIRA method is compatible with microarray and next generation DNA sequencing approaches. We describe the principles and details of this method applied for methylation profiling of genomes containing methylated CpG sequences.

  10. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  11. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369].

  12. DNA damage and Repair Modify DNA methylation and Chromatin Domain of the Targeted Locus: Mechanism of allele methylation polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Morano, Annalisa; Zuchegna, Candida; Romano, Antonella; Muller, Mark T.; Gottesman, Max E.; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V.

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the changes in chromatin structure, DNA methylation and transcription during and after homologous DNA repair (HR). We find that HR modifies the DNA methylation pattern of the repaired segment. HR also alters local histone H3 methylation as well chromatin structure by inducing DNA-chromatin loops connecting the 5′ and 3′ ends of the repaired gene. During a two-week period after repair, transcription-associated demethylation promoted by Base Excision Repair enzymes further modifies methylation of the repaired DNA. Subsequently, the repaired genes display stable but diverse methylation profiles. These profiles govern the levels of expression in each clone. Our data argue that DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling induced by HR may be a source of permanent variation of gene expression in somatic cells. PMID:27629060

  13. The CHH motif in sugar beet satellite DNA: a modulator for cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schubert, Veit; Viehoever, Prisca; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Methylation of DNA is important for the epigenetic silencing of repetitive DNA in plant genomes. Knowledge about the cytosine methylation status of satellite DNAs, a major class of repetitive DNA, is scarce. One reason for this is that arrays of tandemly arranged sequences are usually collapsed in next-generation sequencing assemblies. We applied strategies to overcome this limitation and quantified the level of cytosine methylation and its pattern in three satellite families of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) which differ in their abundance, chromosomal localization and monomer size. We visualized methylation levels along pachytene chromosomes with respect to small satellite loci at maximum resolution using chromosome-wide fluorescent in situ hybridization complemented with immunostaining and super-resolution microscopy. Only reduced methylation of many satellite arrays was obtained. To investigate methylation at the nucleotide level we performed bisulfite sequencing of 1569 satellite sequences. We found that the level of methylation of cytosine strongly depends on the sequence context: cytosines in the CHH motif show lower methylation (44-52%), while CG and CHG motifs are more strongly methylated. This affects the overall methylation of satellite sequences because CHH occurs frequently while CG and CHG are rare or even absent in the satellite arrays investigated. Evidently, CHH is the major target for modulation of the cytosine methylation level of adjacent monomers within individual arrays and contributes to their epigenetic function. This strongly indicates that asymmetric cytosine methylation plays a role in the epigenetic modification of satellite repeats in plant genomes.

  14. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A.; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity. PMID:25335909

  15. [Applications of DNA methylation markers in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-sen; Yang, Qing-en

    2005-02-01

    DNA methylation is a post-replication modification that is predominantly found in cytosines of the dinucleotide sequence CpG. Epigenetic information is stored in the distribution of the modified base 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation profiles represent a more chemically and biologically stable source of molecular diagnostic information than RNA or most proteins. Recent advances attest to the great promise of DNA methylation markers as powerful future tools in the clinic. In the past decade, DNA methylation analysis has been revolutionized by two technological advances--bisulphite modification of DNA and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The methylation pattern of human genome is space-time specific, sex-specific, parent-of-origin specific and disease specific, providing us an alternative way to solve forensic problems.

  16. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease.

    PubMed

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-10-22

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity.

  17. The implications of DNA methylation for toxicology: toward toxicomethylomics, the toxicology of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Szyf, Moshe

    2011-04-01

    Identifying agents that have long-term deleterious impact on health but exhibit no immediate toxicity is of prime importance. It is well established that long-term toxicity of chemicals could be caused by their ability to generate changes in the DNA sequence through the process of mutagenesis. Several assays including the Ames test and its different modifications were developed to assess the mutagenic potential of chemicals (Ames, B. N., Durston, W. E., Yamasaki, E., and Lee, F. D. (1973a). Carcinogens are mutagens: a simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 2281-2285; Ames, B. N., Lee, F. D., and Durston, W. E. (1973b). An improved bacterial test system for the detection and classification of mutagens and carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 782-786). These tests have also been employed for assessing the carcinogenic potential of compounds. However, the DNA molecule contains within its chemical structure two layers of information. The DNA sequence that bears the ancestral genetic information and the pattern of distribution of covalently bound methyl groups on cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation patterns are generated by an innate program during gestation but are attuned to the environment in utero and throughout life including physical and social exposures. DNA function and health could be stably altered by exposure to environmental agents without changing the sequence, just by changing the state of DNA methylation. Our current screening tests do not detect agents that have long-range impact on the phenotype without altering the genotype. The realization that long-range damage could be caused without changing the DNA sequence has important implications on the way we assess the safety of chemicals, drugs, and food and broadens the scope of definition of toxic agents.

  18. Aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming in bovine SCNT preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fang; An, Xinglan; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Liguang; Li, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming plays important roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with reprogramming defects fail to develop. Thus, we compared DNA methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos from bovine SCNT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and analyzed the influence of vitamin C (VC) on the reprogramming of DNA methylation. The results showed that global DNA methylation followed a typical pattern of demethylation and remethylation in IVF preimplantation embryos; however, the global genome remained hypermethylated in SCNT preimplantation embryos. Compared with the IVF group, locus DNA methylation reprogramming showed three patterns in the SCNT group. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) and repeated elements (satellite I and α-satellite) showed insufficient demethylation and hypermethylation in the SCNT group. Second, a differentially methylated region (DMR) of an imprint control region (ICR) in H19 exhibited excessive demethylation and hypomethylation. Third, some pluripotency genes (CDX2 and SOX2) were hypomethylated in both the IVF and SCNT groups. Additionally, VC improved the DNA methylation reprogramming of satellite I, α-satellite and H19 but not that of POU5F1 and NANOG in SCNT preimplantation embryos. These results indicate that DNA methylation reprogramming was aberrant and that VC influenced DNA methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos in a locus-specific manner. PMID:27456302

  19. Towards understanding the breast cancer epigenome: a comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sandeep K; Usmani, Nawaid; Michiels, Stefan; Metzger-Filho, Otto; Saini, Kamal S; Kovalchuk, Olga; Parliament, Matthew

    2016-01-19

    Until recently, an elevated disease risk has been ascribed to a genetic predisposition, however, exciting progress over the past years has discovered alternate elements of inheritance that involve epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic changes are heritably stable alterations that include DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA-mediated silencing. Aberrant DNA methylation is a common molecular basis for a number of important human diseases, including breast cancer. Changes in DNA methylation profoundly affect global gene expression patterns. What is emerging is a more dynamic and complex association between DNA methylation and gene expression than previously believed. Although many tools have already been developed for analyzing genome-wide gene expression data, tools for analyzing genome-wide DNA methylation have not yet reached the same level of refinement. Here we provide an in-depth analysis of DNA methylation in parallel with gene expression data characteristics and describe the particularities of low-level and high-level analyses of DNA methylation data. Low-level analysis refers to pre-processing of methylation data (i.e. normalization, transformation and filtering), whereas high-level analysis is focused on illustrating the application of the widely used class comparison, class prediction and class discovery methods to DNA methylation data. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of DNA methylation on gene expression by measuring the correlation between the degree of CpG methylation and the level of expression and to explore the pattern of methylation as a function of the promoter region.

  20. The Ciona intestinalis cleavage clock is independent of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho M; Mori, Tomoko; Satoh, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    The initiation of embryonic gene expression in ascidian embryos appears to be tightly regulated by the number of DNA replication cycles. DNA methylation is thought to contribute to the clock mechanism that counts the rounds of DNA replication. We used mass spectrometry and whole genome bisulfite sequencing to characterize DNA methylation changes that occur in early developmental stages of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. We found that global DNA methylation in early Ciona development was static, and a base-wise comparison between the genomes of consecutive developmental stages found no DNA demethylation that was related to zygotic gene activation. Additionally, 5hmC was hardly detected by mass spectrometry in the developmental samples, suggesting a lack of demethylation mediated by ten eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase in C. intestinalis. We conclude that DNA methylation is not involved in regulating DNA replication-dependent transcriptional activation.

  1. DNA methylation profiling reveals differences in the 3 human monocyte subsets and identifies uremia to induce DNA methylation changes during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zawada, Adam M.; Schneider, Jenny S.; Michel, Anne I.; Rogacev, Kyrill S.; Hummel, Björn; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Müller, Soeren; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Obeid, Rima; Geisel, Jürgen; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population consisting of 3 subsets: classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+ and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Via poorly characterized mechanisms, intermediate monocyte counts rise in chronic inflammatory diseases, among which chronic kidney disease is of particular epidemiologic importance. DNA methylation is a central epigenetic feature that controls hematopoiesis. By applying next-generation Methyl-Sequencing we now tested how far the 3 monocyte subsets differ in their DNA methylome and whether uremia induces DNA methylation changes in differentiating monocytes. We found that each monocyte subset displays a unique phenotype with regards to DNA methylation. Genes with differentially methylated promoter regions in intermediate monocytes were linked to distinct immunological processes, which is in line with results from recent gene expression analyses. In vitro, uremia induced dysregulation of DNA methylation in differentiating monocytes, which affected several transcription regulators important for monocyte differentiation (e.g., FLT3, HDAC1, MNT) and led to enhanced generation of intermediate monocytes. As potential mediator, the uremic toxin and methylation inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine induced shifts in monocyte subsets in vitro, and associated with monocyte subset counts in vivo. Our data support the concept of monocyte trichotomy and the distinct role of intermediate monocytes in human immunity. The shift in monocyte subsets that occurs in chronic kidney disease, a proinflammatory condition of substantial epidemiological impact, may be induced by accumulation of uremic toxins that mediate epigenetic dysregulation. PMID:27018948

  2. DNA methylation profiling reveals differences in the 3 human monocyte subsets and identifies uremia to induce DNA methylation changes during differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Adam M; Schneider, Jenny S; Michel, Anne I; Rogacev, Kyrill S; Hummel, Björn; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Müller, Soeren; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Obeid, Rima; Geisel, Jürgen; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H

    2016-04-02

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population consisting of 3 subsets: classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+ and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Via poorly characterized mechanisms, intermediate monocyte counts rise in chronic inflammatory diseases, among which chronic kidney disease is of particular epidemiologic importance. DNA methylation is a central epigenetic feature that controls hematopoiesis. By applying next-generation Methyl-Sequencing we now tested how far the 3 monocyte subsets differ in their DNA methylome and whether uremia induces DNA methylation changes in differentiating monocytes. We found that each monocyte subset displays a unique phenotype with regards to DNA methylation. Genes with differentially methylated promoter regions in intermediate monocytes were linked to distinct immunological processes, which is in line with results from recent gene expression analyses. In vitro, uremia induced dysregulation of DNA methylation in differentiating monocytes, which affected several transcription regulators important for monocyte differentiation (e.g., FLT3, HDAC1, MNT) and led to enhanced generation of intermediate monocytes. As potential mediator, the uremic toxin and methylation inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine induced shifts in monocyte subsets in vitro, and associated with monocyte subset counts in vivo. Our data support the concept of monocyte trichotomy and the distinct role of intermediate monocytes in human immunity. The shift in monocyte subsets that occurs in chronic kidney disease, a proinflammatory condition of substantial epidemiological impact, may be induced by accumulation of uremic toxins that mediate epigenetic dysregulation.

  3. DNA methylation profiles at birth and child ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Bouwland-Both, Marieke I; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Stolk, Lisette; Eilers, Paul H C; Uitterlinden, André G; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable psychiatric disorder. In addition, early life environmental factors contribute to the occurrence of ADHD. Recently, DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism potentially mediating genetic and environmental effects. Here, we investigated whether newborn DNA methylation patterns of selected candidate genes involved in psychiatric disorders or fetal growth are associated with ADHD symptoms in childhood. Participants were 426 children from a large population based cohort of Dutch national origin. Behavioral data were obtained at age 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist. For the current study, 11 regions at 7 different genes were selected. DNA methylation levels of cord blood DNA were measured for the 11 regions combined and for each region separately. We examined the association between DNA methylation levels at different regions and ADHD symptoms with linear mixed models. DNA methylation levels were negatively associated with ADHD symptom score in the overall analysis of all 11 regions. This association was largely explained by associations of DRD4 and 5-HTT regions. Other candidate genes showed no association between DNA methylation levels and ADHD symptom score. Associations between DNA methylation levels and ADHD symptom score were attenuated by co-occurring Oppositional defiant disorder and total symptoms. Lower DNA methylation levels of the 7 genes assessed at birth, were associated with more ADHD symptoms of the child at 6 years of age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the possible underlying mechanism.

  4. DNA methylation: the future of crime scene investigation?

    PubMed

    Gršković, Branka; Zrnec, Dario; Vicković, Sanja; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-07-01

    Proper detection and subsequent analysis of biological evidence is crucial for crime scene reconstruction. The number of different criminal acts is increasing rapidly. Therefore, forensic geneticists are constantly on the battlefield, trying hard to find solutions how to solve them. One of the essential defensive lines in the fight against the invasion of crime is relying on DNA methylation. In this review, the role of DNA methylation in body fluid identification and other DNA methylation applications are discussed. Among other applications of DNA methylation, age determination of the donor of biological evidence, analysis of the parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers at imprinted loci for parentage testing and personal identification, differentiation between monozygotic twins due to their different DNA methylation patterns, artificial DNA detection and analyses of DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of circadian clock genes are the most important ones. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of open chapters in DNA methylation research that need to be closed before its final implementation in routine forensic casework.

  5. DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Correlation of Differential Methylation Patterns with Gene Expression in Human Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Fu, Xinwei; Peng, Xi; Xiao, Zheng; Li, Zhonggui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating gene expression and has been reported to be related with epilepsy. This study aimed to define differential DNA methylation patterns in drug-refractory epilepsy patients and to investigate the role of DNA methylation in human epilepsy. We performed DNA methylation profiling in brain tissues from epileptic and control patients via methylated-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation microarray chip. Differentially methylated loci were validated by bisulfite sequencing PCR, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of candidate genes were evaluated by reverse transcriptase PCR. We found 224 genes that showed differential DNA methylation between epileptic patients and controls. Among the seven candidate genes, three genes (TUBB2B, ATPGD1, and HTR6) showed relative transcriptional regulation by DNA methylation. TUBB2B and ATPGD1 exhibited hypermethylation and decreased mRNA levels, whereas HTR6 displayed hypomethylation and increased mRNA levels in the epileptic samples. Our findings suggest that certain genes become differentially regulated by DNA methylation in human epilepsy.

  6. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores

    PubMed Central

    Dabe, Emily C.; Sanford, Rachel S.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. PMID:26173712

  7. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Dabe, Emily C; Sanford, Rachel S; Kohn, Andrea B; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties.

  8. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  9. High-Throughput Analysis of Global DNA Methylation Using Methyl-Sensitive Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Feinweber, Carmen; Knothe, Claudia; Lötsch, Jörn; Thomas, Dominique; Geisslinger, Gerd; Parnham, Michael J.; Resch, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major regulatory process of gene transcription, and aberrant DNA methylation is associated with various diseases including cancer. Many compounds have been reported to modify DNA methylation states. Despite increasing interest in the clinical application of drugs with epigenetic effects, and the use of diagnostic markers for genome-wide hypomethylation in cancer, large-scale screening systems to measure the effects of drugs on DNA methylation are limited. In this study, we improved the previously established fluorescence polarization-based global DNA methylation assay so that it is more suitable for application to human genomic DNA. Our methyl-sensitive fluorescence polarization (MSFP) assay was highly repeatable (inter-assay coefficient of variation = 1.5%) and accurate (r2 = 0.99). According to signal linearity, only 50–80 ng human genomic DNA per reaction was necessary for the 384-well format. MSFP is a simple, rapid approach as all biochemical reactions and final detection can be performed in one well in a 384-well plate without purification steps in less than 3.5 hours. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant correlation between MSFP and the LINE-1 pyrosequencing assay, a widely used global DNA methylation assay. MSFP can be applied for the pre-screening of compounds that influence global DNA methylation states and also for the diagnosis of certain types of cancer. PMID:27749902

  10. DNA Methylation and Potential for Epigenetic Regulation in Pygospio elegans.

    PubMed

    Kesäniemi, Jenni E; Heikkinen, Liisa; Knott, K Emily

    2016-01-01

    Transitions in developmental mode are common evolutionarily, but how and why they occur is not understood. Developmental mode describes larval phenotypes, including morphology, ecology and behavior of larvae, which typically are generalized across different species. The polychaete worm Pygospio elegans is one of few species polymorphic in developmental mode, with multiple larval phenotypes, providing a possibility to examine the potential mechanisms allowing transitions in developmental mode. We investigated the presence of DNA methylation in P. elegans, and, since maternal provisioning is a key factor determining eventual larval phenotype, we compared patterns of DNA methylation in females during oogenesis in this species. We demonstrate that intragenic CpG site DNA methylation and many relevant genes necessary for DNA methylation occur in P. elegans. Methylation-sensitive AFLP analysis showed that gravid females with offspring differing in larval developmental mode have significantly different methylation profiles and that the females with benthic larvae and non-reproductive females from the same location also differ in their epigenetic profiles. Analysis of CpG sites in transcriptome data supported our findings of DNA methylation in this species and showed that CpG observed/expected ratios differ among females gravid with embryos destined to different developmental modes. The differences in CpG site DNA methylation patterns seen among the samples suggest a potential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression (through DNA methylation) in this species.

  11. DNA Methylation and Potential for Epigenetic Regulation in Pygospio elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kesäniemi, Jenni E.; Heikkinen, Liisa; Knott, K. Emily

    2016-01-01

    Transitions in developmental mode are common evolutionarily, but how and why they occur is not understood. Developmental mode describes larval phenotypes, including morphology, ecology and behavior of larvae, which typically are generalized across different species. The polychaete worm Pygospio elegans is one of few species polymorphic in developmental mode, with multiple larval phenotypes, providing a possibility to examine the potential mechanisms allowing transitions in developmental mode. We investigated the presence of DNA methylation in P. elegans, and, since maternal provisioning is a key factor determining eventual larval phenotype, we compared patterns of DNA methylation in females during oogenesis in this species. We demonstrate that intragenic CpG site DNA methylation and many relevant genes necessary for DNA methylation occur in P. elegans. Methylation-sensitive AFLP analysis showed that gravid females with offspring differing in larval developmental mode have significantly different methylation profiles and that the females with benthic larvae and non-reproductive females from the same location also differ in their epigenetic profiles. Analysis of CpG sites in transcriptome data supported our findings of DNA methylation in this species and showed that CpG observed/expected ratios differ among females gravid with embryos destined to different developmental modes. The differences in CpG site DNA methylation patterns seen among the samples suggest a potential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression (through DNA methylation) in this species. PMID:27008314

  12. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Impairs Synaptic Plasticity during an Early Time Window in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Paula; Ardiles, Álvaro O.

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of DNA methylation-dependent gene expression to neuronal plasticity is well established, the dynamics of methylation and demethylation during the induction and expression of synaptic plasticity have not been explored. Here, we combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular, and immunohistochemical approaches to examine the contribution of DNA methylation and the phosphorylation of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) to synaptic plasticity. We found that, at twenty minutes after theta burst stimulation (TBS), the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5AZA) impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Surprisingly, after two hours of TBS, when LTP had become a transcription-dependent process, 5AZA treatment had no effect. By comparing these results to those in naive slices, we found that, at two hours after TBS, an intergenic region of the RLN gene was hypomethylated and that the phosphorylation of residue S80 of MeCP2 was decreased, while the phosphorylation of residue S421 was increased. As expected, 5AZA affected only the methylation of the RLN gene and exerted no effect on MeCP2 phosphorylation patterns. In summary, our data suggest that tetanic stimulation induces critical changes in synaptic plasticity that affects both DNA methylation and the phosphorylation of MeCP2. These data also suggest that early alterations in DNA methylation are sufficient to impair the full expression of LTP. PMID:27493805

  13. DNA methylation epigenotypes in breast cancer molecular subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of gene expression-based breast cancer subtypes is considered a critical means of prognostication. Genetic mutations along with epigenetic alterations contribute to gene-expression changes occurring in breast cancer. So far, these epigenetic contributions to sporadic breast cancer subtypes have not been well characterized, and only a limited understanding exists of the epigenetic mechanisms affected in those particular breast cancer subtypes. The present study was undertaken to dissect the breast cancer methylome and to deliver specific epigenotypes associated with particular breast cancer subtypes. Methods By using a microarray approach, we analyzed DNA methylation in regulatory regions of 806 cancer-related genes in 28 breast cancer paired samples. We subsequently performed substantial technical and biologic validation by pyrosequencing, investigating the top qualifying 19 CpG regions in independent cohorts encompassing 47 basal-like, 44 ERBB2+ overexpressing, 48 luminal A, and 48 luminal B paired breast cancer/adjacent tissues. With the all-subset selection method, we identified the most subtype-predictive methylation profiles in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The approach efficiently recognized 15 individual CpG loci differentially methylated in breast cancer tumor subtypes. We further identified novel subtype-specific epigenotypes that clearly demonstrate the differences in the methylation profiles of basal-like and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing tumors. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that well-defined DNA methylation profiles enable breast cancer subtype prediction and support the utilization of this biomarker for prognostication and therapeutic stratification of patients with breast cancer. PMID:20920229

  14. Detection of regional DNA methylation using DNA-graphene affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Hakimul; Gopalan, Vinod; Yadav, Sharda; Islam, Md Nazmul; Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Qin; Carrascosa, Laura G; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Lam, Alfred K; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-01-15

    We report a new method for the detection of regional DNA methylation using base-dependent affinity interaction (i.e., adsorption) of DNA with graphene. Due to the strongest adsorption affinity of guanine bases towards graphene, bisulfite-treated guanine-enriched methylated DNA leads to a larger amount of the adsorbed DNA on the graphene-modified electrodes in comparison to the adenine-enriched unmethylated DNA. The level of the methylation is quantified by monitoring the differential pulse voltammetric current as a function of the adsorbed DNA. The assay is sensitive to distinguish methylated and unmethylated DNA sequences at single CpG resolution by differentiating changes in DNA methylation as low as 5%. Furthermore, this method has been used to detect methylation levels in a collection of DNA samples taken from oesophageal cancer tissues.

  15. An atlas of DNA methylation in diverse bovine tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We launched an effort to produce a reference cattle DNA methylation resource to improve animal production. We will employ experimental pipelines built around next generation sequencing technologies to map DNA methylation in cultured cells and primary tissues systems frequently involved in animal pro...

  16. Analyses of cattle DNA methylation patterns in diverse tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We launched an effort to produce a reference cattle DNA methylation resource to improve animal production. We will employ experimental pipelines built around next generation sequencing technologies to map DNA methylation in culture cells and primary tissues systems frequently involved in animal prod...

  17. Folate, colorectal cancer and the involvement of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    Diet is a major factor in the aetiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological evidence suggests that folate confers a modest protection against CRC risk. However, the relationship is complex, and evidence from human intervention trials and animal studies suggests that a high-dose of folic acid supplementation may enhance the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis in certain circumstances. The molecular mechanisms underlying the apparent dual modulatory effect of folate on colorectal carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Folate is central to C1 metabolism and is needed for both DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, providing plausible biological mechanisms through which folate could modulate cancer risk. Aberrant DNA methylation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis and is typically associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Folate is required for the production of S-adenosyl methionine, which serves as a methyl donor for DNA methylation events; thereby folate availability is proposed to modulate DNA methylation status. The evidence for an effect of folate on DNA methylation in the human colon is limited, but a modulation of DNA methylation in response to folate has been demonstrated. More research is required to clarify the optimum intake of folate for CRC prevention and to elucidate the effect of folate availability on DNA methylation and the associated impact on CRC biology.

  18. DNA methylation profiling using bisulfite-based epityping of pooled genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Sophia J; Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Mill, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    DNA methylation plays a vital role in normal cellular function, with aberrant methylation signatures being implicated in a growing number of human pathologies and complex human traits. Methods based on the modification of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite are considered the 'gold-standard' for DNA methylation profiling on genomic DNA; however they require large amounts of DNA and may be prohibitively expensive when used on the large sample sizes necessary to detect small effects. DNA pooling approaches are already widely used in large-scale studies of DNA sequence and gene expression. In this paper, we describe the application of this economical DNA pooling technique to the study of DNA methylation profiles. This method generates accurate quantitative assessments of group DNA methylation averages, reducing the time, cost and amount of DNA starting material required for large-scale epigenetic investigation of disease phenotypes.

  19. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  20. DNA methylation dynamics in muscle development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrió, Elvira; Suelves, Mònica

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, since active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cellular differentiation and tissue specification. Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis. PMID:25798107

  1. Stability of DNA methylation patterns in mouse spermatogonia under conditions of MTHFR deficiency and methionine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justine L; Niles, Kirsten M; McGraw, Serge; Yeh, Jonathan R; Cushnie, Duncan W; Hermo, Louis; Nagano, Makoto C; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the conditions contributing to the stability of DNA methylation patterns in male germ cells. Altered folate pathway enzyme activity and methyl donor supply are two clinically significant factors that can affect the methylation of DNA. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key folate pathway enzyme involved in providing methyl groups from dietary folate for DNA methylation. Mice heterozygous for a targeted mutation in the Mthfr gene (Mthfr(+/-)) are a good model for humans homozygous for the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism, which is found in 10% of the population and is associated with decreased MTHFR activity and infertility. High-dose folic acid is administered as an empirical treatment for male infertility. Here, we examined MTHFR expression in developing male germ cells and evaluated DNA methylation patterns and effects of a range of methionine concentrations in spermatogonia from Mthfr(+/-) as compared to wild-type, Mthfr(+/+) mice. MTHFR was expressed in prospermatogonia and spermatogonia at times of DNA methylation acquisition in the male germline; its expression was also found in early spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. DNA methylation patterns were similar at imprinted genes and intergenic sites across chromosome 9 in neonatal Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) spermatogonia. Using spermatogonia from Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice in the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) culture system, we examined the stability of DNA methylation patterns and determined effects of low or high methionine concentrations. No differences were detected between early and late passages, suggesting that DNA methylation patterns are generally stable in culture. Twenty-fold normal concentrations of methionine resulted in an overall increase in the levels of DNA methylation across chromosome 9, suggesting that DNA methylation can be perturbed in culture. Mthfr(+/-) cells showed a significantly increased variance of DNA methylation at multiple loci across chromosome

  2. Genetic analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression levels in whole blood of healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The predominant model for regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation is an inverse association in which increased methylation results in decreased gene expression levels. However, recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic variation, DNA methylation and expression is more complex. Results Systems genetic approaches for examining relationships between gene expression and methylation array data were used to find both negative and positive associations between these levels. A weighted correlation network analysis revealed that i) both transcriptome and methylome are organized in modules, ii) co-expression modules are generally not preserved in the methylation data and vice-versa, and iii) highly significant correlations exist between co-expression and co-methylation modules, suggesting the existence of factors that affect expression and methylation of different modules (i.e., trans effects at the level of modules). We observed that methylation probes associated with expression in cis were more likely to be located outside CpG islands, whereas specificity for CpG island shores was present when methylation, associated with expression, was under local genetic control. A structural equation model based analysis found strong support in particular for a traditional causal model in which gene expression is regulated by genetic variation via DNA methylation instead of gene expression affecting DNA methylation levels. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the complex mechanisms between genetic markers, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. We find strong support for the classical model of genetic variants regulating methylation, which in turn regulates gene expression. Moreover we show that, although the methylation and expression modules differ, they are highly correlated. PMID:23157493

  3. Comprehensive DNA methylation analysis of the Aedes aegypti genome

    PubMed Central

    Falckenhayn, Cassandra; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; de Mendonça Amarante, Anderson; Schmid, Katharina; Hanna, Katharina; Kang, Seokyoung; Helm, Mark; Dimopoulos, George; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Lyko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors of viral diseases. Mosquito host factors play key roles in virus control and it has been suggested that dengue virus replication is regulated by Dnmt2-mediated DNA methylation. However, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and that Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns, thus necessitating a systematic re-evaluation of the mosquito genome methylation status. We have now searched the Ae. aegypti genome for candidate DNA modification enzymes. This failed to reveal any known (cytosine-5) DNA methyltransferases, but identified homologues for the Dnmt2 tRNA methyltransferase, the Mettl4 (adenine-6) DNA methyltransferase, and the Tet DNA demethylase. All genes were expressed at variable levels throughout mosquito development. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that DNA methylation levels were several orders of magnitude below the levels that are usually detected in organisms with DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing failed to reveal any evidence of defined DNA methylation patterns. These results suggest that the Ae. aegypti genome is unmethylated. Interestingly, additional RNA bisulfite sequencing provided first evidence for Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation in mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of Dnmt2-dependent virus regulation. PMID:27805064

  4. Comprehensive DNA methylation analysis of the Aedes aegypti genome.

    PubMed

    Falckenhayn, Cassandra; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; de Mendonça Amarante, Anderson; Schmid, Katharina; Hanna, Katharina; Kang, Seokyoung; Helm, Mark; Dimopoulos, George; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Lyko, Frank

    2016-11-02

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors of viral diseases. Mosquito host factors play key roles in virus control and it has been suggested that dengue virus replication is regulated by Dnmt2-mediated DNA methylation. However, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and that Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns, thus necessitating a systematic re-evaluation of the mosquito genome methylation status. We have now searched the Ae. aegypti genome for candidate DNA modification enzymes. This failed to reveal any known (cytosine-5) DNA methyltransferases, but identified homologues for the Dnmt2 tRNA methyltransferase, the Mettl4 (adenine-6) DNA methyltransferase, and the Tet DNA demethylase. All genes were expressed at variable levels throughout mosquito development. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that DNA methylation levels were several orders of magnitude below the levels that are usually detected in organisms with DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing failed to reveal any evidence of defined DNA methylation patterns. These results suggest that the Ae. aegypti genome is unmethylated. Interestingly, additional RNA bisulfite sequencing provided first evidence for Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation in mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of Dnmt2-dependent virus regulation.

  5. DNA Methylation Profiling in Chondrocyte Dedifferentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Liang, Yujie; Ma, Bin; Wang, Daming; Liu, Wei; Huang, Jianghong; Xiong, Jianyi; Peng, Liangquan; Chen, Jielin; Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation has emerged as a crucial regulator of chondrocyte dedifferentiation, which severely compromises the outcome of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) treatment for cartilage defects. However, the full-scale DNA methylation profiling in chondrocyte dedifferentiation remains to be determined. Here, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of dedifferentiated chondrocytes in monolayer culture and chondrocytes treated with DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC). This research revealed that the general methylation level of CpG was increased while the COL-1A1 promoter methylation level was decreased during the chondrocyte dedifferentiation. 5-AzaC could reduce general methylation levels and reverse the chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Surprisingly, the DNA methylation level of COL-1A1 promoter was increased after 5-AzaC treatment. The COL-1A1 expression level was increased while that of SOX-9 was decreased during the chondrocyte dedifferentiation. 5-AzaC treatment up-regulated the SOX-9 expression while down-regulated the COL-1A1 promoter activity and gene expression. Taken together, these results suggested that differential regulation of the DNA methylation level of cartilage-specific genes might contribute to the chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Thus, the epigenetic manipulation of these genes could be a potential strategy to counteract the chondrocyte dedifferentiation accompanying in vitro propagation. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1708-1716, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Air pollution and DNA methylation alterations in lung cancer: A systematic and comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-Lan; He, Shui-Wang; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Duan, He-Xian; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yun-Chao; Li, Gao-Feng; Wang, Ping; Ma, Li-Ju; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer samples. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure induced multiple alterations in DNA methylation and in mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases and ten-11 translocation proteins; these alterations partially occurred in Xuanwei lung cancer. Furthermore, benzo(a)pyrene-induced DKK2 and EN1 promoter hypermethylation and LPAR2 promoter hypomethylation led to down-regulation and up-regulation of the genes, respectively; the down-regulation of DKK2 and EN1 promoted the cellular proliferation. Thus, DNA methylation alterations induced by benzo(a)pyrene contribute partially to abnormal DNA methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer, and these DNA methylation alterations may affect the development and progression of lung cancer. Additionally, vitamin C and B6 can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA methylation alterations and may be used as chemopreventive agents for air pollution-related lung cancer. PMID:27901495

  7. How Can Plant DNA Viruses Evade siRNA-Directed DNA Methylation and Silencing?

    PubMed Central

    Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants infected with DNA viruses produce massive quantities of virus-derived, 24-nucleotide short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can potentially direct viral DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing. However, growing evidence indicates that the circular double-stranded DNA accumulating in the nucleus for Pol II-mediated transcription of viral genes is not methylated. Hence, DNA viruses most likely evade or suppress RNA-directed DNA methylation. This review describes the specialized mechanisms of replication and silencing evasion evolved by geminiviruses and pararetoviruses, which rescue viral DNA from repressive methylation and interfere with transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing of viral genes. PMID:23887650

  8. Ras regulation of DNA-methylation and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Samir Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Genome wide hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of cancer cells and tissues remain a paradox, though it has received a convincing confirmation that epigenetic switching systems, including DNA-methylation represent a fundamental regulatory mechanism that has an impact on genome maintenance and gene transcription. Methylated cytosine residues of vertebrate DNA are transmitted by clonal inheritance through the strong preference of DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, for hemimethylated-DNA. Maintenance of methylation patterns is necessary for normal development of mice, and aberrant methylation patterns are associated with many human tumours. DNMT1 interacts with many proteins during cell cycle progression, including PCNA, p53, EZH2 and HP1. Ras family of GTPases promotes cell proliferation by its oncogenic nature, which transmits signals by multiple pathways in both lipid raft dependent and independent fashion. DNA-methylation-mediated repression of DNA-repair protein O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene and increased rate of K-Ras mutation at codon for amino acids 12 and 13 have been correlated with a secondary role for Ras-effector homologues (RASSFs) in tumourigenesis. Lines of evidence suggest that DNA-methylation associated repression of tumour suppressors and apoptotic genes and ceaseless proliferation of tumour cells are regulated in part by Ras-signaling. Control of Ras GTPase signaling might reduce the aberrant methylation and accordingly may reduce the risk of cancer development.

  9. Epigenetics in Alzheimer's Disease: Perspective of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Talal Jamil; Quan, Zhenzhen; Mir, Asif; Qing, Hong

    2017-01-14

    Research over the years has shown that causes of Alzheimer's disease are not well understood, but over the past years, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the developing memory formation either under pathological or physiological conditions has become clear. The term epigenetics represents the heredity of changes in phenotype that are independent of altered DNA sequences. Different studies validated that cytosine methylation of genomic DNA decreases with age in different tissues of mammals, and therefore, the role of epigenetic factors in developing neurological disorders in aging has been under focus. In this review, we summarized and reviewed the involvement of different epigenetic mechanisms especially the DNA methylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), and autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). Down to the minutest of details, we tried to discuss the methylation patterns like mitochondrial DNA methylation and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) methylation. Additionally, we mentioned some therapeutic approaches related to epigenetics, which could provide a potential cure for AD. Moreover, we reviewed some recent studies that validate DNA methylation as a potential biomarker and its role in AD. We hope that this review will provide new insights into the understanding of AD pathogenesis from the epigenetic perspective especially from the perspective of DNA methylation.

  10. A systematic comparison of quantitative high-resolution DNA methylation analysis and methylation-specific PCR

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Rainer; Wilop, Stefan; Hielscher, Thomas; Sonnet, Miriam; Dahl, Edgar; Galm, Oliver; Jost, Edgar; Plass, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of DNA methylation has become a critical factor for the identification, development and application of methylation based biomarkers. Here we describe a systematic comparison of a quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach (MassARRAY), pyrosequencing and the broadly used methylation-specific PCR (MSP) technique analyzing clinically relevant epigenetically silenced genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By MassARRAY and pyrosequencing, we identified significant DNA methylation differences at the ID4 gene promoter and in the 5′ region of members of the SFRP gene family in 62 AML patients compared with healthy controls. We found a good correlation between data obtained by MassARRAY and pyrosequencing (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.88). MSP-based assessment of the identical samples showed less pronounced differences between AML patients and controls. By direct comparison of MSP-derived and MassARRAY-based methylation data as well as pyrosequencing, we could determine overestimation of DNA methylation data by MSP. We found sequence-context dependent highly variable cut-off values of quantitative DNA methylation values serving as discriminator for the two MSP methylation categories. Moreover, good agreements between quantitative methods and MSP could not be achieved for all investigated loci. Significant correlation of the quantitative assessment but not of MSP-derived methylation data with clinically important characteristics in our patient cohort demonstrated clinical relevance of quantitative DNA methylation assessment. Taken together, while MSP is still the most commonly applied technique for DNA methylation assessment, our data highlight advantages of quantitative approaches for precise characterization and reliable biomarker use of aberrant DNA methylation in primary patient samples, particularly. PMID:22647397

  11. Measurement of oxidized and methylated DNA bases by HPLC with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Kaur, H; Halliwell, B

    1996-08-15

    Oxidative DNA damage is thought to be an important contributor to cancer development and to be affected by dietary constituents, so its accurate measurement is important. DNA methylation is recognized as an important mechanism affecting gene expression. In the present paper we describe an HPLC-with-electrochemical-detection procedure that allows rapid and sensitive measurement of four oxidized (2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine, 5-hydroxyuracil, 8-hydroxyguanine, 8-hydroxyadenine) and three methylated (7-methylguanine, 1-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine) bases in acid hydrolysates of DNA. Guanine was also detected, but was clearly separated from the other bases.

  12. Multigenerational epigenetic inheritance in humans: DNA methylation changes associated with maternal exposure to lead can be transmitted to the grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Land, Susan; Hollocher, Kurt; Lu, Xiangyi; Dereski, Mary O.; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    We report that the DNA methylation profile of a child’s neonatal whole blood can be significantly influenced by his or her mother’s neonatal blood lead levels (BLL). We recruited 35 mother-infant pairs in Detroit and measured the whole blood lead (Pb) levels and DNA methylation levels at over 450,000 loci from current blood and neonatal blood from both the mother and the child. We found that mothers with high neonatal BLL correlate with altered DNA methylation at 564 loci in their children’s neonatal blood. Our results suggest that Pb exposure during pregnancy affects the DNA methylation status of the fetal germ cells, which leads to altered DNA methylation in grandchildren’s neonatal dried blood spots. This is the first demonstration that an environmental exposure in pregnant mothers can have an epigenetic effect on the DNA methylation pattern in the grandchildren. PMID:26417717

  13. DNA Methylation Patterns in the Hypothalamus of Female Pubertal Goats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiumei; Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Luo, Lei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Ling, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Ya; Fang, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Female pubertal development is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms, including neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulatory pathways. Specific gene expression patterns can be influenced by DNA methylation changes in the hypothalamus, which can in turn regulate timing of puberty onset. In order to understand the relationship between DNA methylation changes and gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of pubertal goats, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing analyses were carried out. There was a decline in DNA methylation levels in the hypothalamus during puberty and 268 differentially methylated regions (DMR) in the genome, with differential patterns in different gene regions. There were 1049 genes identified with distinct expression patterns. High levels of DNA methylation were detected in promoters, introns and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs). Levels of methylation decreased gradually from promoters to 5′-UTRs and increased from 5′-UTRs to introns. Methylation density analysis demonstrated that methylation level variation was consistent with the density in the promoter, exon, intron, 5′-UTRs and 3′-UTRs. Analyses of CpG island (CGI) sites showed that the enriched gene contents were gene bodies, intergenic regions and introns, and these CGI sites were hypermethylated. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes may influence gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of goats during the onset of puberty, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in pubertal onset. PMID:27788248

  14. Methylating agents and DNA repair responses: methylated bases and sources of strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Michael D.; Pittman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical methylating agents methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) have been used for decades as classical DNA damaging agents. These agents have been utilized to uncover and explore pathways of DNA repair, DNA damage response, and mutagenesis. MMS and MNNG modify DNA by adding methyl groups to a number of nucleophilic sites on the DNA bases, although MNNG produces a greater percentage of O-methyl adducts. There has been substantial progress elucidating direct reversal proteins that remove methyl groups and base excision repair (BER), which removes and replaces methylated bases. Direct reversal proteins and BER thus counteract the toxic, mutagenic and clastogenic effects of methylating agents. Despite recent progress, the complexity of DNA damage responses to methylating agents is still being discovered. In particular, there is growing understanding of pathways such as homologous recombination, lesion bypass, and mismatch repair that react when the response of direct reversal proteins and BER is insufficient. Furthermore, the importance of proper balance within the steps in BER has been uncovered with the knowledge that DNA structural intermediates during BER are deleterious. A number of issues complicate elucidating the downstream responses when direct reversal is insufficient or BER is imbalanced. These include inter-species differences, cell-type specific differences within mammals and between cancer cell lines, and the type of methyl damage or BER intermediate encountered. MMS also carries a misleading reputation of being a ‘radiomimetic,’ i.e., capable of directly producing strand breaks. This review focuses on the DNA methyl damage caused by MMS and MNNG for each site of potential methylation to summarize what is known about the repair of such damage and the downstream responses and consequences if not repaired. PMID:17173371

  15. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  16. Methylation-induced blocks to in vitro DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Larson, K; Sahm, J; Shenkar, R; Strauss, B

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded primed M13mp2 templates and double-stranded templates were treated with either dimethyl sulfate (DMS) or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and used for DNA synthesis in vitro. Methylation inhibits the ability of the molecules to serve as templates. When either E. coli DNA polymerase I or AMV reverse transcriptase were used as polymerases, DNA synthesis terminated one nucleotide 3' to the site of adenine residues in the template. Heating of the templates resulted in the appearance of additional termination bands one nucleotide before the site of G's in the template. We assume that methylated A's but not methylated G's are blocks to in vitro DNA synthesis and that heating converts a portion of the sites of methylated G to AP sites which are blocks to synthesis.

  17. DNA methylation of SPARC and chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extracellular matrix protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine) has been linked to degeneration of the intervertebral discs and chronic low back pain (LBP). In humans, SPARC protein expression is decreased as a function of age and disc degeneration. In mice, inactivation of the SPARC gene results in the development of accelerated age-dependent disc degeneration concurrent with age-dependent behavioral signs of chronic LBP. DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA by addition of methyl moieties to cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation plays an important role in programming of gene expression, including in the dynamic regulation of changes in gene expression in response to aging and environmental signals. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation down-regulates SPARC expression in chronic LBP in pre-clinical models and in patients with chronic LBP. Results Our data shows that aging mice develop anatomical and behavioral signs of disc degeneration and back pain, decreased SPARC expression and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. In parallel, we show that human subjects with back pain exhibit signs of disc degeneration and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. Methylation of either the human or mouse SPARC promoter silences its activity in transient transfection assays. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that DNA methylation of a single gene plays a role in chronic pain in humans and animal models. This has important implications for understanding the mechanisms involved in chronic pain and for pain therapy. PMID:21867537

  18. Role of the DNA methyltransferase variant DNMT3b3 in DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, Daniel J; Velicescu, Mihaela; Cheng, Jonathan C; Gonzales, Felicidad A; Liang, Gangning; Jones, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    Several alternatively spliced variants of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3b have been described. Here, we identified new murine Dnmt3b mRNA isoforms and found that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells expressed only Dnmt3b transcripts that contained exons 10 and 11, whereas the Dnmt3b transcripts in somatic cells lacked these exons, suggesting that this region is important for embryonic development. DNMT3b2 and 3b3 were the major isoforms expressed in human cell lines and the mRNA levels of these isoforms closely correlated with their protein levels. Although DNMT3b3 may be catalytically inactive, it still may be biologically important because D4Z4 and satellites 2 and 3 repeat sequences, all known DNMT3b target sequences, were methylated in cells that predominantly expressed DNMT3b3. Treatment of cells with the mechanism-based inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) caused a complete depletion of DNMT1, 3a, 3b1, and 3b2 proteins. Human DNMT3b3 and the murine Dnmt3b3-like isoform, Dnmt3b6, were also depleted although less efficiently, suggesting that DNMT3b3 also may be capable of DNA binding. Moreover, de novo methylation of D4Z4 in T24 cancer cells after 5-Aza-CdR treatment only occurred when DNMT3b3 was expressed, reinforcing its role as a contributing factor of DNA methylation. The expression of either DNMT3b2 or 3b3, however, was not sufficient to explain the abnormal methylation of DNMT3b target sequences in human cancers, which may therefore be dependent on factors that affect DNMT3b targeting. Methylation analyses of immunodeficiency, chromosomal instabilities, and facial abnormalities cells revealed that an Alu repeat sequence was highly methylated, suggesting that Alu sequences are not DNMT3b targets.

  19. DNA Methylation Variation Trends during the Embryonic Development of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shizhao; Zhu, Yufei; Zhi, Lihui; Han, Xiaoying; Shen, Jing; Liu, Yanli; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The embryogenesis period is critical for epigenetic reprogramming and is thus of great significance in the research field of poultry epigenetics for elucidation of the trends in DNA methylation variations during the embryonic development of birds, particularly due to differences in embryogenesis between birds and mammals. Here, we first examined the variations in genomic DNA methylation during chicken embryogenesis through high-performance liquid chromatography using broilers as the model organism. We then identified the degree of DNA methylation of the promoters and gene bodies involved in two specific genes (IGF2 and TNF-α) using the bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction method. In addition, we measured the expression levels of IGF2, TNF-α and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, 3a and 3b. Our results showed that the genomic DNA methylation levels in the liver, heart and muscle increased during embryonic development and that the methylation level of the liver was significantly higher in mid-anaphase. In both the muscle and liver, the promoter methylation levels of TNF-α first increased and then decreased, whereas the gene body methylation levels remained lower at embryonic ages E8, 11 and 14 before increasing notably at E17. The promoter methylation level of IGF2 decreased persistently, whereas the methylation levels in the gene body showed a continuous increase. No differences in the expression of TNF-α were found among E8, 11 and 14, whereas a significant increase was observed at E17. IGF2 showed increasing expression level during the examined embryonic stages. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of DNMTs increased with increasing embryonic ages. These results suggest that chicken shows increasing genomic DNA methylation patterns during the embryonic period. Furthermore, the genomic DNA methylation levels in tissues are closely related to the genes expression levels, and gene expression may be simultaneously regulated by promoter hypomethylation

  20. Insertion of Foreign DNA into an Established Mammalian Genome Can Alter the Methylation of Cellular DNA Sequences†

    PubMed Central

    Remus, Ralph; Kämmer, Christina; Heller, Hilde; Schmitz, Birgit; Schell, Gudrun; Doerfler, Walter

    1999-01-01

    The insertion of adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) DNA into the hamster genome and the transformation of these cells by Ad12 can lead to marked alterations in the levels of DNA methylation in several cellular genes and DNA segments. Since such alterations in DNA methylation patterns are likely to affect the transcription patterns of cellular genes, it is conceivable that these changes have played a role in the generation or the maintenance of the Ad12-transformed phenotype. We have now isolated clonal BHK21 hamster cell lines that carry in their genomes bacteriophage λ and plasmid pSV2neo DNAs in an integrated state. Most of these cell lines contain one or multiple copies of integrated λ DNA, which often colocalize with the pSV2neo DNA, usually in a single chromosomal site as determined by the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. In different cell lines, the loci of foreign DNA insertion are different. The inserted bacteriophage λ DNA frequently becomes de novo methylated. In some of the thus-generated hamster cell lines, the levels of DNA methylation in the retrotransposon genomes of the endogenous intracisternal A particles (IAP) are increased in comparison to those in the non-λ-DNA-transgenic BHK21 cell lines. These changes in the methylation patterns of the IAP subclone I (IAPI) segment have been documented by restriction analyses with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases followed by Southern transfer hybridization and phosphorimager quantitation. The results of genomic sequencing experiments using the bisulfite protocol yielded additional evidence for alterations in the patterns of DNA methylation in selected segments of the IAPI sequences. In these experiments, the nucleotide sequences in >330 PCR-generated cloned DNA molecules were determined. Upon prolonged cultivation of cell lines with altered cellular methylation patterns, these differences became less apparent, perhaps due to counterselection of the transgenic cells. The possibility

  1. Protection of CpG islands from DNA methylation is DNA-encoded and evolutionarily conserved

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hannah K.; King, Hamish W.; Patient, Roger K.; Odom, Duncan T.; Klose, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a repressive epigenetic modification that covers vertebrate genomes. Regions known as CpG islands (CGIs), which are refractory to DNA methylation, are often associated with gene promoters and play central roles in gene regulation. Yet how CGIs in their normal genomic context evade the DNA methylation machinery and whether these mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved remains enigmatic. To address these fundamental questions we exploited a transchromosomic animal model and genomic approaches to understand how the hypomethylated state is formed in vivo and to discover whether mechanisms governing CGI formation are evolutionarily conserved. Strikingly, insertion of a human chromosome into mouse revealed that promoter-associated CGIs are refractory to DNA methylation regardless of host species, demonstrating that DNA sequence plays a central role in specifying the hypomethylated state through evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In contrast, elements distal to gene promoters exhibited more variable methylation between host species, uncovering a widespread dependence on nucleotide frequency and occupancy of DNA-binding transcription factors in shaping the DNA methylation landscape away from gene promoters. This was exemplified by young CpG rich lineage-restricted repeat sequences that evaded DNA methylation in the absence of co-evolved mechanisms targeting methylation to these sequences, and species specific DNA binding events that protected against DNA methylation in CpG poor regions. Finally, transplantation of mouse chromosomal fragments into the evolutionarily distant zebrafish uncovered the existence of a mechanistically conserved and DNA-encoded logic which shapes CGI formation across vertebrate species. PMID:27084945

  2. DNA methylation and genome rearrangement characteristics of phase change in cultured shoots of Sequoia sempervirens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chun; Hsiao, Lin-June; Pu, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Ching-I; Huang, Bau-Lian; Tseng, Tsung-Che; Huang, Hao-Jen; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2012-06-01

    Epigenetic machinery regulates the expression of individual genes and plays a crucial role in globally shaping and maintaining developmental patterning. We studied the extent of DNA methylation in the nucleus, mitochondrion and chloroplast in cultured Sequoia sempervirens (coast redwood) adult, juvenile and rejuvenated shoots by measuring the ratio of methylcytosine to total cytosine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also analyzed nuclear DNA (nuDNA) polymorphisms of different shoot types by methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) and Southern blot analysis. The extent of nuDNA methylation was greater in the adult vegetative than juvenile and rejuvenated shoots (8% vs 6.5-7.5%). In contrast, the proportion of methylcytosine was higher in mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) of juvenile and rejuvenated shoots than adult shoots (6.6% vs 7.8-8.2%). MSAP and Southern blot analyses identified three MSAP fragments which could be applied as phase-specific molecular markers. We also found nuclear genome and mtDNA rearrangement may be as important as DNA methylation status during the phase change. Our findings strongly suggest that DNA methylation and genome rearrangement may affect the dynamic tissue- and cell type-specific changes that determine the developmental phase of S. sempervirens shoots.

  3. The effect of paternal methyl-group donor intake on offspring DNA methylation and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, S; Truijen, I; Ghosh, M; Duca, R C; Langie, S A S; Bekaert, B; Freson, K; Huybrechts, I; Koppen, G; Devlieger, R; Godderis, L

    2017-03-06

    Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother-infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.

  4. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  5. Sensitive quantitative analysis of murine LINE1 DNA methylation using high resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Newman, Michelle; Blyth, Benjamin J; Hussey, Damian J; Jardine, Daniel; Sykes, Pamela J; Ormsby, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first high resolution melt (HRM) assay to quantitatively analyze differences in murine DNA methylation levels utilizing CpG methylation of Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE1 or L1). By calculating the integral difference in melt temperature between samples and a methylated control, and biasing PCR primers for unmethylated CpGs, the assay demonstrates enhanced sensitivity to detect changes in methylation in a cell line treated with low doses of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza). The L1 assay was confirmed to be a good marker of changes in DNA methylation of L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome when compared with total 5-methyl-cytosine content, measured by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay design was also used to detect changes in methylation at other murine repeat elements (B1 and Intracisternal-A-particle Long-terminal Repeat elements). Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that L1 methylation changes were non-uniform across the CpGs within the L1-HRM target region, demonstrating that the L1 assay can detect small changes in CpG methylation among a large pool of heterogeneously methylated DNA templates. Application of the assay to various tissues from Balb/c and CBA mice, including previously unreported peripheral blood (PB), revealed a tissue hierarchy (from hypermethylated to hypomethylated) of PB > kidney > liver > prostate > spleen. CBA mice demonstrated overall greater methylation than Balb/c mice, and male mice demonstrated higher tissue methylation compared with female mice in both strains. Changes in DNA methylation have been reported to be an early and fundamental event in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Mouse studies designed to identify modulators of DNA methylation, the critical doses, relevant time points and the tissues affected are limited by the low throughput nature and exorbitant cost of many DNA methylation assays. The L1 assay provides a high throughput, inexpensive

  6. Tissue-specific patterns of allelically-skewed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Sarah J; Meaburn, Emma L; Dempster, Emma L; Lunnon, Katie; Paya-Cano, Jose L; Smith, Rebecca G; Volta, Manuela; Troakes, Claire; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Mill, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    While DNA methylation is usually thought to be symmetrical across both alleles, there are some notable exceptions. Genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation are two well-studied sources of allele-specific methylation (ASM), but recent research has indicated a more complex pattern in which genotypic variation can be associated with allelically-skewed DNA methylation in cis. Given the known heterogeneity of DNA methylation across tissues and cell types we explored inter- and intra-individual variation in ASM across several regions of the human brain and whole blood from multiple individuals. Consistent with previous studies, we find widespread ASM with > 4% of the ∼220,000 loci interrogated showing evidence of allelically-skewed DNA methylation. We identify ASM flanking known imprinted regions, and show that ASM sites are enriched in DNase I hypersensitivity sites and often located in an extended genomic context of intermediate DNA methylation. We also detect examples of genotype-driven ASM, some of which are tissue-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of differential DNA methylation across tissues and have important implications for genetic studies of complex disease. As a resource to the community, ASM patterns across each of the tissues studied are available in a searchable online database: http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/ASMBrainBlood.

  7. Tissue-specific patterns of allelically-skewed DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Sarah J.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Dempster, Emma L.; Lunnon, Katie; Paya-Cano, Jose L.; Smith, Rebecca G.; Volta, Manuela; Troakes, Claire; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Mill, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While DNA methylation is usually thought to be symmetrical across both alleles, there are some notable exceptions. Genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation are two well-studied sources of allele-specific methylation (ASM), but recent research has indicated a more complex pattern in which genotypic variation can be associated with allelically-skewed DNA methylation in cis. Given the known heterogeneity of DNA methylation across tissues and cell types we explored inter- and intra-individual variation in ASM across several regions of the human brain and whole blood from multiple individuals. Consistent with previous studies, we find widespread ASM with > 4% of the ∼220,000 loci interrogated showing evidence of allelically-skewed DNA methylation. We identify ASM flanking known imprinted regions, and show that ASM sites are enriched in DNase I hypersensitivity sites and often located in an extended genomic context of intermediate DNA methylation. We also detect examples of genotype-driven ASM, some of which are tissue-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of differential DNA methylation across tissues and have important implications for genetic studies of complex disease. As a resource to the community, ASM patterns across each of the tissues studied are available in a searchable online database: http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/ASMBrainBlood. PMID:26786711

  8. Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joseph S; Cornett, Evan M; Goldfarb, Dennis; DaRosa, Paul A; Li, Zimeng M; Yan, Feng; Dickson, Bradley M; Guo, Angela H; Cantu, Daniel V; Kaustov, Lilia; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Erie, Dorothy A; Major, Michael B; Klevit, Rachel E; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kuhlman, Brian; Strahl, Brian D; Rothbart, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the UHRF1 histone-binding site. Collectively, our studies are the first demonstrations of a DNA-protein interaction and an epigenetic modification directly regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. They also define an orchestrated epigenetic control mechanism involving modifications both to histones and DNA that facilitate UHRF1 chromatin targeting, H3 ubiquitylation, and DNA methylation inheritance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17101.001 PMID:27595565

  9. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level. PMID:28045988

  10. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  11. META2: Intercellular DNA Methylation Pairwise Annotation and Integrative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide deciphering intercellular differential DNA methylation as well as its roles in transcriptional regulation remains elusive in cancer epigenetics. Here we developed a toolkit META2 for DNA methylation annotation and analysis, which aims to perform integrative analysis on differentially methylated loci and regions through deep mining and statistical comparison methods. META2 contains multiple versatile functions for investigating and annotating DNA methylation profiles. Benchmarked with T-47D cell, we interrogated the association within differentially methylated CpG (DMC) and region (DMR) candidate count and region length and identified major transition zones as clues for inferring statistically significant DMRs; together we validated those DMRs with the functional annotation. Thus META2 can provide a comprehensive analysis approach for epigenetic research and clinical study. PMID:28116291

  12. DNA methylation and histone modification in onion chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Shiomi, Maho; Morihana, Sayuri; Yamamoto, Maki; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa, is a model plant for experimental observation of somatic cell division, whose mitotic chromosome is extremely large, and contains the characteristic terminal heterochromatin. Epigenetic status of the onion chromosome is a matter of deep interest from a molecular cytogenetic point of view, because epigenetic marks regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we examined chromosomal distribution of DNA methylation and histone modification in A. cepa in order to reveal the chromatin structure in detail. Immunodetection of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and in situ nick-translation analysis showed that onion genomic DNA was highly methylated, and the methylated CG dinucleotides were distributed in entire chromosomes. In addition, distributions of histone methylation codes, which occur in close association with DNA methylation, were similar to those of other large genome species. From these results, a highly heterochromatic and less euchromatic state of large onion chromosomes were demonstrated at an epigenetic level.

  13. Dynamic DNA Methylation Regulates Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Figge, David A.; Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a persistent behavioral sensitization that develops after repeated levodopa (l-DOPA) exposure in Parkinson disease patients. LID is a consequence of sustained changes in the transcriptional behavior of striatal neurons following dopaminergic stimulation. In neurons, transcriptional regulation through dynamic DNA methylation has been shown pivotal to many long-term behavioral modifications; however, its role in LID has not yet been explored. Using a rodent model, we show LID development leads to the aberrant expression of DNA demethylating enzymes and locus-specific changes to DNA methylation at the promoter regions of genes aberrantly transcribed following l-DOPA treatment. Looking for dynamic DNA methylation in LID genome-wide, we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and found an extensive reorganization of the dorsal striatal methylome. LID development led to significant demethylation at many important regulatory areas of aberrantly transcribed genes. We used pharmacologic treatments that alter DNA methylation bidirectionally and found them able to modulate dyskinetic behaviors. Together, these findings demonstrate that l-DOPA induces widespread changes to striatal DNA methylation and that these modifications are required for the development and maintenance of LID. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) develops after repeated levodopa (l-DOPA) exposure in Parkinson disease patients and remains one of the primary obstacles to effective treatment. LID behaviors are a consequence of striatal neuron sensitization due to sustained changes in transcriptional behavior; however, the mechanisms responsible for the long-term maintenance of this cellular priming remain uncertain. Regulation of dynamic DNA methylation has been shown pivotal to the maintenance of several long-term behavioral modifications, yet its role in LID has not yet been explored. In this work, we report a pivotal role for the

  14. Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lucia L.; Emberly, Eldon; Fraser, Hunter B.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that constitute the epigenome, making it an ideal target for epigenetic studies in human populations. Here, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a community-based cohort stratified for early-life socioeconomic status, we measured DNA methylation in the promoter regions of more than 14,000 human genes. Using this approach, we broadly assessed and characterized epigenetic variation, identified some of the factors that sculpt the epigenome, and determined its functional relation to gene expression. We found that the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood covaried with patterns of DNA methylation at many sites, as did demographic factors, such as sex, age, and ethnicity. Furthermore, psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, and cortisol output were associated with DNA methylation, as was early-life socioeconomic status. Interestingly, we determined that DNA methylation was strongly correlated to the ex vivo inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with microbial products that engage Toll-like receptors. In contrast, our work found limited effects of DNA methylation marks on the expression of associated genes across individuals, suggesting a more complex relationship than anticipated. PMID:23045638

  15. Conserved DNA methylation in Gadd45a(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Engel, Nora; Tront, Jennifer S; Erinle, Toyin; Nguyen, Nghi; Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2009-02-16

    Gadd45a (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha) plays a pivotal role in cellular stress responses and is implicated in DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.(1) Recently, it was proposed that GADD45A is a key regulator of active DNA demethylation by way of its role in DNA repair.(2) Barreto et al. reported that Gadd45a overexpression activated transcription from methylation-silenced reporter plasmids and promoted global DNA demethylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gadd45a levels resulted in increased levels of DNA methylation at specific endogenous loci. Based on these exciting results, Gadd45a(-/-) mice might be predicted to have a hypermethylation phenotype. We report here that neither global nor locus-specific methylation is increased in Gadd45a(-/-) mice.

  16. A genome-wide DNA methylation study in azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ferfouri, F; Boitrelle, F; Ghout, I; Albert, M; Molina Gomes, D; Wainer, R; Bailly, M; Selva, J; Vialard, F

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genome-wide DNA methylation in testicular tissue from azoospermic patients. A total of 94 azoospermic patients were recruited and classified into three groups: 29 patients presented obstructive azoospermia (OA), 26 displayed non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and successful retrieval of spermatozoa by testicular sperm extraction (TESE+) and 39 displayed NOA and failure to retrieve spermatozoa by TESE (TESE-). An Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChip DNA methylation array was used to establish a testicular DNA methylation pattern for each type of azoospermic patient. The OA and NOA groups were compared in terms of the relative M-value (the log2 ratio between methylated and non-methylated probe intensities) for each CpG site. We observed significantly different DNA methylation profiles for the NOA and OA groups, with differences at over 9000 of the 27 578 CpG sites; 212 CpG sites had a relative M-value >3. The results highlighted 14 testis-specific genes. Patient clustering with respect to these 212 CpG sites corresponded closely to the clinical classification. The DNA methylation patterns showed that in the NOA group, 78 of the 212 CpG sites were hypomethylated and 134 were hypermethylated (relative to the OA group). On the basis of these DNA methylation profiles, azoospermic patients could be classified as OA or NOA by considering the 212 CpG sites with the greatest methylation differences. Furthermore, we identified genes that may provide insight into the mechanism of idiopathic NOA.

  17. New differentially expressed genes and differential DNA methylation underlying refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Shiyong; Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Qin, Lu; Yang, Hui; Chen, Lifen; Tan, Xinjie; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics underlying refractory epilepsy is poorly understood, especially in patients without distinctive genetic alterations. DNA methylation may affect gene expression in epilepsy without affecting DNA sequences. Herein, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in brain tissues of 10 patients with refractory epilepsy using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation linked with sequencing and mRNA Sequencing. Diverse distribution of differentially methylated genes was found in X chromosome, while differentially methylated genes appeared rarely in Y chromosome. 62 differentially expressed genes, such as MMP19, AZGP1, DES, and LGR6 were correlated with refractory epilepsy for the first time. Although general trends of differentially enriched gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways in this study are consistent with previous researches, differences also exist in many specific gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways. These findings provide a new genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in brain tissues of patients with refractory epilepsy, which may provide a basis for further study on the etiology and mechanisms of refractory epilepsy. PMID:27903967

  18. DNA methylation in schizophrenia: progress and challenges of epigenetic studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disease affecting about 1% of the world's population, with significant effects on patients and society. Genetic studies have identified several candidate risk genes or genomic regions for schizophrenia, and epidemiological studies have revealed several environmental risk factors. However, the etiology of schizophrenia still remains largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications can explain the interaction between genetic and environmental factors at the molecular level, and accumulating evidence suggests that such epigenetic alterations are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, replication studies to validate previous findings and investigations of the causality of epigenetic alterations in schizophrenia are needed. Here, we review epigenetic studies of schizophrenia patients using postmortem brains or peripheral tissues, focusing mainly on DNA methylation. We also highlight the recent progress and challenges in characterizing the potentially complex and dynamic patterns of epigenomic variations. Such studies are expected to contribute to our understanding of schizophrenia etiology and should provide novel opportunities for the development of therapeutic drugs. PMID:23234572

  19. Critical period of nonpromoter DNA methylation acquisition during prenatal male germ cell development.

    PubMed

    Niles, Kirsten M; Chan, Donovan; La Salle, Sophie; Oakes, Christopher C; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2011-01-01

    The prenatal period of germ cell development is a key time of epigenetic programming in the male, a window of development that has been shown to be influenced by maternal factors such as dietary methyl donor supply. DNA methylation occurring outside of promoter regions differs significantly between sperm and somatic tissues and has recently been linked with the regulation of gene expression during development as well as successful germline development. We examined DNA methylation at nonpromoter, intergenic sequences in purified prenatal and postnatal germ cells isolated from wildtype mice and mice deficient in the DNA methyltransferase cofactor DNMT3L. Erasure of the parental DNA methylation pattern occurred by 13.5 days post coitum (dpc) with the exception of approximately 8% of loci demonstrating incomplete erasure. For most loci, DNA methylation acquisition occurred between embryonic day 13.5 to 16.5 indicating that the key phase of epigenetic pattern establishment for intergenic sequences in male germ cells occurs prior to birth. In DNMT3L-deficient germ cells at 16.5 dpc, average DNA methylation levels were low, about 30% of wildtype levels; however, by postnatal day 6, about half of the DNMT3L deficiency-specific hypomethylated loci had acquired normal methylation levels. Those loci normally methylated earliest in the prenatal period were the least affected in the DNMT3L-deficient mice, suggesting that some loci may be more susceptible than others to perturbations occurring prenatally. These results indicate that the critical period of DNA methylation programming of nonpromoter, intergenic sequences occurs in male germline progenitor cells in the prenatal period, a time when external perturbations of epigenetic patterns could result in diminished fertility.

  20. DNA methylation mapping by tag-modified bisulfite genomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiguo; Cauchi, Stephane; Herman, James G; Spivack, Simon D

    2006-08-01

    A tag-modified bisulfite genomic sequencing (tBGS) method employing direct cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products at kilobase scale, without conventional DNA fragment cloning, was developed for simplified evaluation of DNA methylation sites. The method entails subjecting bisulfite-modified genomic DNA to a second-round PCR amplification employing GC-tagged primers. Qualitative results from tBGS closely correlated with those from conventional BGS (R=0.935, p=0.002). In application, the intertissue and interindividual CpG methylation differences in promoter sequence for two genes, CYP1B1 and GSTP1, were then explored across four human tissue types (peripheral blood cells, exfoliated buccal cells, paired nontumor-tumor lung tissues), and two lung cell types in culture (normal NHBE and malignant A549). Predominantly conserved methylation maps for the two gene promoters were apparent across donors and tissues. At any given CpG site, variation in the degree of methylation could be determined by the relative height of C and T peaks in the sequencing trace. Methylation maps for the GSTP1 promoter diverged between NHBE (unmethylated) and A549 (completely methylated) cells in a previously unexplored upstream region, correlating with a 2.7-fold difference in GSTP1 mRNA expression (p<0.01). The tBGS method simplifies detailed methylation scanning of kilobase-scale genomic DNA, facilitating more ambitious genomic methylation mapping studies.

  1. De novo DNMTs and DNA methylation: novel insights into disease pathogenesis and therapy from epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Sylwia; Matarazzo, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in epigenetics signaling, having an impact on gene regulation, chromatin structure and development. Within the family of de novo DNA methyltransferases two active enzymes, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, are responsible for the establishment of the proper cytosine methylation profile during development. Defects in DNMT3s function correlate with pathogenesis and progression of monogenic diseases and cancers. Among monogenic diseases, Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is the only Mendelian disorder associated with DNMT3B mutations and DNA methylation defects of satellite and non-satellite regions. Similar CpG hypomethylation of the repetitive elements and gene-specific hypermethylation are observed in many types of cancer. DNA hyper-methylation sites provide targets for the epigenetic therapy. Generally, we can distinguish two groups of epi-drugs affecting DNMTs activity, i) nucleoside inhibitors, covalently trapping the enzymes, and bringing higher cytotoxic effect and (ii) nonnucleoside inhibitors, which block their active sites, showing less side-effects. Moreover, combining drugs targeting chromatin and those targeting DNA methylation enhances the efficacy of the therapy and gives more chances of patient recovery. However, development of more specific and effective epigenetic therapies requires more complete understanding of epigenomic landscapes. Here, we give an overview of the recent findings in the epigenomics field, focusing on those related to DNA methylation defects in disease pathogenesis and therapy.

  2. INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2-containing complex involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Hale, Christopher J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Simon, Stacey A.; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Feng, Suhua; Española, Sophia D.; Meyers, Blake C.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2012-10-23

    At least three pathways control maintenance of DNA cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is solely responsible for establishment of this silencing mark. We previously described INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2) as being an RNA-binding RdDM component that is required for DNA methylation establishment. In this study, we describe the discovery of two partially redundant proteins that are paralogous to IDN2 and that form a stable complex with IDN2 in vivo. Null mutations in both genes, termed IDN2-LIKE 1 and IDN2-LIKE 2 (IDNL1 and IDNL2), result in a phenotype that mirrors, but does not further enhance, the idn2 mutant phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this complex acts in a step in the downstream portion of the RdDM pathway. We also have performed structural analysis showing that the IDN2 XS domain adopts an RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation and expression analysis confirms the placement of the IDN proteins in an RdDM pathway that affects DNA methylation and transcriptional control at many sites in the genome. Results from this study identify and describe two unique components of the RdDM machinery, adding to our understanding of DNA methylation control in the Arabidopsis genome.

  3. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In the U.S., African Americans ( AA ) are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than European American (EA), and...after diagnosis, AA men are more likely to die from prostate cancer than EA men. We hypothesize that differences in DNA methylation patterns across...and adjacent normal tissue derived from both AA and EA individuals. We will determine if DNA methylation patterns in prostate tissue (both cancerous

  4. The 'golden age' of DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuso, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    DNA methylation reactions are regulated, in the first instance, by enzymes and the intermediates that constitute the 'so called' one-carbon metabolism. This is a complex biochemical pathway, also known as the homocysteine cycle, regulated by the presence of B vitamins (folate, B6, B12) and choline, among other metabolites. One of the intermediates of this metabolism is S-adenosylmethionine, which represent the methyl donor in all the DNA methyltransferase reactions in eukaryotes. The one-carbon metabolism therefore produces the substrate necessary for the transferring of a methyl group on the cytosine residues of DNA; S-adenosylmethionine also regulates the activity of the enzymes that catalyze this reaction, namely the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Alterations of this metabolic cycle can therefore be responsible for aberrant DNA methylation processes possibly leading to several human diseases. As a matter of fact, increasing evidences indicate that a number of human diseases with multifactorial origin may have an epigenetic basis. This is also due to the great technical advances in the field of epigenetic research. Among the human diseases associated with epigenetic factors, aging-related and neurodegenerative diseases are probably the object of most intense research. This review will present the main evidences linking several human diseases to DNA methylation, with particular focus on neurodegenerative diseases, together with a short description of the state-of-the-art of methylation assays.

  5. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in Crassostrea gigas male gametes

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Claire E.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns and functions are variable across invertebrate taxa. In order to provide a better understanding of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in male gamete cells using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to examine the relationship between DNA methylation and transcript expression. Methylation status of over 7.6 million CpG dinucleotides was described with a majority of methylated regions occurring among intragenic regions. Overall, 15% of the CpG dinucleotides were determined to be methylated and the mitochondrial genome lacked DNA methylation. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data revealed a positive association between methylation status, both in gene bodies and putative promoter regions, and expression. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the distribution of DNA methylation in the oyster male gamete tissue and suggests that DNA methylation is involved in gene regulatory activity. PMID:24987376

  6. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children.

    PubMed

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and nine-year old children (n = 358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in nine-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (P = 0.02 for o,p' -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies.

  7. Profiling DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation at Retrotransposable Elements.

    PubMed

    de la Rica, Lorenzo; Stanley, Jatinder S; Branco, Miguel R

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification controlling the transcriptional activity of mammalian retrotransposable elements. Its oxidation to DNA hydroxymethylation has been linked to DNA demethylation and reactivation of retrotransposons. Here we describe in detail protocols for three methods to measure DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at specific genomic targets: glucMS-qPCR, and two sequencing approaches (pyrosequencing and high-throughput sequencing) for analyzing bisulfite- and oxidative bisulfite-modified DNA. All three techniques provide absolute measurements of methylation and hydroxymethylation levels at single-base resolution. Differences between the methods are discussed, mainly with respect to throughput and target coverage. These constitute the core techniques that are used in our laboratory for accurately surveying the epigenetics of retrotransposable elements.

  8. Genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation differences in abnormally cloned and normally natural mating piglets.

    PubMed

    Zou, C; Fu, Y; Li, C; Liu, H; Li, G; Li, J; Zhang, H; Wu, Y; Li, C

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have proved that DNA methylation can regulate gene expression and further affect skeletal muscle growth and development of pig, whereas the mechanisms of how DNA methylation or gene expression alteration ultimately lead to phenotypical differences between the cloned and natural mating pigs remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation differences between abnormally cloned and normally natural mating piglets and identify molecular markers related to skeletal muscle growth and development in pig. The DNA methylation and genome-wide gene expression in the two groups of piglets were analysed through methylated DNA immunoprecipitation binding high-throughput sequencing and RNA sequencing respectively. We detected 1493 differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 382 genes were also differentially methylated. The results of the integrative analysis between DNA methylation and gene expression revealed that the DNA methylation levels showed a significantly negative and monotonic correlation with gene expression levels around the transcription start site of genes. By contrast, no notable monotonic correlation was observed in other regions. Furthermore, we identified some interesting genes and signalling pathways (e.g. myosin, heavy chain 7 and mammalian target of rapamycin) which possibly play essential roles in skeletal muscle growth and development. The results of this study provide insights into the relationship of DNA methylation with gene expression in newborn piglets and into the mechanisms in abnormally cloned animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  9. Gene-specific DNA methylation of DNMT3B and MTHFR and colorectal adenoma risk.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl; Vanner, Stephen; King, Will D

    2015-12-01

    DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are genes which encode enzymes critical to one-carbon metabolism. Polymorphisms in these genes have been implicated in colorectal cancer etiology; however, epigenetic modifications such as gene-specific DNA methylation also affect gene expression. DNA methylation of DNMT3B and MTHFR was quantified in blood leukocytes using Sequenom EpiTYPER® among 272 participants undergoing a screening colonoscopy. DNA methylation was quantified in 66 and 28CpG sites of DNMT3B and MTHFR respectively, and conceptualized using two approaches. First, measures representing average methylation across all CpG sites were created. Second, unsupervised principal component (PC) analysis was used to identify summary variables representing methylation around the transcription start site and in the gene-coding area for both DNMT3B and MTHFR. Logistic regression was used to compare methylation levels between participants diagnosed with colorectal adenoma(s) versus those with a normal colonoscopy via the estimation of odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of colorectal adenomas. No association was observed between average DNA methylation of either DNMT3B or MTHFR and colorectal adenoma risk. For DNMT3B, increasing DNA methylation of CpG sites in the gene-coding area was associated with a higher risk of colorectal adenomas (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 per SD). This research provides preliminary evidence that methylation of DNMT3B may have functional significance with respect to colorectal adenomas, precursors to the vast majority of colorectal cancers.

  10. Principles Governing DNA Methylation during Neuronal Lineage and Subtype Specification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ali; Klein, Shifra S.; Barboza, Luendreo; Lohdi, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    Although comprehensively described during early neuronal development, the role of DNA methylation/demethylation in neuronal lineage and subtype specification is not well understood. By studying two distinct neuronal progenitors as they differentiate to principal neurons in mouse hippocampus and striatum, we uncovered several principles governing neuronal DNA methylation during brain development. (1) The program consists of three stages: an initial genome-wide methylation during progenitor proliferation is followed by loss of methylation during the transition of regional progenitors to “young” hippocampal/striatal neurons, which is then reversed by gain in methylation during maturation to subtype-specific neurons. (2) At the first two stages, gain and loss of methylation are limited to CpGs, whereas during the third maturation stage, methylation also occurs at non-CpG sites in both lineages. (3) Methylation/demethylation, similar to transcription, are initially highly similar in the two lineages, whereas diversification in methylation and transcription during maturation creates subtype-specific methylation differences. (4) Initially, methylation targets all genomic locations, whereas later, during early and late differentiation, the preferred targets are intronic/intergenic sequences with enhancer-like activity. (5) Differentially methylated genes are enriched in sequential neurodevelopmental functions (such as progenitor proliferation, migration, neuritogenesis, and synaptic transmission); upregulated genes represent current and consecutive stage-specific functions, and downregulated genes represent preceding functions that are no longer required. The main conclusion of our work is that the neuronal methylation/demethylation program is predominantly developmental with minimal lineage specificity, except in the final stage of development when neuron subtype-specific differences also emerge. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our work is the first to describe a set of

  11. Aberrant DNA methylation imprints in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-He; Yin, Shen; Xiong, Bo; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Genomic imprinting plays a very important role during development and its abnormality may heavily undermine the developmental potential of bovine embryos. Because of limited resources of the cow genome, bovine genomic imprinting, both in normal development and in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning, is not well documented. DNA methylation is thought to be a major factor for the establishment of genomic imprinting. In our study, we determined the methylation status of differential methylated regions (DMRs) of four imprinted genes in four spontaneously aborted SCNT-cloned fetuses (AF). Firstly, abnormal methylation imprints were observed in each individual to different extents. In particular, Peg3 and MAOA were either seriously demethylated or showed aberrant methylation patterns in four aborted clones we tested, but Xist and Peg10 exhibited relatively better maintained methylation status in AF1 and AF4. Secondly, two aborted fetuses, AF2 and AF3 exhibited severe aberrant methylation imprints of four imprinted genes. Finally, MAOA showed strong heterogeneous methylation patterns of its DMR in normal somatic adult tissue, but largely variable methylation levels and relatively homogeneous methylation patterns in aborted cloned fetuses. Our data indicate that the aborted cloned fetuses exhibited abnormal methylation imprints, to different extent, in aborted clones, which partially account for the higher abortion and developmental abnormalities during bovine cloning.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Human Amnion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsil; Pitlick, Mitchell M.; Christine, Paul J.; Schaefer, Amanda R.; Saleme, Cesar; Comas, Belén; Cosentino, Viviana; Gadow, Enrique; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The amnion is a specialized tissue in contact with the amniotic fluid, which is in a constantly changing state. To investigate the importance of epigenetic events in this tissue in the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of human amnion from term (with and without labor) and preterm deliveries. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, we identified genes exhibiting differential methylation associated with normal labor and preterm birth. Functional analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed biologically relevant enriched gene sets. Bisulfite sequencing analysis of the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene detected two CpG dinucleotides showing significant methylation differences among the three groups of samples. Hypermethylation of the CpG island of the solute carrier family 30 member 3 (SLC30A3) gene in preterm amnion was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR. This work provides preliminary evidence that DNA methylation changes in the amnion may be at least partially involved in the physiological process of labor and the etiology of preterm birth and suggests that DNA methylation profiles, in combination with other biological data, may provide valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying normal and pathological pregnancies. PMID:23533356

  13. Epigenome-Wide Association Analysis Identified Nine Skin DNA Methylation Loci for Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fusheng; Wang, Wenjun; Shen, Changbing; Li, Hui; Zuo, Xianbo; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yue, Min; Zhang, Cuicui; Yu, Liang; Chen, Mengyun; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Tang, Mingjun; Li, Yongjiang; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zaixing; Liu, Shengxiu; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fengyu; Zhang, Weijia; Li, Caihua; Yang, Sen; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin disease caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation has been linked to psoriasis, but the manner in which this process contributes to the disease is not fully understood. In this study, we carried out a three-stage epigenome-wide association study to identify disease-associated differentially methylated sites using a combination of 262 skin and 48 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. We not only revealed genome-wide methylation patterns for psoriasis but also identified strong associations between the skin-specific DNA methylation of nine disease-associated differentially methylated sites and psoriasis (Wilcoxon ranked PBonferroni < 0.01; methylation level difference > 0.10). Further analysis revealed that these nine disease-associated differentially methylated sites were not significantly affected by genetic variations, supporting their remarkable contributions to disease status. The expression of CYP2S1, ECE1, EIF2C2, MAN1C1, and DLGAP4 was negatively correlated with DNA methylation. These findings will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism of psoriasis.

  14. Promoter histone H3 lysine 9 di-methylation is associated with DNA methylation and aberrant expression of p16 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xin-Jiang; Peng, Guo; Dai, Dong-Qiu

    2009-11-01

    In the course of gastric cancer development, gene silencing by DNA hypermethylation is an important mechanism. While DNA methylation often co-exists with histone modifications to regulate gene expression, the function of histone modifications in gene silencing in gastric cancer has not been evaluated in detail. p16, a well-known tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced in DNA hypermethylation manner in gastric cancer. Accordingly, we chose p16 to clarify whether there is a correlation among histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9) di-methylation, H3-K9 acetylation, DNA methylation and p16 expression in human gastric cancer. Three gastric cancer cells, MKN-45, SGC-7901 and BGC-823, were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and/or trichostatin A (TSA). We investigated p16 promoter DNA methylation status, p16 mRNA levels, regional and global levels of di-methyl-H3-K9 and acetyl-H3-K9 in four groups: i) 5-Aza-dC, ii) TSA, iii) the combination of 5-Aza-dC and TSA and iv) control group with no treatments. p16 silencing is characterized by DNA hypermethylation, H3-K9 hypoacetylation and H3-K9 hypermethylation at the promoter region. Treatment with TSA, increased H3-K9 acetylation at the hypermethylated promoter, but did not affect H3-K9 di-methylation or p16 expression. By contrast, treatment with 5-Aza-dC, reduced H3-K9 di-methylation, increased H3-K9 acetylation at the hypermethylated promoter and reactivated the expression of p16. Combined treatment restored the expression of p16 synergistically. In addition, 5-Aza-dC and the combined treatment did not result in global alteration of H3-K9 di-methylation. These results suggest that H3-K9 di-methylation, H3-K9 acetylation and DNA methylation work in combination to silence p16 in gastric cancer. The decreased H3-K9 di-methylation correlates with DNA demethylation and reactivation of p16. H3-K9 di-methylation as well as DNA methylation related to p16 silencing is limited to the promoter region. In addition to its effect

  15. Dynamic Changes in DNA Methylation in Ischemic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Robert; Pearson, Andrea; Simon, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mediators of gene expression are hypothesized to regulate transcriptomic responses to preconditioning ischemia and ischemic tolerance. Here, we utilized a methyl-DNA enrichment protocol and sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify patterns of DNA methylation in an established model of ischemic tolerance in neuronal cultures (oxygen and glucose deprivation: OGD). We observed an overall decrease in global DNA methylation at 4 h following preconditioning ischemia (30 min OGD), harmful ischemia (120 min OGD), and in ischemic tolerant neuronal cultures (30 min OGD, 24 h recovery, 120 min OGD). We detected a smaller cohort of hypermethylated regions following ischemic conditions, which were further analyzed revealing differential chromosomal localization of methylation, and a differential concentration of methylation on genomic regions. Together, these data show that the temporal profiles of DNA methylation with respect to chromatin hyper- and hypo-methylation following various ischemic conditions are highly dynamic, and may reveal novel targets for neuroprotection. PMID:26029158

  16. DNA methylation detection based on difference of base content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinobu; Ohtsuka, Keiichi; Honda, Satoshi; Sato, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2016-04-01

    Methylation frequently occurs in cytosines of CpG sites to regulate gene expression. The identification of aberrant methylation of certain genes is important for cancer marker analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the methylation frequency in DNA samples of unknown length and/or concentration. Unmethylated cytosine is known to be converted to thymine following bisulfite treatment and subsequent PCR. For this reason, the AT content in DNA increases with an increasing number of methylation sites. In this study, the fluorescein-carrying bis-acridinyl peptide (FKA) molecule was used for the detection of methylation frequency. FKA contains fluorescein and two acridine moieties, which together allow for the determination of the AT content of double-stranded DNA fragments. Methylated and unmethylated human genomes were subjected to bisulfide treatment and subsequent PCR using primers specific for the CFTR, CDH4, DBC1, and NPY genes. The AT content in the resulting PCR products was estimated by FKA, and AT content estimations were found to be in good agreement with those determined by DNA sequencing. This newly developed method may be useful for determining methylation frequencies of many PCR products by measuring the fluorescence in samples excited at two different wavelengths.

  17. Oxidative stress and DNA methylation regulation in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yara, Sabrina; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Levy, Emile

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is implicated in tissue-specific gene expression and genomic imprinting. It is modulated by environmental factors, especially nutrition. Modified DNA methylation patterns may contribute to health problems and susceptibility to complex diseases. Current advances have suggested that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is a programmable disease, which is characterized by epigenetic modifications of vital genes when exposed to oxidative stress. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to critically review the central context of MS while presenting the most recent knowledge related to epigenetic alterations that are promoted by oxidative stress. Potential pro-oxidant mechanisms that orchestrate changes in methylation profiling and are related to obesity, diabetes and hypertension are discussed. It is anticipated that the identification and understanding of the role of DNA methylation marks could be used to uncover early predictors and define drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay or reverse epigenetic changes, thereby combating MS burden.

  18. DNA methylation changes in epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Cunningham, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer has not improved, and despite histological differences, treatment is similar for all cases. Understanding the molecular basis for ovarian cancer risk and prognosis is fundamental, and to this end much has been gleaned about genetic changes contributing to risk, and to a lesser extent, survival. There’s considerable evidence for genetic differences between the four pathologically defined histological subtypes; however, the contribution of epigenetics is less well documented. In this report, we review alterations in DNA methylation in ovarian cancer, focusing on histological subtypes, and studies examining the roles of methylation in determining therapy response. As epigenetics is making its way into clinical care, we review the application of cell free DNA methylation to ovarian cancer diagnosis and care. Finally, we comment on recurrent limitations in the DNA methylation literature for ovarian cancer, which can and should be addressed to mature this field. PMID:26363302

  19. Dynamics of DNA methylation in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Irier, Hasan A; Jin, Peng

    2012-10-01

    Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic factors that come in varying forms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs. Recent studies reveal that these epigenetic marks are important regulatory factors in brain function. In particular, DNA methylation dynamics are found to be essential components of epigenetic regulation in the mammalian central nervous system. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases, with a special focus on methylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5mC) and hydroxymethylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5hmC) in the context of neurodegeneration associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. The potential role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Toghill, Bradley J; Saratzis, Athanasios; Harrison, Seamus C; Verissimo, Ana R; Mallon, Eamonn B; Bown, Matthew J

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by the chronic degradation and gradual, irreversible dilation of the abdominal aorta. Smoking, genetics, male sex and increased age are major factors associated with developing AAA. Rupture contributes to around 2% of deaths in all Caucasians over 65, and there is no pharmaco-therapeutic treatment. Methylation is an epigenetic modification to DNA, where a methyl group is added to a cytosine base 5' to a guanine (CpG dinucleotide). Methylation patterns are long term, inherited signatures that can induce changes in gene transcription, and can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Methylation changes are involved in hypertension and atherosclerosis, both of which are risk factors of, and often coexist with AAA. Extra-cellular matrix degradation and inflammation, both important pathological hallmarks of AAA, are also promoted by changes in CpG methylation in other diseases. Additionally, the adverse effects of smoking and ageing take place largely through epigenetic manipulation of the genome. Every factor associated with AAA appears to be associated with DNA methylation, yet no direct evidence confirms this. Future work to identify a link between global methylation and AAA, and differentially methylated regions may reveal valuable insight. The identification of a common epigenetic switching process may also signify a promising future for AAA pharmaco-therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic therapies are being designed to target pathogenic CpG methylation changes in other diseases, and it is feasible that these therapies may also be applicable to AAA in the future.

  1. Locus- and domain-dependent control of DNA methylation at mouse B1 retrotransposons during male germ cell development.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Li, Yufeng; Li, Yungfeng; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ichiyanagi, Tomoko; Fukuda, Kei; Kitayama, Junko; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nakano, Toru; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Seki, Yoshiyuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    In mammals, germ cells undergo striking dynamic changes in DNA methylation during their development. However, the dynamics and mode of methylation are poorly understood for short interspersed elements (SINEs) dispersed throughout the genome. We investigated the DNA methylation status of mouse B1 SINEs in male germ cells at different developmental stages. B1 elements showed a large locus-to-locus variation in methylation; loci close to RNA polymerase II promoters were hypomethylated, while most others were hypermethylated. Interestingly, a mutation that eliminates Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which are involved in methylation of long interspersed elements (LINEs), did not affect the level of B1 methylation, implying a piRNA-independent mechanism. Methylation at B1 loci in SINE-poor genomic domains showed a higher dependency on the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A but not on DNMT3B, suggesting that DNMT3A plays a major role in methylation of these domains. We also found that many genes specifically expressed in the testis possess B1 elements in their promoters, suggesting the involvement of B1 methylation in transcriptional regulation. Taken altogether, our results not only reveal the dynamics and mode of SINE methylation but also suggest how the DNA methylation profile is created in the germline by a pair of DNA methyltransferases.

  2. Covering Your Bases: Inheritance of DNA Methylation in Plant Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an important base modification that is inherited across mitotic and meiotic cell divisions in plant genomes. Heritable methylation variants can contribute to within-species phenotypic variation. Few methylation variants were known until recently, making it possible to begin to address major unanswered questions: the extent of natural methylation variation within plant genomes, its effects on phenotypic variation, its degree of dependence on genotype, and how it fits into an evolutionary context. Techniques like whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) make it possible to determine cytosine methylation states at single-base resolution across entire genomes and populations. Application of this method to natural and novel experimental populations is revealing answers to these long-standing questions about the role of DNA methylation in plant genomes. PMID:24270503

  3. [Methods for detection of methylated cytosine residues in DNA].

    PubMed

    Smirnikhina, S A; Lavrov, A V

    2009-01-01

    The article provides analysis of common methods for DNA methylation detection. Advantages and limitations of methods used for different purposes are compared. Clue step for most common methods is bisulfite treatment of DNA samples and its protocol is described in details. Recommendations are formulated for each method best in solving specific problems.

  4. Intragenic DNA methylation in transcriptional regulation, normal differentiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Marta; Queirós, Ana C; Beekman, Renée; Martín-Subero, José I

    2013-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of DNA methylation at cytosine residues, the role of this so called fifth base has been extensively studied and debated. Until recently, the majority of DNA methylation studies focused on the analysis of CpG islands associated to promoter regions. However, with the upcoming possibilities to study DNA methylation in a genome-wide context, this epigenetic mark can now be studied in an unbiased manner. As a result, recent studies have shown that not only promoters but also intragenic and intergenic regions are widely modulated during physiological processes and disease. In particular, it is becoming increasingly clear that DNA methylation in the gene body is not just a passive witness of gene transcription but it seems to be actively involved in multiple gene regulation processes. In this review we discuss the potential role of intragenic DNA methylation in alternative promoter usage, regulation of short and long non-coding RNAs, alternative RNA processing, as well as enhancer activity. Furthermore, we summarize how the intragenic DNA methylome is modified both during normal cell differentiation and neoplastic transformation.

  5. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression in butyrate-treated CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Wippermann, Anna; Rupp, Oliver; Brinkrolf, Karina; Hoffrogge, Raimund; Noll, Thomas

    2016-11-24

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the versatile properties of CHO cells as the major production cell line for biopharmaceutical molecules are not entirely understood yet, although several 'omics' data facilitate the understanding of CHO cells and their reactions to environmental conditions. However, genome-wide studies of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation are still limited. To prove the applicability and usefulness of integrating DNA methylation and gene expression data in a biotechnological context, we exemplarily analyzed the time course of cellular reactions upon butyrate addition in antibody-producing CHO cells by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and CHO-specific cDNA microarrays. Gene expression and DNA methylation analyses showed that pathways known to be affected by butyrate, including cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as pathways potentially involved in butyrate-induced hyperproductivity such as central energy metabolism and protein biosynthesis were affected. Differentially methylated regions were furthermore found to contain binding-site motifs of specific transcription factors and were hypothesized to represent regulatory regions closely connected to the cellular response to butyrate. Generally, our experiment underlines the benefit of integrating DNA methylation and gene expression data, as it provided potential novel candidate genes for rational cell line development and allowed for new insights into the butyrate effect on CHO cells.

  6. Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins.

    PubMed

    Yet, Idil; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes the study of cellular modifications that can modify the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one of the most stable and prevalent epigenetic mechanisms. Twin studies have been a valuable model for unraveling the genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of complex traits, and now offer a potential to dissect the factors that impact DNA methylation variability and its biomedical significance. The twin design specifically allows for the study of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, and their potential interactions, on epigenetic profiles. Furthermore, genetically identical twins offer a unique opportunity to assess nongenetic impacts on epigenetic profiles. Here, we summarize recent findings from twin studies of DNA methylation profiles across tissues, to define current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic factors that influence epigenetic variation.

  7. EPIGENETIC EFFECTS OF SHIFTWORK ON BLOOD DNA METHYLATION

    PubMed Central

    Bollati, Valentina; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sartori, Samantha; Tarantini, Letizia; Motta, Valeria; Rota, Federica; Costa, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of shiftwork exposure on DNA methylation using peripheral blood DNA from subjects working in two chemical plants in Northern Italy. The investigation was designed to evaluate (a) DNA methyl- ation changes in Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements as a surrogate of global methylation and (b) promoter methylation of gluco- corticoid receptor (GCR), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon- gamma (IFN-γ). One hundred and fifty white male workers (mean ± SD: 41.0 ± 9 yrs of age) were examined: 100 3 × 8 rotating shiftworkers (40.4 ± 8.7 yrs of age) and 50 day workers (42.2 ± 9.4 yrs of age). The authors used bisulfite-pyrosequencing to esti- mate repetitive elements and gene-specific methylation. Multiple regression analysis, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), and job seniority, did not show any signifi- cant association between the five DNA methylation markers and shiftwork. However, job seniority, in all subjects, was significantly associated with Alu (β = −0.019, p = .033) and IFN-γ (β = −0.224, p < .001) methylation, whereas TNF-α methylation was inversely correlated with age (β = −0.093, p < .001). Considering only shiftworkers, multiple regression analysis, adjusted for age, BMI, and job seniority, showed a sig- nificant difference between morning and evening types in TNF-α methylation (mean morning type [MT] 11.425 %5mC versus evening type [ET] 12.975 %5mC; β = 1.33, p = .022). No difference was observed between good and poor tolerance to shiftwork. Increasing job seniority (<5, 5–15, >15 yrs) was associated with significantly lower Alu (β = −0.86, p = .006) and IFN-γ methylation (β = −6.50, p = .007) after adjust- ment for age, BMI, and morningness/eveningness. In addition, GCR significantly increased with length of shiftwork (β = 3.33, p = .05). The data showed alterations in blood DNA methylation in a group of

  8. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, Neil A; Lecomte, Virginie; Maloney, Christopher A; Leung, Preston; Liu, Jia; Hesson, Luke B; Luciani, Fabio; Krause, Lutz; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16–19 weeks old, n = 14/14). A small (0.25%) increase in total 5-methyl-2’-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers) revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells. PMID:26608942

  9. Association of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression with a DNA Methylation Signature in Adult Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Claire; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana M.; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic physical aggression (CPA) is characterized by frequent use of physical aggression from early childhood to adolescence. Observed in approximately 5% of males, CPA is associated with early childhood adverse environments and long-term negative consequences. Alterations in DNA methylation, a covalent modification of DNA that regulates genome function, have been associated with early childhood adversity. Aims To test the hypothesis that a trajectory of chronic physical aggression during childhood is associated with a distinct DNA methylation profile during adulthood. Methods We analyzed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation profiles of T cells from two groups of adult males assessed annually for frequency of physical aggression between 6 and 15 years of age: a group with CPA and a control group. Methylation profiles covering the promoter regions of 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs were generated using MeDIP followed by hybridization to microarrays. Results In total, 448 distinct gene promoters were differentially methylated in CPA. Functionally, many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in aggression and were enriched in biological pathways affected by behavior. Their locations in the genome tended to form clusters spanning millions of bases in the genome. Conclusions This study provides evidence of clustered and genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation in young adults that associates with a history of chronic physical aggression from 6 to 15 years of age. However, longitudinal studies of methylation during early childhood will be necessary to determine if and how this methylation variation in T cells DNA plays a role in early development of chronic physical aggression. PMID:24691403

  10. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Youngson, Neil A; Lecomte, Virginie; Maloney, Christopher A; Leung, Preston; Liu, Jia; Hesson, Luke B; Luciani, Fabio; Krause, Lutz; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16-19 weeks old, n = 14/14). A small (0.25%) increase in total 5-methyl-2Ͳ-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers) revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells.

  11. Accounting for population stratification in DNA methylation studies.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Richard T; Almli, Lynn M; Kilaru, Varun; Smith, Alicia K; Mercer, Kristina B; Duncan, Richard; Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Epstein, Michael P; Ressler, Kerry J; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-04-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that has been linked to complex diseases and is of great interest to researchers as a potential link between genome, environment, and disease. As the scale of DNA methylation association studies approaches that of genome-wide association studies, issues such as population stratification will need to be addressed. It is well-documented that failure to adjust for population stratification can lead to false positives in genetic association studies, but population stratification is often unaccounted for in DNA methylation studies. Here, we propose several approaches to correct for population stratification using principal components (PCs) from different subsets of genome-wide methylation data. We first illustrate the potential for confounding due to population stratification by demonstrating widespread associations between DNA methylation and race in 388 individuals (365 African American and 23 Caucasian). We subsequently evaluate the performance of our PC-based approaches and other methods in adjusting for confounding due to population stratification. Our simulations show that (1) all of the methods considered are effective at removing inflation due to population stratification, and (2) maximum power can be obtained with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based PCs, followed by methylation-based PCs, which outperform both surrogate variable analysis and genomic control. Among our different approaches to computing methylation-based PCs, we find that PCs based on CpG sites chosen for their potential to proxy nearby SNPs can provide a powerful and computationally efficient approach to adjust for population stratification in DNA methylation studies when genome-wide SNP data are unavailable.

  12. Accounting for Population Stratification in DNA Methylation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Richard T.; Almli, Lynn M.; Kilaru, Varun; Smith, Alicia K.; Mercer, Kristina B.; Duncan, Richard; Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Epstein, Michael P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Conneely, Karen N.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that has been linked to complex disease and is of great interest to researchers as a potential link between genome, environment, and disease. As the scale of DNA methylation association studies approaches that of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), issues such as population stratification will need to be addressed. It is well-documented that failure to adjust for population stratification can lead to false positives in genetic association studies, but population stratification is often unaccounted for in DNA methylation studies. Here, we propose several approaches to correct for population stratification using principal components from different subsets of genome-wide methylation data. We first illustrate the potential for confounding due to population stratification by demonstrating widespread associations between DNA methylation and race in 388 individuals (365 African American and 23 Caucasian). We subsequently evaluate the performance of our principal-components approaches and other methods in adjusting for confounding due to population stratification. Our simulations show that 1) all of the methods considered are effective at removing inflation due to population stratification, and 2) maximum power can be obtained with SNP-based principal components, followed by methylation-based principal components, which out-perform both surrogate variable analysis and genomic control. Among our different approaches to computing methylation-based principal components, we find that principal components based on CpG sites chosen for their potential to proxy nearby SNPs can provide a powerful and computationally efficient approach to adjustment for population stratification in DNA methylation studies when genome-wide SNP data are unavailable. PMID:24478250

  13. Human body epigenome maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Matthew D; He, Yupeng; Whitaker, John W; Hariharan, Manoj; Mukamel, Eran A; Leung, Danny; Rajagopal, Nisha; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Chen, Huaming; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jung, Inkyung; Schmitt, Anthony D; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ren, Bing; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Wang, Wei; Ecker, Joseph R

    2015-07-09

    Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals' phased genome, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in several genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues.

  14. Human Body Epigenome Maps Reveal Noncanonical DNA Methylation Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Matthew D.; He, Yupeng; Whitaker, John W.; Hariharan, Manoj; Mukamel, Eran A.; Leung, Danny; Rajagopal, Nisha; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Chen, Huaming; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jung, Inkyung; Schmitt, Anthony D.; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ren, Bing; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Wang, Wei; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual’s cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could play tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns1,2. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals’ phased genome3, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in multiple genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues. PMID:26030523

  15. DNA methylation analysis using CpG microarrays is impaired in benzopyrene exposed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Andrews, Joseph; Rodenhiser, David I.

    2007-12-15

    Epigenetic alterations have emerged as a key mechanism involved in tumorigenesis. These disruptions are partly due to environmental factors that change normal DNA methylation patterns necessary for transcriptional regulation and chromatin compaction. Microarray technologies are allowing environmentally susceptible epigenetic patterns to be mapped and the precise targets of environmentally induced alterations to be identified. Previously, we observed BaP-induced epigenetic events and cell cycle disruptions in breast cancer cell lines that included time- and concentration-dependent loss of proliferation as well as sequence-specific hypo- and hypermethylation events. In this present report, we further characterized epigenetic changes in BaP-exposed MCF-7 cells. We analyzed DNA methylation on a CpG island microarray platform with over 5400 unique genomic regions. Depleted and enriched microarray targets, representative of putative DNA methylation changes, were identified across the genome; however, subsequent sodium bisulfite analyses revealed no changes in DNA methylation at a number of these loci. Instead, we found that the identification of DNA methylation changes using this restriction enzyme-based microarray approach corresponded with the regions of DNA bound by the BaP derived DNA adducts. This DNA adduct formation occurs at both methylated and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and affects PCR amplification during sample preparation. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting data from comparative microarray experiments that rely on enzymatic reactions. These results are relevant to genome screening approaches involving environmental exposures in which DNA adduct formation at specific nucleotide sites may bias target acquisition and compromise the correct identification of epigenetically responsive genes.

  16. DNA methylation on N6-adenine in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Eric Lieberman; Blanco, Mario Andres; Gu, Lei; Sendinc, Erdem; Liu, Jianzhao; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Aravind, L.; He, Chuan; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Summary In mammalian cells, DNA methylation on the 5th position of cytosine (5mC) plays an important role as an epigenetic mark. However, DNA methylation was considered to be absent in C. elegans because of the lack of detectable 5mC as well as homologs of the cytosine DNA methyltransferases. Here, using multiple approaches, we demonstrate the presence of adenine N6-methylation (6mA) in C. elegans DNA. We further demonstrate that this modification increases trans-generationally in a paradigm of epigenetic inheritance. Importantly, we identify a DNA demethylase, NMAD-1, and a potential DNA methyltransferase, DAMT-1, which regulate 6mA levels and crosstalk between methylation of histone H3K4me2 and 6mA, and control the epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes associated with the loss of the H3K4me2 demethylase spr-5. Together, these data identify a DNA modification in C. elegans and raise the exciting possibility that 6mA may be a carrier of heritable epigenetic information in eukaryotes. PMID:25936839

  17. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    EDTA buffer (1-1TE), mary tumor prostate tissues, five matched pairs of normal 5 ViL of 10 x T4 DNA ligase buffer, 1.25 giL each of and primary tumor... DNA ligase were added, and the DNA was incubated breast tissues, was used in the study. The breast and overnight at 16’C. The ligated DNA was...nanograms of Notl primer tion endonuclease Notl and T4 DNA ligase were pur- and 30 ng of Msel primer were used for PCR with chased from Boehringer Mannheim

  18. Global DNA methylation levels in white blood cell DNA from sisters discordant for breast cancer from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Perrin, Mary; Liao, Yuyan; Kappil, Maya A; Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Yazici, Hulya; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2012-08-01

    Lower global DNA methylation is associated with genomic instability and it is one of the epigenetic mechanisms relevant to carcinogenesis. Emerging evidence for several cancers suggests that lower overall levels of global DNA methylation in blood are associated with different cancer types, although less is known about breast cancer. We examined global DNA methylation levels using a sibling design in 273 sisters affected with breast cancer and 335 unaffected sisters from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We measured global DNA methylation in total white blood cell (WBC) and granulocyte DNA by two different methods, the [ ( 3) H]-methyl acceptance assay and the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA). Global methylation levels were only modestly correlated between sisters discordant for breast cancer (Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from -0.08 to 0.24 depending on assay and DNA source). Using conditional logistic regression models, women in the quartile with the lowest DNA methylation levels (as measured by the [ ( 3) H]-methyl acceptance assay) had a 1.8-fold (95% CI = 1.0-3.3) higher relative association with breast cancer than women in the quartile with the highest DNA methylation levels. When we examined the association on a continuous scale, we also observed a positive association (odds ratio, OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.0-1.7, for a one unit change in the natural logarithm of the DPM/μg of DNA). We observed no association between measures by the LUMA assay and breast cancer risk. If replicated in prospective studies, this study suggests that global DNA methylation levels measured in WBC may be a potential biomarker of breast cancer risk even within families at higher risk of cancer.

  19. Alcohol exposure alters DNA methylation profiles in mouse embryos at early neurulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Balaraman, Yokesh; Wang, Guohua; Nephew, Kenneth P; Zhou, Feng C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol exposure during development can cause variable neurofacial deficit and growth retardation known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The mechanism underlying FASD is not fully understood. However, alcohol, which is known to affect methyl donor metabolism, may induce aberrant epigenetic changes contributing to FASD. Using a tightly controlled whole-embryo culture, we investigated the effect of alcohol exposure (88mM) at early embryonic neurulation on genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the C57BL/6 mouse. The DNA methylation landscape around promoter CpG islands at early mouse development was analyzed using MeDIP (methylated DNA immunoprecipitation) coupled with microarray (MeDIP-chip). At early neurulation, genes associated with high CpG promoters (HCP) had a lower ratio of methylation but a greater ratio of expression. Alcohol-induced alterations in DNA methylation were observed, particularly in genes on chromosomes 7, 10, and X; remarkably, a >10 fold increase in the number of genes with increased methylation on chromosomes 10 and X was observed in alcohol-exposed embryos with a neural tube defect phenotype compared to embryos without a neural tube defect. Significant changes in methylation were seen in imprinted genes, genes known to play roles in cell cycle, growth, apoptosis, cancer, and in a large number of genes associated with olfaction. Altered methylation was associated with significant (p<0.01) changes in expression for 84 genes. Sequenom EpiTYPER DNA methylation analysis was used for validation of the MeDIP-chip data. Increased methylation of genes known to play a role in metabolism (Cyp4f13) and decreased methylation of genes associated with development (Nlgn3, Elavl2, Sox21 and Sim1), imprinting (Igf2r) and chromatin (Hist1h3d) was confirmed. In a mouse model for FASD, we show for the first time that alcohol exposure during early neurulation can induce aberrant changes in DNA methylation patterns with associated changes in

  20. Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Savell, Katherine E.; Gallus, Nancy V. N.; Simon, Rhiana C.; Brown, Jordan A.; Revanna, Jasmin S.; Osborn, Mary Katherine; Song, Esther Y.; O'Malley, John J.; Stackhouse, Christian T.; Norvil, Allison; Gowher, Humaira; Sweatt, J. David; Day, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are essential regulators of the function and information storage capacity of neurons. DNA methylation is highly dynamic in the developing and adult brain, and is actively regulated by neuronal activity and behavioural experiences. However, it is presently unclear how methylation status at individual genes is targeted for modification. Here, we report that extra-coding RNAs (ecRNAs) interact with DNA methyltransferases and regulate neuronal DNA methylation. Expression of ecRNA species is associated with gene promoter hypomethylation, is altered by neuronal activity, and is overrepresented at genes involved in neuronal function. Knockdown of the Fos ecRNA locus results in gene hypermethylation and mRNA silencing, and hippocampal expression of Fos ecRNA is required for long-term fear memory formation in rats. These results suggest that ecRNAs are fundamental regulators of DNA methylation patterns in neuronal systems, and reveal a promising avenue for therapeutic targeting in neuropsychiatric disease states. PMID:27384705

  1. Discordance of DNA Methylation Variance Between two Accessible Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ruiwei; Jones, Meaghan J.; Chen, Edith; Neumann, Sarah M.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Miller, Gregory E.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Population epigenetic studies have been seeking to identify differences in DNA methylation between specific exposures, demographic factors, or diseases in accessible tissues, but relatively little is known about how inter-individual variability differs between these tissues. This study presents an analysis of DNA methylation differences between matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) and buccal epithelial cells (BECs), the two most accessible tissues for population studies, in 998 promoter-located CpG sites. Specifically we compared probe-wise DNA methylation variance, and how this variance related to demographic factors across the two tissues. PBMCs had overall higher DNA methylation than BECs, and the two tissues tended to differ most at genomic regions of low CpG density. Furthermore, although both tissues showed appreciable probe-wise variability, the specific regions and magnitude of variability differed strongly between tissues. Lastly, through exploratory association analysis, we found indication of differential association of BEC and PBMC with demographic variables. The work presented here offers insight into variability of DNA methylation between individuals and across tissues and helps guide decisions on the suitability of buccal epithelial or peripheral mononuclear cells for the biological questions explored by epigenetic studies in human populations. PMID:25660083

  2. Dynamic DNA methylation controls glutamate receptor trafficking and synaptic scaling.

    PubMed

    Sweatt, J David

    2016-05-01

    Hebbian plasticity, including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, has long been regarded as important for local circuit refinement in the context of memory formation and stabilization. However, circuit development and stabilization additionally relies on non-Hebbian, homeostatic, forms of plasticity such as synaptic scaling. Synaptic scaling is induced by chronic increases or decreases in neuronal activity. Synaptic scaling is associated with cell-wide adjustments in postsynaptic receptor density, and can occur in a multiplicative manner resulting in preservation of relative synaptic strengths across the entire neuron's population of synapses. Both active DNA methylation and demethylation have been validated as crucial regulators of gene transcription during learning, and synaptic scaling is known to be transcriptionally dependent. However, it has been unclear whether homeostatic forms of plasticity such as synaptic scaling are regulated via epigenetic mechanisms. This review describes exciting recent work that has demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation as a controller of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking. These findings bring together three major categories of memory-associated mechanisms that were previously largely considered separately: DNA methylation, homeostatic plasticity, and glutamate receptor trafficking. This review describes exciting recent work that has demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation as a controller of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking. These findings bring together three major categories of memory-associated mechanisms that were previously considered separately: glutamate receptor trafficking, DNA methylation, and homeostatic plasticity.

  3. Techniques of DNA methylation analysis with nutritional applications.

    PubMed

    Mansego, Maria L; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are likely to play an important role in the regulation of metabolism and body weight through gene-nutrient interactions. This review focuses on methods for analyzing one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation, from single nucleotide to global measurement depending on the study goal and scope. In addition, this study highlights the major principles and methods for DNA methylation analysis with emphasis on nutritional applications. Recent developments concerning epigenetic technologies are showing promising results of DNA methylation levels at a single-base resolution and provide the ability to differentiate between 5-methylcytosine and other nucleotide modifications such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. A large number of methods can be used for the analysis of DNA methylation such as pyrosequencing™, primer extension or real-time PCR methods, and genome-wide DNA methylation profile from microarray or sequencing-based methods. Researchers should conduct a preliminary analysis focused on the type of validation and information provided by each technique in order to select the best method fitting for their nutritional research interests.

  4. Site-specific methylated reporter constructs for functional analysis of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao; Spivack, Simon D

    2013-11-01

    Methods to experimentally alter and functionally evaluate cytosine methylation in a site-specific manner have proven elusive. We describe a site-specific DNA methylation method, using synthetically methylated primers and high fidelity PCR coupled with ligation of reporter constructs. We applied this method to introduce methylated cytosines into fragments of the respective DAPK and RASSF1A promoters that had been cloned into luciferase reporters. We found that methylation of 3-7 residue CpG clusters that were 5' adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS) of the DAPK gene produced up to a 54% decrease in promoter activity (p<0.01). Similarly, for RASSF1A promoter reporter constructs, the methylation of either of two clusters of four CpGs each, but not an intervening cluster, produced a 63% decrease in promoter activity (p<0.01), suggesting that precise mCpG position is crucial, and factors other than simple proximity to the TSS are at play. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of these reporter constructs demonstrated that transcription factor Oct-1 and Sp1 preferentially bound the unmethylated vs. methylated DAPK or RASSF1A promoter reporter constructs at the functional CpG sites. Histone H1, hnRNP1, and MeCP2 showed preferential binding to methylated sequence at functional sites in these reporter constructs, as well as highly preferential (> 8-80-fold) binding to native methylated vs. unmethylated chromatin. These results suggest that: (1) site-specific, precision DNA methylation of a reporter construct can be used for functional analysis of commonly observed gene promoter methylation patterns; (2) the reporter system contains key elements of the endogenous chromatin machinery.

  5. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  6. DNA methylation in repetitive elements and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bollati, V; Galimberti, D; Pergoli, L; Dalla Valle, E; Barretta, F; Cortini, F; Scarpini, E; Bertazzi, P A; Baccarelli, A

    2011-08-01

    Epigenetics is believed to play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). DNA methylation, the most investigated epigenetic hallmark, is a reversible mechanism that modifies genome function and chromosomal stability through the addition of methyl groups to cytosine located in CpG dinucleotides to form 5 methylcytosine (5mC). Methylation status of repetitive elements (i.e. Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α) is a major contributor of global DNA methylation patterns and has been investigated in relation to a variety of human diseases. However, the role of methylation of repetitive elements in blood of AD patients has never been investigated so far. In the present study, a quantitative bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing method was used to evaluate methylation of Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α sequences in 43 AD patients and 38 healthy donors. In multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, LINE-1 was increased in AD patients compared with healthy volunteers (ADs: 83.6%5mC, volunteers: 83.1%5mC, p-value: 0.05). The group with best performances in mini mental state examination (MMSE) showed higher levels of LINE-1 methylation compared to the group with worst performances (MMSE>22: 83.9%5mC; MMSE≤22: 83.2%5mC; p=0.05). Our data suggest that LINE-1 methylation may lead to a better understanding of AD pathogenesis and course, and may contribute to identify novel markers useful to assess risk stratification. Further prospective investigations are warranted to evaluate the dynamics of DNA methylation from early-stage AD to advanced phases of the disease.

  7. Region-specific DNA methylation in the preimplantation embryo as a target for genomic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Thurston, A; Lucas, E S; Allegrucci, C; Steele, W; Young, L E

    2007-09-01

    It has been long known that the unique genetic sequence each embryo inherits is not the sole determinant of phenotype. However, only recently have epigenetic modifications to DNA been implicated in providing potential developmental plasticity to the embryonic and fetal genome, with environmental influences directly altering the epigenetic modifications that contribute to tissue-specific gene regulation. Most is known about the potential environmental regulation of DNA methylation, epigenetic addition of methyl groups to cytosine residues in DNA that acts in the long-term silencing of affected sequences. While most attention has been paid to the methylation of imprinted gene sequences, in terms of developmental plasticity there are many more parts of the genome that are methylated and that could be affected. This review explores the distribution of cytosine methylation in the genome and discusses the potential effects of regional plasticity on subsequent development. Widening our consideration of potentially plastic regions is likely to greatly enhance our understanding of how individuals are shaped not only by DNA sequence, but by the environment in which pluripotent embryonic cells are transformed into the many cell types of the body.

  8. DNA methylation remodeling in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Amander T

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, global DNA demethylation in vivo occurs in the pre-implantation embryo and in primordial germ cells (PGCs) where it is hypothesized to create a blank slate or “tabula rasa” upon which new DNA methylation patterns are written. However, global DNA demethylation in vivo is far from complete with a small number of loci protected from demethylation. Failure to demethylate, or overt demethylation results in compromised differentiation. Recent work has shown that reversion of primed human pluripotent stem cells to the naïve state leads to unbridled DNA demethylation which has unknown consequences on the quality differentiated cells created in vitro. Taken together understanding DNA methylation remodeling is critical for understanding the epigenetic foundations of life, and the quality of stem cells for regenerative medicine. PMID:26451496

  9. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in hematologic differentiation and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Myunggon; An, Jungeun; Rao, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of the balance of DNA methylation and demethylation is fundamental for normal cellular development and function. Members of the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) family proteins are Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that catalyze sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and subsequent oxidized derivatives in DNA. In addition to their roles as intermediates in DNA demethylation, these oxidized methylcytosines are novel epigenetic modifications of DNA. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation profiles are markedly disrupted in a wide range of cancers but how these changes are related to the pathogenesis of cancers is still ambiguous. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of TET protein functions in normal and malignant hematopoietic development and the ongoing questions to be resolved. PMID:26595486

  10. Mechanism of human methyl-directed DNA methyltransferase and the fidelity of cytosine methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S S; Kaplan, B E; Sowers, L C; Newman, E M

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the methyl-directed DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.37) suggest that it is the enzyme that maintains patterns of methylation in the human genome. Proposals for the enzyme's mechanism of action suggest that 5-methyldeoxycytidine is produced from deoxycytidine via a dihydrocytosine intermediate. We have used an oligodeoxynucleotide containing 5-fluorodeoxycytidine as a suicide substrate to capture the enzyme and the dihydrocytosine intermediate. Gel retardation experiments demonstrate the formation of the expected covalent complex between duplex DNA containing 5-fluorodeoxycytidine and the human enzyme. Formation of the complex was dependent upon the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting that it comprises an enzyme-linked 5-substituted dihydrocytosine moiety in DNA. Dihydrocytosine derivatives are extremely labile toward hydrolytic deamination in aqueous solution. Because C-to-T transition mutations are especially prevalent at CG sites in human DNA, we have used high-performance liquid chromatography to search for thymidine that might be generated by hydrolysis during the methyl transfer reaction. Despite the potential for deamination inherent in the formation of the intermediate, the methyltransferase did not produce detectable amounts of thymidine. The data suggest that the ability of the human methyltransferase to preserve genetic information when copying a methylation pattern (i.e., its fidelity) is comparable to the ability of a mammalian DNA polymerase to preserve genetic information when copying a DNA sequence. Thus the high frequency of C-to-T transitions at CG sites in human DNA does not appear to be due to the normal enzymatic maintenance of methylation patterns. Images PMID:1584813

  11. DNA methylation markers for oral pre-cancer progression: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gulati, Smriti; Geetha, A V; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Dhillon, Preet K; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2016-02-01

    Although oral cancers are generally preceded by a well-established pre-cancerous stage, there is a lack of well-defined clinical and morphological criteria to detect and signal progression from pre-cancer to malignant tumours. We conducted a critical review to summarize the evidence regarding aberrant DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic biomarker predicting progression. We identified all relevant human studies published in English prior to 30th April 2015 that examined DNA methylation (%) in oral pre-cancer by searching PubMed, Web-of-Science and Embase databases using combined key-searches. Twenty-one studies (18-cross-sectional; 3-longitudinal) were eligible for inclusion in the review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 156 affected cases. Eligible studies examined promoter region hyper-methylation of tumour suppressor genes in pathways including cell-cycle-control (n=15), DNA-repair (n=7), cell-cycle-signalling (n=4) and apoptosis (n=3). Hyper-methylated loci reported in three or more studies included p16, p14, MGMT and DAPK. Two longitudinal studies reported greater p16 hyper-methylation in pre-cancerous lesions transformed to malignancy compared to lesions that regressed (57-63.6% versus 8-32.1%; p<0.01). The one study that explored epigenome-wide methylation patterns reported three novel hyper-methylated loci (TRHDE; ZNF454; KCNAB3). The majority of reviewed studies were small, cross-sectional studies with poorly defined control groups and lacking validation. Whilst limitations in sample size and study design preclude definitive conclusions, current evidence suggests a potential utility of DNA methylation patterns as a diagnostic biomarker for oral pre-cancer progression. Robust studies such as large epigenome-wide methylation explorations of oral pre-cancer with longitudinal tracking are needed to validate the currently reported signals and identify new risk-loci and the biological pathways of disease progression.

  12. Similar DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation patterns in tripronuclear and corrected bipronuclear human zygotes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinjie; Fan, Yong; Long, Xiaolin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2010-06-01

    After fertilization, male and female gametes undergo extensive reprogramming to restore totipotency. Both DNA methylation and histone modification are important epigenetic reprogramming events. Previous studies have reported that the paternal pronucleus of the human zygote is actively demethylated to some extent, while the maternal pronucleus remains methylated. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns in human embryos has not been reported. In this study, we examined the dynamic DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns in triploid and bipronucleated zygotes and early developing embryos. We sought to gain further insight into the relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation and to investigate whether removing a pronucleus from triploid zygotes affects DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns. We found that active DNA demethylation of the two male pronuclei occurred in tripronuclear human zygotes while the female pronucleus remained methylated at 20 h post-insemination. In tripronuclear human zygotes, H3K9 was hypomethylated in the two paternal pronuclei relative to the maternal pronucleus. Our data show that there are no differences in the DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns between tripronuclear and corrected bipronuclear human zygotes. However, correction of 3PN human zygotes dispermic in origin could not improve subsequent embryo development. In conclusion, DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns are well correlated in tripronuclear zygotes and embryos; early embryo development is not affected by removal of a male pronucleus. Our results imply that limited developmental potential of either 3PN or corrected 2PN embryos may not be caused by the abnormalities in DNA methylation or H3K9 dimethylation modification.

  13. Cord Blood DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Predicting Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hodyl, Nicolette A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy can significantly alter the development of the fetus resulting in impaired child neurodevelopment. Such exposures can lead to epigenetic alterations like DNA methylation, which may be a marker of poor cognitive, motor and behavioral outcomes in the infant. Here we review studies that have assessed DNA methylation in cord blood following maternal exposures that may impact neurodevelopment of the child. We also highlight some key studies to illustrate the potential for DNA methylation to successfully identify infants at risk for poor outcomes. While the current evidence is limited, in that observations to date are largely correlational, in time and with larger cohorts analyzed and longer term follow-up completed, we may be able to develop epigenetic biomarkers that not only indicate adverse early life exposures but can also be used to identify individuals likely to be at an increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment even in the absence of detailed information regarding prenatal environment. PMID:27918480

  14. Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Wright, Christopher L.; Shetty, Amol C.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Lenz, Kathryn M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Russo, Scott J.; Devine, Scott E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is destined for a female phenotype unless exposed to gonadal hormones during a perinatal sensitive period. It has been assumed that the undifferentiated brain is masculinized by direct induction of transcription by ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors. We found that a primary effect of gonadal steroids in the highly sexually-dimorphic preoptic area (POA) is to reduce activity of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) enzymes, thereby decreasing DNA methylation and releasing masculinizing genes from epigenetic repression. Pharmacological inhibition of Dnmts mimicked gonadal steroids, resulting in masculinized neuronal markers and male sexual behavior in females. Conditional knockout of the de novo Dnmt isoform, Dnmt3a, also masculinized sexual behavior in female mice. RNA sequencing revealed gene and isoform variants modulated by methylation that may underlie the divergent reproductive behaviors of males versus females. Our data show that brain feminization is maintained by the active suppression of masculinization via DNA methylation. PMID:25821913

  15. DNA methylation dynamics in plants and mammals: overview of regulation and dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Elhamamsy, Amr Rafat

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic marking mechanism regulating various biological functions in mammals and plant. The crucial role of DNA methylation has been observed in cellular differentiation, embryogenesis, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Furthermore, DNA methylation takes part in disease susceptibility, responses to environmental stimuli and the biodiversity of natural populations. In plant, different types of environmental stress have demonstrated the ability to alter the archetype of DNA methylation through the genome, change gene expression and confer a mechanism of adaptation. DNA methylation dynamics are regulated by three processes de novo DNA methylation, methylation maintenance and DNA demethylation. These processes have their similarities and differences between mammals and plants. Furthermore, the dysregulation of DNA methylation dynamics represents one of the primary molecular mechanisms of developing diseases in mammals. This review discusses the regulation and dysregulation of DNA methylation in plants and mammals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L−/− meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events. PMID:26109049

  17. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-06-15

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L(-/-) meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events.

  18. A mediator methylation mystery: JMJD1C demethylates MDC1 to regulate DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Matunis, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1 (MDMDC1) has a central role in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by both homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining, and its function is regulated by post-translational phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and sumoylation. In this issue, a new study by Watanabe et al. reveals that methylation of MDMDC1 is also critical for its function in DSB repair and specifically affects repair through BRCA1-dependent homologous recombination.

  19. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Cox, Sharon E; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J; Moore, Sophie E

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is growing for the long-term effects of environmental factors during early-life on later disease susceptibility. It is believed that epigenetic mechanisms (changes in gene function not mediated by DNA sequence alteration), particularly DNA methylation, play a role in these processes. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the involvement of C1 metabolism and methyl donors and cofactors in maternal diet-induced DNA methylation changes in utero as an epigenetic mechanism. Methyl groups for DNA methylation are mostly derived from the diet and supplied through C1 metabolism by way of choline, betaine, methionine or folate, with involvement of riboflavin and vitamins B6 and B12 as cofactors. Mouse models have shown that epigenetic features, for example DNA methylation, can be altered by periconceptional nutritional interventions such as folate supplementation, thereby changing offspring phenotype. Evidence of early nutrient-induced epigenetic change in human subjects is scant, but it is known that during pregnancy C1 metabolism has to cope with high fetal demands for folate and choline needed for neural tube closure and normal development. Retrospective studies investigating the effect of famine or season during pregnancy indicate that variation in early environmental exposure in utero leads to differences in DNA methylation of offspring. This may affect gene expression in the offspring. Further research is needed to examine the real impact of maternal nutrient availability on DNA methylation in the developing fetus.

  20. Utilizing Gold Nanoparticle Probes to Visually Detect DNA Methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui; Zhang, Mingyi; Chang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Lin; Gu, Weihong; Qin, Yanxia; Li, Juan; Cui, Suxia; Xing, Gengmei

    2016-06-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect endows gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the ability to visualize biomolecules. In the present study, we designed and constructed a GNP probe to allow the semi-quantitative analysis of methylated tumor suppressor genes in cultured cells. To construct the probe, the GNP surfaces were coated with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by forming Au-S bonds. The ssDNA contains a thiolated 5'-end, a regulatory domain of 12 adenine nucleotides, and a functional domain with absolute pairing with methylated p16 sequence (Met- p16). The probe, paired with Met- p16, clearly changed the color of aggregating GNPs probe in 5 mol/L NaCl solution. Utilizing the probe, p16 gene methylation in HCT116 cells was semi-quantified. Further, the methylation of E-cadherin, p15, and p16 gene in Caco2, HepG2, and HCT116 cell lines were detected by the corresponding probes, constructed with three domains. This simple and cost-effective method was useful for the diagnosis of DNA methylation-related diseases.

  1. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome

    PubMed Central

    Klughammer, Johanna; Datlinger, Paul; Printz, Dieter; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Farlik, Matthias; Hadler, Johanna; Fritsch, Gerhard; Bock, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish). Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org). The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome. PMID:26673328

  2. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome.

    PubMed

    Klughammer, Johanna; Datlinger, Paul; Printz, Dieter; Sheffield, Nathan C; Farlik, Matthias; Hadler, Johanna; Fritsch, Gerhard; Bock, Christoph

    2015-12-22

    Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish). Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org). The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome.

  3. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed.

  4. Epigenome confrontation triggers immediate reprogramming of DNA methylation and transposon silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 epihybrids

    PubMed Central

    Rigal, Mélanie; Becker, Claude; Pélissier, Thierry; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Devos, Jane; Ikeda, Yoko; Weigel, Detlef; Mathieu, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Genes and transposons can exist in variable DNA methylation states, with potentially differential transcription. How these epialleles emerge is poorly understood. Here, we show that crossing an Arabidopsis thaliana plant with a hypomethylated genome and a normally methylated WT individual results, already in the F1 generation, in widespread changes in DNA methylation and transcription patterns. Novel nonparental and heritable epialleles arise at many genic loci, including a locus that itself controls DNA methylation patterns, but with most of the changes affecting pericentromeric transposons. Although a subset of transposons show immediate resilencing, a large number display decreased DNA methylation, which is associated with de novo or enhanced transcriptional activation and can translate into transposon mobilization in the progeny. Our findings reveal that the combination of distinct epigenomes can be viewed as an epigenomic shock, which is characterized by a round of epigenetic variation creating novel patterns of gene and TE regulation. PMID:27001853

  5. Activation of endocrine-related gene expression in placental choriocarcinoma cell lines following DNA methylation knock-down.

    PubMed

    Hogg, K; Robinson, W P; Beristain, A G

    2014-07-01

    Increasingly, placental DNA methylation is assessed as a factor in pregnancy-related complications, yet the transcriptional impact of such findings is not always clear. Using a proliferative in vitro placental model, the effect of DNA methylation loss on gene activation was evaluated at a number of genes selected for being differentially methylated in pre-eclampsia-associated placentae in vivo. We aimed to determine whether reduced DNA methylation at specific loci was associated with transcriptional changes at the corresponding gene, thus providing mechanistic underpinnings for previous clinical findings and to assess the degree of transcriptional response amongst our candidate genes. BeWo and JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells were exposed to 1 μM 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) or vehicle control for 48 h, and re-plated and cultured for a further 72 h in normal media before cells were harvested for RNA and DNA. Bisulphite pyrosequencing confirmed that DNA methylation was reduced by ∼30-50% points at the selected loci studied in both cell lines. Gene activation, measured by qRT-PCR, was highly variable and transcript specific, indicating differential sensitivity to DNA methylation. Most notably, loss of DNA methylation at the leptin (LEP) promoter corresponded to a 200-fold and 40-fold increase in LEP expression in BeWo and JEG3 cells, respectively (P < 0.01). Transcripts of steroidogenic pathway enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 were up-regulated ∼40-fold in response to 5-Aza-CdR exposure in BeWo cells (P < 0.01). Other transcripts, including aromatase (CYP19), HSD11B2, inhibin (INHBA) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) were more moderately, although significantly, affected by loss of associated DNA methylation. These data present a mixed effect of DNA methylation changes at selected loci supporting cautionary interpretation of DNA methylation results in the absence of functional data.

  6. DNA methylation by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea: methylation pattern changes in single- and double-stranded DNA, and in DNA with mismatched or bulged guanines.

    PubMed Central

    Wurdeman, R L; Douskey, M C; Gold, B

    1993-01-01

    The detection of abnormal DNA base pairing arrangements and conformations is chemically probed in synthetic 32P-end-labeled deoxyribonucleotide oligomers using N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and 2,12,-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo-[11.3.1]heptadeca-1 -[17],2,11,13,15 pentaene-Ni (II) (Ni-complex) with KHSO5. The DNA targets studied are single-stranded (s-s) DNA, double-stranded (d-s) DNA, d-s DNA with G-G, G-A and G-T mismatches, d-s DNA with a single bulged G and d-s DNA with two bulged G's. The effect of the non-Watson--Crick structures on the formation of N7-methylguanine (N7-MeG) by MNU and the oxidation of G by Ni-complex is reported along with the Tm's and circular dichroism spectra of the different duplex oligomers. The results for MNU and Ni-complex show that the qualitative and quantitative character of the cleavage patterns at a G3 run change with the nature of the abnormal base pairing motif. Based on the DNA substrates studied, the results indicate that a combination of reagents which report electronic and steric perturbations can be a useful approach to monitor DNA mismatches and bulges. Images PMID:8177747

  7. DNA methylation, ageing and the influence of early life nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Hoile, Samuel P; Grenfell, Leonie; Burdge, Graham C

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that genotype plays an important role in the ageing process. However, recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may also influence the onset of ageing-associated diseases and longevity. Epigenetics is defined as processes that induce heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence. The major epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA. Such processes are involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression, cell differentiation and genomic imprinting. However, epigenetic dysregulation is frequently seen with ageing. Relatively little is known about the factors that initiate such changes. However, there is emerging evidence that the early life environment, in particular nutrition, in early life can induce long-term changes in DNA methylation resulting in an altered susceptibility to a range of ageing-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on the changes in DNA methylation that occur during ageing; their role in the ageing process and how early life nutrition can modulate DNA methylation and influence longevity. Understanding the mechanisms by which diet in early life can influence the epigenome will be crucial for the development of preventative and intervention strategies to increase well-being in later life.

  8. Maintenance of DNA methylation: Dnmt3b joins the dance.

    PubMed

    Walton, Emma L; Francastel, Claire; Velasco, Guillaume

    2011-11-01

    DNA methylation mostly occurs within the context of CpG dinucleotides and is essential for embryonic development and gene repression. It is generally accepted that DNA methyltransferases carry out specific and non-overlapping functions, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b being responsible for the establishment of methylation around the time of implantation and Dnmt1 ensuring that methylation is faithfully copied to daughter cells via what has come to be known as "maintenance methylation." This longstanding view has been challenged over the years with the observation that Dnmt1 alone is incapable of perfect maintenance methylation. A new model is emerging that takes into account a contribution of the de novo enzymes Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in the maintenance of the DNA methylation. We recently showed that certain germ line genes are specific targets of Dnmt3b, and that Dnmt3b remains bound to their promoter regions in somatic cells via interaction with the transcriptional repressor E2F6. It is tempting to consider an ongoing role for Dnmt3b in the methylation of germ line genes in somatic cells. We propose here observations in support of the hypothesis that the maintenance of methylation and subsequent silencing of a handful of germ line genes requires Dnmt3b but not Dnmt1. In addition to suggesting a new role for Dnmt3b in the protection of somatic cells against the promiscuous expression of the germ line program, these observations are of particular interest in the field of carcinogenesis, given that the expression of catalytically inactive Dnmt3b isoforms and aberrant expression of germ line genes are commonly observed in cancer cells.

  9. Forensic DNA methylation profiling--potential opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vidaki, Athina; Daniel, Barbara; Court, Denise Syndercombe

    2013-09-01

    Investigating the DNA sequence is the most powerful tool that can be employed in forensic genetics for the identification of an individual, or to determine specific ethnic and phenotypic characteristics. However, there are also other heritable changes in gene function or cellular phenotype which are caused by mechanisms other than differences in the DNA sequence itself. Over the last decade it has become evident that epigenetic markers can be of substantial forensic significance. The determination of possible alterations in DNA methylation patterns could aid various forensic investigations, such as differentiating monozygotic twins, identifying the tissue source or determining the age of tissue donors. This review aims to give a brief overview of the possible advantages of forensic DNA methylation profiling and sheds light on the limitations of this approach.

  10. Comparison of the heat stress induced variations in DNA methylation between heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive rapeseed seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guizhen; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Li, Feng; Xu, Kun; Yan, Guixin; Chen, Biyun; Qiao, Jiangwei; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is responsive to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Heat stress is a serious threat to crop growth and development worldwide. Heat stress results in an array of morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in plants. The relationship between DNA methylation and heat stress in crops is relatively unknown. We investigated the differences in methylation levels and changes in the cytosine methylation patterns in seedlings of two rapeseed genotypes (heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant) under heat stress. Our results revealed that the methylation levels were different between a heat-tolerant genotype and a heat-sensitive one under control conditions. Under heat treatment, methylation increased more in the heat-sensitive genotype than in the heat-tolerant genotype. More DNA demethylation events occurred in the heat-tolerant genotype, while more DNA methylation occurred in the heat-sensitive genotype. A large and diverse set of genes were affected by heat stress via cytosine methylation changes, suggesting that these genes likely play important roles in the response and adaption to heat stress in Brassica napus L. This study indicated that the changes in DNA methylation differed between heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive genotypes of B. napus in response to heat stress, which further illuminates the molecular mechanisms of the adaption to heat stress in B. napus. PMID:24987298

  11. Depletion of CG-Specific Methylation in Mycoplasma hyorhinis Genomic DNA after Host Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Andrei V; Reyes, Leticia; Peterson, Scott; Strongin, Alex Y

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to the environment requires pathogenic bacteria to alter their gene expression in order to increase long-term survival in the host. Here, we present the first experimental evidence that bacterial DNA methylation affects the intracellular survival of pathogenic Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Using bisulfite sequencing, we identified that the M. hyorhinis DNA methylation landscape was distinct in free-living M. hyorhinis relative to the internalized bacteria surviving in the infected human cells. We determined that genomic GATC sites were consistently highly methylated in the bacterial chromosome suggesting that the bacterial GATC-specific 5-methylcytosine DNA methyltransferase was fully functional both pre- and post-infection. In contrast, only the low CG methylation pattern was observed in the mycoplasma genome in the infective bacteria that invaded and then survived in the host cells. In turn, two distinct populations, with either high or low CG methylation, were detected in the M. hyorhinis cultures continually grown in the rich medium independently of host cells. We also identified that M. hyorhinis efficiently evaded endosomal degradation and uses exocytosis to exit infected human cells enabling re-infection of additional cells. The well-orchestrated changes in the chromosome methylation landscape play a major regulatory role in the mycoplasma life cycle.

  12. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  13. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  14. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = -46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = -39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = -20.3%, -2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = -28.8%, -7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors.

  15. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = −46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = −39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = −20.3%, −2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = −28.8%, −7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors. PMID:24172832

  16. Mass Spectrometry Based Ultrasensitive DNA Methylation Profiling Using Target Fragmentation Assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiang-Cheng; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tang, Hao; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-19

    Efficient tools for profiling DNA methylation in specific genes are essential for epigenetics and clinical diagnostics. Current DNA methylation profiling techniques have been limited by inconvenient implementation, requirements of specific reagents, and inferior accuracy in quantifying methylation degree. We develop a novel mass spectrometry method, target fragmentation assay (TFA), which enable to profile methylation in specific sequences. This method combines selective capture of DNA target from restricted cleavage of genomic DNA using magnetic separation with MS detection of the nonenzymatic hydrolysates of target DNA. This method is shown to be highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 0.056 amol, allowing direct profiling of methylation using genome DNA without preamplification. Moreover, this method offers a unique advantage in accurately determining DNA methylation level. The clinical applicability was demonstrated by DNA methylation analysis using prostate tissue samples, implying the potential of this method as a useful tool for DNA methylation profiling in early detection of related diseases.

  17. Role of DNA methylation in hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Takahiro; Ishikura, Sonoko; Miyaji, Naomi; Sasaki, Taku; Wu, Li Min; Itabashi, Etsuko; Takada, Satoko; Shimizu, Motoki; Takasaki-Yasuda, Takeshi; Osabe, Kenji; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-10-25

    Hybrid vigor or heterosis refers to the superior performance of F1 hybrid plants over their parents. Heterosis is particularly important in the production systems of major crops. Recent studies have suggested that epigenetic regulation such as DNA methylation is involved in heterosis, but the molecular mechanism of heterosis is still unclear. To address the epigenetic contribution to heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we used mutant genes that have roles in DNA methylation. Hybrids between C24 and Columbia-0 (Col) without RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) or methyltransferase I (MET1) function did not reduce the level of biomass heterosis (as evaluated by rosette diameter). Hybrids with a mutation in decrease in dna methylation 1 (ddm1) showed a decreased heterosis level. Vegetative heterosis in the ddm1 mutant hybrid was reduced but not eliminated; a complete reduction could result if there was a change in methylation at all loci critical for generating the level of heterosis, whereas if only a proportion of the loci have methylation changes there may only be a partial reduction in heterosis.

  18. Aberrant DNA methylation impacts gene expression and prognosis in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Győrffy, Balázs; Bottai, Giulia; Fleischer, Thomas; Munkácsy, Gyöngyi; Budczies, Jan; Paladini, Laura; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Santarpia, Libero

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a substantial impact on gene expression, affecting the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) patients dependent on molecular subtypes. In this study, we investigated the prognostic relevance of the expression of genes reported as aberrantly methylated, and the link between gene expression and DNA methylation in BC subtypes. The prognostic value of the expression of 144 aberrantly methylated genes was evaluated in ER+/HER2-, HER2+, and ER-/HER2- molecular BC subtypes, in a meta-analysis of two large transcriptomic cohorts of BC patients (n = 1,938 and n = 1,640). The correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation in distinct gene regions was also investigated in an independent dataset of 104 BCs. Survival and Pearson correlation analyses were computed for each gene separately. The expression of 48 genes was significantly associated with BC prognosis (p < 0.05), and 32 of these prognostic genes exhibited a direct expression-methylation correlation. The expression of several immune-related genes, including CD3D and HLA-A, was associated with both relapse-free survival (HR = 0.42, p = 3.5E-06; HR = 0.35, p = 1.7E-08) and overall survival (HR = 0.50, p = 5.5E-04; HR = 0.68, p = 4.5E-02) in ER-/HER2- BCs. On the overall, the distribution of both positive and negative expression-methylation correlation in distinct gene regions have different effects on gene expression and prognosis in BC subtypes. This large-scale meta-analysis allowed the identification of several genes consistently associated with prognosis, whose DNA methylation could represent a promising biomarker for prognostication and clinical stratification of patients with distinct BC subtypes.

  19. Asymmetric DNA methylation by dimeric EcoP15I DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Urulangodi, Madhusoodanan; Dhanaraju, Rajkumar; Gupta, Kanchan; Roy, Rajendra P; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Rao, Desirazu N

    2016-01-01

    EcoP15I DNA methyltransferase (M.EcoP15I) recognizes short asymmetric sequence, 5'-CAGCAG-3', and methylates the second adenine only on one strand of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In vivo, this methylation is sufficient to protect the host DNA from cleavage by the cognate restriction endonuclease, R.EcoP15I, because of the stringent cleavage specificity requirements. Biochemical and structural characterization support the notion that purified M.EcoP15I exists and functions as dimer. However, the exact role of dimerization in M.EcoP15I reaction mechanism remains elusive. Here we engineered M.EcoP15I to a stable monomeric form and studied the role of dimerization in enzyme catalyzed methylation reaction. While the monomeric form binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) containing the recognition sequence it is unable to methylate it. Further we show that, while the monomeric form has AdoMet binding and Mg(2+) binding motifs intact, optimal dsDNA binding required for methylation is dependent on dimerization. Together, our biochemical data supports a unique subunit organization for M.EcoP15I to catalyze the methylation reaction.

  20. Chronic liver inflammation modifies DNA methylation at the precancerous stage of murine hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Evgeniy; Ludwig, Guy; Mizrahi, Lina; Olam, Devorah; Schnitzer-Perlman, Temima; Tasika, Elena; Sass, Gabriele; Tiegs, Gisa; Jiang, Yong; Nie, Ting; Kohler, James; Schinazi, Raymond F; Vertino, Paula M; Cedar, Howard; Galun, Eithan; Goldenberg, Daniel

    2015-05-10

    Chronic liver inflammation precedes the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Here, we explore the connection between chronic inflammation and DNA methylation in the liver at the late precancerous stages of HCC development in Mdr2(-/-) (Mdr2/Abcb4-knockout) mice, a model of inflammation-mediated HCC. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization with "CpG islands" (CGIs) microarrays, we found specific CGIs in 76 genes which were hypermethylated in the Mdr2(-/-) liver compared to age-matched healthy controls. The observed hypermethylation resulted mainly from an age-dependent decrease of methylation of the specific CGIs in control livers with no decrease in mutant mice. Chronic inflammation did not change global levels of DNA methylation in Mdr2(-/-) liver, but caused a 2-fold decrease of the global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine level in mutants compared to controls. Liver cell fractionation revealed, that the relative hypermethylation of specific CGIs in Mdr2(-/-) livers affected either hepatocyte, or non-hepatocyte, or both fractions without a correlation between changes of gene methylation and expression. Our findings demonstrate that chronic liver inflammation causes hypermethylation of specific CGIs, which may affect both hepatocytes and non-hepatocyte liver cells. These changes may serve as useful markers of an increased regenerative activity and of a late precancerous stage in the chronically inflamed liver.

  1. Active loss of DNA methylation in two-cell stage goat embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung S; Lee, Doosoo; Cho, Sunwha; Shin, Sang-Tae; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2010-01-01

    Early mammalian embryos are thought to gain nuclear totipotency through DNA methylation reprogramming (DMR). By this process, DNA methylation patterns acquired during gametogenesis that are unnecessary for zygotic development are erased. The DMR patterns of various mammalian species have been studied; however, they do not seem to have a conserved pattern. We examined early goat embryos to find conforming rules underlying mammalian DMR patterns. Immunocytochemical results showed that the overall level of DNA methylation was not greatly changed during the pronucleus stage. At the two-cell stage, active demethylation occurred and simultaneously affected both parental DNAs, resulting in a global loss of 5-methylcytosine. The level of DNA methylation was lowest in the four-cell stage, with increased de novo methylation during the eight-cell stage. Histone H3-lysine 9 was gradually trimethylated in the sperm-derived chromatin, continuing from the pronucleus stage through the two-cell stage. This goat DMR pattern is novel and distinct from the DMRs of other mammalian species. The more mammalian species we included for DMR analysis, the more multifarious patterns we obtained, adding an extra diversity each time to the known mammalian DMR patterns. Nevertheless, the evolutionary significance and developmental consequence of such diverse DMR patterns are currently unknown.

  2. Dnmt3L antagonizes DNA methylation at bivalent promoters and favors DNA methylation at gene bodies in ESCs.

    PubMed

    Neri, Francesco; Krepelova, Anna; Incarnato, Danny; Maldotti, Mara; Parlato, Caterina; Galvagni, Federico; Matarese, Filomena; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Oliviero, Salvatore

    2013-09-26

    The de novo DNA methyltransferase 3-like (Dnmt3L) is a catalytically inactive DNA methyltransferase that cooperates with Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b to methylate DNA. Dnmt3L is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but its function in these cells is unknown. Through genome-wide analysis of Dnmt3L knockdown in ESCs, we found that Dnmt3L is a positive regulator of methylation at the gene bodies of housekeeping genes and, more surprisingly, is also a negative regulator of methylation at promoters of bivalent genes. Dnmt3L is required for the differentiation of ESCs into primordial germ cells (PGCs) through the activation of the homeotic gene Rhox5. We demonstrate that Dnmt3L interacts with the Polycomb PRC2 complex in competition with the DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b to maintain low methylation levels at the H3K27me3 regions. Thus, in ESCs, Dnmt3L counteracts the activity of de novo DNA methylases to maintain hypomethylation at promoters of bivalent developmental genes.

  3. Hydrazine and the Methylation of DNA Guanine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    dimethylsulf oxide, or yellow phosphorus po in olive oil ; 5 rats and 5 hamsters received 2 mg aflatoxin B /kg body wt, 5 rats and 6 hamsters received 6 mg...0 -methylguanine were detected in liver DNA of rats given phosphorus, the toxicant was administered in a 0.5% solution in olive oil ; in the above...experiment, in which these bases could not be detected, the concentration of phosphorus in olive oil was 0.1%. Also, in an earlier experiment on DNA

  4. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rebecca L; Schenkel, Laila C; Nikkel, Sarah M; Ainsworth, Peter J; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M; Bulman, Dennis E; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-12-09

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS. Both hyper and hypomethylated loci are distributed across the genome, preferentially occurring in CpG islands. Clonal bisulfite sequencing of two hypermethylated (FIGN and STPG2) and two hypomethylated (MYO1F and RASIP1) genes confirmed these findings. The identification of a unique methylation signature in FHS provides further insight into the biological function of SRCAP and provides a unique biomarker for this disorder.

  5. Methyl-binding DNA capture Sequencing for Patient Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Rohit R.; Wang, Yao V.; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Liu, Joseph; Garcia, Dawn; Lai, Zhao; Huang, Tim H. M.; Jin, Victor X.

    2016-01-01

    Methylation is one of the essential epigenetic modifications to the DNA, which is responsible for the precise regulation of genes required for stable development and differentiation of different tissue types. Dysregulation of this process is often the hallmark of various diseases like cancer. Here, we outline one of the recent sequencing techniques, Methyl-Binding DNA Capture sequencing (MBDCap-seq), used to quantify methylation in various normal and disease tissues for large patient cohorts. We describe a detailed protocol of this affinity enrichment approach along with a bioinformatics pipeline to achieve optimal quantification. This technique has been used to sequence hundreds of patients across various cancer types as a part of the 1,000 methylome project (Cancer Methylome System). PMID:27842364

  6. DNA methylation and cancer diagnosis: new methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Dehan, Pierre; Kustermans, Gaelle; Guenin, Samuel; Horion, Julie; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Methylation of cytosines in cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides is one of the most important epigenetic alterations in animals. The presence of methylcytosine in the promoter of specific genes has profound consequences on local chromatin structure and on the regulation of gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation play a central role in carcinogenesis. Hypermethylation and consecutive transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes has been documented in numerous cancers. The identification of target genes silenced by this modification has a great impact on diagnosis, classification, definition of risk groups and prognosis of cancer patients. Here we outline genome-wide techniques aiming at the identification of relevant methylated promoters. Methods and applications allowing clinicians to monitor the methylation of target genes will be also reviewed.

  7. DNA Methylation Occurred around Lowly Expressed Genes of Plastid DNA during Tomato Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T

    1988-09-01

    We have analyzed DNA methylation of plastid DNA from fully ripened red fruits, green mature fruits, and green leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Firstmore). Essentially identical restriction profiles were obtained between chromoplast and chloroplast DNAs by EcoRI digestion. BstNI/EcoRII and HpaII/MspI are pairs of isoschizomers that can discriminate between methylated and unmethylated DNAs. These endonucleases produced different restriction patterns of plastid DNAs from tomato fruits compared to tomato leaves. Moreover, we have found from Southern blots that methylation was not detected in DNA fragments containing certain genes that are actively expressed in chromoplasts, whereas DNA fragments bearing genes that are barely transcribed in chromoplasts are methylated.

  8. Tissue culture-induced DNA methylation polymorphisms in repetitive DNA of tomato calli and regenerated plants.

    PubMed

    Smulders, M J; Rus-Kortekaas, W; Vosman, B

    1995-12-01

    The propagation of plants through tissue culture can induce a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Variation in DNA methylation has been proposed as a mechanism that may explain at least a part of these changes. In the present study, the methylation of tomato callus DNA was compared with that of leaf DNA, from control or regenerated plants, at MspI/HpaII sites around five middle-repetitive sequences. Although the methylation of the internal cytosine in the recognition sequence CCGG varied from zero to nearly full methylation, depending on the probe used, no differences were found between callus and leaf DNA. For the external cytosine, small differences were revealed between leaf and callus DNA with two probes, but no polymorphisms were detected among DNA samples of calli or DNA samples of leaves of regenerated plants. When callus DNA cut with HindIII was studied with one of the probes, H9D9, most of the signal was found in high-molecular-weight DNA, as opposed to control leaf DNA where almost all the signal was in a fragment of 530 bp. Also, an extra fragment of 630 bp was found in the callus DNA that was not present in control leaf DNA. Among leaves of plants regenerated from tissue culture, the 630-bp fragment was found in 10 of 68 regenerated plants. This 630-bp fragment was present among progeny of only 4 of these 10 plants after selfing, i.e. it was partly inherited. In these cases, the fragment was not found in all progeny plants, indicating heterozygosity of the regenerated plants. The data are interpreted as indicating that a HindIII site becomes methylated in callus tissue, and that some of this methylation persists in regenerated plants and is partly transmitted to their progeny.

  9. Integrative modelling of tumour DNA methylation quantifies the contribution of metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohamadi, Mahya; Mentch, Lucas K.; Clark, Andrew G.; Locasale, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Altered DNA methylation is common in cancer and often considered an early event in tumorigenesis. However, the sources of heterogeneity of DNA methylation among tumours remain poorly defined. Here we capitalize on the availability of multi-platform data on thousands of human tumours to build integrative models of DNA methylation. We quantify the contribution of clinical and molecular factors in explaining intertumoral variability in DNA methylation. We show that the levels of a set of metabolic genes involved in the methionine cycle is predictive of several features of DNA methylation in tumours, including the methylation of cancer genes. Finally, we demonstrate that patients whose DNA methylation can be predicted from the methionine cycle exhibited improved survival over cases where this regulation is disrupted. This study represents a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of methylation and demonstrates the surprisingly large interaction between metabolism and DNA methylation variation. Together, our results quantify links between tumour metabolism and epigenetics and outline clinical implications. PMID:27966532

  10. Prenatal antidepressant exposure associated with CYP2E1 DNA methylation change in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Gurnot, Cécile; Martin-Subero, Ignacio; Mah, Sarah M; Weikum, Whitney; Goodman, Sarah J; Brain, Ursula; Werker, Janet F; Kobor, Michael S; Esteller, Manel; Oberlander, Tim F; Hensch, Takao K

    2015-01-01

    Some but not all neonates are affected by prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SRI) and maternal mood disturbances. Distinguishing the impact of these 2 exposures is challenging and raises critical questions about whether pharmacological, genetic, or epigenetic factors can explain the spectrum of reported outcomes. Using unbiased DNA methylation array measurements followed by a detailed candidate gene approach, we examined whether prenatal SRI exposure was associated with neonatal DNA methylation changes and whether such changes were associated with differences in birth outcomes. Prenatal SRI exposure was first associated with increased DNA methylation status primarily at CYP2E1(βNon-exposed = 0.06, βSRI-exposed = 0.30, FDR = 0); however, this finding could not be distinguished from the potential impact of prenatal maternal depressed mood. Then, using pyrosequencing of CYP2E1 regulatory regions in an expanded cohort, higher DNA methylation status—both the mean across 16 CpG sites (P < 0.01) and at each specific CpG site (P < 0.05)—was associated with exposure to lower 3rd trimester maternal depressed mood symptoms only in the SRI-exposed neonates, indicating a maternal mood x SRI exposure interaction. In addition, higher DNA methylation levels at CpG2 (P = 0.04), CpG9 (P = 0.04) and CpG10 (P = 0.02), in the interrogated CYP2E1 region, were associated with increased birth weight independently of prenatal maternal mood, SRI drug exposure, or gestational age at birth. Prenatal SRI antidepressant exposure and maternal depressed mood were associated with altered neonatal CYP2E1 DNA methylation status, which, in turn, appeared to be associated with birth weight. PMID:25891251

  11. IGF2 DNA methylation is a modulator of newborn's fetal growth and development.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Julie; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice; Poirier, Paul; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively. Placental IGF2 (DMR0 and DMR2) DNA methylation levels were correlated with newborn's fetal growth indices, such as weight, and with maternal IGF2 circulating concentration at the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas H19 (DMR) DNA methylation levels were correlated with IGF2 levels in cord blood. The maternal genotype of a known IGF2/H19 polymorphism (rs2107425) was associated with birth weight. Taken together, we showed that IGF2/H19 epigenotype and genotypes independently account for 31% of the newborn's weight variance. No association was observed with maternal diabetic status, glucose concentrations or prenatal maternal body mass index. This is the first study showing that DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 genes locus may act as a modulator of IGF2 newborn's fetal growth and development within normal range. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation could represent a cornerstone in linking birth weight and fetal metabolic programming of late onset obesity.

  12. Aberrant DNA Methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Teschler, Stefanie; Gotthardt, Julia; Dammann, Gerhard; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychic disease with a high risk for suicide. DNA methylation is a hallmark for aberrant epigenetic regulation and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. Previously, it has been reported that increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes is found in the blood of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA promoter region and 5′-external transcribed spacer/5′ETS) and the promoter of the proline rich membrane anchor 1 gene (PRIMA1) in peripheral blood samples of 24 female patients (mean age (33 ± 11) years) diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in 11 female controls (mean age (32 ± 7) years). A significant aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For the promoter of PRIMA1, the average methylation of six CpG sites was 1.6-fold higher in BPD patients compared to controls. In contrast, the methylation levels of the rDNA promoter region and the 5′ETS were significantly lower (0.9-fold) in patients with BPD compared to controls. Thus, for nine CpGs located in the rDNA promoter region and for four CpGs at the 5′ETS decreased methylation was found in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Our results suggest that aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 is associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:26742039

  13. GADD45α inhibition of DNMT1 dependent DNA methylation during homology directed DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongyong; Morano, Annalisa; Porcellini, Antonio; Muller, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by the DNA damage inducible protein, GADD45α. We used a system to induce homologous recombination (HR) at a unique double-strand DNA break in a GFP reporter in mammalian cells. After HR, the repaired DNA is hypermethylated in recombinant clones showing low GFP expression (HR-L expressor class), while in high expressor recombinants (HR-H clones) previous methylation patterns are erased. GADD45α, which is transiently induced by double-strand breaks, binds to chromatin undergoing HR repair. Ectopic overexpression of GADD45α during repair increases the HR-H fraction of cells (hypomethylated repaired DNA), without altering the recombination frequency. Conversely, silencing of GADD45α increases methylation of the recombined segment and amplifies the HR-L expressor (hypermethylated) population. GADD45α specifically interacts with the catalytic site of DNMT1 and inhibits methylation activity in vitro. We propose that double-strand DNA damage and the resulting HR process involves precise, strand selected DNA methylation by DNMT1 that is regulated by GADD45α. Since GADD45α binds with high avidity to hemimethylated DNA intermediates, it may also provide a barrier to spreading of methylation during or after HR repair. PMID:22135303

  14. Arsenic exposure and DNA methylation among elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Lambrou, Angeliki; Baccarelli, Andrea; Wright, Robert O.; Weisskopf, Marc; Bollati, Valentina; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Arsenic exposure has been linked to epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in in vitro and animal studies. This association has also been explored in highly exposed human populations, but studies among populations environmentally exposed to low arsenic levels are lacking. METHODS We evaluated the association between exposure to arsenic, measured in toenails, and blood DNA methylation in Alu and Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements in elderly men environmentally exposed to low levels of arsenic. We also explored potential effect modification by plasma folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). The study population was 581 participants from the Normative Aging Study in Boston, of whom 434, 140, and 7 had 1, 2, and 3 visits, respectively, between 1999-2002 and 2006-2007. We used mixed-effects models and included interaction terms to assess potential effect modification by nutritional factors. RESULTS There was a trend of increasing Alu and decreasing LINE-1 DNA methylation as arsenic exposure increased. In subjects with plasma folate below the median (< 14.1 ng/ml), arsenic was positively associated with Alu DNA methylation (β=0.08 [95% confidence interval = 0.03 to 0.13] for one interquartile range [0.06μg/g] increase in arsenic) while a negative association was observed in subjects with plasma folate above the median (β=-0.08 [-0.17 to 0.01]). CONCLUSIONS We found an association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in Alu repetitive elements that varied by folate level. This suggests a potential role for nutritional factors in arsenic toxicity. PMID:22833016

  15. Epigenetic regulation of motor neuron cell death through DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Chestnut, Barry A; Chang, Qing; Price, Ann; Lesuisse, Catherine; Wong, Margaret; Martin, Lee J

    2011-11-16

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that Dnmts can mediate neuronal cell death. Enforced expression of Dnmt3a induced degeneration of cultured NSC34 cells. During apoptosis of NSC34 cells induced by camptothecin, levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a increased fivefold and twofold, respectively, and 5-methylcytosine accumulated in nuclei. Truncation mutation of the Dnmt3a catalytic domain and Dnmt3a RNAi blocked apoptosis of cultured neurons. Inhibition of Dnmt catalytic activity with RG108 and procainamide protected cultured neurons from excessive DNA methylation and apoptosis. In vivo, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed differentially during mouse brain and spinal cord maturation and in adulthood when Dnmt3a is abundant in synapses and mitochondria. Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed in motor neurons of adult mouse spinal cord, and, during their apoptosis induced by sciatic nerve avulsion, nuclear and cytoplasmic 5-methylcytosine immunoreactivity, Dnmt3a protein levels and Dnmt enzyme activity increased preapoptotically. Inhibition of Dnmts with RG108 blocked completely the increase in 5-methycytosine and the apoptosis of motor neurons in mice. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons showed changes in Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and 5-methylcytosine similar to experimental models. Thus, motor neurons can engage epigenetic mechanisms to drive apoptosis, involving Dnmt upregulation and increased DNA methylation. These cellular mechanisms could be relevant to human ALS pathobiology and disease treatment.

  16. DHPLC-based method for DNA methylation analysis of differential methylated regions from imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Couvert, P; Poirier, K; Carrié, A; Chalas, C; Jouannet, P; Beldjord, C; Bienvenu, T; Chelly, J; Kerjean, A

    2003-02-01

    The bisulfite genomic sequencing method is one of the most widely used techniques for methylation analysis in heterogeneous unbiased PCR, amplifying for both methylated and unmethylated alleles simultaneously. However, it requires labor-intensive and time-consuming cloning and sequencing steps. In the current study, we used a denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) procedure in a complementary way with the bisulfite genomic sequencing to analyze the methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes. We showed reliable and reproducible results in distinguishing overall methylation profiles of DMRs regions of human SNRPN, H19, MEST/PEG1, LIT1, IGF2, TSSC5, WT1 antisense, and mouse H19, Mest/Peg1, Igf2R imprinted genes. These DHPLC profiles were in accordance with bisulfite genomic sequencing data and may serve as a type of "fingerprint," revealing the overall methylation status of DMRs associated with sample heterogeneity. We conclude that DHPLC analysis could be used to increase the throughput efficiency of methylation pattern analysis of imprinted genes after the bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA and unbiased PCR amplification.

  17. Microsphere-Based Multiplex Analysis of DNA Methylation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Gerald B.W.; Smith, Catherine; Figueroa, Maria E.; Kalos, Michael; Bagg, Adam; Carroll, Martin; Master, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of DNA methylation is characteristic of cancer cells and clearly influences phenotypes of various malignancies. Despite clear correlations between DNA methylation and patient outcome, tests that directly measure multiple-locus DNA methylation are typically expensive and technically challenging. Previous studies have demonstrated that the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be predicted by the DNA methylation pattern of 18 loci. We have developed a novel strategy, termed microsphere HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated PCR (MELP), to simultaneously analyze the DNA methylation pattern at these loci using methylation-specific DNA digestion, fluorescently labeled microspheres, and branched DNA hybridization. The method uses techniques that are inexpensive and easily performed in a molecular laboratory. MELP accurately reflects the methylation levels at each locus analyzed and segregates patients with acute myeloid leukemia into prognostic subgroups. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of MELP as a platform for simultaneous evaluation of DNA methylation of multiple loci. PMID:24373919

  18. Prenatal stress-induced programming of genome-wide promoter DNA methylation in 5-HTT-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schraut, K G; Jakob, S B; Weidner, M T; Schmitt, A G; Scholz, C J; Strekalova, T; El Hajj, N; Eijssen, L M T; Domschke, K; Reif, A; Haaf, T; Ortega, G; Steinbusch, H W M; Lesch, K P; Van den Hove, D L

    2014-10-21

    The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT/SLC6A4)-linked polymorphic region has been suggested to have a modulatory role in mediating effects of early-life stress exposure on psychopathology rendering carriers of the low-expression short (s)-variant more vulnerable to environmental adversity in later life. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this gene-by-environment interaction are not well understood, but epigenetic regulation including differential DNA methylation has been postulated to have a critical role. Recently, we used a maternal restraint stress paradigm of prenatal stress (PS) in 5-HTT-deficient mice and showed that the effects on behavior and gene expression were particularly marked in the hippocampus of female 5-Htt+/- offspring. Here, we examined to which extent these effects are mediated by differential methylation of DNA. For this purpose, we performed a genome-wide hippocampal DNA methylation screening using methylated-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Promoter 1.0 R arrays. Using hippocampal DNA from the same mice as assessed before enabled us to correlate gene-specific DNA methylation, mRNA expression and behavior. We found that 5-Htt genotype, PS and their interaction differentially affected the DNA methylation signature of numerous genes, a subset of which showed overlap with the expression profiles of the corresponding transcripts. For example, a differentially methylated region in the gene encoding myelin basic protein (Mbp) was associated with its expression in a 5-Htt-, PS- and 5-Htt × PS-dependent manner. Subsequent fine-mapping of this Mbp locus linked the methylation status of two specific CpG sites to Mbp expression and anxiety-related behavior. In conclusion, hippocampal DNA methylation patterns and expression profiles of female prenatally stressed 5-Htt+/- mice suggest that distinct molecular mechanisms, some of which are promoter methylation-dependent, contribute to the behavioral effects of the 5-Htt

  19. PGC7 suppresses TET3 for protecting DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates this biological process is not clear. Here, we show the evidence that PGC7 (also known as Dppa3 or Stella) interacts with TET2 and TET3 both in vitro and in vivo to suppress the enzymatic activity of TET2 and TET3. Moreover, lacking PGC7 induces the loss of DNA methylation at imprinting loci. Genome-wide analysis of PGC7 reveals a consensus DNA motif that is recognized by PGC7. The CpG islands surrounding the PGC7-binding motifs are hypermethylated. Taken together, our study demonstrates a molecular mechanism by which PGC7 protects DNA methylation from TET family enzyme-dependent oxidation. PMID:24322296

  20. Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse

    PubMed Central

    Krzeminski, Patryk; Corchete, Luis A.; García, Juan L.; López-Corral, Lucía; Fermiñán, Encarna; García, Eva M.; Martín, Ana A.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.; García-Sanz, Ramón; Miguel, Jesús F. San; Gutiérrez, Norma C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse. PMID:27811368

  1. Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse.

    PubMed

    Krzeminski, Patryk; Corchete, Luis A; García, Juan L; López-Corral, Lucía; Fermiñán, Encarna; García, Eva M; Martín, Ana A; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F; Gutiérrez, Norma C

    2016-12-06

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse.

  2. Fetal DNA hypermethylation in tight junction pathway is associated with neural tube defects: A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlin; Lin, Shanshan; Zhang, Ji; Tian, Tian; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a spectrum of severe congenital malformations of fusion failure of the neural tube during early embryogenesis. Evidence on aberrant DNA methylation in NTD development remains scarce, especially when exposure to environmental pollutant is taken into consideration. DNA methylation profiling was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array in neural tissues from 10 NTD cases and 8 non-malformed controls (stage 1). Subsequent validation was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY system in neural tissues from 20 NTD cases and 20 non-malformed controls (stage 2). Correlation analysis of differentially methylated CpG sites in fetal neural tissues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in fetal neural tissues and maternal serum was conducted. Differentially methylated CpG sites of neural tissues were further validated in fetal mice with NTDs induced by benzo(a)pyrene given to pregnant mice. Differentially hypermethylated CpG sites in neural tissues from 17 genes and 6 pathways were identified in stage 1. Subsequently, differentially hypermethylated CpG sites in neural tissues from 6 genes (BDKRB2, CTNNA1, CYFIP2, MMP7, MYH2, and TIAM2) were confirmed in stage 2. Correlation analysis showed that methylated CpG sites in CTNNA1 and MYH2 from NTD cases were positively correlated to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level in fetal neural tissues and maternal serum. The correlation was confirmed in NTD-affected fetal mice that were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene in utero. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the CTNNA1 and MYH2 genes in tight junction pathway is associated with the risk for NTDs, and the DNA methylation aberration may be caused by exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

  3. Genome-Wide Differences in DNA Methylation Changes in Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes in Response to Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wensheng; Qin, Qiao; Sun, Fan; Wang, Yinxiao; Xu, Dandan; Li, Zhikang; Fu, Binying

    2016-01-01

    Differences in drought stress tolerance within diverse rice genotypes have been attributed to genetic diversity and epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that influences diverse biological processes, but its effects on rice drought stress tolerance are poorly understood. In this study, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing and an Affymetrix GeneChip rice genome array were used to profile the DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes of the drought-tolerant introgression line DK151 and its drought-sensitive recurrent parent IR64 under drought and control conditions. The introgression of donor genomic DNA induced genome-wide DNA methylation changes in DK151 plants. A total of 1190 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were detected between the two genotypes under normal growth conditions, and the DMR-associated genes in DK151 plants were mainly related to stress response, programmed cell death, and nutrient reservoir activity, which are implicated to constitutive drought stress tolerance. A comparison of the DNA methylation changes in the two genotypes under drought conditions indicated that DK151 plants have a more stable methylome, with only 92 drought-induced DMRs, than IR64 plants with 506 DMRs. Gene ontology analyses of the DMR-associated genes in drought-stressed plants revealed that changes to the DNA methylation status of genotype-specific genes are associated with the epigenetic regulation of drought stress responses. Transcriptome analysis further helped to identify a set of 12 and 23 DMR-associated genes that were differentially expressed in DK151 and IR64, respectively, under drought stress compared with respective controls. Correlation analysis indicated that DNA methylation has various effects on gene expression, implying that it affects gene expression directly or indirectly through diverse regulatory pathways. Our results indicate that drought-induced alterations to DNA methylation may influence

  4. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29–6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  5. Whole genome DNA methylation signature of HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Breezy M; Wingren, Sten; Motlagh, Parviz B; Nilsson, Torbjörn K

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive DNA methylation signature of HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2+ breast cancer), we performed a genome-wide methylation analysis on 17 HER2+ breast cancer and compared with ten normal breast tissue samples using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K). In HER2+ breast cancer, we found altered DNA methylation in genes involved in multicellular development, differentiation and transcription. Within these genes, we observed an overrepresentation of homeobox family genes, including several genes that have not been previously reported in relation to cancer (DBX1, NKX2–6, SIX6). Other affected genes included several belonging to the PI3K and Wnt signaling pathways. Notably, HER2, AKT3, HK1, and PFKP, genes for which altered methylation has not been previously reported, were also identified in this analysis. In total, we report 69 candidate biomarker genes with maximum differential methylation in HER2+ breast cancer. External validation of gene expression in a selected group of these genes (n = 13) revealed lowered mean gene expression in HER2+ breast cancer. We analyzed DNA methylation in six top candidate genes (AKR1B1, INA, FOXC2, NEUROD1, CDKL2, IRF4) using EpiTect Methyl II Custom PCR Array and confirmed the 450K array findings. Future clinical studies focusing on these genes, as well as on homeobox-containing genes and HER2, AKT3, HK1, and PFKP, are warranted which could provide further insights into the biology of HER2+ breast cancer. PMID:25089541

  6. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y; Schmitz, Robert J; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A

    2016-07-07

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the [Formula: see text]hH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the [Formula: see text]hH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa.

  7. Differential DNA methylation identified in the blood and retina of AMD patients.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Verity F; Jaffe, Andrew E; Song, Jin; Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Pingwu; Branham, Kari E; Swaroop, Anand; Eberhart, Charles G; Zack, Donald J; Qian, Jiang; Merbs, Shannath L

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the western world. While genetic studies have linked both common and rare variants in genes involved in regulation of the complement system to increased risk of development of AMD, environmental factors, such as smoking and nutrition, can also significantly affect the risk of developing the disease and the rate of disease progression. Since epigenetics has been implicated in mediating, in part, the disease risk associated with some environmental factors, we investigated a possible epigenetic contribution to AMD. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of blood from AMD patients and controls. No differential methylation site reached genome-wide significance; however, when epigenetic changes in and around known GWAS-defined AMD risk loci were explored, we found small but significant DNA methylation differences in the blood of neovascular AMD patients near age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), a top-ranked GWAS locus preferentially associated with neovascular AMD. The methylation level of one of the CpG sites significantly correlated with the genotype of the risk SNP rs10490924, suggesting a possible epigenetic mechanism of risk. Integrating genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of retina samples with and without AMD together with blood samples, we further identified a consistent, replicable change in DNA methylation in the promoter region of protease serine 50 (PRSS50). These methylation changes may identify sites in novel genes that are susceptible to non-genetic factors known to contribute to AMD development and progression.

  8. Differential DNA methylation identified in the blood and retina of AMD patients

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Verity F; Jaffe, Andrew E; Song, Jin; Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Pingwu; Branham, Kari E; Swaroop, Anand; Eberhart, Charles G; Zack, Donald J; Qian, Jiang; Merbs, Shannath L

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the western world. While genetic studies have linked both common and rare variants in genes involved in regulation of the complement system to increased risk of development of AMD, environmental factors, such as smoking and nutrition, can also significantly affect the risk of developing the disease and the rate of disease progression. Since epigenetics has been implicated in mediating, in part, the disease risk associated with some environmental factors, we investigated a possible epigenetic contribution to AMD. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of blood from AMD patients and controls. No differential methylation site reached genome-wide significance; however, when epigenetic changes in and around known GWAS-defined AMD risk loci were explored, we found small but significant DNA methylation differences in the blood of neovascular AMD patients near age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), a top-ranked GWAS locus preferentially associated with neovascular AMD. The methylation level of one of the CpG sites significantly correlated with the genotype of the risk SNP rs10490924, suggesting a possible epigenetic mechanism of risk. Integrating genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of retina samples with and without AMD together with blood samples, we further identified a consistent, replicable change in DNA methylation in the promoter region of protease serine 50 (PRSS50). These methylation changes may identify sites in novel genes that are susceptible to non-genetic factors known to contribute to AMD development and progression. PMID:26067391

  9. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    PubMed

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html.

  10. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  11. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile lines and the maintainer in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ba, Qingsong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2014-10-01

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid wheat, and three-line system including male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B line) and restoring (R line) has played a major role in wheat hybrid production. It is well known that DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression regulation during biological development in wheat. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by different male sterile cytoplasms in hybrid wheat. We employed a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize nuclear DNA methylation in three male sterile cytoplasms. A and B lines share the same nucleus, but have different cytoplasms which is male sterile for the A and fertile for the B. The results revealed a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A lines and B line was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. K-type cytoplasm affected the methylation to a much greater degree than T-type and S-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the ratio of methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A lines and B line for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the K-type is much greater than for the T- and S-types because the former is between Aegilops genus and Triticum genus and the latter is within Triticum genus between Triticum spelta and Triticum timopheevii species. Thus, this difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation that we observed.

  12. DNA methylation homeostasis in human and mouse development.

    PubMed

    Iurlaro, Mario; von Meyenn, Ferdinand; Reik, Wolf

    2017-03-02

    The molecular pathways that regulate gain and loss of DNA methylation during mammalian development need to be tightly balanced to maintain a physiological equilibrium. Here we explore the relative contributions of the different pathways and enzymatic activities involved in methylation homeostasis in the context of genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. An adaptable epigenetic machinery allows global epigenetic reprogramming to concur with local maintenance of critical epigenetic memory in the genome, and appears to regulate the tempo of global reprogramming in different cell lineages and species.

  13. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  14. Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutagenicity and DNA methylation by ellagic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, R; Gold, B

    1986-01-01

    Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring plant phenol, inhibits the activity of the direct-acting mutagen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNU) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Ellagic acid at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM inhibited the mutagenicity of MeNU (0.40 mM) by 3%, 13%, 45%, and 60%, respectively. Ellagic acid (3 mM) also inhibited the mutagenic activity of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (25-200 mM) in the presence of pyrazole-induced rat liver fraction S-9. The effect of ellagic acid on DNA methylation was studied by incubating 0, 0.72, 1.32, 2.64, and 6.60 mM ellagic acid with DNA (0.9 mM nucleotide) and [3H]MeNU (0.66 mM). HPLC analysis of DNA hydrolysates showed that ellagic acid caused a dose-dependent 36-84% decrease in O6-methylguanine but only a 20% decrease in the 7-methylguanine adduct. Under conditions where methylation at the O6 position of guanine in double-stranded DNA was inhibited 65% by ellagic acid, no significant inhibition of either O6- or 7-methylguanine formation was detected in single-stranded DNA. Affinity-binding studies revealed that [3H]ellagic acid binds equally to double-stranded or single-stranded DNA but that poly(dA X dT) binds 1.5 times as much ellagic acid as does poly(dG X dC). The binding of ellagic acid to DNA is dependent on the concentration of both ellagic acid and DNA. The specific inhibition of O6-methylguanine formation only in double-stranded DNA and the relatively low inhibition of 7-methylguanine formation rule out the possibility that ellagic acid prevents DNA alkylation by scavenging the electrophilic intermediate generated in the hydrolysis of MeNU. The results suggest that ellagic acid inhibition of MeNU-induced mutagenicity is due to specific inhibition of methylation at the O6 position of guanine through an ellagic acid-duplex DNA affinity-binding mechanism. PMID:3464940

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene decreases global and gene specific DNA methylation during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Thornton, Cammi; Scheffler, Brian E.; Willett, Kristine L.

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is important for gene regulation and is vulnerable to early-life exposure to environmental contaminants. We found that direct waterborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure at 24 μg/L from 2.5 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) to zebrafish embryos significantly decreased global cytosine methylation by 44.8% and promoter methylation in vasa by 17%. Consequently, vasa expression was significantly increased by 33%. In contrast, BaP exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations did not change CpG island methylation or gene expression in cancer genes such as ras-association domain family member 1 (rassf1), telomerase reverse transcriptase (tert), c-jun, and c-myca. Similarly, BaP did not change gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) and glycine N-methyltransferase (gnmt). While total DNMT activity was not affected, GNMT enzyme activity was moderately increased. In summary, BaP is an epigenetic modifier for global and gene specific DNA methylation status in zebrafish larvae. PMID:23542452

  16. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits.

  17. Compendium of aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Naoko; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2014-12-05

    Epigenetics now refers to the study or research field related to DNA methylation and histone modifications. Historically, global DNA hypomethylation was first revealed in 1983, and, after a decade, silencing of a tumor suppressor gene by regional DNA hypermethylation was reported. After the proposal of the histone code in the 2000s, alterations of histone methylation were also identified in cancers. Now, it is established that aberrant epigenetic alterations are involved in cancer development and progression, along with mutations and chromosomal losses. Recent cancer genome analyses have revealed a large number of mutations of epigenetic modifiers, supporting their important roles in cancer pathogenesis. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic alterations, drugs targeting epigenetic regulators and readers have been developed for restoration of normal pattern of the epigenome, and some have already demonstrated clinical benefits. In addition, DNA methylation of specific marker genes can be used as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis, including risk diagnosis, detection of cancers, and pathophysiological diagnosis. In this paper, we will summarize the major concepts of cancer epigenetics, placing emphasis on history.

  18. A DNA methylation microarray-based study identifies ERG as a gene commonly methylated in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzman, Jacob; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Corless, Christopher L; Jin, Jennifer; Zarour, Luai; Higano, Celestia; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; McWeeney, Shannon K; Bova, G. Steven; Partin, Alan W; Mori, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation of promoter regions is a common event in prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Because prior reports demonstrating that DNA methylation is important in prostate cancer studied a limited number of genes, we systematically quantified the DNA methylation status of 1,505 CpG dinucleotides for 807 genes in 78 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples and three normal prostate samples. The ERG gene, commonly repressed in prostate cells in the absence of an oncogenic fusion to the TMPRSS2 gene, was one of the most commonly methylated genes, occurring in 74% of prostate cancer specimens. In an independent group of patient samples, we confirmed that ERG DNA methylation was common, occurring in 57% of specimens, and cancer-specific. The ERG promoter is marked by repressive chromatin marks mediated by polycomb proteins in both normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells, which may explain ERG's predisposition to DNA methylation and the fact that tumors with ERG DNA methylation were more methylated, in general. These results demonstrate that bead arrays offer a high-throughput method to discover novel genes with promoter DNA methylation such as ERG, whose measurement may improve our ability to more accurately detect prostate cancer. PMID:21946329

  19. Aberrant DNA Methylation: Implications in Racial Health Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Ji, Ping; Zhang, Yuanhao; LaComb, Joseph F.; Tian, Xinyu; Li, Ellen; Williams, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are higher in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasian Americans (CAs). Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations. Materials and Methods Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5’-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit. Results DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4), and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC) were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins) and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p]) in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients. Conclusion DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s) addressing racial health disparity. PMID:27111221

  20. DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has a genetic basis and shows evidence of local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Manu J; Zhang, Pei; Meng, Dazhe; Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Osborne, Edward J; Paolo Casale, Francesco; Drewe, Philipp; Kahles, André; Jean, Geraldine; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni; Jagoda, Joanna; Irez, Selen; Voronin, Viktor; Song, Qiang; Long, Quan; Rätsch, Gunnar; Stegle, Oliver; Clark, Richard M; Nordborg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Epigenome modulation potentially provides a mechanism for organisms to adapt, within and between generations. However, neither the extent to which this occurs, nor the mechanisms involved are known. Here we investigate DNA methylation variation in Swedish Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown at two different temperatures. Environmental effects were limited to transposons, where CHH methylation was found to increase with temperature. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed that the extensive CHH methylation variation was strongly associated with genetic variants in both cis and trans, including a major trans-association close to the DNA methyltransferase CMT2. Unlike CHH methylation, CpG gene body methylation (GBM) was not affected by growth temperature, but was instead correlated with the latitude of origin. Accessions from colder regions had higher levels of GBM for a significant fraction of the genome, and this was associated with increased transcription for the genes affected. GWAS revealed that this effect was largely due to trans-acting loci, many of which showed evidence of local adaptation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05255.001 PMID:25939354

  1. DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has a genetic basis and shows evidence of local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Manu J; Zhang, Pei; Meng, Dazhe; Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Osborne, Edward J; Paolo Casale, Francesco; Drewe, Philipp; Kahles, André; Jean, Geraldine; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni; Jagoda, Joanna; Irez, Selen; Voronin, Viktor; Song, Qiang; Long, Quan; Rätsch, Gunnar; Stegle, Oliver; Clark, Richard M; Nordborg, Magnus

    2015-05-05

    Epigenome modulation potentially provides a mechanism for organisms to adapt, within and between generations. However, neither the extent to which this occurs, nor the mechanisms involved are known. Here we investigate DNA methylation variation in Swedish Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown at two different temperatures. Environmental effects were limited to transposons, where CHH methylation was found to increase with temperature. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed that the extensive CHH methylation variation was strongly associated with genetic variants in both cis and trans, including a major trans-association close to the DNA methyltransferase CMT2. Unlike CHH methylation, CpG gene body methylation (GBM) was not affected by growth temperature, but was instead correlated with the latitude of origin. Accessions from colder regions had higher levels of GBM for a significant fraction of the genome, and this was associated with increased transcription for the genes affected. GWAS revealed that this effect was largely due to trans-acting loci, many of which showed evidence of local adaptation.

  2. DNA methylation landscape of fat deposits and fatty acid composition in obese and lean pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Shen, Linyuan; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Qiong; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Obese and lean type pig breeds exhibit differences in their fat deposits and fatty acid composition. Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide DNA methylation on fatty acid metabolism between Landrace pigs (LP, leaner) and Rongchang pigs (RP, fatty). We found that LP backfat (LBF) had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content but a lower adipocyte volume than RP backfat (RBF). LBF exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels at the genome level than RBF. A total of 483 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located in promoter regions, mainly affecting olfactory and sensory activity and lipid metabolism. In LBF, the promoters of genes related to ATPase activity had significantly stronger methylation. This fact may suggest lower energy metabolism levels, which may result in less efficient lipid synthesis in LBF. Furthermore, we identified a DMR in the miR-4335 and miR-378 promoters and validated their methylation status by bisulfite sequencing PCR. The hypermethylation of the promoters of miR-4335 and miR-378 in LBF and the resulting silencing of the target genes may result in LBF’s low content in saturated fatty acids and fat deposition capacity. This study provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms affecting fat deposition and fatty acid composition. PMID:27721392

  3. DNA methylation as a target of epigenetic therapeutics in cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Keqin K; Li, Fangcheng; Li, Qiushi S; Yang, Kun; Jin, Bilian

    2013-02-01

    Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the development and progression of human cancer. It is noteworthy that epigenetic modifications, in contrast to genetic mutations, are intrinsically reversible. This triggers an impressive interest of researchers in treatment of cancer patients via targeting epigenetic mechanisms, leading to subsequent intensive investigations of epigenetic drugs as a novel therapeutic intervention. DNA methylation, the major form of epigenetic modifications, is catalyzed by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and/or the de novo methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Aberrant expression of DNMTs and disruption of DNA methylation are closely associated with multiple forms of cancer, although the exact mechanisms underlying this link remain elusive. An array of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) frequently sustain promoter hypermethylation, which results in epigenetic silencing of these genes and makes cancer cells acquire growth advantages. DNA demethylating agents, re-activating TSGs via inhibiting hypermethylation of their promoter regions, are currently being tested in clinical trials, and several of them are already applied in clinics. DNA demethylating agents, used either alone or in combination with other agents, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and the histone deacetylase inhibitors, have shown to be effective in treatment of cancer, although only in a small set of patients. In this review, we examine and discuss the most recent advances in epigenetic therapy of cancer, with a focus on DNA demethylating agents.

  4. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays), seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants. PMID:25999972

  5. Stress-induced gene expression and behavior are controlled by DNA methylation and methyl donor availability in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Saunderson, Emily A.; Spiers, Helen; Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Trollope, Alexandra F.; Shaikh, Abeera; Mill, Jonathan; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Stressful events evoke long-term changes in behavioral responses; however, the underlying mechanisms in the brain are not well understood. Previous work has shown that epigenetic changes and immediate-early gene (IEG) induction in stress-activated dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons play a crucial role in these behavioral responses. Here, we show that an acute stressful challenge [i.e., forced swimming (FS)] results in DNA demethylation at specific CpG (5′-cytosine–phosphate–guanine-3′) sites close to the c-Fos (FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog) transcriptional start site and within the gene promoter region of Egr-1 (early growth response protein 1) specifically in the DG. Administration of the (endogenous) methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) did not affect CpG methylation and IEG gene expression at baseline. However, administration of SAM before the FS challenge resulted in an enhanced CpG methylation at the IEG loci and suppression of IEG induction specifically in the DG and an impaired behavioral immobility response 24 h later. The stressor also specifically increased the expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha] in this hippocampus region. Moreover, stress resulted in an increased association of Dnmt3a enzyme with the affected CpG loci within the IEG genes. No effects of SAM were observed on stress-evoked histone modifications, including H3S10p-K14ac (histone H3, phosphorylated serine 10 and acetylated lysine-14), H3K4me3 (histone H3, trimethylated lysine-4), H3K9me3 (histone H3, trimethylated lysine-9), and H3K27me3 (histone H3, trimethylated lysine-27). We conclude that the DNA methylation status of IEGs plays a crucial role in FS-induced IEG induction in DG granule neurons and associated behavioral responses. In addition, the concentration of available methyl donor, possibly in conjunction with Dnmt3a, is critical for the responsiveness of dentate neurons to environmental

  6. Inheritance and Variation of Genomic DNA Methylation in Diploid and Triploid Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2016-02-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that could be responsive to environmental changes indicating a potential role in natural selection and adaption. In order to evaluate an evolutionary role of DNA methylation, it is essential to first gain a better insight into inheritability. To address this question, this study investigated DNA methylation variation from parents to offspring in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas using fluorescent-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) analysis. Most of parental methylated loci were stably transmitted to offspring segregating following Medelian expectation. However, methylated loci deviated more often than non-methylated loci and offspring showed a few de novo methylated loci indicating DNA methylation changes from parents to offspring. Interestingly, some male-specific methylated loci were found in this study which might help to explore sex determination in oyster. Despite environmental stimuli, genomic stresses such as polyploidization also can induce methylation changes. This study also compared global DNA methylation level and individual methylated loci between diploid and triploid oysters. Results showed no difference in global methylation state but a few ploidy-specific loci were detected. DNA methylation variation during polyploidization was less than autonomous methylation variation from parents to offspring.

  7. Early life lead exposure causes gender-specific changes in the DNA methylation profile of DNA extracted from dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Hess, Matthew; Land, Susan; Qu, Wen; Hollacher, Kurt; Dereski, Mary O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that early life lead (Pb) exposure associated DNA methylation (5mC) changes are dependent on the sex of the child and can serve as biomarkers for Pb exposure. Methods In this pilot study, we measured the 5mC profiles of DNA extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) in a cohort of 43 children (25 males and 18 females; ages from 3 months to 5 years) from Detroit. Result & Discussion We found that the effect of Pb-exposure on the 5-mC profiles can be separated into three subtypes: affected methylation loci which are conserved irrespective of the sex of the child (conserved); affected methylation loci unique to males (male-specific); and affected methylation loci unique to females (female-specific). PMID:26077427

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Preeclampsia-Associated DNA Methylation in the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiao; Bunce, Kimberly; Shaw, Patricia; Shridhar, Varsha; Althouse, Andrew; Hubel, Carl; Peters, David

    2014-01-01

    Background A small number of recent reports have suggested that altered placental DNA methylation may be associated with early onset preeclampsia. It is important that further studies be undertaken to confirm and develop these findings. We therefore undertook a systematic analysis of DNA methylation patterns in placental tissue from 24 women with preeclampsia and 24 with uncomplicated pregnancy outcome. Methods We analyzed the DNA methylation status of approximately 27,000 CpG sites in placental tissues in a massively parallel fashion using an oligonucleotide microarray. Follow up analysis of DNA methylation at specific CpG loci was performed using the Epityper MassArray approach and high-throughput bisulfite sequencing. Results Preeclampsia-specific DNA methylation changes were identified in placental tissue samples irrespective of gestational age of delivery. In addition, we identified a group of CpG sites within specific gene sequences that were only altered in early onset-preeclampsia (EOPET) although these DNA methylation changes did not correlate with altered mRNA transcription. We found evidence that fetal gender influences DNA methylation at autosomal loci but could find no clear association between DNA methylation and gestational age. Conclusion Preeclampsia is associated with altered placental DNA methylation. Fetal gender should be carefully considered during the design of future studies in which placental DNA is analyzed at the level of DNA methylation. Further large-scale analyses of preeclampsia-associated DNA methylation are necessary. PMID:25247495

  9. Cross-species analysis of genic GC3 content and DNA methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC(3)) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC(3) was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC(3) from 5' to 3'. Moreover, GC(3)-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC(3) bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC(3) has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC(3) distribution and tested the association between GC(3), DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC(3), gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = -0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC(3) and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5'-3' gradients of CG(3)-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC(3) and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC(3)-poor and GC(3)-rich genes are the products of several competing processes.

  10. Cross-Species Analysis of Genic GC3 Content and DNA Methylation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC3) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC3 was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC3 from 5′ to 3′. Moreover, GC3-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC3 bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC3 has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC3 distribution and tested the association between GC3, DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC3, gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = −0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC3 and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5′-3′ gradients of CG3-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC3 and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC3-poor and GC3-rich genes are the products of several competing processes. PMID:23833164

  11. Methylated DNA/RNA in Body Fluids as Biomarkers for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Li, Shulin/Sl; Zhu, Shiguo/Sg; Gong, Yabin/Yb; Shi, Jun/J; Xu, Ling/L

    2017-01-01

    DNA/RNA methylation plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and progression. Liquid biopsy makes use of cells, nucleotides and proteins released from tumor cells into body fluids to help with cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Methylation of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained increasing attention as biomarkers for lung cancer. Here we briefly introduce the biological basis and detection method of ctDNA methylation, and review various applications of methylated DNA in body fluids in lung cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and treatment prediction. We also discuss the emerging role of RNA methylation as biomarkers for cancer.

  12. DNA Methylation in Promoter Region as Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mihi; Park, Jong Y.

    2013-01-01

    The prostate gland is the most common site of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Recent emerging molecular biological technologies help us to know that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation within the regulatory (promoter) regions of genes are associated with transcriptional silencing in cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of critical pathway genes could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. In this chapter, we updated current information on methylated genes associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Over 40 genes have been investigated for methylation in promoter region in prostate cancer. These methylated genes are involved in critical pathways, such as DNA repair, metabolism, and invasion/metastasis. The role of hypermethylated genes in regulation of critical pathways in prostate cancer is discussed. These findings may provide new information of the pathogenesis, the exciting potential to be predictive and to provide personalized treatment of prostate cancer. Indeed, some epigenetic alterations in prostate tumors are being translated into clinical practice for therapeutic use. PMID:22359288

  13. Analysis of DNA methylation of potential age-related methylation sites in canine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Genta; Yoshimura, Kuniko; Momoi, Yasuyuki

    2017-04-08

    Reliable methodology for predicting the age of mature dogs is currently unavailable. In this study, amplicon sequencing of 50 blood samples obtained from diseased dogs was used to measure methylation in seven DNA regions. Significant correlations between methylation level and age were identified in four of the seven regions. These four regions were then tested in samples from 31 healthy toy poodles, and correlations were detected in two regions. The age of another 11 dogs was predicted using data from the diseased dogs and the healthy poodles. The mean difference between the actual and calculated ages was 34.3 and 23.1 months, respectively. Further research is needed to identify additional sites of age-related methylation and allow accurate age prediction in dogs.

  14. Aberrant DNA methylation in 5' regions of DNA methyltransferase genes in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghe; Liang, Xingwei; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wei, Liang; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-09-01

    High rate of abortion and developmental abnormalities is thought to be closely associated with inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nuclei during bovine cloning. It is known that one of the important mechanisms for epigenetic reprogramming is DNA methylation. DNA methylation is established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), therefore, it is postulated that the inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of transplanted nuclei may be due to abnormal expression of DNMTs. Since DNA methylation can strongly inhibit gene expression, aberrant DNA methylation of DNMT genes may disturb gene expression. But presently, it is not clear whether the methylation abnormality of DNMT genes is related to developmental failure of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. In our study, we analyzed methylation patterns of the 5' regions of four DNMT genes including Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 in four aborted bovine clones. Using bisulfite sequencing method, we found that 3 out of 4 aborted bovine clones (AF1, AF2 and AF3) showed either hypermethylation or hypomethylation in the 5' regions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, indicating that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b genes are not properly reprogrammed. However, the individual AF4 exhibited similar methylation level and pattern to age-matched in vitro fertilized (IVF) fetuses. Besides, we found that the 5' regions of Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 were nearly completely unmethylated in all normal adults, IVF fetuses, sperm and aborted clones. Together, our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b 5' regions is probably associated with the high abortion of bovine clones.

  15. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data. PMID:27310475

  16. A genome-wide study of DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in multiple human and chimpanzee tissues.

    PubMed

    Pai, Athma A; Bell, Jordana T; Marioni, John C; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Gilad, Yoav

    2011-02-01

    The modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within and across a range of species. However, the extent to which changes in methylation might underlie inter-species differences in gene regulation, in particular between humans and other primates, has not yet been studied. To this end, we studied DNA methylation patterns in livers, hearts, and kidneys from multiple humans and chimpanzees, using tissue samples for which genome-wide gene expression data were also available. Using the multi-species gene expression and methylation data for 7,723 genes, we were able to study the role of promoter DNA methylation in the evolution of gene regulation across tissues and species. We found that inter-tissue methylation patterns are often conserved between humans and chimpanzees. However, we also found a large number of gene expression differences between species that might be explained, at least in part, by corresponding differences in methylation levels. In particular, we estimate that, in the tissues we studied, inter-species differences in promoter methylation might underlie as much as 12%-18% of differences in gene expression levels between humans and chimpanzees.

  17. Use of MSAP Markers to Analyse the Effects of Salt Stress on DNA Methylation in Rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera)

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Gianpiero; Pace, Roberta; Traini, Alessandra; Raggi, Lorenzo; Lutts, Stanley; Chiusano, Marialuisa; Guiducci, Marcello; Falcinelli, Mario; Benincasa, Paolo; Albertini, Emidio

    2013-01-01

    Excessive soil salinity is a major ecological and agronomical problem, the adverse effects of which are becoming a serious issue in regions where saline water is used for irrigation. Plants can employ regulatory strategies, such as DNA methylation, to enable relatively rapid adaptation to new conditions. In this regard, cytosine methylation might play an integral role in the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Rapeseed, which is the most important oilseed crop in Europe, is classified as being tolerant of salinity, although cultivars can vary substantially in their levels of tolerance. In this study, the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) approach was used to assess the extent of cytosine methylation under salinity stress in salinity-tolerant (Exagone) and salinity-sensitive (Toccata) rapeseed cultivars. Our data show that salinity affected the level of DNA methylation. In particular methylation decreased in Exagone and increased in Toccata. Nineteen DNA fragments showing polymorphisms related to differences in methylation were sequenced. In particular, two of these were highly similar to genes involved in stress responses (Lacerata and trehalose-6-phosphatase synthase S4) and were chosen to further characterization. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of selected MSAP loci showed that cytosine methylation changes under salinity as well as gene expression varied. In particular, our data show that salinity stress influences the expression of the two stress-related genes. Moreover, we quantified the level of trehalose in Exagone shoots and found that it was correlated to TPS4 expression and, therefore, to DNA methylation. In conclusion, we found that salinity could induce genome-wide changes in DNA methylation status, and that these changes, when averaged across different genotypes and developmental stages, accounted for 16.8% of the total site-specific methylation differences

  18. The Ageing Brain: Effects on DNA Repair and DNA Methylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Langie, Sabine A. S.; Cameron, Kerry M.; Ficz, Gabriella; Oxley, David; Tomaszewski, Bartłomiej; Gorniak, Joanna P.; Maas, Lou M.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Reik, Wolf; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Mathers, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) may become less effective with ageing resulting in accumulation of DNA lesions, genome instability and altered gene expression that contribute to age-related degenerative diseases. The brain is particularly vulnerable to the accumulation of DNA lesions; hence, proper functioning of DNA repair mechanisms is important for neuronal survival. Although the mechanism of age-related decline in DNA repair capacity is unknown, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic events (e.g., DNA methylation) contribute to the ageing process and may be functionally important through the regulation of the expression of DNA repair genes. We hypothesize that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in mediating the age-related decline in BER in the brain. Brains from male mice were isolated at 3–32 months of age. Pyrosequencing analyses revealed significantly increased Ogg1 methylation with ageing, which correlated inversely with Ogg1 expression. The reduced Ogg1 expression correlated with enhanced expression of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 and ten-eleven translocation enzyme 2. A significant inverse correlation between Neil1 methylation at CpG-site2 and expression was also observed. BER activity was significantly reduced and associated with increased 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. These data indicate that Ogg1 and Neil1 expression can be epigenetically regulated, which may mediate the effects of ageing on DNA repair in the brain. PMID:28218666

  19. Targeted DNA methylation by homology-directed repair in mammalian cells. Transcription reshapes methylation on the repaired gene.

    PubMed

    Morano, Annalisa; Angrisano, Tiziana; Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Bartollino, Silvia; Zuchegna, Candida; Babbio, Federica; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Allen, Brittany; Muller, Mark T; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Gottesman, Max E; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2014-01-01

    We report that homology-directed repair of a DNA double-strand break within a single copy Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene in HeLa cells alters the methylation pattern at the site of recombination. DNA methyl transferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3a and two proteins that regulate methylation, Np95 and GADD45A, are recruited to the site of repair and are responsible for selective methylation of the promoter-distal segment of the repaired DNA. The initial methylation pattern of the locus is modified in a transcription-dependent fashion during the 15-20 days following repair, at which time no further changes in the methylation pattern occur. The variation in DNA modification generates stable clones with wide ranges of GFP expression. Collectively, our data indicate that somatic DNA methylation follows homologous repair and is subjected to remodeling by local transcription in a discrete time window during and after the damage. We propose that DNA methylation of repaired genes represents a DNA damage code and is source of variation of gene expression.

  20. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. DNA methylation profiling of primary neuroblastoma tumors using methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Van Criekinge, Wim; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation studies in neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, are scarce. Recently, we profiled the DNA methylome of 102 well-annotated primary NB tumors by methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing, in order to identify prognostic biomarker candidates. In this data descriptor, we give details on how this data set was generated and which bioinformatics analyses were applied during data processing. Through a series of technical validations, we illustrate that the data are of high quality and that the sequenced fragments represent methylated genomic regions. Furthermore, genes previously described to be methylated in NB are confirmed. As such, these MBD sequencing data are a valuable resource to further study the association of NB risk factors with the NB methylome, and offer the opportunity to integrate methylome data with other -omic data sets on the same tumor samples such as gene copy number and gene expression, also publically available. PMID:26836295

  2. DNA methylation profiling of primary neuroblastoma tumors using methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing.

    PubMed

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Van Criekinge, Wim; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-02-02

    Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation studies in neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, are scarce. Recently, we profiled the DNA methylome of 102 well-annotated primary NB tumors by methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing, in order to identify prognostic biomarker candidates. In this data descriptor, we give details on how this data set was generated and which bioinformatics analyses were applied during data processing. Through a series of technical validations, we illustrate that the data are of high quality and that the sequenced fragments represent methylated genomic regions. Furthermore, genes previously described to be methylated in NB are confirmed. As such, these MBD sequencing data are a valuable resource to further study the association of NB risk factors with the NB methylome, and offer the opportunity to integrate methylome data with other -omic data sets on the same tumor samples such as gene copy number and gene expression, also publically available.

  3. Effects of bisphosphonate treatment on DNA methylation in osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Silvia; Broccoletti, Roberto; Campanella, Gianluca; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Menegatti, Elisa; Scoletta, Matteo; Lerda, Ennio; Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo; Berardi, Daniela; Scully, Crispian; Arduino, Paolo G

    2013-10-09

    Bisphosphonates are used in the treatment of hypocalcaemia, mainly in cancer and osteoporosis. Some patients experience adverse events, such as BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). DNA methylation plays a key role in gene regulation in many tissues, but its involvement in bone homeostasis is not well characterized, and no information is available regarding altered methylation in BRONJ. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip assay, we performed an epigenome-wide association study in peripheral blood samples from 68 patients treated with nitrogenous BP, including 35 with BRONJ. Analysis of the estimated cumulative BP exposure distribution indicated that the exposure of the case group to BP was slightly higher than that of the control group; more severely affected cases (i.e., with BRONJ in both mandible and maxilla) were significantly more exposed to BP than were those with BRONJ only in the mandible or maxilla (one-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test, p=0.002). Logistic regression analysis confirmed the positive association between cumulative bisphosphonates exposure and risk of BRONJ (OR 1.015 per mg of cumulative exposure, 95% CI 1.004-1.032, p=0.036). Although no statistically significant differences were observed between case and control groups, methylation levels of probes mapping on three genes, ERCC8, LEPREL1 and SDC2, were strongly associated with cumulative BP exposure levels (p<1.31E-007). Enrichment analysis, combining differentially methylated genes with genes involved in the mevalonate pathway, showed that BP treatment can affect the methylation pattern of genes involved in extracellular matrix organization and inflammatory responses, leading to more frequent adverse effects such as BRONJ. Differences in DNA methylation induced by BP treatment could be involved in the pathogenesis of the bone lesion.

  4. Differential sensitivity to methylated DNA by ETS-family transcription factors is intrinsically encoded in their DNA-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Dominique C; Poon, Gregory M K

    2016-10-14

    Transactivation by the ETS family of transcription factors, whose members share structurally conserved DNA-binding domains, is variably sensitive to methylation of their target genes. The mechanism by which DNA methylation controls ETS proteins remains poorly understood. Uncertainly also pervades the effects of hemi-methylated DNA, which occurs following DNA replication and in response to hypomethylating agents, on site recognition by ETS proteins. To address these questions, we measured the affinities of two sequence-divergent ETS homologs, PU.1 and Ets-1, to DNA sites harboring a hemi- and fully methylated CpG dinucleotide. While the two proteins bound unmethylated DNA with indistinguishable affinity, their affinities to methylated DNA are markedly heterogeneous and exhibit major energetic coupling between the two CpG methylcytosines. Analysis of simulated DNA and existing co-crystal structures revealed that hemi-methylation induced non-local backbone and groove geometries that were not conserved in the fully methylated state. Indirect readout of these perturbations was differentially achieved by the two ETS homologs, with the distinctive interfacial hydration in PU.1/DNA binding moderating the inhibitory effects of DNA methylation on binding. This data established a biophysical basis for the pioneering properties associated with PU.1, which robustly bound fully methylated DNA, but not Ets-1, which was substantially inhibited.

  5. DNA methylation patterns of protein coding genes and long noncoding RNAs in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qi; Wang, Yunliang; Cheng, Jia; Dai, Dongjun; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Gao, Shugui; Duan, Shiwei

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder contributed by both genetic and epigenetic factors. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was recently found playing an important regulatory role in mental disorders. However, little was known about the DNA methylation of lncRNAs, although numerous SCZ studies have been performed on genetic polymorphisms or epigenetic marks in protein coding genes. We presented a comprehensive genome wide DNA methylation study of both protein coding genes and lncRNAs in female patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ. Using the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq), 8,163 and 764 peaks were identified in paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively (p < 1 × 10-5). Gene ontology analysis showed that the hypermethylated regions were enriched in the genes related to neuron system and brain for both paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ (p < 0.05). Among these peaks, 121 peaks were located in gene promoter regions that might affect gene expression and influence the SCZ related pathways. Interestingly, DNA methylation of 136 and 23 known lncRNAs in Refseq database were identified in paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively. In addition, ∼20% of intergenic peaks annotated based on Refseq genes were overlapped with lncRNAs in UCSC and gencode databases. In order to show the results well for most biological researchers, we created an online database to display and visualize the information of DNA methyation peaks in both types of SCZ (http://www.bioinfo.org/scz/scz.htm). Our results showed that the aberrant DNA methylation of lncRNAs might be another important epigenetic factor for SCZ.

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and methionine synthase A2756G polymorphisms influence on leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Alexandra S; Boyarskikh, Uljana A; Voronina, Elena N; Mishukova, Olga V; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2014-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzymes are involved in the metabolism of methyl groups, and thus have an important role in the maintenance of proper DNA methylation level. In our study we aimed to evaluate the effect of the polymorphism A2756G (rs1805087) in the MTR gene on the level of human leukocyte genomic DNA methylation. Since the well-studied polymorphism C677T (rs1801133) in the MTHFR gene has already been shown to affect DNA methylation, we aimed to analyze the effect of MTR A2756G independently of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. For this purpose, we collected the groups of 80 subjects with the MTR 2756AA genotype and 80 subjects with the MTR 2756GG genotype, having equal numbers of individuals with the MTHFR 677CC and the MTHFR 677TT genotypes, and determined the level of DNA methylation in each group. Individuals homozygous for the mutant MTR 2756G allele showed higher DNA methylation level than those harboring the MTR 2756AA genotype (5.061 ± 1.761% vs. 4.501 ± 1.621%, P=0.0391). Individuals with wild-type MTHFR 677СC genotype displayed higher DNA methylation level than the subjects with mutant MTHFR 677TT genotype (5.103 ± 1.767% vs. 4.323 ± 1.525%, P=0.0034). Our data provide evidence that the MTR A2756G polymorphism increases the level of DNA methylation and confirm the previous reports that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with DNA hypomethylation.

  7. Distinctive Klf4 mutants determine preference for DNA methylation status

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Wang, Dongxue; Steves, Alyse N.; Jin, Peng; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of mammalian genome methylation is critically important but poorly understood. Klf4, a transcription factor directing reprogramming, contains a DNA binding domain with three consecutive C2H2 zinc fingers. Klf4 recognizes CpG or TpG within a specific sequence. Mouse Klf4 DNA binding domain has roughly equal affinity for methylated CpG or TpG, and slightly lower affinity for unmodified CpG. The structural basis for this key preference is unclear, though the side chain of Glu446 is known to contact the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or thymine (5-methyluracil). We examined the role of Glu446 by mutagenesis. Substituting Glu446 with aspartate (E446D) resulted in preference for unmodified cytosine, due to decreased affinity for 5mC. In contrast, substituting Glu446 with proline (E446P) increased affinity for 5mC by two orders of magnitude. Structural analysis revealed hydrophobic interaction between the proline's aliphatic cyclic structure and the 5-methyl group of the pyrimidine (5mC or T). As in wild-type Klf4 (E446), the proline at position 446 does not interact directly with either the 5mC N4 nitrogen or the thymine O4 oxygen. In contrast, the unmethylated cytosine's exocyclic N4 amino group (NH2) and its ring carbon C5 atom hydrogen bond directly with the aspartate carboxylate of the E446D variant. Both of these interactions would provide a preference for cytosine over thymine, and the latter one could explain the E446D preference for unmethylated cytosine. Finally, we evaluated the ability of these Klf4 mutants to regulate transcription of methylated and unmethylated promoters in a luciferase reporter assay. PMID:27596594

  8. The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongshan; Zhu, Ping; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Hu, Boqiang; Lian, Ying; Yan, Jie; Ren, Xiulian; Lin, Shengli; Li, Junsheng; Jin, Xiaohu; Shi, Xiaodan; Liu, Ping; Wang, Xiaoye; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianlong; Guo, Fan; Wu, Xinglong; Fan, Xiaoying; Yong, Jun; Wen, Lu; Xie, Sunney X; Tang, Fuchou; Qiao, Jie

    2014-07-31

    DNA methylation is a crucial element in the epigenetic regulation of mammalian embryonic development. However, its dynamic patterns have not been analysed at the genome scale in human pre-implantation embryos due to technical difficulties and the scarcity of required materials. Here we systematically profile the methylome of human early embryos from the zygotic stage through to post-implantation by reduced representation bisulphite sequencing and whole-genome bisulphite sequencing. We show that the major wave of genome-wide demethylation is complete at the 2-cell stage, contrary to previous observations in mice. Moreover, the demethylation of the paternal genome is much faster than that of the maternal genome, and by the end of the zygotic stage the genome-wide methylation level in male pronuclei is already lower than that in female pronuclei. The inverse correlation between promoter methylation and gene expression gradually strengthens during early embryonic development, reaching its peak at the post-implantation stage. Furthermore, we show that active genes, with the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) mark at the promoter regions in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, are essentially devoid of DNA methylation in both mature gametes and throughout pre-implantation development. Finally, we also show that long interspersed nuclear elements or short interspersed nuclear elements that are evolutionarily young are demethylated to a milder extent compared to older elements in the same family and have higher abundance of transcripts, indicating that early embryos tend to retain higher residual methylation at the evolutionarily younger and more active transposable elements. Our work provides insights into the critical features of the methylome of human early embryos, as well as its functional relation to the regulation of gene expression and the repression of transposable elements.

  9. Distinctive Klf4 mutants determine preference for DNA methylation status

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Wang, Dongxue; Steves, Alyse N.; Jin, Peng; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Reprogramming of mammalian genome methylation is critically important but poorly understood. Klf4, a transcription factor directing reprogramming, contains a DNA binding domain with three consecutive C2H2 zinc fingers. Klf4 recognizes CpG or TpG within a specific sequence. Mouse Klf4 DNA binding domain has roughly equal affinity for methylated CpG or TpG, and slightly lower affinity for unmodified CpG. The structural basis for this key preference is unclear, though the side chain of Glu446 is known to contact the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or thymine (5-methyluracil). We examined the role of Glu446 by mutagenesis. Substituting Glu446 with aspartate (E446D) resulted in preference for unmodified cytosine, due to decreased affinity for 5mC. In contrast, substituting Glu446 with proline (E446P) increased affinity for 5mC by two orders of magnitude. Structural analysis revealed hydrophobic interaction between the proline's aliphatic cyclic structure and the 5-methyl group of the pyrimidine (5mC or T). As in wild-type Klf4 (E446), the proline at position 446 does not interact directly with either the 5mC N4 nitrogen or the thymine O4 oxygen. In contrast, the unmethylated cytosine's exocyclic N4 amino group (NH2) and its ring carbon C5 atom hydrogen bond directly with the aspartate carboxylate of the E446D variant. Both of these interactions would provide a preference for cytosine over thymine, and the latter one could explain the E446D preference for unmethylated cytosine. Finally, we evaluated the ability of these Klf4 mutants to regulate transcription of methylated and unmethylated promoters in a luciferase reporter assay.

  10. Factors affecting SFHR gene correction efficiency with single-stranded DNA fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki . E-mail: hirokam@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

    2005-11-04

    A 606-nt single-stranded (ss) DNA fragment, prepared by restriction enzyme digestion of ss phagemid DNA, improves the gene correction efficiency by 12-fold as compared with a PCR fragment, which is the conventional type of fragment used in the small fragment homologous replacement method [H. Tsuchiya, H. Harashima, H. Kamiya, Increased SFHR gene correction efficiency with sense single-stranded DNA, J. Gene Med. 7 (2005) 486-493]. To reveal the characteristic features of this gene correction with the ss DNA fragment, the effects on the gene correction in CHO-K1 cells of the chain length, 5'-phosphate, adenine methylation, and transcription were studied. Moreover, the possibility that the ss DNA fragment is integrated into the target DNA was examined with a radioactively labeled ss DNA fragment. The presence of methylated adenine, but not the 5'-phosphate, enhanced the gene correction efficiency, and the optimal length of the ss DNA fragment ({approx}600 nt) was determined. Transcription of the target gene did not affect the gene correction efficiency. In addition, the target DNA recovered from the transfected CHO-K1 cells was radioactive. The results obtained in this study indicate that length and adenine methylation were important factors affecting the gene correction efficiency, and that the ss DNA fragment was integrated into the double-stranded target DNA.

  11. DNA Methylation of Regulatory Regions of Imprinted Genes at Birth and Its Relation to Infant Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Lee, Chien-Ti; Soubry, Adelheid; Iversen, Edwin S.; Huang, Zhiqing; Murtha, Amy P.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Jirtle, Randy L.; Murphy, Susan K.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158). RESULTS MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing (β = 0.15, P = 0.044) and surgency (β = 0.19, P = 0.018) behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression. Higher methylation levels at the intergenic MEG3-IG methylation regions were associated with surgency (β = 0.28, P = 0.0003) and PEG3 was positively related to externalizing (β = 0.20, P = 0.01) and negative affectivity (β = 0.18, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION While the small sample size limits inference, these pilot data support gene-specific associations between epigenetic differences in regulatory regions of imprinted domains at birth and later infant temperament. PMID:27920589

  12. Whole genome grey and white matter DNA methylation profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Sandoval, Juan; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel; Gräff, Johannes

    2017-01-20

    The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood. Herein, we determined the DNA methylation patterns of grey and white matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), an important region for higher cognitive skills that is particularly affected in various neurological diseases. For avoiding interindividual differences, we analyzed white and grey matter from the same donor using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and for validating their biological significance, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and pyrosequencing in ten and twenty independent samples, respectively. The combination of these analysis indicated robust grey-white matter differences in DNA methylation. What is more, cell type-specific markers were enriched among the most differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, we also found an outstanding number of grey-white matter differentially methylated genes that have previously been associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, as well as Multiple and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented here thus constitute an important resource for future studies not only to gain insight into brain regional as well as grey and white matter differences, but also to unmask epigenetic alterations that might underlie neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Identification of a DNA methylation signature in blood cells from persons with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Gentilini, Davide; Boattini, Alessio; Giampieri, Enrico; Pirazzini, Chiara; Giuliani, Cristina; Fontanesi, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Remondini, Daniel; Capri, Miriam; Cocchi, Guido; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Del Rio, Alberto; Luiselli, Donata; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Castellani, Gastone; Fraga, Mario; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical signs, which include segmental premature aging of central nervous and immune systems. Although it is well established that the causative defect of DS is the trisomy of chromosome 21, the molecular bases of its phenotype are still largely unknown. We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to investigate DNA methylation patterns in whole blood from 29 DS persons, using their relatives (mothers and unaffected siblings) as controls. This family-based model allowed us to monitor possible confounding effects on DNA methylation patterns deriving from genetic and environmental factors. Although differentially methylated regions (DMRs) displayed a genome-wide distribution, they were enriched on chromosome 21. DMRs mapped in genes involved in developmental functions, including embryonic development (HOXA family) and haematological (RUNX1 and EBF4) and neuronal (NCAM1) development. Moreover, genes involved in the regulation of chromatin structure (PRMD8, KDM2B, TET1) showed altered methylation. The data also showed that several pathways are affected in DS, including PI3K-Akt signaling. In conclusion, we identified an epigenetic signature of DS that sustains a link between developmental defects and disease phenotype, including segmental premature aging. PMID:25701644

  14. An osmium-DNA interstrand complex: application to facile DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Tainaka, Kazuki; Umemoto, Tadashi; Nomura, Akiko; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2007-11-21

    Nucleic acids often acquire new functions by forming a variety of complexes with metal ions. Osmium, in an oxidized state, also reacts with C5-methylated pyrimidines. However, control of the sequence specificity of osmium complexation with DNA is still immature, and the value of the resulting complexes is unknown. We have designed a bipyridine-attached adenine derivative for sequence-specific osmium complexation. Sequence-specific osmium complexation was achieved by hybridization of a short DNA molecule containing this functional nucleotide to a target DNA sequence and resulted in the formation of a cross-linked structure. The interstrand cross-link clearly distinguished methylated cytosines from unmethylated cytosines and was used to quantify the degree of methylation at a specific cytosine in the genome.

  15. Role of DNA methylation and the DNA methyltransferases in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure in postmitotic neurons plays an important role in learning and memory. Methylation of cytosine nucleotides has historically been considered the strongest and least modifiable of epigenetic marks. Accumulating recent data suggest that rapid and dynamic methylation and demethylation of specific genes in the brain may play a fundamental role in learning, memory formation, and behavioral plasticity. The current review focuses on the emergence of data that support the role of DNA methylation and demethylation, and its molecular mediators in memory formation.

  16. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  17. Breast cancer epigenetics: from DNA methylation to microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Veeck, Jürgen; Esteller, Manel

    2010-03-01

    Both appropriate DNA methylation and histone modifications play a crucial role in the maintenance of normal cell function and cellular identity. In cancerous cells these "epigenetic belts" become massively perturbed, leading to significant changes in expression profiles which confer advantage to the development of a malignant phenotype. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1), Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are the enzymes responsible for setting up and maintaining DNA methylation patterns in eukaryotic cells. Intriguingly, DNMTs were found to be overexpressed in cancerous cells, which is believed to partly explain the hypermethylation phenomenon commonly observed in tumors. However, several lines of evidence indicate that further layers of gene regulation are critical coordinators of DNMT expression, catalytic activity and target specificity. Splice variants of DNMT transcripts have been detected which seem to modulate methyltransferase activity. Also, the DNMT mRNA 3'UTR as well as the coding sequence harbors multiple binding sites for trans-acting factors guiding post-transcriptional regulation and transcript stabilization. Moreover, microRNAs targeting DNMT transcripts have recently been discovered in normal cells, yet expression of these microRNAs was found to be diminished in breast cancer tissues. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms which potentially lead to the establishment of a DNA hypermethylome in cancer cells.

  18. Human papilloma virus, DNA methylation and microRNA expression in cervical cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ-WENCES, HILDA; PERALTA-ZARAGOZA, OSCAR; FERNÁNDEZ-TILAPA, GLORIA

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease caused by genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that affect gene expression. The progression from precursor lesions to invasive cervical cancer is influenced by persistent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which induces changes in the host genome and epigenome. Epigenetic alterations, such as aberrant miRNA expression and changes in DNA methylation status, favor the expression of oncogenes and the silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. Given that some miRNA genes can be regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, it has been proposed that alterations in the methylation status of miRNA promoters could be the driving mechanism behind their aberrant expression in cervical cancer. For these reasons, we assessed the relationship among HPV infection, cellular DNA methylation and miRNA expression. We conclude that alterations in the methylation status of protein-coding genes and various miRNA genes are influenced by HPV infection, the viral genotype, the physical state of the viral DNA, and viral oncogenic risk. Furthermore, HPV induces deregulation of miRNA expression, particularly at loci near fragile sites. This deregulation occurs through the E6 and E7 proteins, which target miRNA transcription factors such as p53. PMID:24737381

  19. Genome-wide quantitative assessment of variation in DNA methylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hehuang; Wang, Min; de Andrade, Alexandre; de F. Bonaldo, Maria; Galat, Vasil; Arndt, Kelly; Rajaram, Veena; Goldman, Stewart; Tomita, Tadanori; Soares, Marcelo B.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic DNA methylation contributes substantively to transcriptional regulations that underlie mammalian development and cellular differentiation. Much effort has been made to decipher the molecular mechanisms governing the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns. However, little is known about genome-wide variation of DNA methylation patterns. In this study, we introduced the concept of methylation entropy, a measure of the randomness of DNA methylation patterns in a cell population, and exploited it to assess the variability in DNA methylation patterns of Alu repeats and promoters. A few interesting observations were made: (i) within a cell population, methylation entropy varies among genomic loci; (ii) among cell populations, the methylation entropies of most genomic loci remain constant; (iii) compared to normal tissue controls, some tumors exhibit greater methylation entropies; (iv) Alu elements with high methylation entropy are associated with high GC content but depletion of CpG dinucleotides and (v) Alu elements in the intronic regions or far from CpG islands are associated with low methylation entropy. We further identified 12 putative allelic-specific methylated genomic loci, including four Alu elements and eight promoters. Lastly, using subcloned normal fibroblast cells, we demonstrated the highly variable methylation patterns are resulted from low fidelity of DNA methylation inheritance. PMID:21278160

  20. Inheritance patterns and stability of DNA methylation variation in maize near-isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Eichten, Steven R; Hermanson, Peter J; Springer, Nathan M

    2014-03-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that contributes to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The inheritance patterns and trans-generational stability of 962 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were assessed in a panel of 71 near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from maize (Zea mays) inbred lines B73 and Mo17. The majority of DMRs exhibit inheritance patterns that would be expected for local (cis) inheritance of DNA methylation variation such that DNA methylation level was coupled to local genotype. There are few examples of DNA methylation that exhibit trans-acting control or paramutation-like patterns. The cis-inherited DMRs provide an opportunity to study the stability of inheritance for DNA methylation variation. There was very little evidence for alterations of DNA methylation levels at these DMRs during the generations of the NIL population development. DNA methylation level was associated with local genotypes in nearly all of the >30,000 potential cases of inheritance. The majority of the DMRs were not associated with small RNAs. Together, our results suggest that a significant portion of DNA methylation variation in maize exhibits locally (cis) inherited patterns, is highly stable, and does not require active programming by small RNAs for maintenance. DNA methylation may contribute to heritable epigenetic information in many eukaryotic genomes. In this study, we have documented the inheritance patterns and trans-generational stability for nearly 1000 DNA methylation variants in a segregating maize population. At most loci studied, the DNA methylation differences are locally inherited and are not influenced by the other allele or other genomic regions. The inheritance of DNA methylation levels across generations is quite robust with almost no examples of unstable inheritance, suggesting that DNA methylation differences can be quite stably inherited, even in segregating populations.

  1. Genetic and DNA methylation changes in cotton (Gossypium) genotypes and tissues.

    PubMed

    Osabe, Kenji; Clement, Jenny D; Bedon, Frank; Pettolino, Filomena A; Ziolkowski, Lisa; Llewellyn, Danny J; Finnegan, E Jean; Wilson, Iain W

    2014-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic regulation is important in normal development and in modulating some agronomic traits. The potential contribution of DNA methylation mediated gene regulation to phenotypic diversity and development in cotton was investigated between cotton genotypes and various tissues. DNA methylation diversity, genetic diversity, and changes in methylation context were investigated using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assays including a methylation insensitive enzyme (BsiSI), and the total DNA methylation level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA methylation diversity was greater than the genetic diversity in the selected cotton genotypes and significantly different levels of DNA methylation were identified between tissues, including fibre. The higher DNA methylation diversity (CHG methylation being more diverse than CG methylation) in cotton genotypes suggest epigenetic regulation may be important for cotton, and the change in DNA methylation between fibre and other tissues hints that some genes may be epigenetically regulated for fibre development. The novel approach using BsiSI allowed direct comparison between genetic and epigenetic diversity, and also measured CC methylation level that cannot be detected by conventional MSAP.

  2. Genetic and DNA Methylation Changes in Cotton (Gossypium) Genotypes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Osabe, Kenji; Clement, Jenny D.; Bedon, Frank; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Ziolkowski, Lisa; Llewellyn, Danny J.; Finnegan, E. Jean; Wilson, Iain W.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic regulation is important in normal development and in modulating some agronomic traits. The potential contribution of DNA methylation mediated gene regulation to phenotypic diversity and development in cotton was investigated between cotton genotypes and various tissues. DNA methylation diversity, genetic diversity, and changes in methylation context were investigated using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assays including a methylation insensitive enzyme (BsiSI), and the total DNA methylation level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA methylation diversity was greater than the genetic diversity in the selected cotton genotypes and significantly different levels of DNA methylation were identified between tissues, including fibre. The higher DNA methylation diversity (CHG methylation being more diverse than CG methylation) in cotton genotypes suggest epigenetic regulation may be important for cotton, and the change in DNA methylation between fibre and other tissues hints that some genes may be epigenetically regulated for fibre development. The novel approach using BsiSI allowed direct comparison between genetic and epigenetic diversity, and also measured CC methylation level that cannot be detected by conventional MSAP. PMID:24465864

  3. Real time in vitro regulation of DNA methylation using a 5-fluorouracil conjugated DNA-based stimuli-responsive platform.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiuhai; Wei, Ming; Zhu, Chengfeng; Lu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Simon, Anna J; Shi, Jiye; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-04-10

    DNA methylation, catalyzed by methylases, plays a critical role in many biological processes, and many methylases have been regarded as promising targets for antimicrobial drugs. In this work, we report a stimulus responsive, self-regulating anticancer drug release platform, comprising a multifunctional DNA that upon methylation by methyltransferase (MTase) releases 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and in turn inhibits subsequent expression of MTase. The multifunctional DNA with anticancer drug are first methylated by DNA adenine methylation (DAM) methyltransferase (MTase) and then cut by the methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease Dpn I. Removal of duplex from the functional DNA by the methylation/cleavage process will release the anticancer drug, resulting in inhibition of the activity of DAM in turn. Consequently, the enzyme activity of DAM MTase can be self-regulated. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition efficiency of 5-Fu significantly increase as it is functionalized with DNA.

  4. Histone H2A.Z and DNA methylation are mutually antagonistic chromatin marks

    PubMed Central

    Zilberman, Daniel; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Ballinger, Tracy; Henikoff, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is separated into functional domains differentiated by posttranslational histone modifications, histone variants, and DNA methylation1–6. Methylation is associated with repression of transcriptional initiation in plants and animals, and is frequently found in transposable elements. Proper methylation patterns are critical for eukaryotic development4,5, and aberrant methylation-induced silencing of tumor suppressor genes is a common feature of human cancer7. In contrast to methylation, the histone variant H2A.Z is preferentially deposited by the Swr1 ATPase complex near 5′ ends of genes where it promotes transcriptional competence8–20. How DNA methylation and H2A.Z influence transcription remains largely unknown. Here we show that in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, regions of DNA methylation are quantitatively deficient in H2A.Z. Exclusion of H2A.Z is seen at sites of DNA methylation in the bodies of actively transcribed genes and in methylated transposons. Mutation of the MET1 DNA methyltransferase, which causes both losses and gains of DNA methylation4,5, engenders opposite changes in H2A.Z deposition, while mutation of the PIE1 subunit of the Swr1 complex that deposits H2A.Z17 leads to genome-wide hypermethylation. Our findings indicate that DNA methylation can influence chromatin structure and effect gene silencing by excluding H2A.Z, and that H2A.Z protects genes from DNA methylation. PMID:18815594

  5. Effects of TET2 mutations on DNA methylation in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TET2 enzymatically converts 5-methyl-cytosine to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine, possibly leading to loss of DNA methylation. TET2 mutations are common in myeloid leukemia and were proposed to contribute to leukemogenesis through DNA methylation. To expand on this concept, we studied chronic myelomonocyti...

  6. Novel method to detect DNA methylation using gold nanoparticles coupled with enzyme-linkage reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Genxi

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation, catalyzed by methylases, plays a critical role in many biological processes, and methylases have been regarded as promising targets for antimicrobial drugs. In this paper, we propose a simple and sensitive colorimetric assay method to detect the activity of methylases so as to monitor DNA methylation using DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coupled with enzyme-linkage reactions. The duplex DNA molecules modified on the surface of AuNPs are first methylated by DNA adenine methylation (Dam) methyltransferase (MTase) and then cut by methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease Dpn I. Removal of duplex from the AuNP surfaces by the methylation/cleavage process will destabilize the nanoparticles, resulting in aggregation of AuNPs and a red-to-blue color change. Consequently, the enzyme activity of Dam MTase can be assayed and DNA methylation can be detected. Furthermore, this study may provide a sensitive platform to screen inhibitors for Dam MTase.

  7. Synergistic antileukemic action of a combination of inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone methylation.

    PubMed

    Momparler, Richard L; Idaghdour, Youssef; Marquez, Victor E; Momparler, Louise F

    2012-08-01

    DNA methylation and histone methylation are both involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and their dysregulation can play an important role in leukemogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation has been reported to silence the expression of tumor suppressor genes in leukemia. Overexpression of the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, a subunit of the polycomb group repressive complex 2 (PRC2), was observed to promote oncogenesis. This is due to aberrant gene silencing by the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by EZH2. Since both these epigenetic silencing events are reversible, they are interesting targets for chemotherapeutic intervention by using an inhibitor of DNA methylation, such as 5-aza-2'-deoxcytidine (5-AZA-CdR), and 3-deazaneplanocin-A (DZNep), an inhibitor of the EZH2. Human HL-60 and murine L1210 leukemic cells exposed in vitro to 5-AZA-CdR and DZNep in combination showed a synergistic loss of clonogenicity in a colony assay as compared to each agent alone. This positive chemotherapeutic interaction was also observed in mice with L1210 leukemia. Quantitative PCR showed that the combination also produced a remarkable synergistic activation of the tumor suppressor genes, CDKN1A and FBXO32. Microarray analysis showed that 5-AZA-CdR plus DZNep produced a synergistic activation of >150 genes. Our results indicate that 5-AZA-CdR plus DZNep can reactivate target genes that are silenced by two distinct epigenetic mechanisms leading to a loss of the proliferative potential of leukemic cells.

  8. The impact of genetic variation and cigarette smoke on DNA methylation in current and former smokers from the COPDGene study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiliang; Wan, Emily; Morrow, Jarrett; Cho, Michael H; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; DeMeo, Dawn L

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation can be affected by systemic exposures, such as cigarette smoking and genetic sequence variation; however, the relative impact of each on the epigenome is unknown. We aimed to assess if cigarette smoking and genetic variation are associated with overlapping or distinct sets of DNA methylation marks and pathways. We selected 85 Caucasian current and former smokers with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping available from the COPDGene study. Genome-wide methylation was obtained on DNA from whole blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 platform. To determine the impact of local sequence variation on DNA methylation (mQTL), we examined the association between methylation and SNPs within 50 kb of each CpG site. To examine the impact of cigarette smoking on DNA methylation, we examined the differences in methylation by current cigarette smoking status. We detected 770 CpG sites annotated to 708 genes associated at an FDR < 0.05 in the cis-mQTL analysis and 1,287 CpG sites annotated to 1,242 genes, which were nominally associated in the smoking-CpG association analysis (P(unadjusted) < 0.05). Forty-three CpG sites annotated to 40 genes were associated with both SNP variation and current smoking; this overlap was not greater than that expected by chance. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking and genetic variants impact distinct sets of DNA methylation marks, the further elucidation of which may partially explain the variable susceptibility to the health effects of cigarette smoking. Ascertaining how genetic variation and systemic exposures differentially impact the human epigenome has relevance for both biomarker identification and therapeutic target development for smoking-related diseases.

  9. Next-generation sequencing identifies major DNA methylation changes during progression of Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heller, G; Topakian, T; Altenberger, C; Cerny-Reiterer, S; Herndlhofer, S; Ziegler, B; Datlinger, P; Byrgazov, K; Bock, C; Mannhalter, C; Hörmann, G; Sperr, W R; Lion, T; Zielinski, C C; Valent, P; Zöchbauer-Müller, S

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of DNA methylation on the evolution/progression of Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We investigated the methylome of CML patients in chronic phase (CP-CML), accelerated phase (AP-CML) and blast crisis (BC-CML) as well as in controls by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. Although only ~600 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified in samples obtained from CP-CML patients compared with controls, ~6500 differentially methylated CpG sites were found in samples from BC-CML patients. In the majority of affected CpG sites, methylation was increased. In CP-CML patients who progressed to AP-CML/BC-CML, we identified up to 897 genes that were methylated at the time of progression but not at the time of diagnosis. Using RNA-sequencing, we observed downregulated expression of many of these genes in BC-CML compared with CP-CML samples. Several of them are well-known tumor-suppressor genes or regulators of cell proliferation, and gene re-expression was observed by the use of epigenetic active drugs. Together, our results demonstrate that CpG site methylation clearly increases during CML progression and that it may provide a useful basis for revealing new targets of therapy in advanced CML. PMID:27211271

  10. Evaluation of Methylation Biomarkers for Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA and Application to Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Susan M.; Ho, Thu; Brown, Glenn S.; Baker, Rohan T.; Thomas, Melissa L.; McEvoy, Aidan; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Ross, Jason P.; Lockett, Trevor J.; Young, Graeme P.; LaPointe, Lawrence C.; Pedersen, Susanne K.; Molloy, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors shed DNA into circulation, and there is growing evidence that the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has broad clinical utility, including monitoring of disease, prognosis, response to chemotherapy and tracking tumor heterogeneity. The appearance of ctDNA in the circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) isolated from plasma or serum is commonly detected by identifying tumor-specific features such as insertions, deletions, mutations and/or aberrant methylation. Methylation is a normal cell regulatory event, and since the majority of ccfDNA is derived from white blood cells (WBC), it is important that tumour-specific DNA methylation markers show rare to no methylation events in WBC DNA. We have used a novel approach for assessment of low levels of DNA methylation in WBC DNA. DNA methylation in 29 previously identified regions (residing in 17 genes) was analyzed in WBC DNA and eight differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) were taken through to testing in clinical samples using methylation specific PCR assays. DMRs residing in four genes, BCAT1, GRASP, IKZF1 and IRF4, exhibited low positivity, 3.5% to 7%, in the plasma of colonoscopy-confirmed healthy subjects, with the sensitivity for detection of ctDNA in colonoscopy-confirmed patients with colorectal cancer being 65%, 54.5%, 67.6% and 59% respectively. PMID:27983717

  11. CHST11 gene expression and DNA methylation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    HERMAN, DAMIR; LEAKEY, TATIANA I.; BEHRENS, ALICE; YAO-BORENGASSER, AIWEI; COONEY, CRAIG A.; JOUSHEGHANY, FARIBA; PHANAVANH, BOUNLEUT; SIEGEL, ERIC R.; SAFAR, A. MAZIN; KOROURIAN, SOHEILA; KIEBER-EMMONS, THOMAS; MONZAVI-KARBASSI, BEHJATOLAH

    2015-01-01

    Our previously published data link P-selectin-reactive chondroitin sulfate structures on the surface of breast cancer cells to metastatic behavior of cells. We have shown that a particular sulfation pattern mediated by the expression of carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase-11 (CHST11) correlates with P-selectin binding and aggressiveness of human breast cancer cell lines. The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of CHST11 expression and determine whether aberrant DNA methylation controls CHST11 expression in breast cancer. Publicly available datasets were used to examine the association of CHST11 expression to aggressiveness and progression of breast cancer. Methylation status was analyzed using bisulfite genomic sequencing. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5AzadC) was used for DNA demethylation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was performed in the CpG island of CHST11 with a minimum coverage of 10. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was employed to confirm the expression profile of CHST11 in breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry was also used to confirm the expression of the CHST11 product, chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A). The expression of CHST11 was significantly higher in basal-like and Her2-amplified cell lines compared to luminal cell lines. CHST11 was also highly expressed in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues and the expression levels were significantly associated with tumor progression. We observed very low levels of DNA methylation in a CpG island of CHST11 in basal-like cells but very high levels in the same region in luminal cells. Treatment of MCF7 cells, a luminal cell line with very low expression of CHST11, with 5AzadC increased the expression of CHST11 and its immediate product, CS-A, in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that CHST11 may play a direct role in progression of breast cancer and that its expression is controlled by DNA methylation. Therefore, in addition to CHST11 mRNA levels, the

  12. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Rebecca L.; Schenkel, Laila C.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Ainsworth, Peter J.; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M.; Bulman, Dennis E.; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation “epi-signature” in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS. Both hyper and hypomethylated loci are distributed across the genome, preferentially occurring in CpG islands. Clonal bisulfite sequencing of two hypermethylated (FIGN and STPG2) and two hypomethylated (MYO1F and RASIP1) genes confirmed these findings. The identification of a unique methylation signature in FHS provides further insight into the biological function of SRCAP and provides a unique biomarker for this disorder. PMID:27934915

  13. The role of DNA methylation in the mechanisms of memory reconsolidation and development of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, P V; Kozyrev, S A

    2015-02-15

    Current considerations suggest that the mechanisms of long term memory are based on the changes of the neuronal genetic algorithms. Process of the enzyme DNA methylation have great importance to the differential genes expression, and is likely to be one of the key mechanisms of the consolidation and memory storage. The present study aimed to investigate the DNA methylation processes role in the mechanisms of the conditioned food aversion memory reconsolidation and also in the amnesia development mechanisms, caused by disturbances of the reconsolidation in Helix lucorum. It was found that DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors zebularine and RG108 had no influence on the memory reconsolidation. We investigated the effects of the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors on different amnesia stage. The amnesia was induced by NMDA glutamate receptors antagonists. At the early stage of amnesia (3rd day after its induction) injections of the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors in combination with reminder by conditioned food stimuli led to memory recall. Memory was recovered by the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors injections before the reminder and also 3h, but not 9h after the reminder. In case when enzyme inhibitors or reminders were applied separately, no effect on memory was revealed. At the late stage of amnesia (10th day) the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors didn't affects amnesia development. It might be hypothesized that presentation of reminding stimuli result in the reactivation/reconsolidation of molecular processes, involved in amnesia development, one of the key mechanisms of which could be the DNA methylation/demethylation of neural cells.

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling identifies a folate-sensitive region of differential methylation upstream of ZFP57-imprinting regulator in humans.

    PubMed

    Amarasekera, Manori; Martino, David; Ashley, Sarah; Harb, Hani; Kesper, Dörthe; Strickland, Deborah; Saffery, Richard; Prescott, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy may affect the regulation of DNA methylation during fetal development. The genomic regions in the offspring that may be sensitive to folate exposure during in utero development have not been characterized. Using genome-scale profiling, we investigated DNA methylation in 2 immune cell types (CD4(+) and antigen-presenting cells) isolated from neonatal cord blood, selected on the basis of in utero folate exposure. High-folate (HF; n=11) and low-folate (LF; n=12) groups were selected from opposite extremes of maternal serum folate levels measured in the last trimester of pregnancy. A comparison of these groups revealed differential methylation at 7 regions across the genome. By far, the biggest effect observed was hypomethylation of a 923 bp region 3 kb upstream of the ZFP57 transcript, a regulator of DNA methylation during development, observed in both cell types. Levels of H3/H4 acetylation at ZFP57 promoter and ZFP57 mRNA expression were higher in CD4(+) cells in the HF group relative to the LF group. Hypomethylation at this region was replicated in an independent sample set. These data suggest that exposure to folate has effects on the regulation of DNA methylation during fetal development, and this may be important for health and disease.

  15. Cell-Wide DNA De-Methylation and Re-Methylation of Purkinje Neurons in the Developing Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng C.; Resendiz, Marisol; Lo, Chiao-Ling; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Global DNA de-methylation is thought to occur only during pre-implantation and gametogenesis in mammals. Scalable, cell-wide de-methylation has not been demonstrated beyond totipotent stages. Here, we observed a large scale de-methylation and subsequent re-methylation (CDR) (including 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC)) in post-mitotic cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) through the course of normal development. Through single cell immuno-identification and cell-specific quantitative methylation assays, we demonstrate that the CDR event is an intrinsically scheduled program, occurring in nearly every PC. Meanwhile, cerebellar granule cells and basket interneurons adopt their own DNA methylation program, independent of PCs. DNA de-methylation was further demonstrated at the gene level, on genes pertinent to PC development. The PC, being one of the largest neurons in the brain, may showcase an amplified epigenetic cycle which may mediate stage transformation including cell cycle arrest, vast axonal-dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis at the onset of neuronal specificity. This discovery is a key step toward better understanding the breadth and role of DNA methylation and de-methylation during neural ontology. PMID:27583369

  16. Trace analysis of methylated and hydroxymethylated cytosines in DNA by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS: first evidence of DNA methylation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chen, Jian-Lian; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2015-01-01

    From 1986 to the present, the popular research model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has been thought to completely lack DNA methylation and seems to have lost DNA methylation enzymes from its genomes. In the present study, we report the development of a sensitive and selective assay based on LC-MS/MS to simultaneously measure 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-hmdC) in DNA hydrolysates. With the use of isotope internal standards ([2H3]5-mdC and [2H3]5-hmdC) and online solid-phase extraction, the detection limits of 5-mdC and 5-hmdC were estimated to be 0.01 and 0.02 pg respectively, which correspond to a 0.000006% and 0.00001% methylation and hydroxymethylation level. This method was applied to investigate whether DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation exists in C. elegans. The present study for the first time demonstrates that 5-mdC is present in C. elegans genomic DNA (0.0019-0.0033% of cytosine methylated) using LC-MS/MS, whereas another epigenetic modification, 5-hmdC, is not detectable. Furthermore, we found that C. elegans DNA was hypo- or hyper-methylated in a dose-dependent manner by the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-inhibiting drug decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) or cadmium respectively. Our data support the possible existence of an active DNA-methylation mechanism in C. elegans, in which unidentified DNMTs could be involved. The present study highlights the importance of re-evaluating the evolutionary conservation of DNA-methylation machinery in nematodes which were traditionally considered to lack functional DNA methylation.

  17. Global methylation status of sperm DNA in carriers of chromosome structural aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Barciszewska, Miroslawa Z; Fraczek, Monika; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Chernykh, Vyacheslav B; Zastavna, Danuta; Barciszewski, Jan; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility might be clearly associated with aberrant DNA methylation patterns in human spermatozoa. An association between oxidative stress and the global methylation status of the sperm genome has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the global sperm DNA methylation status was affected in the spermatozoa of carriers of chromosome structural aberrations. The relationships between the 5-methylcytosine (m5C) levels in spermatozoa and chromatin integrity status were evaluated. The study patients comprised male carriers of chromosome structural aberrations with reproductive failure (n = 24), and the controls comprised normozoospermic sperm volunteers (n = 23). The global m5C level was measured using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. The sperm chromatin integrity was assessed using aniline blue (AB) staining and TUNEL assay. The mean m5C levels were similar between the investigated chromosome structural aberrations carriers (P) and controls (K). However, sperm chromatin integrity tests revealed significantly higher values in chromosomal rearrangement carriers than in controls (P < 0.05). Although the potential relationship between sperm chromatin integrity status and sperm DNA fragmentation and the m5C level juxtaposed in both analyzed groups (P vs K) was represented in a clearly opposite manner, the low chromatin integrity might be associated with the high hypomethylation status of the sperm DNA observed in carriers of chromosome structural aberrations. PMID:26908061

  18. DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate memory formation and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Courtney A; Campbell, Susan L; Sweatt, J David

    2008-05-01

    A clear understanding is developing concerning the importance of epigenetic-related molecular mechanisms in transcription-dependent long-term memory formation. Chromatin modification, in particular histone acetylation, is associated with transcriptional activation, and acetylation of histone 3 (H3) occurs in Area CA1 of the hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning training. Conversely, DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional repression, but is also dynamically regulated in Area CA1 following training. We recently reported that inhibition of the enzyme responsible for DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), in the adult rat hippocampus blocks behavioral memory formation. Here, we report that DNMT inhibition also blocks the concomitant memory-associated H3 acetylation, without affecting phosphorylation of its upstream regulator, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Interestingly, the DNMT inhibitor-induced deficit in memory consolidation, along with deficits in long-term potentiation, can be rescued by pharmacologically increasing levels of histone acetylation prior to DNMT inhibition. These observations suggest that DNMT activity is not only necessary for memory and plasticity, but that DNA methylation may work in concert with histone modifications to regulate plasticity and memory formation in the adult rat hippocampus.

  19. Krebs cycle intermediates regulate DNA and histone methylation: epigenetic impact on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Hiltunen, Mikko; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2014-07-01

    Many aging theories have proposed that mitochondria and energy metabolism have a major role in the aging process. There are recent studies indicating that Krebs cycle intermediates can shape the epigenetic landscape of chromatin by regulating DNA and histone methylation. A growing evidence indicates that epigenetics plays an important role in the regulation of healthspan but also is involved in the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) is a key metabolite in the Krebs cycle but it is also an obligatory substrate for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO). The 2-OGDO enzyme family includes the major enzymes of DNA and histone demethylation, i.e. Ten-Eleven Translocation (TETs) and Jumonji C domain containing (JmjC) demethylases. In addition, 2-OGDO members can regulate collagen synthesis and hypoxic responses in a non-epigenetical manner. Interestingly, succinate and fumarate, also Krebs cycle intermediates, are potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes, i.e. the balance of Krebs cycle reactions can affect the level of DNA and histone methylation and thus control gene expression. We will review the epigenetic mechanisms through which Krebs cycle intermediates control the DNA and histone methylation. We propose that age-related disturbances in the Krebs cycle function induce stochastic epigenetic changes in chromatin structures which in turn promote the aging process.

  20. DNA promoter methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is an infrequent neoplasia with noticeable geographical variations in its incidence around the world. In Chile, it is the main cause of death owing to cancer in women over 40 years old, with mortality rates up to 16.5 per 100,000 cases. The prognosis is poor with few therapeutic options; in advanced cases there is only a 10% survival at 5 years. Several studies mention the possible role of DNA methylation in gallbladder carcinogenesis. This epigenetic modification affects tumor suppressor genes involved in regulation pathways, cell cycle control, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix degradation, in a sequential and cumulative way. Determining DNA methylation patterns would allow them to be used as biomarkers for the early detection, diagnosis, prognosis and/or therapeutic selection in gallbladder cancer. PMID:22794276

  1. On the origin and evolutionary consequences of gene body DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Adam J.; Ji, Lexiang; Niederhuth, Chad E.; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hofmeister, Brigitte T.; Shi, Xiuling; Wang, Li; Lu, Zefu; Rohr, Nicholas A.; Hartwig, Benjamin; Kiefer, Christiane; Deal, Roger B.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Stroud, Hume; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In plants, CG DNA methylation is prevalent in the transcribed regions of many constitutively expressed genes (gene body methylation; gbM), but the origin and function of gbM remain unknown. Here we report the discovery that Eutrema salsugineum has lost gbM from its genome, to our knowledge the first instance for an angiosperm. Of all known DNA methyltransferases, only CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 (CMT3) is missing from E. salsugineum. Identification of an additional angiosperm, Conringia planisiliqua, which independently lost CMT3 and gbM, supports that CMT3 is required for the establishment of gbM. Detailed analyses of gene expression, the histone variant H2A.Z, and various histone modifications in E. salsugineum and in Arabidopsis thaliana epigenetic recombinant inbred lines found no evidence in support of any role for gbM in regulating transcription or affecting the composition and modification of chromatin over evolutionary timescales. PMID:27457936

  2. A methylation-stimulated DNA machine: an autonomous isothermal route to methyltransferase activity and inhibition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfeng; Wen, Yanqin; Peng, Hongzhen; Long, Yitao; He, Yao; Huang, Qing; Li, Di; Fan, Chunhai

    2011-04-01

    The operation of DNA nanomachines is generally triggered by either conformational changes of DNA nanostructure or external environmental stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate an alternative driving force, DNA methylation, to stimulate DNA machine operation. DNA methylation changes neither DNA sequence and conformation nor external environment, however, blocks its cleavage by corresponding methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease. We thus designed a strand displacement amplification DNA machine, which could be stimulated upon DNA methylation and then autonomously generates accumulated amounts of peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme signaling machine products in an isothermal manner. The machine product DNAzyme could catalyze the H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(2-)) to a colored product ABTS(·-). This methylation-stimulated DNA machine was further used as a colorimetric assay for analysis of methyltransferases activities and screening of methylation inhibitors. As compared with classical methylation assay, this facile isothermal DNA machine avoids the introduction of methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and radioactive labels, which might be employed as an effective tool for DNA methylation analysis.

  3. Determining the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai-Jin; Evans, Jared; Kim, Kwangsoo; Chae, Heejoon; Kim, Sun

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation, a DNA modification by adding methyl group to cytosine, has an important role in the regulation of gene expression. DNA methylation is known to be associated with gene transcription by interfering with DNA-binding proteins, such as transcription factors. DNA methylation is closely related to tumorigenesis, and the methylation state of some genes can be used as a biomarker for tumorigenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation of genomic regions, including CpG islands, CpG shores, and first exons, is related to the altered gene expression pattern characteristics of all human cancers. Subheading 1 surveys recent developments on DNA methylation and gene expressions in cancer. Then we provide analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression in 30 breast cancer cell lines representing different tumor phenotypes. This study conducted an integrated analysis to identify the relationship between DNA methylation in various genomic regions and expression levels of downstream genes, using MethylCapseq data (affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing of eluted DNA) and Affymetrix gene expression microarray data. The goal of this study was to assess genome-wide methylation profiles associated with different molecular subtypes of human breast cancer (luminal, basal A, and basal B) and to comprehensively investigate the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression in breast cancer phenotypes. This showed that methylation of genomic regions near transcription start sites, CpG island, CpG shore, and first exon was strongly associated with gene repression, and the effects of the regions on gene expression patterns were different for different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The results further indicated that aberrant methylation of specific genomic regions was significantly associated with different breast cancer subtypes.

  4. DNA Methylation and Gene Regulation in Honeybees: From Genome-Wide Analyses to Obligatory Epialleles.

    PubMed

    Wedd, Laura; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to heavily methylated mammalian genomes, invertebrate genomes are only sparsely methylated in a 'mosaic' fashion with the majority of methylated CpG dinucleotides found across gene bodies. Importantly, this gene body methylation is frequently associated with active transcription, and studies in the honeybee have shown that there are strong links between gene body methylation and alternative splicing. Additional work also highlights that obligatory methylated epialleles influence transcriptional changes in a context-specific manner. Here we discuss the current knowledge in this emerging field and highlight both similarities and differences between DNA methylation systems in mammals and invertebrates. Finally, we argue that the relationship between genetic variation, differential DNA methylation, other epigenetic modifications and the transcriptome must be further explored to fully understand the role of DNA methylation in converting genomic sequences into phenotypes.

  5. DNA polymerase III requirement for repair of DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hagensee, M.E.; Bryan, S.K.; Moses, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    The pcbA1 mutation allows DNA replication dependent on DNA polymerase I at the restrictive temperature in polC(Ts) strains. Cells which carry pcbA1, a functional DNA polymerase I, and a temperature-sensitive DNA polymerase III gene were used to study the role of DNA polymerase III in DNA repair. At the restrictive temperature for DNA polymerase III, these strains were more sensitive to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide than normal cells. The same strains showed no increase in sensitivity to bleomycin, UV light, or psoralen at the restrictive temperature. The sensitivity of these strains to MMS and hydrogen peroxide was not due to the pcbAl allele, and normal sensitivity was restored by the introduction of a chromosomal or cloned DNA polymerase III gene, verifying that the sensitivity was due to loss of DNA polymerase III alpha-subunit activity. A functional DNA polymerase III is required for the reformation of high-molecular-weight DNA after treatment of cells with MMS or hydrogen peroxide, as demonstrated by alkaline sucrose sedimentation results. Thus, it appears that a functional DNA polymerase III is required for the optimal repair of DNA damage by MMS or hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Exploring the utility of human DNA methylation arrays for profiling mouse genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nicholas C; Ng, Jane; Hall, Nathan E; Lunke, Sebastian; Salmanidis, Marika; Brumatti, Gabriela; Ekert, Paul G; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Illumina Infinium Human Methylation (HM) BeadChips are widely used for measuring genome-scale DNA methylation, particularly in relation to epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) studies. The methylation profile of human samples can be assessed accurately and reproducibly using the HM27 BeadChip (27,578 CpG sites) or its successor, the HM450 BeadChip (482,421 CpG sites). To date no mouse equivalent has been developed, greatly hindering the application of this methodology to the wide range of valuable murine models of disease and development currently in existence. We found 1308 and 13,715 probes from HM27 and HM450 BeadChip respectively, uniquely matched the bisulfite converted reference mouse genome (mm9). We demonstrate reproducible measurements of DNA methylation at these probes in a range of mouse tissue samples and in a murine cell line model of acute myeloid leukaemia. In the absence of a mouse counterpart, the Infinium Human Methylation BeadChip arrays have utility for methylation profiling in non-human species.

  7. DNA isolation method is a source of global DNA methylation variability measured with LUMA. Experimental analysis and a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Ois, Angel; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Montaner, Joan; Lucas, Gavin; Elosua, Roberto; Roquer, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    In DNA methylation, methyl groups are covalently bound to CpG dinucleotides. However, the assumption that methyl groups are not lost during routine DNA extraction has not been empirically tested. To avoid nonbiological associations in DNA methylation studies, it is essential to account for potential batch effect bias in the assessment of this epigenetic mechanism. Our purpose was to determine if the DNA isolation method is an independent source of variability in methylation status. We quantified Global DNA Methylation (GDM) by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA), comparing the results from 3 different DNA isolation methods. In the controlled analysis (n = 9), GDM differed slightly for the same individual depending on extraction method. In the population analysis (n = 580) there were significant differences in GDM between the 3 DNA isolation methods (medians, 78.1%, 76.5% and 75.1%; p<0.001). A systematic review of published data from LUMA GDM studies that specify DNA extraction methods is concordant with our findings. DNA isolation method is a source of GDM variability measured with LUMA. To avoid possible bias, the method used should be reported and taken into account in future DNA methylation studies.

  8. Perinatal high methyl donor alters gene expression in IGF system in male offspring without altering DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Amarger, Valérie; Giudicelli, Fanny; Pagniez, Anthony; Parnet, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of a protein restriction and a supplementation with methyl donor nutrients during fetal and early postnatal life on the expression and epigenetic state of imprinted genes from the IGF system. Materials & methods: Pregnant female rats were fed a protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with methyl donor. Results: Gene expression of the Igf2, H19, Igf1, Igf2r and Plagl1 genes in the liver of male offspring at birth and weaning was strongly influenced by maternal diet. Whereas the methylation profiles of the Igf2, H19 and Igf2r genes were remarkably stable, DNA methylation of Plagl1 promoter was slightly modified. Conclusion: DNA methylation of most, but not all, imprinted gene regulatory regions was resistant to methyl group nutritional supply. PMID:28344827

  9. Evolutionary Transition of Promoter and Gene Body DNA Methylation across Invertebrate-Vertebrate Boundary.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas E; Han, Priscilla; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-04-01

    Genomes of invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit highly divergent patterns of DNA methylation. Invertebrate genomes tend to be sparsely methylated, and DNA methylation is mostly targeted to a subset of transcription units (gene bodies). In a drastic contrast, vertebrate genomes are generally globally and heavily methylated, punctuated by the limited local hypo-methylation of putative regulatory regions such as promoters. These genomic differences also translate into functional differences in DNA methylation and gene regulation. Although promoter DNA methylation is an important regulatory component of vertebrate gene expression, its role in invertebrate gene regulation has been little explored. Instead, gene body DNA methylation is associated with expression of invertebrate genes. However, the evolutionary steps leading to the differentiation of invertebrate and vertebrate genomic DNA methylation remain unresolved. Here we analyzed experimentally determined DNA methylation maps of several species across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary, to elucidate how vertebrate gene methylation has evolved. We show that, in contrast to the prevailing idea, a substantial number of promoters in an invertebrate basal chordate Ciona intestinalis are methylated. Moreover, gene expression data indicate significant, epigenomic context-dependent associations between promoter methylation and expression in C. intestinalis. However, there is no evidence that promoter methylation in invertebrate chordate has been evolutionarily maintained across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary. Rather, body-methylated invertebrate genes preferentially obtain hypo-methylated promoters among vertebrates. Conversely, promoter methylation is preferentially found in lineage- and tissue-specific vertebrate genes. These results provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of epigenetic regulation of vertebrate gene expression.

  10. Psychological factors and DNA methylation of genes related to immune/inflammatory system markers: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Kubzansky, Laura D; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    psychological factors affect DNA methylation of selected genes involved in chronic immune/inflammatory processes and inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction. Such epigenetic changes may represent biological pathways that mediate the effects of psychological factors on CHD. PMID:26733571

  11. A view of an elemental naturalist at the DNA world (base composition, sequences, methylation).

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F

    2007-12-01

    The pioneering data on base composition and pyrimidine sequences in DNA of pro- and eukaryotes are considered, and their significance for the origin of genosystematics is discussed. The modern views on specificity and functional role of enzymatic DNA methylation in eukaryotes are described. DNA methylation controls all genetic functions and is a mechanism of cellular differentiation and gene silencing. A model of regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Adenine DNA methylation in higher eukaryotes (higher plants) was first observed, and it was established that one and the same gene can be methylated at both cytosine and adenine moieties. Thus, there are at least two different and seemingly interdependent DNA methylation systems present in eukaryotic cells. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA-methyltransferase is isolated from wheat seedlings and described: the enzyme methylates DNA with formation of N6-methyladenine in the sequence TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA. It is found that higher plants have endonucleases that are dependent on S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and sensitive to DNA methylation status. Therefore, as in bacteria, plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. A system of conjugated up- and down-regulation of SAM-dependent endonucleases by SAM modulations is found in plants. Revelation of an essential role of DNA methylation in regulation of genetic processes is a fundament of materialization of epigenetics and epigenomics.

  12. DNA methylation regulates phenotype-dependent transcriptional activity in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Prashant K.; Baum, Mary; Carbon, John

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common epigenetic signaling mechanism associated with silencing of repeated DNA and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. Here we report that DNA methylation in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is primarily localized within structural genes and modulates transcriptional activity. Major repeat sequences and multigene families are largely free of DNA methylation. Among the genes subject to DNA methylation are those associated with dimorphic transition between yeast and hyphal forms, switching between white and opaque cells, and iron metabolism. Transcriptionally repressed methylated loci showed increased frequency of C-to-T transitions during asexual growth, an evolutionarily stable pattern of repression associated mutation that could bring about genetic alterations under changing environmental or host conditions. Dynamic differential DNA methylation of structural genes may be one factor contributing to morphological plasticity that is cued by nutrition and host interaction. PMID:21730141

  13. Adjusting for Cell Type Composition in DNA Methylation Data Using a Regression-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meaghan J; Islam, Sumaiya A; Edgar, Rachel D; Kobor, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of DNA methylation in a population context has the potential to uncover novel gene and environment interactions as well as markers of health and disease. In order to find such associations it is important to control for factors which may mask or alter DNA methylation signatures. Since tissue of origin and coinciding cell type composition are major contributors to DNA methylation patterns, and can easily confound important findings, it is vital to adjust DNA methylation data for such differences across individuals. Here we describe the use of a regression method to adjust for cell type composition in DNA methylation data. We specifically discuss what information is required to adjust for cell type composition and then provide detailed instructions on how to perform cell type adjustment on high dimensional DNA methylation data. This method has been applied mainly to Illumina 450K data, but can also be adapted to pyrosequencing or genome-wide bisulfite sequencing data.

  14. Prediction of Plant Height in Arabidopsis thaliana Using DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaodong; Morota, Gota; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Gianola, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of complex traits using molecular genetic information is an active area in quantitative genetics research. In the postgenomic era, many types of -omic (e.g., transcriptomic, epigenomic, methylomic, and proteomic) data are becoming increasingly available. Therefore, evaluating the utility of this massive amount of information in prediction of complex traits is of interest. DNA methylation, the covalent change of a DNA molecule without affecting its underlying sequence, is one quantifiable form of epigenetic modification. We used methylation information for predicting plant height (PH) in Arabidopsis thaliana nonparametrically, using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) regression. Also, we used different criteria for selecting smaller sets of probes, to assess how representative probes could be used in prediction instead of using all probes, which may lessen computational burden and lower experimental costs. Methylation information was used for describing epigenetic similarities between individuals through a kernel matrix, and the performance of predicting PH using this similarity matrix was reasonably good. The predictive correlation reached 0.53 and the same value was attained when only preselected probes were used for prediction. We created a kernel that mimics the genomic relationship matrix in genomic best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP) and estimated that, in this particular data set, epigenetic variation accounted for 65% of the phenotypic variance. Our results suggest that methylation information can be useful in whole-genome prediction of complex traits and that it may help to enhance understanding of complex traits when epigenetics is under examination. PMID:26253546

  15. Prediction of Plant Height in Arabidopsis thaliana Using DNA Methylation Data.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaodong; Morota, Gota; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Gianola, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of complex traits using molecular genetic information is an active area in quantitative genetics research. In the postgenomic era, many types of -omic (e.g., transcriptomic, epigenomic, methylomic, and proteomic) data are becoming increasingly available. Therefore, evaluating the utility of this massive amount of information in prediction of complex traits is of interest. DNA methylation, the covalent change of a DNA molecule without affecting its underlying sequence, is one quantifiable form of epigenetic modification. We used methylation information for predicting plant height (PH) in Arabidopsis thaliana nonparametrically, using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) regression. Also, we used different criteria for selecting smaller sets of probes, to assess how representative probes could be used in prediction instead of using all probes, which may lessen computational burden and lower experimental costs. Methylation information was used for describing epigenetic similarities between individuals through a kernel matrix, and the performance of predicting PH using this similarity matrix was reasonably good. The predictive correlation reached 0.53 and the same value was attained when only preselected probes were used for prediction. We created a kernel that mimics the genomic relationship matrix in genomic best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP) and estimated that, in this particular data set, epigenetic variation accounted for 65% of the phenotypic variance. Our results suggest that methylation information can be useful in whole-genome prediction of complex traits and that it may help to enhance understanding of complex traits when epigenetics is under examination.

  16. Pancreatic Cancer Patient Survival Correlates with DNA Methylation of Pancreas Development Genes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael J.; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Dawson, David W.; Donahue, Timothy R.; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark associated with regulation of transcription and genome structure. These markers have been investigated in a variety of cancer settings for their utility in differentiating normal tissue from tumor tissue. Here, we examine the direct correlation between DNA methylation and patient survival. We find that changes in the DNA methylation of key pancreatic developmental genes are strongly associated with patient survival. PMID:26039411

  17. Pancreatic cancer patient survival correlates with DNA methylation of pancreas development genes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael J; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Dawson, David W; Donahue, Timothy R; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark associated with regulation of transcription and genome structure. These markers have been investigated in a variety of cancer settings for their utility in differentiating normal tissue from tumor tissue. Here, we examine the direct correlation between DNA methylation and patient survival. We find that changes in the DNA methylation of key pancreatic developmental genes are strongly associated with patient survival.

  18. Identification of Methylated Deoxyadenosines in Genomic DNA by dA6m DNA Immunoprecipitation

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Magdalena J.; Bradshaw, Charles R.; Allen, George E.; Costa, Ana S.H.; Frezza, Christian

    2017-01-01

    dA6m DNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (DIP-Seq) is a key tool in identifying and studying the genome-wide distribution of N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (dA6m). The precise function of this novel DNA modification remains to be fully elucidated, but it is known to be absent from transcriptional start sites and excluded from exons, suggesting a role in transcriptional regulation (Koziol et al., 2015). Importantly, its existence suggests that DNA might be more diverse than previously believed, as further DNA modifications might exist in eukaryotic DNA (Koziol et al., 2015). This protocol describes the method to perform dA6m DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP), as was applied to characterize the first dA6m methylome analysis in higher eukaryotes (Koziol et al., 2015). In this protocol, we describe how genomic DNA is isolated, fragmented and then DNA containing dA6m is pulled down with an antibody that recognizes dA6m in genomic DNA. After subsequent washes, DNA fragments that do not contain dA6m are eliminated, and the dA6m containing fragments are eluted from the antibody in order to be processed further for subsequent analyses. Background This protocol was developed in order to identify regions in the genome that contain dA6m. It can be used to detect dA6m in different genomes. As a guideline, this protocol was established from existing approaches used to detect adenosine methylation in RNA (Dominissini et al., 2013). We developed this protocol and adapted it for the detection of dA6m in DNA, rather than detecting adenosine methylation RNA. This was required, as no protocol was available at that time to allow the genome-wide identification of dA6m in eukaryotic DNA. PMID:28180135

  19. Is DNA methylation responsible for immune system dysfunction in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Khojasteh-Fard, Maryam; Tabrizi, Mina; Amoli, Mahsa M

    2011-10-01

    Association of both environmental and hereditary factors in susceptibility to schizophrenia is well established. Initial diagnosis of schizophrenia in a genetically susceptible individual usually occurs the first time that individual faces a great life-time stressful event. Immune system dysfunction is one of the major factors implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia because it can render an individual more vulnerable to stress. Imbalance between type-1 and type-2 immunity and subsequent alterations in cytokine levels have been reported in schizophrenia patients. Cytokines seem to have neurotropic activities associated with neurologic disorders, suggesting their complex role in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, it is well known that CpG methylation strongly associates with silencing of genes in differentiated cells at the transcriptional level and variation in genomic DNA methylation of cytokine genes and T cells is an important factor modulating cytokine gene expression in various conditions. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that alterations in methylation pattern of selective cytokine gene promoters be regarded as an underlying mechanism of Th1/Th2 imbalance observed in schizophrenia. Environmental triggers including feto-maternal transmission of viral or bacterial micro-organisms, change in enzymatic activities, or interaction of environmental and genetic factors in individuals with a higher risk of schizophrenia might orchestrate this mechanism.

  20. Combined analysis of DNA methylation and cell cycle in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Desjobert, Cécile; El Maï, Mounir; Gérard-Hirne, Tom; Guianvarc'h, Dominique; Carrier, Arnaud; Pottier, Cyrielle; Arimondo, Paola B; Riond, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chemical modification of DNA involved in the regulation of gene expression by controlling the access to the DNA sequence. It is the most stable epigenetic mark and is widely studied for its role in major biological processes. Aberrant DNA methylation is observed in various pathologies, such as cancer. Therefore, there is a great interest in analyzing subtle changes in DNA methylation induced by biological processes or upon drug treatments. Here, we developed an improved methodology based on flow cytometry to measure variations of DNA methylation level in melanoma and leukemia cells. The accuracy of DNA methylation quantification was validated with LC-ESI mass spectrometry analysis. The new protocol was used to detect small variations of cytosine methylation occurring in individual cells during their cell cycle and those induced by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AzadC). Kinetic experiments confirmed that inheritance of DNA methylation occurs efficiently in S phase and revealed a short delay between DNA replication and completion of cytosine methylation. In addition, this study suggests that the uncoupling of 5AzadC effects on DNA demethylation and cell proliferation might be related to the duration of the DNA replication phase.

  1. Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-07-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources.

  2. Analysis of DNA methylation change induced by Dnmt3b in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mayumi; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ehara, Tatsuya; Yuan, Xunmei; Suganami, Takayoshi; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Hatada, Izuho; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-17

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic contributor to gene regulation in mammals. We have recently found that in the mouse liver, the promoter region of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is regulated by DNA methylation, which is mediated by Dnmt3b, an enzyme required for the initiation of de novo methylation. In this study, using primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes with adenoviral overexpression of Dnmt3b, we characterized Dnmt3b-dependent DNA methylation on a genome-wide basis. A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, called microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isoschizomers, identified 108 genes with Dnmt3b dependent DNA methylation. In DNA expression array analysis, expression of some genes with Dnmt3b-dependent DNA methylation was suppressed. Studies with primary mouse hepatocytes overexpressing Dnmt3b or Dnmt3a revealed that many genes with Dnmt3b-dependent methylation are not methylated by Dnmt3a, whereas those methylated by Dnmt3a are mostly methylated by Dnmt3b. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CANAGCTG and CCGGWNCSC (N denotes A, T, G, or C; W denotes A or T; and S denotes C or G) sequences are enriched in genes methylated by overexpression of Dnmt3b and Dnmt3a, respectively. We also observed a large number of genes with Dnmt3b-dependent DNA methylation in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes with adenoviral overexpression of Dnmt3, suggesting that Dnmt3b is an important DNA methyltransferase in primary mouse hepatocytes, targets specific genes, and potentially plays a role in vivo.

  3. Stress, burnout and depression: A systematic review on DNA methylation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bakusic, Jelena; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Claes, Stephan; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-01

    Despite that burnout presents a serious burden for modern society, there are no diagnostic criteria. Additional difficulty is the differential diagnosis with depression. Consequently, there is a need to dispose of a burnout biomarker. Epigenetic studies suggest that DNA methylation is a possible mediator linking individual response to stress and psychopathology and could be considered as a potential biomarker of stress-related mental disorders. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of DNA methylation mechanisms in stress, burnout and depression. In addition to state-of-the-art overview, the goal of this review is to provide a scientific base for burnout biomarker research. We performed a systematic literature search and identified 25 pertinent articles. Among these, 15 focused on depression, 7 on chronic stress and only 3 on work stress/burnout. Three epigenome-wide studies were identified and the majority of studies used the candidate-gene approach, assessing 12 different genes. The glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) displayed different methylation patterns in chronic stress and depression. The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) methylation was similarly affected in stress, depression and burnout. Work-related stress and depressive symptoms were associated with different methylation patterns of the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) in the same human sample. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) methylation was correlated with work stress in a single study. Additional, thoroughly designed longitudinal studies are necessary for revealing the cause-effect relationship of work stress, epigenetics and burnout, including its overlap with depression.

  4. DNA Methylation Analysis of BRD1 Promoter Regions and the Schizophrenia rs138880 Risk Allele

    PubMed Central

    Dyrvig, Mads; Qvist, Per; Lichota, Jacek; Larsen, Knud; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders D.

    2017-01-01

    The bromodomain containing 1 gene, BRD1 is essential for embryogenesis and CNS development. It encodes a protein that participates in histone modifying complexes and thereby regulates the expression of a large number of genes. Genetic variants in the BRD1 locus show association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and risk alleles in the promoter region correlate with reduced BRD1 expression. Insights into the transcriptional regulation of BRD1 and the pathogenic mechanisms associated with BRD1 risk variants, however, remain sparse. By studying transcripts in human HeLa and SH-SY5Y cells we provide evidence for differences in relative expression of BRD1 transcripts with three alternative 5’ UTRs (exon 1C, 1B, and 1A). We further show that expression of these transcript variants covaries negatively with DNA methylation proportions in their upstream promoter regions suggesting that promoter usage might be regulated by DNA methylation. In line with findings that the risk allele of the rs138880 SNP in the BRD1 promoter region correlates with reduced BRD1 expression, we find that it is also associated with moderate regional BRD1 promoter hypermethylation in both adipose tissue and blood. Importantly, we demonstrate by inspecting available DNA methylation and expression data that these regions undergo changes in methylation during fetal brain development and that differences in their methylation proportions in fetal compared to postnatal frontal cortex correlate significantly with BRD1 expression. These findings suggest that BRD1 may be dysregulated in both the developing and mature brain of risk allele carriers. Finally, we demonstrate that commonly used mood stabilizers Lithium, Valproate, and Carbamazepine affect the expression of BRD1 in SH-SY5Y cells. Altogether this study indicates a link between genetic risk and epigenetic dysregulation of BRD1 which raises interesting perspectives for targeting the mechanisms pharmacologically. PMID:28095495

  5. DNA methylation profiling identifies two splenic marginal zone lymphoma subgroups with different clinical and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto J; Rinaldi, Andrea; Mensah, Afua A; Kwee, Ivo; Cascione, Luciano; Robles, Eloy F; Martinez-Climent, Jose A; Oscier, David; Arcaini, Luca; Baldini, Luca; Marasca, Roberto; Thieblemont, Catherine; Briere, Josette; Forconi, Francesco; Zamò, Alberto; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Mollejo, Manuela; Facchetti, Fabio; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Bhagat, Govind; Piris, Miguel A; Gaidano, Gianluca; Zucca, Emanuele; Rossi, Davide; Bertoni, Francesco

    2015-03-19

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a rare lymphoma. Loss of 7q31 and somatic mutations affecting the NOTCH2 and KLF2 genes are the commonest genomic aberrations. Epigenetic changes can be pharmacologically reverted; therefore, identification of groups of patients with specific epigenomic alterations might have therapeutic relevance. Here we integrated genome-wide DNA-promoter methylation profiling with gene expression profiling, and clinical and biological variables. An unsupervised clustering analysis of a test series of 98 samples identified 2 clusters with different degrees of promoter methylation. The cluster comprising samples with higher-promoter methylation (High-M) had a poorer overall survival compared with the lower (Low-M) cluster. The prognostic relevance of the High-M phenotype was confirmed in an independent validation set of 36 patients. In the whole series, the High-M phenotype was associated with IGHV1-02 usage, mutations of NOTCH2 gene, 7q31-32 loss, and histologic transformation. In the High-M set, a number of tumor-suppressor genes were methylated and repressed. PRC2 subunit genes and several prosurvival lymphoma genes were unmethylated and overexpressed. A model based on the methylation of 3 genes (CACNB2, HTRA1, KLF4) identified a poorer-outcome patient subset. Exposure of splenic marginal zone lymphoma cell lines to a demethylating agent caused partial reversion of the High-M phenotype and inhibition of proliferation.

  6. DNA methylation mediates the discriminatory power of associative long-term memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Biergans, Stephanie D; Jones, Julia C; Treiber, Nadine; Galizia, C Giovanni; Szyszka, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Memory is created by several interlinked processes in the brain, some of which require long-term gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely candidates for regulating memory-related genes. Among these, DNA methylation is known to be a long lasting genomic mark and may be involved in the establishment of long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that DNA methyltransferases, which induce and maintain DNA methylation, are involved in a particular aspect of associative long-term memory formation in honeybees, but are not required for short-term memory formation. While long-term memory strength itself was not affected by blocking DNA methyltransferases, odor specificity of the memory (memory discriminatory power) was. Conversely, perceptual discriminatory power was normal. These results suggest that different genetic pathways are involved in mediating the strength and discriminatory power of associative odor memories and provide, to our knowledge, the first indication that DNA methyltransferases are involved in stimulus-specific associative long-term memory formation.

  7. DNA methylation is crucial for the early development in the Oyster C. gigas.

    PubMed

    Riviere, Guillaume; Wu, Guan-Chung; Fellous, Alexandre; Goux, Didier; Sourdaine, Pascal; Favrel, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    In vertebrates, epigenetic modifications influence gene transcription, and an appropriate DNA methylation is critical in development. Indeed, a precise temporal and spatial pattern of early gene expression is mandatory for a normal embryogenesis. However, such a regulation and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in more distant organisms such as Lophotrochozoa. Thus, despite DNA in the oyster genome being methylated, the role of DNA methylation in development is unknown. To clarify this point, oyster genomic DNA was examined during early embryogenesis and found differentially methylated. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated stage-specific levels of transcripts encoding DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT) and methyl-binding domain proteins. In addition, as highlighted by electronic microscopy and immunohistochemistry, the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine induced alterations in the quantity and the localisation of methylated DNA and severe dose-dependent development alterations and was lethal after zygotic genome reinitiation. Furthermore, methyl-DNA-immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the transcription level of most of the homeobox gene orthologues examined, but not of the other early genes investigated, was inversely correlated with their specific DNA methylation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that DNA methylation influences gene expression in Crassostrea gigas and is critical for oyster development, possibly by specifically controlling the transcription level of homeobox orthologues. These findings provide evidence for the importance of epigenetic regulation of development in Lophotrochozoans and bring new insights into the early life of C. gigas, one of the most important aquaculture resources worldwide.

  8. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

  9. Gel-free multiplexed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing for large-scale DNA methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Patrick; Clement, Kendell; Gu, Hongcang; Smith, Zachary D; Ziller, Michael; Fostel, Jennifer L; Holmes, Laurie; Meldrim, Jim; Kelley, Fontina; Gnirke, Andreas; Meissner, Alexander

    2012-10-03

    Sequencing-based approaches have led to new insights about DNA methylation. While many different techniques for genome-scale mapping of DNA methylation have been employed, throughput has been a key limitation for most. To further facilitate the mapping of DNA methylation, we describe a protocol for gel-free multiplexed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (mRRBS) that reduces the workload dramatically and enables processing of 96 or more samples per week. mRRBS achieves similar CpG coverage to the original RRBS protocol, while the higher throughput and lower cost make it better suited for large-scale DNA methylation mapping studies, including cohorts of cancer samples.

  10. Genome-Wide Discriminatory Information Patterns of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a highly abundant, heritable but reversible chemical modification to the genome. Herein, a machine learning approach was applied to analyze the accumulation of epigenetic marks in methylomes of 152 ecotypes and 85 silencing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In an information-thermodynamics framework, two measurements were used: (1) the amount of information gained/lost with the CDM changes IR and (2) the uncertainty of not observing a SNP LCR. We hypothesize that epigenetic marks are chromosomal footprints accounting for different ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of individual populations. A machine learning approach is proposed to verify this hypothesis. Results support the hypothesis by the existence of discriminatory information (DI) patterns of CDM able to discriminate between individuals and between individual subpopulations. The statistical analyses revealed a strong association between the topologies of the structured population of Arabidopsis ecotypes based on IR and on LCR, respectively. A statistical-physical relationship between IR and LCR was also found. Results to date imply that the genome-wide distribution of CDM changes is not only part of the biological signal created by the methylation regulatory machinery, but ensures the stability of the DNA molecule, preserving the integrity of the genetic message under continuous stress from thermal fluctuations in the cell environment. PMID:27322251

  11. Phenotype prediction based on genome-wide DNA methylation data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation (DNAm) has important regulatory roles in many biological processes and diseases. It is the only epigenetic mark with a clear mechanism of mitotic inheritance and the only one easily available on a genome scale. Aberrant cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation has been discussed in the context of disease aetiology, especially cancer. CpG hypermethylation of promoter regions is often associated with silencing of tumour suppressor genes and hypomethylation with activation of oncogenes. Supervised principal component analysis (SPCA) is a popular machine learning method. However, in a recent application to phenotype prediction from DNAm data SPCA was inferior to the specific method EVORA. Results We present Model-Selection-SPCA (MS-SPCA), an enhanced version of SPCA. MS-SPCA applies several models that perform well in the training data to the test data and selects the very best models for final prediction based on parameters of the test data. We have applied MS-SPCA for phenotype prediction from genome-wide DNAm data. CpGs used for prediction are selected based on the quantification of three features of their methylation (average methylation difference, methylation variation difference and methylation-age-correlation). We analysed four independent case–control datasets that correspond to different stages of cervical cancer: (i) cases currently cytologically normal, but will later develop neoplastic transformations, (ii, iii) cases showing neoplastic transformations and (iv) cases with confirmed cancer. The first dataset was split into several smaller case–control datasets (samples either Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive or negative). We demonstrate that cytology normal HPV+ and HPV- samples contain DNAm patterns which are associated with later neoplastic transformations. We present evidence that DNAm patterns exist in cytology normal HPV- samples that (i) predispose to neoplastic transformations after HPV infection and (ii

  12. Nightshift work and genome-wide DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Parveen; Zhang, Yuzheng; Song, Xiaoling; Makar, Karen W; Sather, Cassandra L; Kelsey, Karl T; Houseman, E Andres; Wang, Pei

    2015-02-01

    The negative health effects of shift work, including carcinogenesis, may be mediated by changes in DNA methylation, particularly in the circadian genes. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Array (Illumina, San Diego, CA), we compared genome-wide methylation between 65 actively working dayshift workers and 59 actively working nightshift workers in the healthcare industry. A total of 473 800 loci, including 391 loci across the 12 core circadian genes, were analyzed to identify methylation markers associated with shift work status using linear regression models adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, race, smoking status and leukocyte cell profile as measured by flow cytometry. Analyses at the level of gene, CpG island and gene region were also conducted. To account for multiple comparisons, we controlled the false discovery rate (FDR ≤0.05). Significant differences between nightshift and dayshift workers were found at 16 135 of 473 800 loci, across 3769 of 20 164 genes, across 7173 of 22 721 CpG islands and across 5508 of 51 843 gene regions. For each significant loci, gene, CpG island or gene region, average methylation was consistently found to be decreased among nightshift workers compared to dayshift workers. Twenty-one loci located in the circadian genes were also found to be significantly hypomethylated among nightshift workers. The largest differences were observed for three loci located in the gene body of PER3. A total of nine significant loci were found in the CSNK1E gene, most of which were located in a CpG island and near the transcription start site of the gene. Methylation changes in these circadian genes may lead to altered expression of these genes which has been associated with cancer in previous studies. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that among the significantly hypomethylated genes, processes related to host defense and immunity were represented. Our results indicate that the health effects of shift work may be

  13. Differentiating between monozygotic twins through DNA methylation-specific high-resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Leander; Evans, Neil; Bexon, Kimberley J; van der Meer, Dieudonne J; Williams, Graham A

    2015-05-01

    Although short tandem repeat profiling is extremely powerful in identifying individuals from crime scene stains, it is unable to differentiate between monozygotic (MZ) twins. Efforts to address this include mutation analysis through whole genome sequencing and through DNA methylation studies. Methylation of DNA is affected by environmental factors; thus, as MZ twins age, their DNA methylation patterns change. This can be characterized by bisulfite treatment followed by pyrosequencing. However, this can be time-consuming and expensive; thus, it is unlikely to be widely used by investigators. If the sequences are different, then in theory the melting temperature should be different. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether high-resolution melt curve analysis can be used to differentiate between MZ twins. Five sets of MZ twins provided buccal swabs that underwent extraction, quantification, bisulfite treatment, polymerase chain reaction amplification and high-resolution melting curve analysis targeting two markers, Alu-E2F3 and Alu-SP. Significant differences were observed between all MZ twins targeting Alu-E2F3 and in four of five MZ twins targeting Alu-SP (P<0.05). Thus, it has been demonstrated that bisulfite treatment followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis could be used to differentiate between MZ twins.

  14. De novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome in 2-cell mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Qin, L; Song, C L; Lin, F; Song, J M; Zhu, C C; Liu, H L

    2014-10-27

    The developmental dynamics of DNA methylation events have been well studied. Active demethylation of the paternal genome occurs in the zygote, passive demethylation occurs during cleavage stages, and de novo methylation occurs by the blastocyst stage. It is believed that the paternal genome has lower levels of methylation during early development than the maternal genome. However, in this study, we provide direct and indirect evidence of genome-wide de novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome after the first cell cycle in mouse embryos. Although very little methylation was detected within the male pronucleus in zygotes, an intense methylation signal was clearly visible within the androgenetic 2-cell embryos. Moreover, the DNA methylation level of the paternal genome in the post-zygotic metaphase embryos was similar to that of the maternal genome. Using indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody to methylated lysine 9 in histone H3, we provided new evidence to support the concept of spatial compartmentalization of parental genomes in 2-cell mouse embryos. Nevertheless, the transient segregation of parental genomes was not observed by determining the DNA methylation distribution in the 2-cell embryos even though DNA methylation asymmetry between the maternal and paternal pronucleus existed in the 1-cell stage. The disappearance of separate immunofluorescence signals of 5-methyl cytosine in the 2-cell embryos might be attributed to the de novo methylation of the paternal genome during the first mitotic cycle.

  15. Convergence of DNA methylation and phosphorothioation epigenetics in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Wang, Lianrong; Chen, Si; Wu, Xiaolin; Gu, Meijia; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Susu; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Dedon, Peter C; Chen, Shi

    2017-04-11

    Explosive growth in the study of microbial epigenetics has revealed a diversity of chemical structures and biological functions of DNA modifications in restriction-modification (R-M) and basic genetic processes. Here, we describe the discovery of shared consensus sequences for two seemingly unrelated DNA modification systems, (6m)A methylation and phosphorothioation (PT), in which sulfur replaces a nonbridging oxygen in the DNA backbone. Mass spectrometric analysis of DNA from Escherichia coli B7A and Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro 87, strains possessing PT-based R-M genes, revealed d(GPS(6m)A) dinucleotides in the GPS(6m)AAC consensus representing ∼5% of the 1,100 to 1,300 PT-modified d(GPSA) motifs per genome, with (6m)A arising from a yet-to-be-identified methyltransferase. To further explore PT and (6m)A in another consensus sequence, GPS(6m)ATC, we engineered a strain of E. coli HST04 to express Dnd genes from Hahella chejuensis KCTC2396 (PT in GPSATC) and Dam methyltransferase from E. coli DH10B ((6m)A in G(6m)ATC). Based on this model, in vitro studies revealed reduced Dam activity in GPSATC-containing oligonucleotides whereas single-molecule real-time sequencing of HST04 DNA revealed (6m)A in all 2,058 GPSATC sites (5% of 37,698 total GATC sites). This model system also revealed temperature-sensitive restriction by DndFGH in KCTC2396 and B7A, which was exploited to discover that (6m)A can substitute for PT to confer resistance to restriction by the DndFGH system. These results point to complex but unappreciated interactions between DNA modification systems and raise the possibility of coevolution of interacting systems to facilitate the function of each.

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation of WNT pathway genes in the development and progression of CIMP-negative colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Bodor, András; Ribli, Dezső; Krenács, Tibor; Patai, Árpád V; Wichmann, Barnabás; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tóth, Kinga; Valcz, Gábor; Spisák, Sándor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-08-02

    The WNT signaling pathway has an essential role in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression, which involves a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes. We aimed to analyze DNA methylation affecting the WNT pathway genes in colorectal carcinogenesis in promoter and gene body regions using whole methylome analysis in 9 colorectal cancer, 15 adenoma, and 6 normal tumor adjacent tissue (NAT) samples by methyl capture sequencing. Functional methylation was confirmed on 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colorectal cancer cell line datasets. In parallel with the DNA methylation analysis, mutations of WNT pathway genes (APC, β-catenin/CTNNB1) were analyzed by 454 sequencing on GS Junior platform. Most differentially methylated CpG sites were localized in gene body regions (95% of WNT pathway genes). In the promoter regions, 33 of the 160 analyzed WNT pathway genes were differentially methylated in colorectal cancer vs. normal, including hypermethylated AXIN2, CHP1, PRICKLE1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, and hypomethylated CACYBP, CTNNB1, MYC; 44 genes in adenoma vs. NAT; and 41 genes in colorectal cancer vs. adenoma comparisons. Hypermethylation of AXIN2, DKK1, VANGL1, and WNT5A gene promoters was higher, while those of SOX17, PRICKLE1, DAAM2, and MYC was lower in colon carcinoma compared to adenoma. Inverse correlation between expression and methylation was confirmed in 23 genes, including APC, CHP1, PRICKLE1, PSEN1, and SFRP1. Differential methylation affected both canonical and noncanonical WNT pathway genes in colorectal normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Aberrant DNA methylation appears already in adenomas as an early event of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  17. Detection of changes in DNA methylation induced by low-energy ion implantation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haichan; Zhao, Jin; Xu, Jing; Li, Xiaoqu; Zhang, Fengshou; Wang, Yugang; Carr, Christopher; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Genfa

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated changes in DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown from seeds implanted with low-energy N(+) and Ar(+) ions. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) testing revealed altered DNA methylation patterns after ion implantation at doses of 1 × 10(14) to 1 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). Comparison of the MSAP electrophoretic profiles revealed nine types of polymorphisms in ion-implanted seedlings relative to control seedlings, among which four represented methylation events, three represented demethylation events, and the methylation status of two was uncertain. The diversity of plant DNA methylation was increased by low-energy ion implantation. At the same time, total genomic DNA methylation levels at CCGG sites were unchanged by ion implantation. Moreover, a comparison of polymorphisms seen in N(+) ion-implanted, Ar(+) ion-implanted, and control DNA demonstrated that the species of incident ion influenced the resulting DNA methylation pattern. Sequencing of eight isolated fragments that showed different changing patterns in implanted plants allowed their mapping onto variable regions on one or more of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes; these segments included protein-coding genes, transposon and repeat DNA sequence. A further sodium bisulfite sequencing of three fragments also displayed alterations in methylation among either different types or doses of incident ions. Possible causes for the changes in methylation are discussed.

  18. Consistent and heritable alterations of DNA methylation are induced by tissue culture in maize.

    PubMed

    Stelpflug, Scott C; Eichten, Steven R; Hermanson, Peter J; Springer, Nathan M; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2014-09-01

    Plants regenerated from tissue culture and their progenies are expected to be identical clones, but often display heritable molecular and phenotypic variation. We characterized DNA methylation patterns in callus, primary regenerants, and regenerant-derived progenies of maize using immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA (meDIP) to assess the genome-wide frequency, pattern, and heritability of DNA methylation changes. Although genome-wide DNA methylation levels remained similar following tissue culture, numerous regions exhibited altered DNA methylation levels. Hypomethylation events were observed more frequently than hypermethylation following tissue culture. Many of the hypomethylation events occur at the same genomic sites across independent regenerants and cell lines. The DNA methylation changes were often heritable in progenies produced from self-pollination of primary regenerants. Methylation changes were enriched in regions upstream of genes and loss of DNA methylation at promoters was associated with altered expression at a subset of loci. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) found in tissue culture regenerants overlap with the position of naturally occurring DMRs more often than expected by chance with 8% of tissue culture hypomethylated DMRs overlapping with DMRs identified by profiling natural variation, consistent with the hypotheses that genomic stresses similar to those causing somaclonal variation may also occur in nature, and that certain loci are particularly susceptible to epigenetic change in response to these stresses. The consistency of methylation changes across regenerants from independent cultures suggests a mechanistic response to the culture environment as opposed to an overall loss of fidelity in the maintenance of epigenetic states.

  19. A Comparative Study of Tests for Homogeneity of Variances with Application to DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Qiu, Weiliang; Morrow, Jarrett; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Weiss, Scott T.; Fu, Yuejiao; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Variable DNA methylation has been associated with cancers and complex diseases. Researchers have identified many DNA methylation markers that have different mean methylation levels between diseased subjects and normal subjects. Recently, researchers found that DNA methylation markers with different variabilities between subject groups could also have biological meaning. In this article, we aimed to help researchers choose the right test of equal variance in DNA methylation data analysis. We performed systematic simulation studies and a real data analysis to compare the performances of 7 equal-variance tests, including 2 tests recently proposed in the DNA methylation analysis literature. Our results showed that the Brown-Forsythe test and trimmed-mean-based Levene's test had good performance in testing for equality of variance in our simulation studies and real data analyses. Our results also showed that outlier profiles could be biologically very important. PMID:26683022

  20. SNP-Based Quantification of Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Patterns by Pyrosequencing®.

    PubMed

    Busato, Florence; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of allele-specific DNA methylation patterns has recently attracted much interest as loci of allele-specific DNA methylation overlap with known risk loci for complex diseases and the analysis might contribute to the fine-mapping and interpretation of non-coding genetic variants associated with complex diseases and improve the understanding between genotype and phenotype. In the presented protocol, we present a method for the analysis of DNA methylation patterns on both alleles separately using heterozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as anchor for allele-specific PCR amplification followed by analysis of the allele-specific DNA methylation patterns by Pyrosequencing(®). Pyrosequencing is an easy-to-handle, quantitative real-time sequencing method that is frequently used for genotyping as well as for the analysis of DNA methylation patterns. The protocol consists of three major steps: (1) identification of individuals heterozygous for a SNP in a region of interest using Pyrosequencing; (2) analysis of the DNA methylation patterns surrounding the SNP on bisulfite-treated DNA to identify regions of potential allele-specific DNA methylation; and (3) the analysis of the DNA methylation patterns associated with each of the two alleles, which are individually amplified using allele-specific PCR. The enrichment of the targeted allele is re-enforced by modification of the allele-specific primers at the allele-discriminating base with Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA). For the proof-of-principle of the developed approach, we provide assay details for three imprinted genes (IGF2, IGF2R, and PEG3) within this chapter. The mean of the DNA methylation patterns derived from the individual alleles corresponds well to the overall DNA methylation patterns and the developed approach proved more reliable compared to other protocols for allele-specific DNA methylation analysis.

  1. DNA methylation levels and long-term trihalomethane exposure in drinking water: an epigenome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Lucas A; Bustamante, Mariona; Gonzalez, Juan R; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Moreno, Victor; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THM) are undesired disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during water treatment. Mice exposed to DBPs showed global DNA hypomethylation and c-myc and c-jun gene-specific hypomethylation, while evidence of epigenetic effects in humans is scarce. We explored the association between lifetime THM exposure and DNA methylation through an epigenome-wide association study. We selected 138 population-based controls from a case-control study of colorectal cancer conducted in Barcelona, Spain, exposed to average lifetime THM levels ≤85 μg/L vs. >85 μg/L (N = 68 and N = 70, respectively). Mean age of participants was 70 years, and 54% were male. Average lifetime THM level in the exposure groups was 64 and 130 µg/L, respectively. DNA was extracted from whole blood and was bisulphite converted to measure DNA methylation levels using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Data preprocessing was performed using RnBeads. Methylation was compared between exposure groups using empirical Bayes moderated linear regression for CpG sites and Gaussian kernel for CpG regions. ConsensusPathDB was used for gene set enrichment. Statistically significant differences in methylation between exposure groups was found in 140 CpG sites and 30 gene-related regions, after false discovery rate <0.05 and adjustment for age, sex, methylation first principal component, and blood cell proportion. The annotated genes were localized to several cancer pathways. Among them, 29 CpGs had methylation levels associated with THM levels (|Δβ|≥0.05) located in 11 genes associated with cancer in other studies. Our results suggest that THM exposure may affect DNA methylation in genes related to tumors, including colorectal and bladder cancers. Future confirmation studies are required. PMID:26039576

  2. Dynamic changes in histone modifications precede de novo DNA methylation in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathleen R; Veselovska, Lenka; Kim, Jeesun; Huang, Jiahao; Saadeh, Heba; Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A; Chen, Taiping; Kelsey, Gavin

    2015-12-01

    Erasure and subsequent reinstatement of DNA methylation in the germline, especially at imprinted CpG islands (CGIs), is crucial to embryogenesis in mammals. The mechanisms underlying DNA methylation establishment remain poorly understood, but a number of post-translational modifications of histones are implicated in antagonizing or recruiting the de novo DNA methylation complex. In mouse oogenesis, DNA methylation establishment occurs on a largely unmethylated genome and in nondividing cells, making it a highly informative model for examining how histone modifications can shape the DNA methylome. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing (ChIP-seq) protocol optimized for low cell numbers and novel techniques for isolating primary and growing oocytes, profiles were generated for histone modifications implicated in promoting or inhibiting DNA methylation. CGIs destined for DNA methylation show reduced protective H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and trimethylation (H3K4me3) in both primary and growing oocytes, while permissive H3K36me3 increases specifically at these CGIs in growing oocytes. Methylome profiling of oocytes deficient in H3K4 demethylase KDM1A or KDM1B indicated that removal of H3K4 methylation is necessary for proper methylation establishment at CGIs. This work represents the first systematic study performing ChIP-seq in oocytes and shows that histone remodeling in the mammalian oocyte helps direct de novo DNA methylation events.

  3. Blood diagnostic biomarkers for major depressive disorder using multiplex DNA methylation profiles: discovery and validation.

    PubMed

    Numata, Shusuke; Ishii, Kazuo; Tajima, Atsushi; Iga, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinya; Umehara, Hidehiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Okada, Satoshi; Boku, Shuken; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Shimodera, Shinji; Imoto, Issei; Morinobu, Shigeru; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of peripheral leukocytes was conducted in two set of samples, a discovery set (20 medication-free patients with MDD and 19 controls) and a replication set (12 medication-free patients with MDD and 12 controls), using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Significant diagnostic differences in DNA methylation were observed at 363 CpG sites in the discovery set. All of these loci demonstrated lower DNA methylation in patients with MDD than in the controls, and most of them (85.7%) were located in the CGIs in the gene promoter regions. We were able to distinguish patients with MDD from the control subjects with high accuracy in the discriminant analysis using the top DNA methylation markers. We also validated these selected DNA methylation markers in the replication set. Our results indicate that multiplex DNA methylation markers may be useful for distinguishing patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls.

  4. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  5. DNA methylation profiles of diverse Brachypodium distachyon align with underlying genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Borevitz, Justin O.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, a common modification of genomic DNA, is known to influence the expression of transposable elements as well as some genes. Although commonly viewed as an epigenetic mark, evidence has shown that underlying genetic variation, such as transposable element polymorphisms, often associate with differential DNA methylation states. To investigate the role of DNA methylation variation, transposable element polymorphism, and genomic diversity, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was performed on genetically diverse lines of the model cereal Brachypodium distachyon. Although DNA methylation profiles are broadly similar, thousands of differentially methylated regions are observed between lines. An analysis of novel transposable element indel variation highlighted hundreds of new polymorphisms not seen in the reference sequence. DNA methylation and transposable element variation is correlated with the genome-wide amount of genetic variation present between samples. However, there was minimal evidence that novel transposon insertions or deletions are associated with nearby differential methylation. This study highlights unique relationships between genetic variation and DNA methylation variation within Brachypodium and provides a valuable map of DNA methylation across diverse resequenced accessions of this model cereal species. PMID:27613611

  6. Dietary Flavanols Modulate the Transcription of Genes Associated with Cardiovascular Pathology without Changes in Their DNA Methylation State

    PubMed Central

    Boby, Céline; Leroux, Christine; Declerck, Ken; Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Heyninck, Karen; Laukens, Kris; Bizet, Martin; Defrance, Matthieu; Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Calonne, Emilie; Fuks, Francois; Haegeman, Guy; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Bast, Aalt; Weseler, Antje R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In a recent intervention study, the daily supplementation with 200 mg monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF) from grape seeds for 8 weeks revealed a vascular health benefit in male smokers. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of MOF consumption on the gene expression profile of leukocytes and to assess changes in DNA methylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene expression profiles were determined using whole genome microarrays (Agilent) and DNA methylation was assessed using HumanMethylation450 BeadChips (Illumina). MOF significantly modulated the expression of 864 genes. The majority of the affected genes are involved in chemotaxis, cell adhesion, cell infiltration or cytoskeleton organisation, suggesting lower immune cell adhesion to endothelial cells. This was corroborated by in vitro experiments showing that MOF exposure of monocytes attenuates their adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) reporter gene assays confirmed that MOF decrease the activity of NF-κB. Strong inter-individual variability in the leukocytes' DNA methylation was observed. As a consequence, on group level, changes due to MOF supplementation could not be found. Conclusion Our study revealed that an 8 week daily supplementation with 200 mg MOF modulates the expression of genes associated with cardiovascular disease pathways without major changes of their DNA methylation state. However, strong inter-individual variation in leukocyte DNA methylation may obscure the subtle epigenetic response to dietary flavanols. Despite the lack of significant changes in DNA methylation, the modulation of gene expression appears to contribute to the observed vascular health effect of MOF in humans. PMID:24763279

  7. Sperm DNA methylation analysis in swine reveals conserved and species-specific methylation patterns and highlights an altered methylation at the GNAS locus in infertile boars.

    PubMed

    Congras, Annabelle; Yerle-Bouissou, Martine; Pinton, Alain; Vignoles, Florence; Liaubet, Laurence; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Acloque, Hervé

    2014-12-01

    Male infertility is an increasing health issue in today's society for both human and livestock populations. In livestock, male infertility slows the improvement of animal selection programs and agricultural productivity. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic marks play an important role in the production of good-quality sperm. We therefore screened for specific or common epigenetic signatures of livestock infertility. To do so, we compared DNA methylation level in sperm DNA from fertile and infertile boars. We evaluated first the global level of sperm DNA methylation and found no difference between the two groups of boars. We then selected 42 loci of interest, most of them known to be imprinted in human or mice, and assessed the imprinting status of five of them not previously described in swine tissues: WT1, CNTN3, IMPACT, QPCT, and GRB10. DNA methylation level was then quantified in fertile and infertile boars at these 42 loci. Results from fertile boars indicated that the methylation level of the selected loci is highly conserved between pig, human, and mice, with a few exceptions, including the POU5F1 (OCT4) promoter and RTL1. Comparison between fertile and infertile boars revealed that one imprinted region, the GNAS locus, shows an increase in sperm DNA methylation in three out of eight infertile boars with low semen quality. This increase in DNA methylation is associated with an altered expression of the genes belonging to the GNAS locus, suggesting a new role for GNAS in the proper formation of functional gametes.

  8. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation reveals a class of normally methylated CpG island promoters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanlan; Kondo, Yutaka; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Jiexin; Zhang, Li; Ahmed, Saira; Shu, Jingmin; Chen, Xinli; Waterland, Robert A; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2007-10-01

    The role of CpG island methylation in normal development and cell differentiation is of keen interest, but remains poorly understood. We performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of promoter regions in normal peripheral blood by methylated CpG island amplification in combination with microarrays. This technique allowed us to simultaneously determine the methylation status of 6,177 genes, 92% of which include dense CpG islands. Among these 5,549 autosomal genes with dense CpG island promoters, we have identified 4.0% genes that are nearly completely methylated in normal blood, providing another exception to the general rule that CpG island methylation in normal tissue is limited to X inactivation and imprinted genes. We examined seven genes in detail, including ANKRD30A, FLJ40201, INSL6, SOHLH2, FTMT, C12orf12, and DPPA5. Dense promoter CpG island methylation and gene silencing were found in normal tissues studied except testis and sperm. In both tissues, bisulfite cloning and sequencing identified cells carrying unmethylated alleles. Interestingly, hypomethylation of several genes was associated with gene activation in cancer. Furthermore, reactivation of silenced genes could be induced after treatment with a DNA demethylating agent or in a cell line lacking DNMT1 and/or DNMT3b. Sequence analysis identified five motifs significantly enriched in this class of genes, suggesting that cis-regulatory elements may facilitate preferential methylation at these promoter CpG islands. We have identified a group of non-X-linked bona fide promoter CpG islands that are densely methylated in normal somatic tissues, escape methylation in germline cells, and for which DNA methylation is a primary mechanism of tissue-specific gene silencing.

  9. DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of hyperphenylalaninemia in the PAH(enu2) mouse model of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, S F; Lyons-Weiler, J; Spridik, K; Vockley, J; Skvorak, K; Biery, A

    2016-09-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficient phenylketonuria (PKU) is the paradigm for a treatable inborn error of metabolism where maintaining plasma phenylalanine (Phe) in the therapeutic range relates to improved clinical outcomes. While Phe is the presumed intoxicating analyte causal in neurologic damage, the mechanism(s) of Phe toxicity has remained elusive. Altered DNA methylation is a recognized response associated with exposure to numerous small molecule toxic agents. Paralleling this effect, we hypothesized that chronic Phe over-exposure in the brain would lead to aberrant DNA methylation with secondary influence upon gene regulation that would ultimately contribute to PKU neuropathology. The PAH(enu2) mouse models human PKU with intrinsic hyperphenylalaninemia, abnormal response to Phe challenge, and neurologic deficit. To examine this hypothesis, we assessed DNA methylation patterns in brain tissues using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired end sequencing in adult PAH(enu2) animals maintained under either continuous dietary Phe restriction or chronic hyperphenylalaninemia. Heterozygous PAH(enu2/WT) litter mates served as controls for normal Phe exposure. Extensive repatterning of DNA methylation was observed in brain tissue of hyperphenylalaninemic animals while Phe restricted animals displayed an attenuated pattern of aberrant DNA methylation. Affected gene coding regions displayed aberrant hypermethylation and hypomethylation. Gene body methylation of noncoding RNA genes was observed and among these microRNA genes were prominent. Of particular note, observed only in hyperphenylalaninemic animals, was hypomethylation of miRNA genes within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus on chromosome 12. Aberrant methylation of microRNA genes influenced their expression which has secondary effects upon the expression of targeted protein coding genes. Differential hypermethylation of gene promoters was exclusive to hyperphenylalaninemic PAH(enu2) animals. Genes with

  10. Conservation and divergence of DNA methylation in eukaryotes: new insights from single base-resolution DNA methylomes.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhixi; Han, Leng; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-02-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most important heritable epigenetic modifications of the genome and is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently reported to influence gene expression and subsequently cause various human diseases, including cancer. Recent rapid advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigators to profile genome methylation patterns at single-base resolution. Remarkably, more than 20 eukaryotic methylomes have been generated thus far, with a majority published since November 2009. Analysis of this vast amount of data has dramatically enriched our knowledge of biological function, conservation and divergence of DNA methylation in eukaryotes. Even so, many specific functions of DNA methylation and their underlying regulatory systems still remain unknown to us. Here, we briefly introduce current approaches for DNA methylation profiling and then systematically review the features of whole genome DNA methylation patterns in eight animals, six plants and five fungi. Our systematic comparison provides new insights into the conservation and divergence of DNA methylation in eukaryotes and their regulation of gene expression. This work aims to summarize the current state of available methylome data and features informatively.

  11. Alteration of Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Histone Methylation in Free Radical Scavenging Networks in Adult Mouse Hippocampus following Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chater-Diehl, Eric J.; Castellani, Christina A.; Alberry, Bonnie L.; Singh, Shiva M.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse’s lifetime, an area few have explored. Here, mice were injected with saline or ethanol on postnatal days four and seven. At 70 days of age gene expression microarray, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray were performed. Following extensive pathway analysis of the affected genes, we identified the top affected gene expression pathway as “Free radical scavenging”. We confirmed six of these changes by droplet digital PCR including the caspase Casp3 and Wnt transcription factor Tcf7l2. The top pathway for all methylation-affected genes was “Peroxisome biogenesis”; we confirmed differential DNA methylation in the Acca1 thiolase promoter. Altered methylation and gene expression in oxidative stress pathways in the adult hippocampus suggests a novel interface between epigenetic and oxidative stress mechanisms in FASD. PMID:27136348

  12. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Borinstein, Scott C.; Conerly, Melissa; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Biswas, Swati; Washington, M. Kay; Trobridge, Patty; Henikoff, Steve; Grady, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19Arf, Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors. PMID:19777566

  13. Methylation-independent DNA Binding Modulates Specificity of Repressor of Silencing 1 (ROS1) and Facilitates Demethylation in Long Substrates*

    PubMed Central

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Morales-Ruiz, Teresa; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.

    2010-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mark that promotes gene silencing and performs critical roles during reproduction and development in both plants and animals. The genomic distribution of DNA methylation is the dynamic outcome of opposing methylation and demethylation processes. In plants, active demethylation occurs through a base excision repair pathway initiated by 5-methycytosine (5-meC) DNA glycosylases of the REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1)/DEMETER (DME) family. To gain insight into the mechanism by which Arabidopsis ROS1 recognizes and excises 5-meC, we have identified those protein regions that are required for efficient DNA binding and catalysis. We have found that a short N-terminal lysine-rich domain conserved in members of the ROS1/DME family mediates strong methylation-independent binding of ROS1 to DNA and is required for efficient activity on 5-meC·G, but not for T·G processing. Removal of this domain does not significantly affect 5-meC excision from short molecules, but strongly decreases ROS1 activity on long DNA substrates. This region is not required for product binding and is not involved in the distributive behavior of the enzyme on substrates containing multiple 5-meC residues. Altogether, our results suggest that methylation-independent DNA binding allows ROS1 to perform a highly redundant search for efficient excision of a nondamaged, correctly paired base such as 5-meC in long stretches of DNA. These findings may have implications for understanding the evolution of structure and target specificity in DNA glycosylases. PMID:20489198

  14. Divergence of Gene Body DNA Methylation and Evolution of Plant Duplicate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to e