Mayer, Susan E.
Analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics combined with census data found that an increase in income inequality among census tracts in the same state had little effect on overall educational attainment but exacerbated inequality of attainment between high-income and low-income children. Within-tract inequality had little effect on…
This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…
Economic segregation increased in the United States between 1970 and 1990. Three hypotheses suggest that this would affect low-income children's educational attainment. The political economy of school funding predicts that economically segregated school districts reduce the educational attainment of low-income children. Two other hypotheses…
The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…
This paper uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to estimate the association between high school alcohol use and educational attainment measured around age 26. Initially, the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment is estimated using baseline probit models, which ignore the possibility that unmeasured determinants of…
A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…
Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando
Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: Though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…
Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando
Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…
O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…
Curriculum Review, 2007
This article talks about Achievement Through Technology and Innovation (ATTAIN) Act, a bill introduced by Senators Bingaman (D-NM), Burr (R-NC), and Murray (D-WA) and applauded by a coalition of education and industry groups. The proposed ATTAIN Act is similar to its companion in the House (HR 2449), and builds upon the Enhancing Education Through…
Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.
The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…
Staff, Jeremy; Patrick, Megan E.; Loken, Eric; Maggs, Jennifer L.
Objective: Using data from the National Child Development Study, an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of British youth born in 1958 (N = 9,107), we investigated the long-term impact of heavy alcohol use at age 16 years on educational qualifications in adulthood. Method: We used a propensity score matching approach to examine whether and for whom heavy alcohol use predicted reduced adult educational attainment. Because of gender differences in both heavy drinking and adult socioeconomic attainment, we examined the effects of heavy drinking on educational outcomes separately for females and males. Results: Heavy drinking in adolescence (measured in 1974) had a direct negative effect on the receipt of postsecondary educational credentials by age 42 years among males but not females, independent of child and adolescent risk factors correlated with both heavy drinking and educational attainment. In particular, males from working-class backgrounds were most affected by heavy drinking. Conclusions: Drawing on a life span developmental contextual approach, we find that heavy teenage alcohol use and disadvantaged social origins combined to diminish male educational attainment. In contrast, heavy alcohol use had little effect on female educational attainment. PMID:18925343
Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly
This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…
Baum, Sandy; Cunningham, Alisa; Tanenbaum, Courtney
The level of educational attainment in the United States is a central focus of public policy. The Obama administration, some states, large national foundations, and other organizations have set near-term goals to increase the number of Americans with college degrees. Achieving these goals is likely to involve a combination of increasing…
Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.
In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…
Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Ordoñana, Juan R.
Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents’ education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin. PMID:26618539
Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna
This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…
Murphy, Kevin B.
Preliminary research into the populations of public urban four year higher education institutions indicates that race/ethnicity and Verbal SAT scores may be acting as proxies for immigration status and the use of a home language other than English. There are indications of differences in the behavior of immigrant/ other language students that may…
McCabe, Marjorie; And Others
Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)
Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning
In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…
Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew
In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…
Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Iacono, William G.
This report used a population-representative longitudinal twin study with two birth cohorts to explore the association between intelligence and education by understanding how genetic and environmental influences on intelligence moderate genetic and environmental influences on school grades and educational attainment. Nonshared environmental…
Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg; Lee, Kenneth T.H.; Metzger, Molly
Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal dataset, this study estimates the association between children’s academic skills, anti-social behaviors and attention problems, all averaged across middle childhood, and their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that high average levels of math and reading achievement, and low average levels of anti-social behavior problems, are positively associated with later attainment. Associations between attention problems and attainment are small. Associations are attenuated somewhat when sibling differences in these skills and behaviors are related to sibling differences in attainment outcomes. PMID:27563151
King, Elizabeth M.; Lillard, Lee A.
Aggregate schooling levels have risen greatly since the 1960's in Malaysia and the Philippines. This paper examines the extent to which indivduals' family background and government educational policies together influence schooling levels. Results suggest that policies have significantly affected attainment and distribution levels in both…
Crissey, Sarah R.
This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and data collected in 2008 and earlier in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Previous U.S. Census Bureau reports on this topic were based on…
de Haan, Monique
This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…
Khatiwada, Ishwar; McLaughlin, Joseph; Sum, Andrew; Palma, Sheila
This research monograph prepared for the National Commission on Adult Literacy is primarily designed to describe and analyze the net annual fiscal contributions (tax payments minus cash and in-kind transfers and institutionalization costs) of U.S. adults (ages 16-64) by their educational attainment in recent years. The report begins with an…
A wide literature uses date of birth as an instrument to study the causal effects of educational attainment. This paper shows how parents delaying their children's initial enrollment in kindergarten, a practice known as redshirting, can make estimates obtained through this identification framework all but impossible to interpret. A latent index…
Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese
In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…
Spinella, Marcello; Miley, William M.
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays important roles in processes of reward and self-regulation. Lesions of OFC induce changes in personality and social conduct characterized by behavioral disinhibition, impulsivity, reduced autonomy, lack of concern with negative consequences, and mood lability. Many of these processes relate to aspects of education,…
Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara
Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851
Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B
Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851
High School and Beyond data were used to analyze how local violence affects high school graduation and college attendance. Moderate violence reduced the likelihood of graduation by 5.1 percentage points and college attendance by 6.9 points. More substantial violence raised the dropout rate by 27% and reduced college attendance by 15.9 points.…
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee
The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee
The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748
Stone, James R., III
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between participation in secondary marketing and distributive education (MDE) and economic attainment after high school. Specifically, the study sought to develop a model of economic attainment, i.e., job status attainment, unemployment, and wages for secondary MDE students. The study used the…
Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.
This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319
Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie
Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…
Hauser, Robert M.; Wong, Raymond Sin-Kwok
Analyzes M. H. Benin and D. R. Johnson's data concerning reciprocal influence between siblings' educational attainment. Finds unusually low similarity between older sisters and younger brothers. Uses Michael R. Olneck's data to model reciprocal effects between brothers' educational attainments. Finds evidence of reciprocal influence on brothers'…
The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...
The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…
Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.
There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…
Marini, Margaret Mooney
Reviews research on the relationship between women's educational attainment and timing of their entry into parenthood. Presents data from a 15-year follow-up of high school students originally surveyed in 1957-58 (and resurveyed in 1973-74). Concludes that educational attainment has a strong delaying effect on timing parenthood, but that their…
Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna
This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…
Park, Hyunjoon; Kyei, Pearl
Existing cross-national research on educational attainment does not fully address whether the same level of educational attainment generates the same level of literacy skills in different countries. We analyze literacy skills data for young adults from 19 countries in the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey and find that in all…
Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013
This report presents data on the educational attainment of Tennessee residents by county, postsecondary degree level, age group, and ethnicity. The report is made available through interactive maps which allow the user to view county-level educational attainment data for different populations. Data for this analysis were drawn from the U.S. Census…
Hickman, Daniel C.
This dissertation examines issues regarding the educational attainment of the U.S. workforce. Specifically, I investigate the impact of various factors on the growth of postsecondary educational attainment. This includes issues pertaining to improving the skill-level of the workforce at the regional or state level, as well as for the domestic…
Graves, Avis J. Ruthven
The purpose was to determine whether different levels of education, race, and sex affect the degree of conservation of mass, weight, and volume attained by minimally educated adults. Subjects were 30 white and 30 black females and 30 white and 30 black males enrolled in Adult Basic Education classes, with 40 subjects each at grade levels 0-3, 4-6,…
Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.
Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873
Byrne, D. S.; And Others
Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)
Robles, Barbara J.
A significant research gap exists in our knowledge of how educational attainment affects wealth building and intergenerational wealth transfers among Latinos. Wealth includes earnings but is a much wider and more fundamental measure of economic mobility. The education-earnings-wealth relationship is explored by constructing estimates of social…
De Witte, Kristof; Van Klaveren, Chris
This paper examines whether the closure of poor performing primary schools improved students' educational attainment. It is believed that school closure affects children's educational outcomes positively because children switch to better primary schools. At the same time, school closure creates a social disturbance such that educational…
Jacob, Brian A.; Wilder, Tamara
This paper examines the role of educational expectations in the educational attainment process. We utilize data from a variety of datasets to document and analyze the trends in educational expectations between the mid-1970s and the early 2000s. We focus on differences across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups and examine how young people…
Jackson, Margot I
The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents'health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824
JACKSON, MARGOT I.
The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents’ health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824
Research in comparative and international education indicates that the quality of education, as measured by standardized tests, and the level of educational attainment have a significant impact on individual earning and national economic growth. However, the relationship between the quality of education and the level of educational attainment has…
Farrell, Joseph P.; Schiefelbein, Ernesto
Major intergenerational changes in occupational structure, common in many countries, can invalidate conclusions drawn from correlation/path analysis studies of status attainment (Wisconsin model). Longitudinal data on Chilean youth of different social strata and the Chilean occupational structure are used to explain education's role in…
An analysis of the correlation between educational attainment and fertility in China yields the conclusion that policy is a deciding factor in the decline of fertility. Education is negatively correlated with fertility. The average educational level is 5.5 years. Education's effect on fertility occurs around the junior high school level. Rural women generally marry later than urban women. Increased educational attainment is nonetheless still related to later age at marriage. Urban women with an elementary education get married 2.2 years later than illiterate women, and rural women with an elementary education get married 0.6 years later than illiterate women. Urban women tend to be better educated. The average age among all women with a high school education or higher level is 23.5 years. Contraceptive use is unrelated to educational attainment. As educational level rises, method use shows a decline among sterilization acceptors and an increase among IUD or other devices acceptors. Average educational attainment does not vary much between regions. The average number of years for all regions is no more than 7 years, with the exception of three municipalities. Nationally, the correlation coefficient between women's illiteracy and fertility is 0.462. The correlation coefficient between women's average educational attainment and fertility is 0.575. Women's educational attainment and level of illiteracy are found to have a weak and negative impact in regions where attainment is higher than the national average and illiteracy lower than the national average. When fertility is high and population control policies are in effect, fertility declines at about the same rate among women of all educational levels, for except college-educated women where decline is faster. Trends show illiterate and elementary educated women have fertility rates higher than the national average, and fertility among the remaining women is lower than the national average. Family planning policy and
Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…
Harris, Paul C.
The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…
High intergenerational persistence of educational attainment is an indicator of educational inequality and a barrier to equal opportunities in the labor market and beyond. This study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to generate a sample of two cohorts of children ('84 and '94 cohorts), and it examines whether intergenerational…
Stone, James R., III
This research examined the causal relationships between students' background characteristics, participation in secondary marketing and distributive education (MDE), and socioeconomic attainment seven years after graduation. The results suggest that participation in secondary MDE and in cooperative education are positively associated with higher…
Koski, Douglas D.
Regression analysis of 40 years of data on median income, education, divorce rate, and female-headed households was conducted to determine their influence on crime rates, especially homicide. Educational attainment had a significant bearing on criminality. Single parenting was less significant than low income. (SK)
Kominski, Robert; Adams, Andrea
This report contains data on the educational attainment of persons in the United States from the Current Population Surveys of the Census in March 1990 and 1991. Summary data on years of school completed by: (1) age; (2) sex; (3) race; (4) Hispanic origin; (5) marital status; (6) household relationship; (7) education of spouse; (8) labor force…
This paper documents the trend in the educational attainments of U.S.-born and immigrant Hispanics from 1960 to 1980, using data from the decennial censuses, in an effort to pinpoint sources of convergence and divergence in schooling outcomes. A major question addressed is whether and to what extent persisting educational differentials between…
Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…
Stevens, Reid D.
Compared recidivism in prisoners who were General Educational Development (GED) graduates (N=723) and those (N=3,642) who did not have GED or high school diplomas. Results suggest that inmates with GED diplomas have a significantly better chance of staying out of prison than do nongraduates. GED diploma attainment seemed to be affected by race,…
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…
Peters, Sylvia A. F.; And Others
Examination of the relationship between educational attainment and long-lasting, bilateral otitis media with effusion (OME) in 270 Dutch children (ages 2 to 4) found that, at age 7, early bilateral OME affected spelling ability but not reading ability. Effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were not found. (DB)
Data from the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) were analyzed to test two competing hypotheses regarding how poverty affects the relationship between delinquency and educational attainment. The cumulative disadvantage perspective argues that poor youth suffer greater consequences for their involvement in delinquency than middle and…
Sciarra, Daniel T.; Ambrosino, Katherine E.
This study utilized student, teacher, and parent expectations during high school to analyze their predictive effect on post-secondary education status two years after scheduled graduation. The sample included 5,353 students, parents and teachers who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; 2002-2006). The researchers analyzed data…
Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve
Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…
Anderson, Kristine L.
The effects of institutional types and their structural and compositional characteristics on students entering two- or four-year academic programs were examined, with a focus on students' educational attainment. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Individual student variables were considered,…
De Wit, Kurt; Heerwegh, Dirk; Verhoeven, Jef C.
Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative…
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…
Fine, Leigh E.
Prior literature on educational attainment indicates that there is both a female advantage and an LGB bonus: women are more likely to have earned bachelor's degrees than men, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more likely to have earned a bachelor's degree than heterosexuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey…
Lee, Dara N.
Adolescents face daily tradeoffs between human capital investment, labor, and leisure. This paper exploits state variation in the repeal of Sunday closing laws to examine the impact of a distinct and plausibly exogenous rise in the quantity of competing diversions available to youth on their educational attainment. The results suggest that the…
Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin
The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…
Cortes, Kalena; Goodman, Joshua; Nomi, Takako
The purpose of this research is to study the long-run impacts (i.e. on educational attainment) of a freshman math intervention called "double-dose algebra". The intervention was conducted in 2003 and 2004 within the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), a large, poor urban school district. In response to low passing rates in 9th grade algebra,…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…
Antman, Francisca M.
Estimation of the causal effect of parental migration on children’s educational attainment is complicated by the fact that migrants and non-migrants are likely to differ in unobservable ways that also affect children’s educational outcomes. This paper suggests a novel way of addressing this selection problem by looking within the family to exploit variation in siblings’ ages at the time of parental migration. The basic assumption underlying the analysis is that parental migration will have no effect on the educational outcomes of children who are at least 20 because they have already completed their educations. Their younger siblings, in contrast, may still be in school, and thus will be affected by the parental migration experience. The results point to a statistically significant positive effect of paternal U.S. migration on education for girls, suggesting that pushing a father’s U.S. migration earlier in his daughter’s life can lead to an increase in her educational attainment of up to 1 year relative to delaying migration until after she has turned 20. In contrast, paternal domestic migration has no statistically significant effect on educational attainment for girls or boys, suggesting that father absence does not play a major role in determining children’s educational outcomes. Instead, these results suggest that the marginal dollars from U.S. migrant remittances appear to enable families to further educate their daughters. Thus, policymakers should view international migration as a potential pathway by which families raise educational attainments of girls in particular. JEL: O15; J12; J13; J16; J24; F22
Marini, Margaret Mooney
Educational attainment is the most important variable mediating the transition to adulthood for both sexes. However, the relationship between educational attainment and the timing of entry into family roles differs for the two sexes. (Author/AM)
Carlsen, Fredrik; Kaarboe, Oddvar Martin
We investigate whether educational attainment affects waiting time of elderly patients in somatic hospitals. We consider three distinct pathways; that patients with different educational attainment have different disease patterns, that patients with different levels of education receive treatments at different hospitals, and that patient choice and supply of local health services within hospital catchment areas explain unequal waiting time of different educational groups. We find evidence of an educational gradient in waiting time for male patients, but not for female patients. Conditional on age, male patients with tertiary education wait 45% shorter than male patients with secondary or primary education. The first pathway is not quantitatively important as controlling for disease patters has little effect on relative waiting times. The second pathway is important. Relative to patients with primary education, variation in waiting time and education level across local hospitals contributes to higher waiting time for male patients with secondary education and female patients with secondary or tertiary education and lower waiting time for male patients with tertiary education. These effects are in the order of 15-20%. The third pathway is also quantitatively important. The educational gradients within catchment areas disappear when we control for travel distance and supply of private specialists. PMID:26477666
Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Brymer, Robert A.
A study of 270 hotel managers found that the strongest positive relationship between job satisfaction and performance occurred when high attainment of values associated with work was coupled with high-positive or low-negative affective disposition. (SK)
Well-educated workers have higher wages, higher wage growth, and lower unemployment rates than workers with lower levels of educational attainment. While earnings have traditionally grown with educational attainment, the gaps have become more pronounced in recent years. While returns to education have increased, this research shows that…
The entrenching of competitive values within the public-market field of secondary education has led to the formation of academically focused institutions whose budgets and reputations are based on gaining large numbers of students who have the best chance of attaining highly in public examinations. Although parents have become savvier about their…
James, Katharine A; Grace, Laurian K; Thomas, Kevin G F; Combrinck, Marc I
ABSTRACT Background: The Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised (CAMCOG-R) is a sensitive screening tool for the early diagnosis of dementia in older adults. Overall performance on the CAMCOG-R is influenced by educational attainment. Few studies have, however, examined the association between educational attainment and performance on the individual CAMCOG subscales. We aimed to address this question in a sample from a low-and middle-income country (LAMIC), where resource constraints may have compromised access to, and quality of, education for many older adults. Methods: Participants, all over 60 years of age, were 51 cognitively healthy community-dwelling volunteers and 47 individuals diagnosed with mild-moderate stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most participants had some high school education. They were administered the CAMCOG-R under standardized conditions. Results: Within both the control and AD patient groups, there were significant associations between years of completed education and CAMCOG-R total score, MMSE score, and CAMCOG-R Language subscale score. In both groups, level of education was not associated with scores on these subscales: in controls, recent memory, R 2 = .21, p = .055, learning memory, R 2 = .16, p = .398, attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .467, and perception, R 2 = .18, p = .984; in AD patients, recent memory, R 2 = .14, p = .340, learning memory, R 2 = .03, p = .680, perception, R 2 = .09, p = .723, and attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .097. Conclusions: Some CAMCOG-R subscale scores were more strongly associated with educational attainment than others. Importantly, however, performance on the recent memory and learning memory subscales was not affected by education. These subscales are sensitive indicators of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD. These subscales may therefore remain valid for use as an AD screening tool in resource-poor healthcare settings. PMID:25382591
This study examines the spatial distribution of educational attainment and then builds upon current predictive frameworks for understanding patterns of educational attainment by applying a spatial econometric method of analysis. The research from this study enables a new approach to the policy discussion on how to improve educational attainment…
Jennings, Jerry T.; Johnson, Charles E., Jr.
Adults who lived in 30 of the nation's large standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) in 1970 had completed a relatively high educational attainment; about 61 percent had completed at least a high school education, including 26 percent who had completed one or more years of college. The data in this report on the educational attainment of…
Rose, Valija C.
Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black…
Gordon, Howard R. D.
Agricultural education graduates' postsecondary educational attainment was investigated through a secondary analysis of data in the National Longitudinal Study, High School Class of 1971. Although participation in agricultural education had no substantive effect on postsecondary educational attainment, the effect of background variables should be…
Nishimura, Mikiko; Yamano, Takashi; Sasaoka, Yuichi
While some governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished tuition to achieve universal primary education (UPE), few studies have examined the impacts of the UPE policy beyond school enrolment. This study estimates the impact of the UPE policy in Uganda on overall primary education attainments by using data including 940 rural households. We find…
Szanton, Sarah L.; Johnson, Brandon; Thorpe, Roland J.; Whitfield, Keith
Objectives Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20th century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a “ceiling effect” associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination. Methodology and Principal Findings We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal) in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%), with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5). We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence. Discussion These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities. PMID:19888338
OECD Publishing, 2016
Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…
Curtis, Reagan; Smith, Megan; Moore, Lucas; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Mathew, Sera; Chester, Ann; McKendall, Sherron
The Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) strives to increase college-going and completion rates for students in West Virginia (USA), a state with low educational attainment and the second most rural state in the country. The positive impact of HSTA on student academic trajectories has been documented, but student voices have not been represented. This qualitative study using Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective explores student experiences through HSTA, with an eye toward how similar programs serving rural populations might improve while understanding student participant perspectives. Participants were 706 incoming 9th -12th graders from rural West Virginia who provided survey responses across two years. We address the organizational and individual considerations that were instrumental in creating a supportive learning environment for rural youth. PMID:26640820
Snibbe, Alana Conner; Markus, Hazel Rose
Using educational attainment to indicate socioeconomic status, the authors examined models of agency and effects of choice among European American adults of different educational backgrounds in 3 studies. Whereas college-educated (BA) participants and their preferred cultural products (i.e., rock music lyrics) emphasized expressing uniqueness, controlling environments, and influencing others, less educated (HS) participants and their preferred cultural products (i.e., country music lyrics) emphasized maintaining integrity, adjusting selves, and resisting influence. Reflecting these models of agency, HS and BA participants differently responded to choice in dissonance and reactance paradigms: BA participants liked chosen objects more than unchosen objects, but choice did not affect HS participants' preferences. Results suggest that HS and BA models of agency qualitatively differ, despite overlap between HS and BA worlds. PMID:15796669
White, Carmen M.
Discusses multiracial issues in Fiji's educational system since its independence from Great Britain. Racial issues have caused disparity and controversy. States two major factors: (1) rural Fijian migrants have difficulties completing secondary up to Form 6; and (2) the 1987 Form 7 expansion of secondary school curriculum changed university entry…
Hennessey, Stephen M.
A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between educational attainment in psychology and diagnostic competence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) II and III systems. Five subject groups served to define the variable of educational attainment in psychology: (1) 33 introductory undergraduate psychology…
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.
Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…
Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Rubio-Jovel, Karla; Reyes-Garcia; Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo
Evidence from industrial nations suggests that sibling composition is associated with children's educational attainment, particularly if parents face resource constraints. If sibling composition is associated with educational attainment, then those associations should be stronger in poor societies of developing nations. We use data from a…
Griffith, Andrew S.
This article documents a model for forecasting earnings of the nontraditional student based on macrolevel changes in educational attainment within the workforce using data from the U.S. Census Bureau. It also presents a theoretical case that illustrates the value of improving one's educational attainment level in order to sustain an annualized…
Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati
Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…
Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh
Suicides are associated with both high and low levels of intelligence and educational attainment in both individual-level and aggregate-level studies. A cross-national study examining the relationship between general population suicide rates ("y") and educational attainment ("x") was undertaken with the "a priori" hypothesis that the relationship…
Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…
RAND researchers examined how taxpayers benefit from increases in students' educational attainment. Using statistical modeling and national data, they analyzed how increases in educational attainment are associated with tax revenues, funds for social support and insurance programs, and spending on incarceration. The researchers found that, for all…
Christie, Pamela; Shannon, Michael
Uses Canadian census data to examine effects of gender differences in educational attainment on the gender earnings gap for full-time, full-year Canadian workers. These educational attainment differences account for virtually none of the gender earnings gap in 1985 and 1990. Gender differences in field of study matter somewhat more. (Contains 17…
Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.
Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2006
This brief argues that higher educational attainment improves a student's future income, occupational status, and social prestige, all of which contributes to improved individual health. The brief cites several reasons why, including the fact that Americans with higher educational attainment have more insurance coverage, individuals who lack…
Rodriguez-Campos, Liliana; Rincones-Gomez, Rigoberto; Shen, Jianping
Drawing from data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for the years 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1999-2000, we investigated secondary principals' educational attainment, teaching experience, and professional development. We found that throughout the years, secondary principals have been active in attaining advanced…
Betts, Julian R.; Grogger, Jeff
Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, estimates the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Finds that higher standards raise test scores throughout the distribution of achievement, but have no positive effect on educational attainment--in fact have negative effects on…
Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.
Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…
Diez, Virginia; Mistry, Jayanthi
We report the results of a study about how early childbearing affected the educational trajectories of nine Puerto Rican teenage mothers living in New England. Raised largely on the mainland, participants chose to carry pregnancies to term and to participate in a parenting program for young mothers. Upon examination of shared meaning-making around…
Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.
Whereas sociologists have long recognized that adolescence marks the start of the socioeconomic career, the importance of this period has been attributed to school performance, aspirations, and significant others’ influence that support educational attainment to a greater or lesser degree. The underlying premise of this study is that adolescent work is an expression of instrumental action with consequences for socioeconomic attainment. Using data from the Youth Development Study, we find that part-time work during high school is linked with patterns of schooling and working that persist during the succeeding years and are more or less conducive to the receipt of a BA/BS degree. Moderate work coupled with school appears to especially facilitate the educational attainment of low promise youth. PMID:17468782
Kiuru, Noona; Haverinen, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the…
This study used US National Longitudinal Study of Youth data to explore how exposure to different socioeconomic conditions (proxied by maternal education) before birth can shape child weight. Using endogenous selection regression models, the findings suggest that educational selectivity affects weight gain. Mothers whose mothers graduated from high school were more likely to complete high school, and mothers reared in an intact family had higher levels of education. However, mothers who had given birth as a teenager had the same educational outcomes as mothers who gave birth in their post-teenage years. Based on this intergenerational educational selectivity, caretaking (e.g. breast-feeding) was found to be associated with a lower child body mass index (BMI), while negative maternal characteristics (e.g. mothers with high BMIs) were associated with higher child BMIs. Thus, educational selectivity influences child health through values passed on to the child and the lifestyle in which the child is reared. Maternal education may be tied to parenting, which relates to child obesity risk. PMID:26314353
Green, Jamie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L
Educational attainment is an important but often overlooked contributor to health outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Those with lower levels of education have an increased risk of ESRD, complications of peritoneal dialysis, worse transplant outcomes, and mortality. Mediators of these associations are poorly understood but involve a complex interplay between health knowledge, behaviors, and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Interventions targeting these aspects of care have the potential to reduce disparities related to educational attainment; however, few programs have been described that specifically address this issue. Future research efforts should not only systematically assess level of educational attainment but also report the differential impact of interventions across educational strata. In addition, routine measurement of health literacy may be useful to identify high-risk patients independent of years of schooling. A better understanding of the influence of educational attainment on kidney health provides an opportunity to improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with kidney disease. PMID:25573509
Roche, Kathleen M; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia
Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated with the educational attainment of second-generation Mexican immigrant youth. The sample included 755 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) in the "Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study." Results from structural equation models indicated that youth reporting greater facility in the English language and a stronger value on familism attained higher levels of education in young adulthood than did other youth. Parents' U.S. social ties and youth's value on early paid work were associated with less educational attainment. Innovative findings from this study indicate the importance of considering both Mexican and American cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation for understanding second-generation immigrant Mexican youth's educational attainment. PMID:22033726
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352
Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C.; Danermark, Berth
Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from…
This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…
Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine
Attaining a post-secondary credential has become increasingly important for securing opportunities to get high-return jobs in the United States in the 21st century. Students from low-income families are underrepresented at every milestone in the educational pipeline, limiting their ability to attain post-secondary credentials and break the…
McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel
This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainment in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainment of 12 to 18 year-old boys and 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit…
Andres, Lesley; Looker, E. Dianne
Used data from two longitudinal surveys of Canadian youth (in British Columbia and Nova Scotia) to examine the effects of rural versus urban/rural and metropolitan residence on young people's educational expectations and attainments. Findings showed that students in rural areas have lower expectations and attainments compared to other students,…
Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.
This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…
The classic ("status attainment") model of educational and occupational attainment suffers from three related shortcomings when used as a tool for comparative or policy-oriented research on social mobility: (1) ambiguity of model parameters as measures of opportunity for achievement vs. ascription; (2) vulnerability to incomplete specification of…
Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J.; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W.; Damian, Rodica
Background People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). Methods This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health—including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents’ attractiveness—and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Results Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Conclusions Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged
The link between the funding of higher education and the attainment of higher education transformation goals in South Africa, especially access by students from previously under-represented communities, is the main focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper examines three questions: (a) How does public funding of higher education encourage (or…
The utility patent, as a legal record of invention, is widely believed to be a close proxy for innovation among firms, industries, and economies as a whole. One of the critical drivers of patenting -- and ultimately, innovation -- is education. The science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields in education are of special importance. There is, however, little empirical research to substantiate a connection between STEM education and innovation outcomes. Seeking to fill this gap, this paper finds that, in general, there is no evidence of a meaningful relationship between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals. The relationship of interest, though generally not statistically significant, is stronger for temporary US visa holders than for US citizens or permanent US residents. However, I find a large and statistically significant association between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals for states that have above-average college educational attainment or above-average advanced industries workforce concentration.
This paper examines the occupational attainment of highly educated adult immigrants by employing a secondary analysis of three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada that provide data on immigrant arrivals in 2000-2001. Occupational attainment is described in terms of matching immigrants' pre-migration occupation with the main…
Richardson, John T. E.
This investigation compared attainment in 196,405 students with and without disabilities who were taking courses by distance learning with the Open University in the United Kingdom in 2009. When the effects of demographic variables were statistically controlled, students with mental health difficulties showed poorer course completion than…
Richardson, John T. E.
In an earlier study of disabled graduates from campus-based institutions in the UK, students who had previously declared that they had an unseen disability were less likely to obtain good degrees (with first-class or upper second-class honours). The present study investigated the role of disability as a factor in the attainment and experiences of…
Benson, Janel E; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H
This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies subjective age. Those with older subjective ages and low psychosocial maturation have the lowest attainment at ages 25-29 years, while those with older subjective ages and high psychosocial maturation show considerable progress toward work-related attainment. For those with younger subjective ages, a lower level of psychosocial maturity is not as detrimental to attainment. PMID:22103305
Simon, Richard M.; Farkas, George
Nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study are used to investigate why males (rather than females) and children of parents with advanced degrees (rather than those from less-educated parents) are more highly represented among physical science bachelor's degrees and graduate students. Parental education is measured by three categories: neither parent has a bachelor's degree, at least one parent has a bachelor's degree, or at least one parent has a degree beyond the bachelor's. Physical science is defined as students majoring in physics, engineering, mathematics, or computer science. The effects of mathematics achievement and effects not accounted for by mathematics achievement (what the authors call "recruitment" effects) are isolated for parental education categories and for sex, allowing inequality in physical science degree attainment to be decomposed into portions due to achievement and portions due to recruitment. Additionally, the results from logistic regressions predicting the attainment of a bachelor's degree in physical science as well as the pursuit of a graduate degree in physical science are presented. It is found that for parental education categories, the gaps in physical science educational attainment are nearly entirely accounted for by differences in mathematics achievement, suggesting that if achievement could be equalized, physical science educational attainment differences among parental education categories would disappear. However, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment operates almost entirely independent of achievement effects, suggesting that if the mathematics achievement distributions of males and females were identical, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment would be unchanged from what it is today.
What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.
Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792
Chavez, Jocelyn Reyes
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the strategies female college presidents/chancellors use to attain their executive positions in higher education. A second purpose of this study was to identify the barriers females in executive positions in higher education experienced and how they overcame the barriers. The final…
Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.
The "Access to Democracy" project has two broad goals. It is an effort to understand community beliefs, attitudes and conditions that shape educational outcomes for community youth, and it is a way to focus community discussions on efforts that support higher educational attainment for residents. This report focuses on the lessons learned in the…
Burley, Mason; Halpern, Mina
This report summarizes findings from a statewide analysis of the educational attainment of foster youth in Washington's public school system. It analyzes various factors related to educational success, comparing the outcomes of youth in long-term foster care with the state's school-age population. The report merges data from the child welfare…
Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony
We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…
Pfeifer, Christian; Corneliszen, Thomas
We analyze the impact of exercising sports during childhood and adolescence on educational attainment. The theoretical framework is based on models of allocation of time and educational productivity. Using the rich information from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we apply generalized ordered probit models to estimate the effect of…
DeBaun, Bill; Roc, Martens
Cutting the number of high school dropouts in half nationally would save $7.3 billion in annual Medicaid spending, according to a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. "Well 'and' Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment" examines Medicaid spending for all fifty states and…
Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.
College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…
Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010
In light of recent data showing that educational attainment rates in the United States have stagnated, the Obama administration and others have called for renewed efforts to bolster higher education outcomes. Strengthening the role of community colleges is undoubtedly an important component of any plan to dramatically increase the number of…
Project SHARE (Staff Helping Attain Relevant Education), a project funded by Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, was in its third and final year of operation in 1992-93, in eight primary schools in the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan (New York). The project served 141 limited English proficient students from low-income families…
Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc
In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the long-term outcomes of bilingual-bicultural education, and several of their findings have raised questions about benefits of the approach. This study examined the level of educational attainment of 408 deaf individuals who attended primary school either before or during the period of bilingual-bicultural education in Denmark, both relative to a comparable hearing cohort. Beyond group comparisons, three logistic regression models were created to evaluate the prediction of educational attainment by a number of relevant variables. Compared to the hearing population, the deaf population had a significantly lower level of educational attainment both before and after the introduction of bilingual-bicultural education. Signed language and spoken language abilities, the kind of school attended, degree of hearing loss, parental hearing loss, and gender were found significantly to explain levels of educational attainment in the deaf population. PMID:27235699
This article examines the aspiration-attainment gap and educational resilience among children of Mexican immigrants in the midst of the post-1965 U.S. demographic transformation. Two widespread theoretical explanations are used to understand the educational disparities faced by this subpopulation: the cultural argument, which emphasizes their…
Ojogwu, C. N.
Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…
Davies, Neil M.; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J.; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George
We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations. PMID:26561353
Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A
The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing. PMID:26059987
Monserud, Maria A; Elder, Glen H
Children from alternative households complete fewer years of schooling. Yet little is known about the implications of coresidence with grandparents for educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,083), this study found that extended households with two biological parents were not detrimental to high school completion or college enrollment. Although coresidence with grandparents did not compensate for not living with two biological parents, it seemed to be beneficial for the educational attainment of youth from single-mother households. In contrast, skipped-generation households were associated with a persistent disadvantage for educational attainment. Limited socioeconomic resources partially accounted for the adverse effects of alternative households, whereas parenting quality did not explain these effects. Interactions of gender by household structure suggested that stepfather households could have negative consequences for high school completion and college enrollment only for girls. PMID:24415799
Lucas, Adrienne M.
Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. The similarity of the estimates across the countries reinforces our confidence in the validity of the identification strategy. PMID:23946866
Richardson, John T E
This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). PMID:26059744
Kanno, Yasuko; Cromley, Jennifer G.
Although English language learners (ELLs) are currently the fastest-growing group among the school-age population in the United States, there is surprisingly little information on their participation in postsecondary education. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a nationally representative sample of eighth graders…
Davila, Alberto; Mora, Marie T.
It is well documented that individuals with higher levels of education tend to be more civically engaged. In a two-part study conducted for the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), the authors provided empirical evidence using 1988-2000 panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988…
Deeg, Dorly; Kuh, Diana
Using data from 1,184 women in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we estimated associations between education and Ryff’s environmental mastery scale scores at age 52. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated two subscales, here termed mastery skills and mastery accomplishments. Low education was associated with higher mastery skills. This was partly explained by childhood socioeconomic position, as mastery was lower among those with fathers in the most and least advantaged occupational classes. Education was not associated with mastery accomplishments in unadjusted models. Lower ambitions for family/home were associated with higher mastery accomplishments and may have partly suppressed as an association between education and mastery accomplishments. This study highlights childhood as well as adult correlates of mastery and adds to mounting evidence that higher mastery is not universally found among those who are more educated. PMID:27048696
The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…
Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard
This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…
The restructuring of the Australian labour market decreased demand for low-skilled workers and increased demand for highly skilled workers and professionals further strengthening the relationship between educational and occupational attainment. To satisfy the demand for highly educated workers, the government reorganised the higher education…
Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian
Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…
Background/Context: The flow of people, including children, across international borders is a growing trend. While research has emphasized the relationship between parental migration and children's educational outcomes, little is known about how child migration itself influences educational attainment. Purpose: To examine the relationship between…
Anekwe, Tobenna D.; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till
Background Because measles vaccination prevents acute measles disease and morbidities secondary to measles, such as undernutrition, blindness, and brain damage, the vaccination may also lead to higher educational attainment. However, there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis at the population level. In this study, we estimate the causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment among children born between 1995 and 2000 in South Africa. Methods and findings We use longitudinal data on measles vaccination status and school grade attainment among 4783 children. The data were collected by the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), which is one of Africa's largest health and demographic surveillance systems. ACDIS is located in a poor, predominantly rural, Zulu-speaking community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using mother fixed-effects regression, we compare the school grade attainment of siblings who are discordant in their measles vaccination status but share the same mother and household. This fixed-effects approach controls for confounding due to both observed and unobserved factors that do not vary between siblings, including sibling-invariant mother and household characteristics such as attitudes toward risk, conscientiousness, and aspirations for children. We further control for a range of potential confounders that vary between siblings, such as sex of the child, year of birth, mother's age at child's birth, and birth order. We find that measles vaccination on average increases school grade attainment by 0.188 grades (95% confidence interval, 0.0424–0.334; p = 0.011). Conclusions Measles vaccination increased educational attainment in this poor, largely rural community in South Africa. For every five to seven children vaccinated against measles, one additional school grade was gained. The presence of a measles vaccination effect in this community is plausible because (i) measles
Gilman, Stephen E; Martin, Laurie T; Abrams, David B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura; Loucks, Eric B; Rende, Richard; Rudd, Rima; Buka, Stephen L
Background Despite abundant evidence that lower education is associated with a higher risk of smoking, whether the association is causal has not been convincingly established. Methods We investigated the association between education and lifetime smoking patterns in a birth cohort established in 1959 and followed through adulthood (n = 1311). We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders that were measured prior to school entry, and also estimated sibling fixed effects models to control for unmeasured familial vulnerability to smoking. Results In the full sample of participants, regression analyses adjusting for multiple childhood factors (including socioeconomic status, IQ, behavioural problems, and medical conditions) indicated that the number of pack-years smoked was higher among individuals with less than high school education [rate ratio (RR) = 1.58, confidence interval (CI) = 1.31, 1.91]. However, in the sibling fixed effects analysis the RR was 1.23 (CI = 0.80, 1.93). Similarly, adjusted models estimated in the full sample showed that individuals with less than high school education had fewer short-term (RR = 0.40; CI = 0.23, 0.69) and long-term (RR = 0.59; CI = 0.42, 0.83) quit attempts, and were less likely to quit smoking (odds ratio = 0.34; CI = 0.19, 0.62). The effects of education on quitting smoking were attenuated in the sibling fixed effects models that controlled for familial vulnerability to smoking. Conclusions A substantial portion of the education differential in smoking that has been repeatedly observed is attributable to factors shared by siblings that contribute to shortened educational careers and to lifetime smoking trajectories. Reducing disparities in cigarette smoking, including educational disparities, may therefore require approaches that focus on factors early in life that influence smoking risk over the adult life span. PMID:18180240
Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Background The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. Principal findings We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25–0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86–0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. Conclusions In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype. PMID:24497966
Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus
This note shows that the dynamics of the dispersion of educational attainment across OECD countries in the period 1960-1990 differ enormously depending on the dataset used, as do the results of the test of significance in the change of the cross-country standard deviation of schooling years between subperiods. The three datasets studied (the…
Smith, Robert Alan
Data derived from the Southern Youth Study (a randomly stratified sample of 250 black and 409 white males from Southern rural counties with lower than average annual incomes) were utilized to analyze veteran status as a determinant of occupational and educational attainment via the interaction effects between race, veteran status, and residential…
Sabia, Joseph J.; Rees, Daniel I.
A recent study by Rees and Sabia (2011) found migraine headache was negatively related to educational attainment even after accounting for the influence of family-level unobservables. The current study explores whether this relationship is attributable to unmeasured individual heterogeneity in the form of personality by using non-migraine headache…
Oberle, Wayne H.; Campbell, Rex R.
This 1966 study of 1,413 household heads residing in the rural Ozarks has shown at least partial support for the hypothesis that parental values mitigate the limitations of low socioeconomic status (SES) for the educational attainment and intergenerational occupational mobility of the migrant children of the male heads. Major findings were that…
Nelson, R. Brett; Cummings, Jack A.
The study investigated the basic concept attainment of 45 primary-level educable mentally handicapped (EMH) children who had been exposed to two to three years of classroom instruction. The study documented that primary-level EMH children have significant deficits in their understanding of the Boehm basic concepts. (SB)
Tuckman, Bruce W.; Montare, Alberto P. S.
The Educational Goal-Attainment Tests, in particular, were used in four large-scale undertakings that led to subsequent planning and development efforts. The first was a statewide study of Puerto Rican students in comparison to their black and white counterparts. Both urban and suburban samples were used with the emphasis on urban. These results,…
Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T.
Background: Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults…
The primary objective of the research was to find out whether the use of Philosophy for Children (P4C) could improve learning within Attainment Target 2 (AT2) of Religious Education. A variety of techniques were used to investigate the effects of using a P4C methodology on children's learning in AT2 and children's perceptions of RE over the course…
Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice
There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…
Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
This study investigated whether participation in the Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) Preschool Program associated with higher educational attainment (high school completion, highest grade completed, and college attendance) at age 22. The study sample included 1,334 youth (869 in the preschool group and 465 in the comparison group) from the…
Deggs, David M.; Miller, Michael T.
Discussions at the local, state, and national level have been focused on the importance of providing access and opportunity for college attendance. While these discussions are important to raising public interest in higher education attainment, they often negate how community values influence the college attendance decision process. This study…
Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Aim: Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Method: Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males,…
O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others
The Youth in Transition project, a longitudinal study (which began in 1966) of a national sample of young men is described in this report. (Major objectives of the project were (1) to explore Lhe effects of dropping out of high school, (2) to assess the degree to which educational and occupational attainments are predictable from tenth grade…
Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Amotivation Inventory in Physical Education (AI-PE). In addition, the study sought to identify the relationships between students' amotivation, physical self-concept, and teacher ratings of National Curriculum attainment levels in PE. Students ("N" = 510) from a…
Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.
Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…
Stern, Jonathan M. B.
This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…
Lawrie, Joshua D.
The current study sought to examine the impact parental educational attainment had on how students perceived their residence hall environment. This multi-campus study utilized the University Residence Environment Scale, along with a demographic form to gather data. The study occurred on three campuses during the Spring 2012 semester and had 347…
Bozick, Robert; Alexander, Karl; Entwisle, Doris; Dauber, Susan; Kerr, Kerri
This study revisits the Wisconsin model of status attainment from a life course developmental perspective. Fixed-effects regression analyses lend strong support to the Wisconsin framework's core proposition that academic performance and significant others' influence shape educational expectations. However, investigating the process of expectation…
To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…
Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph
Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…
Eggens, Lilian; van der Werf, M. P. C.; Bosker, R. J.
In this paper, the influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education is examined. Furthermore, the paper aimed at clarifying the possible mediating role of achievement motivation, time spent on studying and working, procrastination and self-esteem. The study is a follow-up of the '89 cohort…
This article argues that work ethic research has suffered from a tendency to conflate preference and morality, and that this has been particularly detrimental to our understanding of the relationship between commitment to the work ethic and educational attainment. The work ethic is almost always measured quantitatively, yet in-depth research…
Pettit, Gregory S.; Yu, Tianyi; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
In this prospective longitudinal study (N = 585) we examined intergenerational links in level of educational attainment. Of particular interest was whether family background characteristics, parenting in early childhood and early adolescence, and school adjustment and performance in middle childhood accounted for (i.e., mediated) continuity and…
Monserud, Maria A.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.
Children from alternative households complete fewer years of schooling. Yet little is known about the implications of coresidence with grandparents for educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,083), this study found that extended households with two biological parents were not detrimental…
Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie
This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…
Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter
This investigation examined the indirect influence of past educational attainment on current feelings of loneliness across a sample of unmarried older adults. Participants in this study included 227 community-dwelling individuals, age 65 to 94, who were never-married, divorced, or widowed. The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002)…
Christopher, A. J.
Population censuses record considerable volumes of personal information, which when aggregated and tabulated provide significant insights into national societies. South African censuses have recorded levels of educational attainment since their inception in the mid-nineteenth century, initially measuring literacy and later the level of education…
Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor
This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…
A study was conducted to determine the effect of the college attended on the occupational attainments of students. Data were obtained from the National Opinion Research Center on the occupational and educational activities of the college class of 1961 and analyzed by path regression techniques. (Analyses were limited to the activities of male…
Thoutenhoofd, Ernst D.
In this article I consider that attainment research is a knowledge-producing practice that co-creates the realities it studies. Studies aimed at monitoring pupils' educational progress tend to collect those data that are needed to develop research claims, thereby producing an expert catalogue of understanding that is variable and has limited…
Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J; Pers, Tune H; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S Fleur W; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H; Pina Concas, Maria; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Galesloot, Tessel E; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M; Harris, Sarah E; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; deLeeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V; Poot, Raymond A; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Forstner, Andreas J; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Hocking, Lynne J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lebreton, Maël P; Levinson, Douglas F; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C M; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P; Nyholt, Dale R; Ollier, William E R; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L; Petrovic, Katja E; Porteous, David J; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Staessen, Jan A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J A; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bültmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A; Samani, Nilesh J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton C; Krueger, Robert F; Davey Smith, George; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M; Esko, Tõnu
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27225129
Haas, Steven A.; Fosse, Nathan Edward
This article examines the mechanisms linking health to the educational attainment of adolescents. In particular, it investigates the role of cognitive/academic achievement and a variety of psychosocial adjustment factors in explaining this relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), we estimate…
Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul; Pidgeon, Michelle; Thomsen, Jens Peter
The authors employ a unique longitudinal data set of British Columbia high school graduates that followed respondents 1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence…
Despite decades of research and debate, the issue of unequal outcomes continues to be a concern in educational systems worldwide. In England, published data relating to pupils' attainment across ethnic groups and by class indicators has been used to demonstrate continued inequalities in schools. This article attempts to deconstruct the…
Gordon, Howard R. D.; Camp, William G.
A study examined the effects of participation in a high school agricultural education program on occupational attainment. Using data collected in the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, researchers compared the employment patterns and income of 6,585 individuals who had taken at least one semester of agricultural…
An on-going study is examining a method proposed by S. Goetz and D. Debertin for estimating demand for educational attainment at the county level by using secondary data. The method produces compact information showing the relationship between employment, occupation, and educational attainment, information not available at the county level. The…
Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.
Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…
This article was written in response to concerns that have been expressed about the possible consequences of an increasing number of countries overtaking the United States in educational attainment. International statistics on educational attainment were analyzed, questions about comparability of data were discussed, and the impact of different…
Klein, Robert E.
A study compared the personal income and educational attainment of male war veterans and nonveterans as of March 1983. Using data from the March supplement of the 1983 Current Population Survey, the researchers compared the educational attainment and income of 9 separate age groups of a sample of 22,823 veterans and 47,792 nonveterans. For the…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Ross, Karen
This study addresses the little understood relationship between educational attainment and public attitudes towards war in four predominantly Muslim countries contemplating war: Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. The multivariate analysis using public opinion data suggests that the educational attainment of respondents has no statistically…
[Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518
Domina, Thurston; Roksa, Josipa
Although the relationship between educational attainment and parenting practices is well documented, it is typically examined at only one point in time. What happens if mothers acquire more education after the birth of their children: do they alter their parenting practices? Panel data models based on longitudinal data from ECLS-K indicate that changes in mother's educational attainment are positively associated with increases in parental school involvement, having books in the home, and participating in non-academic family activities, but not with attitudes toward discipline. Although post-natal maternal education does not change all aspects of parenting, our findings are broadly consistent with the theory of cultural mobility and provide insights into the extent of socio-cultural mobility in contemporary American society. PMID:23017803
Scherr, Kyle C.; Madon, Stephanie; Guyll, Max; Willard, Jennifer; Spoth, Richard
This research examined whether self-verification acts as a general mediational process of self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining whether self-verification processes mediated self-fulfilling prophecy effects within a different context and with a different belief and a different outcome than has been used in prior research. Results of longitudinal data obtained from mothers and their adolescents (N = 332) indicated that mothers’ beliefs about their adolescents’ educational outcomes had a significant indirect effect on adolescents’ academic attainment through adolescents’ educational aspirations. This effect, observed over a six year span, provided evidence that mothers’ self-fulfilling effects occurred, in part, because mothers’ false beliefs influenced their adolescents’ own educational aspirations which adolescents then self-verified through their educational attainment. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21357755
Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Redmond, Cathy
While there is an extensive literature on intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes (education, health and income for example), many of the pathways through which these outcomes are transmitted are not as well understood. We address this deficit by analysing the relationship between socio-economic status and child outcomes in university,…
Kemple, James J.
Career Academies offer high schools--particularly those in urban communities that struggle to keep students in school and to prepare them for post-secondary education and employment opportunities--a systematic approach to addressing a range of challenges. Typically serving between 150 and 200 students from grades 9 or 10 through grade 12, Career…
Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill
Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…
Hauptman, Arthur M.; Kim, Young
Jobs for the Future commissioned this report to provide an international perspective on the productivity agenda of "Making Opportunity Affordable," a multi-year initiative focused on increasing productivity within U.S. higher education, particularly at two-year and four-year public colleges and universities. The report also has implications for…
Chaudhuri, Kausik; Roy, Susmita
Using a probit and censored ordered probit model of school completion we identify some state-specific factors influencing primary and middle school graduation probabilities of male and female children in two north-Indian states: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. We find that education of the parents, economic and social status of the household and the…
Augustine, Jennifer March; Crosnoe, Robert
In this study, we take a dynamic approach to studying the connections among mothers' education, their depression, and their children's academic trajectories during elementary school. Applying latent growth curve modeling to longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
CONTEXT A substantial body of research has compared educational outcomes of teenage parents with those of their childless peers, but less attention has gone to variations among teenage parents. Additionally, gender differences in teenage parents’ educational outcomes have rarely been studied. METHODS Characteristics associated with high school graduation by age 26 were assessed among 317 teenage mothers and fathers who participated in the 1988–2000 National Education Longitudinal Study. Logistic regression models included socioeconomic and educational characteristics, gender, parenting responsibilities and resources, and gender interactions. RESULTS Married or cohabiting teenage parents living with no or one parent had 73% lower odds of graduation than single respondents living with two parents. Gender moderated the relationships between two parenting responsibilities and the likelihood of graduation: Fathers working at least half-time were less likely than nonworking fathers to graduate (odds ratio, 0.2), and fathers who were primary caregivers had substantially elevated odds of graduating (7.4), but no similar relationships were seen among mothers. Sixty-one percent of fathers who worked but were not primary care-givers were predicted to graduate by age 26, compared with 97% of those who were nonworking primary caregivers. CONCLUSIONS Traditional parenting norms, according to which mothers are primary caregivers and fathers are breadwinners, do not appear to be associated with improved odds of graduating. Policies and interventions aimed at helping teenage parents graduate may be most effective if they target both genders, but some are likely to be more beneficial for one gender than the other. PMID:20887284
Henegar, LaTrica Y.
This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…
Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.
This resource guide is for elementary and secondary level educators who are interested in affective education and in formulating their own strategies for more meaningful learning experiences in their classrooms. The guide is based on the idea that affective learning is essential and that the best learning experiences are those in which the…
Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…
New York State Education Dept., Albany.
This document summarizes major legislation, enacted by the 1993 New York State Legislature, that affected education and its related professions. Eight sections offer brief descriptions of legislation enacted in the following areas: laws affecting school districts generally; cultural education; state aid; taxation and financial administration;…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Counsel.
This summary of major legislation enacted by the 1989 New York State Legislature affecting education and the professions is organized in eight sections: (1) laws affecting school districts generally; (2) state aid; (3) taxation and financial administration; (4) miscellaneous; (5) laws of local application; (6) higher education; (7) laws affecting…
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M; Dishion, Thomas J
Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23-25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students' past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.
Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996
Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J; Boomsma, Dorret I
Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and F roh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs]) in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects' own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with F roh (p = .045), while the contribution of parental education to offspring F roh was highly significant (father: p < 10(-5); mother: p = 9 × 10(-5)), with more educated parents having offspring with fewer ROHs. This association was significantly and fully mediated by the physical distance between parental birthplaces (paternal education: pmediation = 2.4 × 10(-4); maternal education: pmediation = 2.3 × 10(-4)), which itself was also significantly associated with F roh (p = 9 × 10(-5)). Ancestry-informative principal components from the offspring showed a significantly decreasing association with geography as parental education increased, consistent with the significantly higher migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman's ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10(-262)). We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs). Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits. PMID:25734509
Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and Froh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs]) in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects’ own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with Froh (p = .045), while the contribution of parental education to offspring Froh was highly significant (father: p < 10-5; mother: p = 9×10-5), with more educated parents having offspring with fewer ROHs. This association was significantly and fully mediated by the physical distance between parental birthplaces (paternal education: pmediation = 2.4 × 10-4; maternal education: pmediation = 2.3 × 10-4), which itself was also significantly associated with Froh (p = 9 × 10-5). Ancestry-informative principal components from the offspring showed a significantly decreasing association with geography as parental education increased, consistent with the significantly higher migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman’s ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10-262). We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs). Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits. PMID:25734509
Walsemann, Katrina M.; Lindley, Lisa L.; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V.
Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888
Walsemann, Katrina M; Lindley, Lisa L; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V
Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888
Barnes, David M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hamilton, Ava D.; Keyes, Katherine M.
Purpose. Mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals remain inadequately understood, especially across levels of educational attainment. The purpose of the present study was to test whether education modifies the association between sexual orientation and mental disorder. Methods. We compared the odds of past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorder prevalence (any Axis-I, any mood, any anxiety, any substance use, and comorbidity) between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual individuals by educational attainment (those with and without a bachelor’s degree), adjusting for covariates, and tested for interaction between sexual orientation and educational attainment. Data are drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized US adults (N= 34 653; 577 LGB). Results. Sexual orientation disparities in mental health are smaller among those with a college education. Specifically, the disparity in those with versus those without a bachelor’s degree was attenuated by 100% for any current mood disorder, 82% for any current Axis-I disorder, 76% for any current anxiety disorder, and 67% for both any current substance use disorder and any current comorbidity. Further, the interaction between sexual orientation and education was statistically significant for any current Axis-I disorder, any current mood disorder, and any current anxiety disorder. Our findings for lifetime outcomes were similar. Conclusions. The attenuated mental health disparity at higher education levels underscores the particular risk for disorder among LGBs with less education. Future studies should consider selection versus causal factors to explain the attenuated disparity we found at higher education levels. PMID:24570204
Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Castrucci, Brian C.
Context: Educational attainment is a critical issue in public health workforce development. However, relatively little is known about the actual attainment of staff in state health agencies (SHAs). Objective: Ascertain the levels of educational attainment among SHA employees, as well as the correlates of attainment. Design: Using a stratified sampling approaching, staff from SHAs were surveyed using the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) instrument in late 2014. A nationally representative sample was drawn across 5 geographic (paired adjacent HHS) regions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using balanced repeated replication weights to account for complex sampling. A logistic regression was conducted with attainment of a bachelor's degree as the dependent variable and age, region, supervisory status, race/ethnicity, gender, and staff type as independent variables. Setting and Participants: Web-based survey of SHA central office employees. Main Outcome Measure: Educational attainment overall, as well as receipt of a degree with a major in public health. Results: A total of 10 246 permanently-employed SHA central office staff participated in the survey (response rate 46%). Seventy-five percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 74-77) had a bachelor's degree, 38% (95% CI, 37-40) had a master's degree, and 9% (95% CI, 8%-10%) had a doctoral degree. A logistic regression showed Asian staff had the highest odds of having a bachelor's degree (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% CI, 2.2-3.7) compared with non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanic/Latino staff had lower odds (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Women had lower odds of having a bachelor's degree than men (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.6). About 17% of the workforce (95% CI, 16-18) had a degree in public health at any level. Conclusions: Educational attainment among SHA central office staff is high, but relatively few have formal training of any sort in public health. This makes efforts to increase
Morton, Rachael L.; Schlackow, Iryna; Staplin, Natalie; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Haynes, Richard; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Mihaylova, Borislava
Background The inverse association between educational attainment and mortality is well established, but its relevance to vascular events and renal progression in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. This study aims to determine the association between highest educational attainment and risk of vascular events, cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression. Study Design Prospective epidemiologic analysis among participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants 9,270 adults with moderate to severe CKD (6,245 not receiving dialysis at baseline) and no history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization recruited in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Predictor Highest educational attainment measured at study entry using 6 levels that ranged from “no formal education” to “tertiary education.” Outcomes Any vascular event (any fatal or nonfatal cardiac, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular event), cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression during 4.9 years’ median follow-up. Results There was a significant trend (P < 0.001) toward increased vascular risk with decreasing levels of education. Participants with no formal education were at a 46% higher risk of vascular events (relative risk [RR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.86) compared with participants with tertiary education. The trend for mortality across education levels was also significant (P < 0.001): all-cause mortality was twice as high among those with no formal education compared with tertiary-educated individuals (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58), and significant increases were seen for both vascular (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.81) and nonvascular (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.89) deaths. Lifestyle factors and prior disease explain most of the excess mortality risk. Among 6,245 participants not receiving dialysis at baseline, education level was not significantly associated with
Pettit, Gregory S; Yu, Tianyi; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E
In this prospective longitudinal study (N = 585) we examined intergenerational links in level of educational attainment. Of particular interest was whether family background characteristics, parenting in early childhood and early adolescence, and school adjustment and performance in middle childhood accounted for (i.e., mediated) continuity and amplified or attenuated (i.e., moderated) continuity. Family background data, including mother education level, were collected when the children were age 5 years; parenting was assessed at ages 5 and 12; and school adjustment data (behavior problems, peer acceptance, academic performance) were collected in the first four years of elementary school. Cross-generational continuity in educational attainment was moderate (r = .38) and largely indirect via children's academic performance in elementary school and mothers' academic involvement in early adolescence. Moderator analyses indicated greater cross-generational continuity in single-parent families; in families low in proactive teaching, monitoring, and academic involvement; and in families with lower-IQ children who performed poorly in school and were disliked by peers, These findings suggest that distal and proximal family and child characteristics may serve as crucial processes in the intergenerational transmission of low educational attainment. PMID:22822286
Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M
Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707
Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems) were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. Results Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model). When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11–4.83). Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83–5.32). Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25–3.94). For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. Conclusions Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood. PMID:25047692
Rzezak, Patricia; Squarzoni, Paula; Duran, Fabio L.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline; Bottino, Cassio M.; Ribeiz, Salma; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Menezes, Paulo R.; Scazufca, Marcia; Busatto, Geraldo F.
Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life. PMID:26474472
Bader, James D.
Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…
Hurd, Noelle M; Sánchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at Time 1 was 17.8 (SD = .64) and slightly over half (54%) of study participants were female. Results of the current study indicated that relationships with natural mentors promoted more positive long-term educational attainment among participants through increased private regard (a dimension of racial identity) and stronger beliefs in the importance of doing well in school for future success. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22537308
Rietveld, Cornelius A; Medland, Sarah E; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Benke, Kelly S; Bielak, Lawrence F; Boatman, Jeffrey A; Boyle, Patricia A; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J; Petrovic, Katja E; Peyrot, Wouter J; Polasek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P; Rizzi, Thais S; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V; Smith, Jennifer A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiríksdóttir, Guðny; Elderson, Martin F; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E; Grönberg, Henrik; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Heath, Andrew C; Hernandez, Dena G; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C; Madden, Pamela A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mäkinen, Tomi E; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B; Montgomery, Grant W; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J; Snieder, Harold; St Pourcain, Beate; Starr, John M; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rooij, Frank J A; Van Wagoner, David R; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L R; Krueger, Robert F; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G; Meyer, Michelle N; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424
Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.
A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424
Whitsel, Christopher M.
This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…
Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana
Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370
Heilman, John; Cole, Bob
This manual provides a framework for training teachers who want to become more skilled in affective education. It is divided into three parts: teacher self-awareness, teacher-student interaction, and teacher-directed group activities. It is designed for use in a two-day workshop. Guidelines for discussions on expectations, responsibility,…
Mello, Zena R.; Anton-Stang, Hilary M.; Monaghan, Patricia L.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Worrell, Frank C.
Adolescents' expectations about school and work may be key antecedents of adult attainment and this relationship may vary by specific racial, ethnic, and gender groups. This article examines how educational and occupational expectations change in adolescence and how expectations predict corresponding attainment in adulthood. Participants included…
Sambo, Aminu; Mohammed, Aisha I.
This study investigated the relationship of causal attributions and academic attainment of Colleges of Education students in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study was based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between causal attributions academic attainment of students. The questionnaire on Academic Causal…
There seems to be an increasing requirement for university courses and programs to develop students' affective qualities (beliefs, values, dispositions and attitudes). This study explored the ways academics determined what the desirable qualities were for their particular disciplines and the pedagogical strategies and approaches they used to…
Shandra, Carrie L.; Hogan, Dennis P.
This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between disability, parental and youth university expectations in 1997, and youth high school completion and university enrolment by 2003. Results indicate that educational attainment is not equal for young adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Parents—but not adolescents—are likely to reduce their educational expectations when adolescents have a mild or serious disability, net of school performance. These parental—but not adolescent—expectations are significantly associated with high school completion. Finally, even after controlling for educational expectations and school performance, youth with serious disabilities are much less likely to graduate from high school than youth without disabilities. Despite the considerable strides made in the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, students with disabilities are not achieving educational parity in graded schooling. PMID:25589823
This article analyses the role of emotions in the constitution of political identity and boundary formation, and discusses the educational implications of that analysis in the context of citizenship education. The author begins by examining how affect is fundamental to the formation of borders, nationhood and citizenship, and discusses the role of…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Counsel.
This chapter by chapter summary of legislation enacted by the 1988 New York State Legislature affecting education and the professions has been prepared for use by the education community. Additional legislation may be forthcoming because the Legislature was in temporary recess as of the publication of this report. Sections of the report include…
Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga
Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. PMID:27111437
Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew
Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact of attaining the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels on overall university degree performance in comparison to attaining four GCE A-Levels, in three cohorts of undergraduate students (Year 1 = 318, Year 2 = 280, Year 3 = 236) studying Biosciences from 2005 to 2011 at a UK HEI. Binary logistic regression was used to compare the academic attainment of students who had achieved four GCE A-Levels to those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. Comparisons were also made between students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels and those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. The results suggest that students who achieved the WBQ qualification in its current form, in addition to three GCE A-Levels, performed less well academically in undergraduate studies than those who achieved four GCE A-Levels. Furthermore, this effect was still present when the balance between coursework and examination was considered, and when students who had achieved the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels were compared to students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels.
Over the last five years there has been a significant increase in the number of children in care. Despite service provision, the outcomes for these children differ significantly from their counterparts, particularly in relation to educational attainment. While 68% of children in care have special needs, this does not explain the difference in attainment for 32% of children in care. Research indicates that stereotyping, lower expectations and the experience of care are significant factors. Although positive work is being done, the differences in outcomes for children in care suggest further emphasis is needed. Experiences in early life impact on outcomes across the lifespan and it is here where as school nurses and health visitors, we can make a positive contribution for children in care. PMID:25612411
Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Davey, Charles; Fifer, William P.; Savitz, David A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Objective To examine whether near-term births (NTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at high risk for childhood learning-related problems and poor adult educational attainment, and whether poverty amplifies the adverse effects of NTB and SGA on those outcomes. Methods A randomly selected birth cohort (n = 1,619) was followed into adulthood. IQ and learning abilities were measured in childhood and educational attainment was measured in adulthood. Results NTB (n = 226) and SGA (n = 154) were associated with lower educational attainment mediated through learning-related abilities at age 7. Childhood poverty moderated the impact of NTB on educational attainment both directly and mediated through lower learning-related abilities. Poverty did not moderate the effect of SGA. Conclusions Poorer learning-related outcomes and educational attainment were not limited to children born very (<32 weeks) or extremely (<28 weeks) preterm, especially among those living in poverty. Targeted interventions such as remedial learning during childhood among NTB in poor families may yield higher educational attainment. PMID:18794190
The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25-the standard deviation of age at death above 25-by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata. PMID:26813781
Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...
McDaniel, Anne; DiPrete, Thomas A; Buchmann, Claudia; Shwed, Uri
It is often asserted that the gender gap in educational attainment is larger for blacks than whites, but historical trends comparing the black and white gender gap have received surprisingly little attention. Analysis of historical data from the U.S. census IPUMS samples shows that the gender gap in college completion has evolved differently for whites and blacks. Historically, the female advantage in educational attainment among blacks is linked to more favorable labor market opportunities and stronger incentives for employment for educated black women. Blacks, particularly black males, still lag far behind whites in their rates of college completion, but the striking educational gains of white women have caused the racial patterns of gender differences in college completion rates to grow more similar over time. While some have linked the disadvantaged position of black males to their high risk of incarceration, our estimates suggest that incarceration has a relatively small impact on the black gender gap and the racial gap in college completion rates for males in the United States. PMID:21638226
Ji, P; Zhang, K; Liu, D
This paper examines the educational attainment and occupational status of migrants in Beijing, China. Data come from a sample survey of 5598 migrants and nonmigrants conducted in 1982. Migrants are further subdivided into return migrants, direct migrants, and round-about migrants. The proportion of illiterates is greater for migrants than for nonmigrants; the proportion of university graduates is 4 times greater for migrants than for nonmigrants. In order of their university graduate rates from high to low, these groups are listed as follows: round-about migrants, return migrants, direct migrants, and nonmigrants. Round-about migrants make up 30.2% of the total migrants; the educational attainment of these migrants plays an important role in the relatively large proportion of university graduates among migrants. In general, the greater the distance of migration, the greater the proportion of university graduates is. Of the total professionals and cadres, over 75% are migrants while less than 25% are nonmigrants. 50% of the workers and attendants are migrants. The proportion of professionals and cadres of round-about migrants is greater than that of direct migrants. The educational level of migrants is higher than that of nonmigrants. The educational level of migrants who migrate more often is higher than that of migrants who move less often. The educational level is higher among long distance than short distance migrants. Migrants account for 80% of the population with a university education. The proportion of workers and attendants in migrants is smaller than that in nonmigrants. In those years when planned migration took place, migrants had a higher population quality as shown by a high percentage of population working, a low dependency ratio, a high educational level, a large number of people engaged in complicated labor, and a road source of migrants. PMID:12280651
Breslau, Joshua; Lane, Michael; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C.
As part of a larger investigation of the adverse effects of mental disorders on role functioning, we examined the associations of early-onset mental disorders with subsequent educational attainment in a large nationally representative survey of the US adult population. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 17 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-report with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI). Survival analysis was used to examine the associations between early-onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent termination of schooling with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and childhood adversities (i.e. childhood traumatic events, childhood neglect, parental mental illness, family disruption, and low parental educational attainment). Mental disorders were found to be significantly associated with termination of schooling prior to completion of each of four educational milestones (primary school graduation, high school graduation, college entry, college graduation), with odds ratios in the range of 1.3 to 7.0. The proportion of school terminations attributable to mental disorders was largest for high school graduation (10.2%) but also meaningful for primary school graduation (3.8%), college entry (4.4%) and college graduation (2.6%). These results add to a growing body of evidence documenting a wide variety of adverse life course effects of mental disorders. PMID:18331741
Kalil, Ariel; Wightman, Patrick
Objectives. We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle-class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle-class families.Methods. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), following those children “born” into the survey between 1968 and 1979 and followed through age 21. We conduct multivariate regression analyses to test the association between parental job loss during childhood and youth's educational attainment by age 21.Results. We find that parental job loss is associated with a lesser likelihood of obtaining any postsecondary education for all offspring, but that the association for blacks is almost three times as strong. A substantial share of the differential impact of job loss on black and white middle-class youth is explained by race differences in household wealth, long-run measures of family income, and, especially, parental experience of long-term unemployment.Conclusions. These findings highlight the fragile economic foundation of the black middle class and suggest that intergenerational persistence of class status in this population may be highly dependent on the avoidance of common economic shocks. PMID:21523947
Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Alkin, Marvin C.
A review of 36 studies on school-age children with mental retardation indicated children in general classes do not attain social acceptance ratings at as high a level as do their typical peers. Integrated students perform better than segregated students on measures of academic achievement and social competence. (Contains extensive references.)…
Newberg, Norman A.
This small booklet describes the Affective Education Program established in Philadelphia in 1967. The program uses various classroom techniques such as the problems, plans, and sharing classroom structure to foster student leadership and cooperation; using group roles, feedback, and processing; and being responsive to student concerns. In…
Zvacek, Susan M.
Discusses the importance of affective considerations when designing instruction for distance education. Topics discussed include learner motivation based on Keller's ARCS model (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction); communication patterns that facilitate interaction between students; and ethics involved with marketing programs,…
Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M
Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275
Durnan, Deborah; Boughton, Bob
A study examined the outcomes attained by 389 indigenous students who completed programs at the 4 largest Aboriginal community-controlled adult education colleges in the 9-member Federation of Independent Aboriginal Education Providers (FIAEP). The survey, which elicited a 57% response rate, established that, although a very large percentage of…
Rong, Xue Lan; Brown, Frank
Analysis of census data shows how educational attainment varies with race, nationality (African blacks, Caribbean blacks, European whites), and generation of U.S. residence. Educators should move beyond the notation that race equates with culture and ethnicity and learn about the effect of assimilation on schooling. (Contains 82 references.) (SK)
Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.
Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…
Duke, Naomi; Macmillan, Ross
Education is a key sociological variable in the explanation of health and health disparities. Conventional wisdom emphasizes a life course--human capital perspective with expectations of causal effects that are quasi-linear, large in magnitude for high levels of educational attainment, and reasonably robust in the face of measured and unmeasured…
Rothon, Catherine; Heath, Anthony; Lessard-Phillips, Laurence
Background: This analysis compares the educational attainments of the "new" second generation in Britain, Canada, and the United States using three nationally representative datasets. Objective: To assess how the second generation has fared within Western educational systems. The study examines the achievements of seven minority ethnic groups:…
EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.
Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275
Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey
This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…
Sorensen, Aage B.
This paper analyzes the properties of the process of social and economic attainments in two contrasting situations: (1) when the process of attainment generates the distribution of attainments, and (2) when the structure of attainments is seen as exogenously determined. It is argued that the neoclassical economic theory of earnings determination…
Watson, William J.; Goody, Kenneth
The traditional methods for documenting educational achievements have limited application for prescribing desirable and mandatory educational prerequisites for service in the various officer utilization fields of the Air Force. The document describes an educational profile that was developed to display a candidate's educational achievements in a…
Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Sagwe, Jackline
There is a sound research base attesting to the importance of parental involvement and to the many potential benefits it can offer for children's education. This study sought to examine differences in parental aspirations (as a mechanism of parental involvement in their children's education) for their children's educational attainment between slum…
Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L
There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note
Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C
Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women. PMID:24414865
Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang
We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352
Ward, Mary E.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.
Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10−10) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10−04 and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life
Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J
Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life
Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
Introduction Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics. PMID:26902392
Baker, Therese L.
This study of women college graduates in the United States and Great Britain analyzes the effect of social origins and familial factors on educational attainment. The sample consisted of 1,435 American and 1,805 British females who graduated in 1961 and 1960 respectively. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Opinion Research Center and a…
The present study investigated pathways that might explain the observed linkage between participation in early intervention programs and later educational attainment using a sample from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an on-going investigation of low-income minority children growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. A review of…
Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan
This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…
Day, Jennifer Cheeseman; Newburger, Eric C.
Changes in the relationship between educational attainment and work-life earnings over the past 25 years were examined by using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) to construct synthetic work-life earnings. CPS data collected in March 1998, 1999, and 2000 were analyzed by age, sex, full- or part-time work experience, race, Hispanic…
Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette
Examined factors contributing to individual differences in the educational attainment of African American young adults from families of low socioeconomic status. Subjects were 123 participants and their families. Found that characteristics of the participants at the time of school entry were predictive of the participants' achievement and…
Bachman, Jerald G.; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Freedman-Doan, Peter
Long hours of paid employment during high school have been linked to a variety of problem behaviors, but questions remain about whether and to what extent work intensity makes any causal contribution. This study addresses those questions by focusing on how 12th-grade work intensity is associated with substance use and educational attainment in the…
As Lumina Foundation releases a new edition of the signature report, "A Stronger Nation Through Higher Education," the central message is the same one conveyed since the first of this series of reports in 2009. Lumina remains convinced that significantly increasing college attainment is the key to ensuring a brighter future for our…
Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study explored conditions under which the effects of risk factors for low educational attainment might be moderated. Two different risk factors, hyperactivity and maternal authoritarian parenting attitudes, were studied. The results showed that on the whole these two risk factors…
Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.
The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…
Barro, Robert J.; Lee, Jong-Wha
Our panel data set on educational attainment has been updated for 146 countries from 1950 to 2010. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age intervals. We have improved the accuracy of estimation by using information from consistent census data, disaggregated by age group, along with new estimates of mortality rates and completion rates…
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana
Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…
Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.
A study was conducted in summer 1990 to measure the educational goal attainment of students who were enrolled at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) during 1986-87, and who had not re-enrolled at the college since that time. Questionnaires requesting information on JCCC experiences and outcomes, level of satisfaction with JCCC, current…
Nichols, Andrew Howard
Improving college degree attainment is essential as the United States seeks to remain economically competitive in a globalized marketplace. As the economy continues to evolve and become increasingly more complex, it is critical that our education system provides our youth with the skills, ingenuity, and critical thinking abilities that can…
Wages, Sherry; And Others
In an effort to determine variables related to Mexican American school dropouts' decisions to quit school and their orientations toward further educational attainment, personal interviews were conducted in 1967 with 74 Mexican American high school dropouts residing in 4 rural south Texas counties. The variables examined included (1) decision to…
Grogger, Jeff; Ronan, Nick
The effects of fatherlessness on children's educational attainment and entry-level wages were examined through a method-of-moments analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a national panel study of 12,686 youths who were aged 14-22 in 1979. Two special features of the NLSY were used: its subsample of siblings and its…
McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.
This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain…
Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Elidemir, Gulizar; Galéra, Cédric; Younès, Nadia
We studied whether patterns of substance use in relation to unemployment vary depending on educational level. Data come from 1,126 community-based young adults in France (18-35 years of age in 2011) and their parents (TEMPO and GAZEL studies). Tobacco use (≥1 cigarette/day, 22.5% prevalence), nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥2, 7.1% prevalence), alcohol use (≥2 units/week, 25.3% prevalence), alcohol abuse (WHO AUDIT ≥7 in women and ≥8 in men, 10.8% prevalence), cannabis use (≥1 time, 16.5% prevalence), and cannabis abuse (CAST ≥2, 5.0% prevalence) were assessed by interview. We conducted logistic regression analyses controlled for inverse probability weights of unemployment, calculated based on demographics, negative life events, health, and juvenile and parental characteristics. Compared to participants who were always employed, those who were unemployed and had no higher education were more likely to smoke tobacco (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.86-4.10), to be nicotine dependent (OR: 5.70, 95% CI: 3.03-10.73), to use cannabis (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.42-3.64), and to abuse cannabis (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.63-7.04). Those who were unemployed and had higher education were especially likely to abuse alcohol (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.16-3.09). Increases in unemployment may impact population levels of substance use, particularly in young adults with low educational attainment. PMID:25472491
College attainment is increasingly important to the U.S. economy as the workforce demands education and training that properly prepare citizens for success in the global, knowledge economy. Lumina Foundation for Education has embraced a single, specific goal that will help address the economic and social trends that cloud this nation's future. Its…
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.
This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…
Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim
Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that individual traits of adolescents can buffer neighbourhood effects. First, adolescents with a more resilient personality may be better able to cope with neighbourhood adversity. And second, educational commitments might buffer adolescents from negative neighbourhood influences. These hypotheses are tested employing survival analysis, using six wave panel data, containing information on ten years of adolescents' lives. The results show that resilients experience no negative influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, while both undercontrollers and overcontrollers do. And, the stronger adolescents' educational commitments, the less they experience the negative effect of neighbourhood adversity. In sum, neighbourhood effects are found, but not for everybody. PMID:25592923
McFarland, Kimberly K; Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Lange, Brian
Fourth-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center participate in a community-based dental education (CBDE) program that includes a four-week rotation in rural dental practices and community health clinics across Nebraska and nearby states. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the CBDE program on the self-rated competencies of these students. A retrospective survey was administered to students who participated in extramural rotations in two academic years. The survey collected demographic data and asked students to rate themselves on a scale from 1=not competent at all to 5=very competent on attainment of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Competencies for the New General Dentist for before and after the rotations. A total of 92 responses were obtained: 43 students for 2011-12 and 49 students for 2012-13 (95% response rate for each cohort). The results showed that the students' mean pre-program self-ratings ranged from 3.28 for the competency domain of Practice Management and Informatics to 3.93 for Professionalism. Their mean post-program self-ratings ranged from 3.76 for Practice Management and Informatics to 4.31 for Professionalism. The students showed a statistically significant increase in self-ratings for all six competency domains. The increase was greatest in the domain of Critical Thinking and least in Communication and Interpersonal Skills. Overall, these results suggest that the CBDE program was effective in improving the students' self-perceptions of competence in all six domains and support the idea that a competency-based evaluation of CBDE programs can provide valuable information to dental educators about program effectiveness. PMID:27251348
Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J
People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal–numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal–numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643
Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J
People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal-numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal-numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643
Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Glauben, Thomas; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian
Although universities have expanded in size, it is unclear whether the poor have benefited. If there are high returns to college education, then increasing access of the poor to college has important welfare implications. The objective of this paper is to document the rates of enrollment into college of the poor and to identify the hurdles to…
Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B; Miech, Richard A; Macmillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael J
In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as "fair" or "poor" at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661
Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.; Miech, Richard; MacMillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael
In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as “fair” or “poor” at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661
Roche, Stephen H.
In the past decade Higher Education Institutions have experienced tremendous growth in enrollments. To meet this demand, many higher education institutions have embraced online education and its requisite technologies. Online education has matured, and studies focusing on the cognitive domain indicate that distance education is as effective as the…
Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta
This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…
Background Educational attainment has been shown to influence access to and quality of health care. However, the influence of educational attainment on decision-making at the end of life with possible or certain life-shortening effect (ELDs ie intensified pain and symptom alleviation, non-treatment decisions, euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide, and life-ending acts without explicit request) is scarcely studied. This paper examines differences between educational groups pertaining to prevalence of ELDs, the decision-making process and end-of-life treatment characteristics. Method We performed a retrospective survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample of Belgian deaths in 2007. Differences between educational groups were adjusted for relevant confounders (age, sex, cause of death and marital status). Results Intensified pain and symptom alleviation and non-treatment decisions are more likely to occur in higher educated than in lower educated patients. These decisions were less likely to be discussed with either patient or family, or with colleague physicians, in lower educated patients. A positive association between education and prevalence of euthanasia/assisted suicide (acts as well as requests) disappeared when adjusting for cause of death. No differences between educational groups were found in the treatment goal in the last week, but higher educated patients were more likely to receive opioids in the last day of life. Conclusion There are some important differences and possible inequities between educational groups in end-of-life decision-making in Belgium. Future research should investigate whether the found differences reflect differences in knowledge of and adherence to patient preferences, and indicate a discrepancy in quality of the end of life. PMID:24207110
Jethwani, Monique M.
Although Black boys throughout the African diaspora are dropping out of high school in alarming rates, little is known about how educational identity and attainment is shaped by the intersection of race and gender in the high school environment. Utilizing an ecological and intersectionality theoretical lens, this study draws on data gleaned from…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to interpret aspects of education for sustainability in relation to educational theories of the affective domain (values, attitudes and behaviours) and suggest how the use of these theories, and relevant experience, in other educational areas could benefit education for sustainability.…
Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J
Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n=1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an on-going investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born at 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. Regression findings indicated that three factors in elementary grades can potentially improve both college attendance and BA degree completion for economically disadvantaged minority students: better classroom adjustment, high parent expectation in child's education, and better academic performance. Findings have implications for schools, educators, and policy makers. PMID:25061234
Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n=1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an on-going investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born at 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. Regression findings indicated that three factors in elementary grades can potentially improve both college attendance and BA degree completion for economically disadvantaged minority students: better classroom adjustment, high parent expectation in child’s education, and better academic performance. Findings have implications for schools, educators, and policy makers PMID:25061234
Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.
Summaries of bills pertaining to higher education from the Washington State Senate and House of Representatives are presented. The legislation covers the following: library services to Indian tribes; acquisition of surplus EXPO facilities; creation of the Vocational Education Commission; renaming of the Council for Postsecondary Education;…
Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez
In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…
van der Kooi, Anne L. F.; Stronks, Karien; Thompson, Caroline A.; DerSarkissian, Maral
Objectives. We investigated how much the Human Development Index (HDI), a global measure of development, modifies the effect of education on self-reported health. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional World Health Survey data on 217 642 individuals from 49 countries, collected in 2002 to 2005, with random-intercept multilevel linear regression models. Results. We observed greater positive associations between educational levels and self-reported good health with increasing HDI. The magnitude of this effect modification of the education–health relation tended to increase with educational attainment. For example, before adjustment for effect modification, at comparable HDI, on average, finishing primary school was associated with better general health (b = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.80). With adjustment for effect modification by HDI, the impact became 4.63 (95% CI = 3.63, 5.62) for every 0.1 increase in HDI. Among those who completed high school, these associations were, respectively, 5.59 (95% CI = 5.20, 5.98) and 9.95 (95% CI = 8.89, 11.00). Conclusions. The health benefits of educational attainment are greater in countries with greater human development. Health inequalities attributable to education are, therefore, larger in more developed countries. PMID:24028233
The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools
Background Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. Methods A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. Results UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. Conclusions This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a
Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria
This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…
Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach
To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic…
Yates, James R.
The paper, originally given at a 1986 Ethnic and Multicultural Symposium, looks at special education and the changing society in terms of ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, birth rate, and school completion. Current and emerging demographic characteristics are related to special education policy, organization, training, research, and…
Heidorn, Brent; Welch, Mindy M.
Physical educators at all levels have observed learners in a school-based physical education setting as well as physical activity or sport settings outside of organized school curricula demonstrating behaviors deemed inappropriate or inconsistent with professional standards. Because sport is such a public, social, and international phenomenon,…
Leonardo, Zeus; Zembylas, Michalinos
This article explores the embodiment and affectivity of whiteness, particularly as it implicates educational praxis and social justice in education, focusing on the following questions: In what ways are affect and whiteness constitutive of each other in race dialogue? How does emotion intersect with racial practices and white privilege, and what…
The primary purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore relationships between Tennessee Competency Attainment Rubric (CAR) professional development and teachers' perceptions of changes in instruction, expectations for student performance, and understanding of proficiency. The study is the result of a collaborative effort with the Tennessee…
Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane
We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…
Menard, Lauren Ann
Dwindling American financial satisfaction and growing college degree attainment were revealed in national social survey data spanning more than four decades (N = 57,061). Against these backdrops, associations between being financially satisfied and having a college degree grew stronger in each decade, with the strongest association between…
Richardson, John T. E.
In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over…
Hoddinott, John; Lethbridge, Lynn; Phipps, Shelley
This paper examines three inter-related issues: whether past levels of resources, context and opportunity structures carry long-term consequences for subsequent child attainments and behaviours; whether shocks, or transition events, alter the path of these outcomes in a positive or negative fashion; and what role can be played by policy…
Garcia, Steve B.
The implications of an ethnicity variable, language usage patterns, on the status attainment of 1,777 Mexican American males, ages 18 to 64 years, in the civilian labor force were studied. Language was viewed as a background variable that influences the relative positioning of Chicanos in the stratification system. It was hypothesized that, in…
Bicking, Misty M., Ed.; Collins, Brian, Ed.; Fernett, Laura, Ed.; Taylor, Barbara, Ed.; Sutton, Kathleen, Ed.
A compilation of research papers on theorists that affect the educational world are collected in this anthology. Twenty-one students, through the course of their education class, Social and Psychological Conditions of Learning--EDUC 320, researched and applied their knowledge in the elementary and secondary school environments. The contributing…
Pingault, Jean Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Petitclerc, Amélie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background Parental educational expectations have been associated with children’s educational attainment in a number of long-term longitudinal studies, but whether this relationship is causal has long been debated. The aims of this prospective study were twofold: 1) test whether low maternal educational expectations contributed to failure to graduate from high school; and 2) compare the results obtained using different strategies for accounting for confounding variables (i.e. multivariate regression and propensity score matching). Methodology/Principal Findings The study sample included 1,279 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Maternal educational expectations were assessed when the participants were aged 12 years. High school graduation – measuring educational attainment – was determined through the Quebec Ministry of Education when the participants were aged 22–23 years. Findings show that when using the most common statistical approach (i.e. multivariate regressions to adjust for a restricted set of potential confounders) the contribution of low maternal educational expectations to failure to graduate from high school was statistically significant. However, when using propensity score matching, the contribution of maternal expectations was reduced and remained statistically significant only for males. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are consistent with the possibility that the contribution of parental expectations to educational attainment is overestimated in the available literature. This may be explained by the use of a restricted range of potential confounding variables as well as the dearth of studies using appropriate statistical techniques and study designs in order to minimize confounding. Each of these techniques and designs, including propensity score matching, has its strengths and limitations: A more comprehensive understanding of the causal role of parental expectations will stem from
Sutherland, Mary S.
Ways in which affective measurement and evaluation techniques could be used for health instruction include: (1) determining student behavioral information and assisting in the removal of barriers to smooth classroom functioning; (2) attitude measurement; and (3) evaluation of classroom learning. Several types of affective measurement techniques…
Goldthorpe, John H
In class analysis the main regularities that have been established by empirical research are not ones of long-term class formation or decomposition, as envisaged in Marxist or liberal theory, but rather ones that exhibit the powerful resistance to change of class relations and associated life-chances and patterns of social action. If these regularities are to be explained, theory needs to be correspondingly reoriented, and must abandon functionalist and teleological assumptions in favour of providing more secure micro-foundations. This argument is developed and illustrated in the course of an attempt to apply rational action theory to the explanation of persisting class differentials in educational attainment. PMID:20092500
Arredondo, Victor A.
Major problems of higher education in Mexico are addressed in the context of the country's developmental stages, socioeconomic conditions, and demographics. Important factors in modern Mexican history include: population growth, public and private investment to stimulate socioeconomic activities in different regions of the country, and financial…
An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…
Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Corcoran, David L; Domingue, Benjamin; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin S; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 100,000 individuals identified molecular-genetic predictors of educational attainment. We undertook in-depth life-course investigation of the polygenic score derived from this GWAS using the four-decade Dunedin Study (N = 918). There were five main findings. First, polygenic scores predicted adult economic outcomes even after accounting for educational attainments. Second, genes and environments were correlated: Children with higher polygenic scores were born into better-off homes. Third, children's polygenic scores predicted their adult outcomes even when analyses accounted for their social-class origins; social-mobility analysis showed that children with higher polygenic scores were more upwardly mobile than children with lower scores. Fourth, polygenic scores predicted behavior across the life course, from early acquisition of speech and reading skills through geographic mobility and mate choice and on to financial planning for retirement. Fifth, polygenic-score associations were mediated by psychological characteristics, including intelligence, self-control, and interpersonal skill. Effect sizes were small. Factors connecting DNA sequence with life outcomes may provide targets for interventions to promote population-wide positive development. PMID:27251486
Lewallen, Theresa C; Hunt, Holly; Potts-Datema, William; Zaza, Stephanie; Giles, Wayne
BACKGROUND The Whole Child approach and the coordinated school health (CSH) approach both address the physical and emotional needs of students. However, a unified approach acceptable to both the health and education communities is needed to assure that students are healthy and ready to learn. METHODS During spring 2013, the ASCD (formerly known as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened experts from the field of education and health to discuss lessons learned from implementation of the CSH and Whole Child approaches and to explore the development of a new model that would incorporate the knowledge gained through implementation to date. RESULTS As a result of multiple discussions and review, the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) approach was developed. The WSCC approach builds upon the traditional CSH model and ASCD's Whole Child approach to learning and promotes greater alignment between health and educational outcomes. CONCLUSION By focusing on children and youth as students, addressing critical education and health outcomes, organizing collaborative actions and initiatives that support students, and strongly engaging community resources, the WSCC approach offers important opportunities that will improve educational attainment and healthy development for students. PMID:26440815
Shavit, Yossi, Ed.; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, Ed.
This book encompasses a systematic, comparative study of change in educational stratification in 13 industrialized countries, exploring which societal conditions help reduce existing inequalities in educational opportunity. The contributors show that in most industrialized countries inequalities in educational opportunity among students from…
In April 2013, the "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends, and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment of the series, DiSalvio speaks with American…
Corwin, Zoe Blumberg; Venegas, Kristan M.; Oliverez, Paz Maya; Colyar, Julia E.
Detrimental differences in educational opportunities for students of color continue to exist in the post-Brown United States. This article focuses on inequities in access to higher education by addressing the following question: How do disparities in counseling services affect college access for students of color? Guided by a review of the…
Florida Univ., Gainesville. P. K. Yonge Lab. School.
The activities and resources in this teacher's guide have been developed and field tested as part of the research and development mission of the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School of the College of Education of the University of Florida. The Elementary Affective Education for Human Relations Project utilized classroom teachers in a variety of settings…
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…
Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria
Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…
Higher education (HE) researchers, like their colleagues across the humanities and social sciences, are increasingly tuning in to the political possibilities offered by working with emotion and affect. Reading across this work, it would seem that certain practices, and their associated affects, have achieved an aura of legitimacy, and political…
Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Doamekpor, Lauren A.; Lopez, Lenny
Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond
This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…
Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki
Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers
Koch, Patricia Barthalow
Because of the “computer revolution,” health-care professionals are being called upon in academic, continuing education, and on-site settings to teach computer education to students as well as other professionals. It has been demonstrated that education which includes the examination of attitudes, values, and feelings will reduce anxiety and increase interest towards the subject matter and will also help the student integrate the subject matter more effectively into his or her life. Therefore, the affective component is extremely important, if not essential, and should be part of every educational endeavor aimed at fostering computer literacy. Two major areas where an affective approach is crucial in computer instruction is in dealing with the student's motivations for developing computer literacy and the computer anxiety they may be experiencing. Factors influencing these areas will be explored in depth. In addition, concrete suggestions and techniques for dealing affectively with motivation for developing computer literacy and computer anxiety will be presented.
Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal
This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…
White, Carmen M.
In the multiethnic South Pacific nation of Fiji--a former British colony--the impact of Western theoretical hegemony on educational discourse is evident. Results of extensive fieldwork show how themes of achievement motivation, differential valuation of education, and cultural deficit theory combine with surviving colonial discourse and…
Iannelli, Cristina; Huang, Jun
The UK higher education system receives the second largest number of Chinese overseas students in the world. The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) data used in this study show that the total number of Chinese graduates (at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels) increased from around 6000 at the beginning of the twenty-first century to…
Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew
Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact…
Whitsel, Christopher M.
For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…
St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Bugler, Myfanwy; Robinson, Jamey; Clough, Peter; McGeown, Sarah P.; Perry, John
Mental toughness has frequently been associated with successful performance in sport; however, recent research suggests that it may also be related to academic performance in Higher Education. In a series of three exploratory studies, we examined the relationship between mental toughness and different aspects of educational performance in…
Doyle, Aaron; Kleinfeld, Judith; Reyes, Maria
Indigenous students in rural Alaska hold high educational aspirations and yet few students realize their educational goals (Hamilton & Seyfrit, 1993; Kleinfeld & McDiarmid, 1986; McDiarmid & Kleinfeld, 1981). Our purpose in this study was to understand why so many Alaska Native students from small, isolated communities "drift" after high school,…
Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark
Although foster youth approaching the transition to adulthood have postsecondary educational aspirations similar to those of young people in the general population, for too many foster youth with these aspirations, a college education remains an unfulfilled dream. Previous analyses of data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of…
Apantaku-Olajide, Tunde; James, Philip D.; Smyth, Bobby P.
This study explores substance use, psychosocial problems, and the relationships to educational status in 193 adolescents (school dropouts, 63; alternative education, 46; mainstream students, 84) who attended a substance abuse treatment facility in Dublin, Ireland, within a 42-month period. For each adolescent, data on demographics, family…
Gessner, Bradford; Bischoff, Herbert; Perham-Hester, Kathy; Chandler, Bruce; Middaugh, John
This study examined the educational records of 36 children who met all or most of the criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and who were referred to special education in Anchorage, Fairbanks, or Juneau (Alaska) school districts. Thirty of the children were found to have medical comorbidities independent of the findings generally associated…
Deke, John; Haimson, Joshua
This report examines how indicators of academic and nonacademic competencies are related to postsecondary educational and labor market outcomes. Drawing on the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) surveys of students and teachers, the authors analyze how postsecondary earnings and the likelihood of attending and completing a postsecondary…
Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia
Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated…
Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles
In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…
Lee, Jinkook; Smith, James P.
State policies over time in India may have led to significant differences by sex in population health and cognition. In this paper, we use data from the pilot wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India, conducted in Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, and Rajasthan, to examine state variations in health, educational attainment, and male preference, and how these variations contribute to gender differences in late-life cognition in India. We find men and women born in Punjab are taller than those elsewhere, but do not find any gender differences in height across states with differential male preference. We do find a significant gap in educational attainment that correlates with male preference. We find paternal education benefits both sons and daughters, while maternal education contributes to daughters’ educational attainment. Finally, we find that paternal education benefits daughters’ late-life cognition, while maternal education benefits sons’ late-life cognition, and that children’s education has positive association with older adults’ cognitive functioning as well. PMID:25530941
Warburton, J.; Timm, K. M.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.
PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This poster will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific topics
Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.
PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific
This project explores the impact of disparate educational attainment between first-generation college graduates and their family members. This is a conscious shifting of the unit of analysis, from the changing social position and power of an individual student/graduate, to the relational capacity, tensions, and strategies of the family unit that…
Stoll, Michael A.
Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…
Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael; Barlow, Alexandra; Squires, Garry
Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of poor academic outcomes. Understanding the factors that influence their attainment is a crucial first step towards developing more effective provision. In the current study we present a multi-level, natural variation analysis which highlights…
Richardson, John T. E.
In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…
The article considers young people's occupational choices at the age of 15 in relation to their educational attainment, the occupations of their parents and their actual occupations when they are in their early 20s. It uses data from the British Household Panel Survey over periods of between five and ten years. The young people in the survey are…
This study examined the relationships between participant goal attainment, and changes in mediating variables, and food choice outcomes from a modified curriculum for the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthy home food environments and parenting skills relate...
Gargiulo, Richard Michael
Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…
Kalil, Ariel; Wightman, Patrick
Objectives: We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle class families. Methods: We use data from the Panel…
von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.
In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…
Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009
Three recently-released research reports commissioned through Project U-Turn and funded by the William Penn Foundation and the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry offer analyses that shed new light on the relationships between Philadelphians' educational attainment and their earnings, employment and contributions to government and…
Dolan, Conor V.; Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Hessen, David J.; van de Sluis, Sophie
We investigated sex effects and the effects of educational attainment (EA) on the covariance structure of the WAIS-III in a subsample of the Spanish standardization data. We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence ("g") as a second order common factor. The results…
Clark, Elizabeth Ann
The dearth of women in executive positions within the field of information technology (IT) has been studied extensively in the corporate sector. That is not the case within higher education, despite the data collected showing that women attain the top executive role--that of the Chief Information Officer (CIO)--at much better rates than their…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Topitzes, James W.
This study investigated the contributions of 5 mechanisms to the effects of preschool participation in the Child-Parent Centers for 1,404 low-income children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Based on a matched-group design, preschool participation was associated with significantly higher rates of educational attainment and lower rates of…
Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…
Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel
We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982
Verweij, Karin J.H.; Huizink, Anja C.; Agrawal, Arpana; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.
Background Several studies have shown that early cannabis use is correlated with poor educational performance including high school drop-out. The predominant explanation for this relationship is that cannabis use causes disengagement from education. Another explanation is that the association between early cannabis use and educational attainment is not causal, but the result of overlapping risk factors that increase the likelihood of both early cannabis use and disengagement from education. These confounding factors could be of genetic and/or environmental origin. Methods Here we use data from a large community-based sample of adult twins (N=3337) who completed a comprehensive semi-structured telephone interview. We first apply the classical twin-design to determine whether genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the relationship between early-onset cannabis use (prior to age 18) and early school leaving. Next, with a co-twin control design we investigate whether the relationship between the two variables is more likely due to direct causality or overlapping risk factors. Results We find a significant phenotypic correlation between early-onset cannabis use and early school leaving (r=0.26), which could be explained by familial influences (of genetic and/or shared environmental origin). The pattern of odds ratios found in the co-twin control design is not consistent with direct causation, but rather suggests that the association is due to shared environmental factors influencing both variables. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the relationship between early-onset cannabis use and school leaving is due to shared environmental risk factors influencing both the risk of early-onset cannabis use and early school leaving. PMID:23972999
Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard
We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…
Abosi, Okey; Koay, Teng Leong
Education has three main roles: it is developmental because it develops the unique qualities of a child; it differentiates between learners because it treats every child as an individual, appreciating individual differences; and it is integrative because it accommodates people of varying backgrounds (culture, beliefs and values) thereby allowing…
A key to Washington's economic prosperity over the past 20 years has been a thriving employment sector for workers who have high levels of education in fields related to biological, physical, computer and health sciences, engineering, and mathematics. Washington has met the demands of its knowledge-driven economy by producing and attracting one of…
Derrick, M. G.; Rovai, A. P.; Ponton, M.; Confessore, G. J.; Carr, P. B.
The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior…
Person, Dawn; Garcia, Yvonne; Fujimoto, Eugene; Nguyen, Kayla; Saunders, Katherine; Hoffman, John
Latino students are significantly underrepresented in higher education. As the largest and fastest growing racial/ethnic population in the US, this is cause for national concern. Additionally, this rapid population growth is a call for community and school leaders from underserved communities to assess their service areas and focus on…
Cohen, Jere; And Others
Investigates why Vietnam-era veterans tend to have lower status occupations than contemporaries who did not serve in the military. Explores the possibilities that (1) veterans were victims of discrimination; (2) military service interrupted occupational advancement; or (3) veterans were less educated than their peers. Concludes that lower…
Skinner, Angel N.
In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…
Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna
The UK's National Learning Targets for Education and Training, embracing 11- to 21-year-olds, adults, and employers, promote a credentialist approach to economic and social development. This article shows how the steel industry measures up. Using qualifications-based targets as a proxy for adult workforce capability is misguided. (Contains 40…
Jackson, C. Kirabo; Johnson, Rucker C.; Persico, Claudia
This study addresses limitations in a study conducted by James Coleman in 1966, which analyzed aspects of educational equality in the United States--including the relationship between school spending and student outcomes--as well as other studies covering the same topic that stemmed from Coleman's Report. Coleman found that variation in school…
Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard
Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…
Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian
This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…
Maples, Inga D.
The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…
Omiyefa, Muraina Olugbenga; Ajayi, Ayo; Adeyanju, Lawrence Olugbade
Despite the progress so far recorded on the Education For All (EFA) programme in Nigeria, vulnerable children such as students with disabilities, street children referred to as "almajirai", nomadic Fulani children, orphans, the girl-child particularly in Northern Nigeria are yet to qualitatively access and benefit from the programme.…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…
Schmitt, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan
If personal computers (PCs) are used to facilitate learning, then a home computer might be considered a potential input in an educational production function. Using data on British youths from the British Household Panel Survey between 1991 and 2001, this paper explores the link between ownership of a home computer at ages 15 and 17 and subsequent…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
This policy brief contextualizes the most recent data on mobility of Asian American students within the K to Ph.D. educational system in the new, so-called, colorblind post-racial America. Achievement data on Asian Americans are often presented in the same breath with Whites when compared to the academic achievement of African American, and…
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Kalil, Ariel
One of the most alarming social trends in the past 40 years is the increasing educational disadvantage of children raised in low-income families. Differences between low- and high-income children in reading and math achievement are much larger now than they were several decades ago, as are differences in college graduation rates. What might…
Gordon, Neal J.
Implications for affective education are drawn from an empirical study of 60 upper-middle socioeconomic class 6 to 15 year-olds' responses to questions asking how videotaped actors felt. Percentage frequencies of category use in tape-recorded transcripts coded by two judges revealed no differences by child's sex. Marked developmental differences…
Adams, Adrienne E.; Greeson, Megan R.; Kennedy, Angie C.; Tolman, Richard M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used…
This paper argues that using the notion of ambivalence in understanding ethnic hatred can be helpful to educators who struggle to address the pedagogical implications of students' feelings of hatred. It is suggested that, although hate feelings are difficult to change, unraveling the ambivalence in the affective politics of hatred creates…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…
Sabia, Joseph J.
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.
This report describes a 12-week pilot phase of an affective education program in the Stuttgart School District, Arkansas. Participating in the program were 218 children, grades 2-4, and a team of nineteen teachers who were given 12 weeks of in-service training designed to facilitate their use of the DUSO, Focus on Self-Development Human…
van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien
Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…
Zirkel, Perry A., Ed.
This digest is a reference tool documenting 144 of the most important Supreme Court cases affecting education from 1859 to 1977, with emphasis on the decisions made during the past 25 years. Each case is written up in a three-part format that provides the facts and background of the case. The cases are organized into five sections: school district…
Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" has brought the issue of inequality to the centre of political debate. This article explores contemporary research on the relationship between education and inequality in conflict-affected contexts with a view to seeing how Piketty's work speaks to these issues as a field of research and…
Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul
This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…
Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather
This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…
Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
This paper reflects on key moments occurring during the course of a three-year study of elite girls' education, with a focus on the power relations that emerged between researchers and elites within the context in which the study was conducted. Central to our analysis is a focus on the affective dimensions of interaction between the researcher and…
Booth, Alan, Ed.; Dunn, Judith F., Ed.
This book explores issues related to the links between families and schools and how they affect children's educational achievement, and is organized as follows: Part 1, titled "Families and Schools: How Can They Work Together To Promote Children's School Success?" contains the following chapters: chapter 1, "Family Involvement in Chidrens' and…
Uno, Mayumi; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Kim, Minzee; Vuolo, Michael
Given mounting aspirations to graduate from college and pervasive difficulties in obtaining a four-year degree, growing numbers of young people in the United States have become "underachievers." Using data from the ongoing Youth Development Study, the authors examine the prevalence of "holding on" and "letting go" of high aspirations and the precursors of these states as youth move from high school through their mid-twenties. They find that advantage stemming from the family of origin and changing occupational circumstances engender persistence or reappraisal of earlier educational goals. PMID:21154830
This paper will examine the impact of worker displacement on health in the United States from 1975–2004, especially the extent to which the impact of displacement on health varies according to the economic conditions in the year of displacement and the education level of the displaced worker. Findings from ordered probit and fixed effects models suggest that the negative impact of displacement on health is exacerbated by a higher unemployment rate at the time of displacement and for displaced workers with a college degree. PMID:26004481
Day, Felix R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.
Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI). Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August) had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10), later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45) and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9) compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February) showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10), for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15) and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006). The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91) or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7). However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin
Velders, Guus J. M.; Geilenkirchen, Gerben P.; de Lange, Ronald
In past years, the European limit value for average annual NO 2 concentration has been exceeded in city streets and along motorways in the Netherlands. By 2015 the limit value must be adhered to in the Netherlands. Although the total road length for which exceedance is likely is expected to decrease over the coming years, exceedances may still occur by 2015. Future NO 2 concentrations not only depend on economic growth, current and proposed policies, and on inevitable meteorological fluctuations, they also depend on the effectiveness of technical measures to reduce emissions. New emission measurements for heavy-duty vehicles in the Euro-V (and Euro-III) emission standard categories, carried out under typical Dutch driving conditions, have revealed that real-world NO x emissions from these trucks are significantly higher than was previously estimated based on the reduction steps in the Euro emission standards. Emission levels were higher, by about a factor of three, along city streets, and 10 to 40% higher along motorways. These higher emission levels resulted in higher estimated national NO x emissions, increasing from 250 kt to 264 kt, compared with the national emission ceiling of 260 kt, to be adhered to by 2010. The higher emissions more than double the total road length with possible exceedance (chance >33%) of the NO 2 limit value; from about 100 km to about 250 km along cities streets and motorways, by 2015. These higher emissions from trucks, therefore, affect the chances of the limit values being adhered to, in time, everywhere in the Netherlands.
Background: Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. Aims: (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's…
Attainment data on England's school pupils are more extensive in coverage, detail, quantity, accessibility and of higher quality than monitoring statistics routinely available in other European countries. These data facilitate investigation of low attainment in England's schools and its relationship to ethnicity, gender and poverty. This article…
Education Trust, Washington, DC.
This report compares Idaho's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Idaho is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino, or low-income students and their white,…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Lara, Argelia
Recently, we have witnessed three trends impacting educational experiences for undocumented Mexican students: (a) a dramatic increase of Mexican-origin people, (b) organized and openly supported anti-immigrant policies with a racial dimension, and (c) increased participation by politicized migrants in national public discussions on immigration.…
Education Trust, Washington, DC.
This report compares Washington's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Washington is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American and Latino students and their white,…
Education Trust, Washington, DC.
This report compares Connecticut's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Connecticut is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino, or low-income students and…
Education Trust, Washington, DC.
This report compares Wisconsin's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Wisconsin is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American and Latino students and their white, middle…
Education Trust, Washington, DC.
This report compares Hawaii's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Hawaii is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between poor and non-poor students, the report presents NAEP data by…
Valentim, Silvani S.
This study examined a Preparatory Course for Blacks and the Economically Disadvantaged (PBED) in a poor area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The PBED is an alternative educational project that offers regular classes on evenings and weekends using volunteer labor, donated space, and contributions from students who can afford it. Case studies were used…
Zucker, Brian; Dawson, Royal
This analysis examined 16 student characteristics and their association with earnings 10 years after high school. The study used data from the High School and Beyond Longitudinal Study (HS&B) and the HS&B Postsecondary Education Transcript (PETS) file. The information in these files was gathered through a nationally representative survey of high…
Education Trust, Washington, DC.
This report compares Illinois's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Illinois is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino, or low-income students and their…
Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O
Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a
Peyrot, WJ; Lee, SH; Milaneschi, Y; Abdellaoui, A; Byrne, EM; Esko, T; de Geus, EJC; Hemani, G; Hottenga, JJ; Kloiber, S; Levinson, DF; Lucae, S; Martin, NG; Medland, SE; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Noethen, MM; Potash, JB; Rietschel, M; Rietveld, CA; Ripke, S; Shi, J; Willemsen, G; Zhu, Z; Boomsma, DI; Wray, NR; Penninx, BWJH
An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9,662 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 [0.75–0.82] per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common SNPs, three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on 120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a ten-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample) (ii) bivariate Genomic-Relationship-Matrix Restricted Maximum Likelihood (GREML), and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not due to measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved such as, for example, socioeconomic status. PMID:25917368
Peyrot, W J; Lee, S H; Milaneschi, Y; Abdellaoui, A; Byrne, E M; Esko, T; de Geus, E J C; Hemani, G; Hottenga, J J; Kloiber, S; Levinson, D F; Lucae, S; Martin, N G; Medland, S E; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Noethen, M M; Potash, J B; Rietschel, M; Rietveld, C A; Ripke, S; Shi, J; Willemsen, G; Zhu, Z; Boomsma, D I; Wray, N R; Penninx, B W J H
An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status. PMID:25917368
Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.
Fernando, Deepika; de Silva, Damani; Carter, Richard; Mendis, Kamini N; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nine months duration was carried out to investigate the impact of malaria and its prevention on the educational attainment of school children in a malaria-endemic area in southern Sri Lanka where both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections are prevalent. A total of 587 children attending grades 1-5 in four schools and resident in the area were randomly allocated to chloroquine (n = 295) and placebo (n = 292) arms. Language and mathematics scores of end-of-term school examinations for 1998 and 1999 and number of days absent and reasons for absenteeism during seven months pre-intervention and nine months of the intervention were recorded. The results indicate that there were no differences in language (95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.44-53.78 in chloroquine group and 50.43-55.81 in placebo group) and mathematics (95% CI = 49.24-54.38 in chloroquine group and 51.12-56.38 in placebo group) scores between the two groups prior to the intervention. During the intervention, the malaria incidence rate decreased by 55% (95% CI = 49-61%) and school absenteeism due to malaria was reduced by 62.5% (95% CI = 57-68%) in children who received chloroquine compared with the placebo group. Post-intervention, children who received chloroquine scored approximately 26% higher in both language (95% CI = 21-31%) and mathematics (95% CI = 23-33%) than children who received placebo. In a multivariate model, educational attainment was significantly associated with taking chloroquine prophylaxis and absenteeism due to malaria (P < 0.001 for both) but not due to health causes other than malaria or non-health causes. Language scores were associated with number of malaria attacks (P < 0.022). Educational attainment was significantly better among children whose compliance to chloroquine prophylaxis was higher (P < 0.001). The data suggest that malarial attacks have an adverse impact on the educational attainment of the school child and
Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C
Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust
Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n = 1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born in 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods…
This essay invites social studies educators to consider critical theoretical insights related to affect, emotions, and feelings from what has been termed "the affective turn" in social sciences and humanities scholarship. Developments in theorizing affect and recent research in social studies education are related to affective elements…
Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine
Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries were examined through field visits to the following countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, India, Jamaica, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, and Vanuatu. In each country, researchers interviewed key personnel, consulted local documentation, and conducted two empirical surveys…
Fortune, Dónal G; Walsh, R Stephen; Richards, Helen L
The cognitive reserve hypothesis has been proposed to account for the mismatch between brain pathology and its clinical expression. The aim of the current research was to explore, in a longitudinal data set, the effects of level of educational attainment before brain injury (cognitive reserve) and clinical factors on the level of rehabilitation-induced changes in disability and community integration. Participants in receipt of postacute rehabilitation were assessed at induction to the service and again at between 14 and 18 months of follow-up while still in service on changes in aspects of their abilities, adjustment and participation (Mayo Portland Adaptability Indices) and community integration (Community Integration Questionnaire). Controlling for type and severity of injury, age at onset of injury and duration of time since injury, participants with higher previous educational attainment showed significantly greater changes over the course of rehabilitation on adjustment to their injury and participation, but not on abilities, or community integration following postacute rehabilitation. Level of education would appear to be an important element of cognitive reserve in brain injury that serves to aid responses to postacute rehabilitation in terms of an individual's adjustment to disability and participation. PMID:27171606
Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A
Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156
This article examines Confucian thought affecting leadership and organizational culture of Korean higher education in order to understand leadership behavior and ethical values in Korean higher education from a viewpoint of educational administration. The writer evaluates that most of educational administrators in Korean higher education prefer…
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2006
The fastest-growing racial/ethnic groups in the nation and the SREB region -- Hispanics and African-Americans -- have below-average education attainment rates. If these gaps are not eliminated, continued increases in overall education progress will be impeded -- an unprecedented stall in the historical rise of America's education level. This…
Morse, William C.; And Others
Affective education methods in special education are the concern of the text. Goals, definitions, and processes in affective education are considered in Chapter 1, which also examines such topics as the relationship between affective education and mainstreaming, teacher role, and pupil focused affective education. Specific program content is…
Webster, Collin A.; Mindrila, Diana; Weaver, Glenn
Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for…
Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee
Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893
Kelly, Patrick J.
In 1997, policymakers in Kentucky enacted perhaps the most sweeping higher education reform legislation of any state in the past two decades. Kentucky's Postsecondary Education Improvement Act (House Bill 1) has been heralded by many higher education leaders across the U.S. as one of the great success stories--a rare instance when a state's…
Waga, Duncan; Makori, Esther; Rabah, Kefa
Kenya Educational and Research fraternity has highly qualified human resource capacity with globally gained experiences. However each research entity works in disparity due to the absence of a common digital platform while educational units don't even have the basic infrastructure. For sustainability of Education and research progression,…
Ideas in ten books which marked turning points in American educational directions are analyzed. William H. McGuffey's "Readers" (1836-44) set the moral and inspirational tone that still exists in American education, though now lessened and mainly in small-town America. "Medical Education in the United States and Canada" (Flexner, 1910) reflected…
Poor-quality, or completely absent, data deny millions of children the right to an education. This is often the case in conflict-ridden areas. The 2011 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (UNESCO 2011b) identified four failures that are holding back progress in education and damaging millions of children's lives: failures of protection,…
Owen, John M.; Hall, Kevin C.
The Australian Council for Educational Research and the New Zealand Council for Educational Research together developed an information dissemination package entitled "SET: Research Information for Teachers." This package consists of articles written in journalistic style that convey information concerning recent research in education to…
Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John
Background: Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Methods: Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990–91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. Results: IQ at 15 was MNAR—individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Conclusions: Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. PMID:25855709
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…
Grandy, Regan G.
In signing the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) education act in 2002, President George W. Bush enacted sweeping reform legislation that focuses on the assessment of students and new teachers, based upon state standards. Although statewide reading and math assessments have been implemented, as required by the NCLB legislation, states have until the 2007--2008 school year to begin assessing students' knowledge of state science standards and until the 2005--2006 school year to begin assessing new teachers' knowledge in science subjects. In the interim, there is a need to assess students' attainment of science standards and to assess new teachers' content knowledge in science subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if eighth grade students in southeast Idaho and elementary education majors of an Idaho university meet the K--8 Earth and Space Systems standards of the State of Idaho, as measured by the Earth and Space Systems Standards Assessment (ESSSA). This study also sought to determine if there are differences in the mean of the total scores on the ESSSA between the two groups, and if there are differences in the number of standards met between the groups. Subject Matter Experts were utilized to validate a 44-question, four-item, multiple-choice, all-text, two-items per content standard Earth and Space Systems Standards Assessment. The instrument was used to assess 517 eighth grade students in a southeast Idaho school district, and to assess 68 elementary education majors at a university in Idaho, during the spring of 2003. Results of this study indicate that eighth grade students met a mean of 8.18 of the 22 standards (37.1%), and that the elementary education majors met a mean of 9.75 of the 22 standards (44.3%). Eighth grade students also had a mean score of 25.46 out of 44 questions (57.8%), and the elementary education majors had a mean score of 28.54 out of 44 questions (64.8%). This study determined that the elementary education majors scored
Parker, Philip D; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake; Astell-Burt, Thomas
Geography remains a critical factor that shapes the development of aspirations, attainment, and choice in young people. We focus on the role of geography on university entry and aspirations due to the increasing requirement in society for a higher education qualification for access to prestigious positions in society. Using a large representative longitudinal database (N = 11,999; 50 % male; 27 % provincial or rural; 2 % Indigenous) of Australia youth we explore the association between distance to a university campus and the critical attainment outcomes of university entry and enrolment in an elite university as well as critical predictors of these outcomes in access to information resources (i.e., university outreach programs) and university aspirations. In doing so, we provide new insight into distance effects, and the extent that these are due to selection, cost, and community influence. Our findings suggest that distance is significantly associated with both university expectations and entrance, with an especially large impact upon young people from low socioeconomic backgrounds. However, we also find little evidence that distance is related to attending a university led information session. Our conclusion is that distance effects cannot be fully explained by selection in terms of academic achievement and socioeconomic status, and that anticipatory decisions and costs are the most likely drivers of the distance effect. PMID:26573863
Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy
Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…
Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in juvenile justice populations and their education-related outcomes and rates of high school graduation are poor. This study examined academic characteristics of youth with and without disabilities ("N" = 4,066) and reports on the education-related outcomes of these youth 3…
Benin, Mary Holland; Johnson, David R.
Tests the hypothesis that the amount of educational resemblance of siblings differs across the sex combinations of the pairs. Educational resemblance is greatest among older brother-younger brother pairs and smallest among older sister-younger sister pairs. The presence of inter-sibling effects best explains the resemblance among the brothers.…
King, Allison; Herron, Sonya; McKinstry, Robert; Bacak, Stephen; Armstrong, Melissa; White, Desiree; DeBaun, Michael
The primary objective of this study was to improve the educational success of children with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and cerebral infarcts. A prospective intervention trial was conducted; a multidisciplinary team was created to maximize educational resources for children with SCD and cerebral infarcts. Students were evaluated systematically…
Staklis, Sandra; Klein, Steven
Since the mid-1990s, the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) has required all students concentrating in career and technical education (CTE) programs to complete a standardized technical skill assessment at or near the end of their program. Results of technical skill assessments are used for a number of purposes, including recognizing…
"The Condition of Education" summarizes important developments and trends in U.S. education using the latest available data. The 2001 edition had a special focus essay on the access, persistence, and success of first-generation students (students whose parents did not attend college). To make the essay available to audiences interested in how…
van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand
This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…
Johnson, Carrie L.; Schumacher, Joel B.
Using webinar delivery for Extension financial education programs allows educators to reach a broader range of clientele. It can, however, be difficult to gauge participants' learning of concepts in an online environment. Evaluations of two webinar series, one in Montana and the other in South Dakota, sought to determine the effectiveness of using…
DeLuca, Stefanie; Plank, Stephen; Estacion, Angela
Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and its transcript component, we examine vocational education (now known as career and technical education, or CTE) for a recent cohort of youths. We describe and distinguish between CTE coursetaking and participation in particular career-related programs of courses and activities…
Sukirno, D. S.; Siengthai, Sununta
Purpose: The relationship between participation and job performance has captured the interest of not only business researchers but also education researchers. However, the topic has not gained significant attention in the educational management research arena. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of participation in…
Riddle, Joy F.
An ongoing distance learning project at the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) in Greeley is described. When the project, the Western Institute for Distance Education (WIDE), is complete, the system will provide access to education courses so that 98% of the state's population will be within 60 miles of a site. At present there are three…
Meyer, Stephen J.
Research in correctional education has focused on examining outcomes for participants and identifying principles and guidelines that reflect best practice. Relatively few studies have focused on postsecondary education programs and fewer still have sought to relate program implementation to student outcomes to inform program design and improve…
Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne
Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.
As evidence becomes increasingly important in educational policy, it is essential to understand how research design might contribute to reported effect sizes in experiments evaluating educational programs. A total of 645 studies from 12 recent reviews of evaluations of preschool, reading, mathematics, and science programs were studied. Effect…
Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert
As evidence-based reform becomes increasingly important in educational policy, it is becoming essential to understand how research design might contribute to reported effect sizes in experiments evaluating educational programs. The purpose of this study was to examine how methodological features such as types of publication, sample sizes, and…
Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000
Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)
Howe, Wayne J.
The author focuses on the relationship between the changing demographic composition and educational level of the labor force and the impact of those factors on the structural rise in unemployment. He discusses how the labor market has adjusted to the increased supply of young, well-educated workers by weakening the market for high school…
This article critically explores how educational leadership is becoming increasingly affective in order to cultivate pupil potential and thereby meet the challenge of creating the best schools in the world. It critically analyses policy and handbook approaches to affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulty in keeping…
Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy
In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…
Gross, Jacob P. K.; Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree
Using event history analysis, this study investigated to what extent differentiated forms of aid affected the educational attainment of various student populations with particular interest on the Latinos/as within this emerging settlement state: Indiana. Findings suggest that the effects of aid are moderated by race and ethnicity. State grants,…
Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…
Mitchell, Betty; Geva-May, Iris
This study explores attitudes towards and affecting online learning implementation (OLI). In recent years there has been greater acceptance of online learning (OL) by institutional decision-makers, as evidenced by higher levels of institutional involvement; nevertheless, the increase in faculty acceptance lags behind. This gap affects the…
Klopfer, Leopold E.
A classification scheme for the affective domain in relation to science education is presented in this article to clarify student's affective behaviors and their representative phenomena. Discussion is made in connection with the content-objectives grid in the cognitive domain. An analogous grid for the affective domain is delineated by a…
Bahr, Peter Riley
Variables that address student enrollment patterns (e.g., persistence, enrollment inconsistency, completed credit hours, course credit load, course completion rate, procrastination) constitute a longstanding fixture of analytical strategies in educational research, particularly research that focuses on explaining variation in academic outcomes.…
Onwuachu, Uche; Ngozi, N. Agu; Eyiuche, I. Olibie
This study investigated the resources allocated to Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) in junior secondary schools in Anambra State between 2003 and 2006. The study, which was based on three research questions and one null hypothesis, adopted the ex-post-facto research design. Twenty-six schools were selected using proportionate…
Lewallen, Theresa C.; Hunt, Holly; Potts-Datema, William; Zaza, Stephanie; Giles, Wayne
Background: The Whole Child approach and the coordinated school health (CSH) approach both address the physical and emotional needs of students. However, a unified approach acceptable to both the health and education communities is needed to assure that students are healthy and ready to learn. Methods: During spring 2013, the ASCD (formerly known…
Dalton, Cecil Jerome
This study represents a review of the literature along with an analysis of secondary data. The study analyzes and highlights the disparities in the quality of education provided to African American males. High school graduation rates among African American males as compared to other races suggest that there are factors that have created such…
Mearns, Tessa L.
This paper describes and evaluates an action research project carried out by a teacher in an English comprehensive school, where a class of 13- to 14-year-olds was taught personal, social and health education and German through content-language integrated learning (CLIL) over a six-week period. The purpose of the study was to explore how CLIL…
This workshop package provides training session outlines and materials for a workshop sequence on Title IX and sex equity in physical education. Three of these sessions are designed to provide general information and experiences relevant to all participants attending the workshop. The other two sessions, called "Application Sessions," are designed…
Background Measures used for medical student selection should predict future performance during training. A problem for any selection study is that predictor-outcome correlations are known only in those who have been selected, whereas selectors need to know how measures would predict in the entire pool of applicants. That problem of interpretation can be solved by calculating construct-level predictive validity, an estimate of true predictor-outcome correlation across the range of applicant abilities. Methods Construct-level predictive validities were calculated in six cohort studies of medical student selection and training (student entry, 1972 to 2009) for a range of predictors, including A-levels, General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs)/O-levels, and aptitude tests (AH5 and UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT)). Outcomes included undergraduate basic medical science and finals assessments, as well as postgraduate measures of Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) performance and entry in the Specialist Register. Construct-level predictive validity was calculated with the method of Hunter, Schmidt and Le (2006), adapted to correct for right-censorship of examination results due to grade inflation. Results Meta-regression analyzed 57 separate predictor-outcome correlations (POCs) and construct-level predictive validities (CLPVs). Mean CLPVs are substantially higher (.450) than mean POCs (.171). Mean CLPVs for first-year examinations, were high for A-levels (.809; CI: .501 to .935), and lower for GCSEs/O-levels (.332; CI: .024 to .583) and UKCAT (mean = .245; CI: .207 to .276). A-levels had higher CLPVs for all undergraduate and postgraduate assessments than did GCSEs/O-levels and intellectual aptitude tests. CLPVs of educational attainment measures decline somewhat during training, but continue to predict postgraduate performance. Intellectual aptitude tests have lower CLPVs than A-levels or GCSEs
Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A
Objectives To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers’ education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. Methods This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6–12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers’ education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver–child relationship and caregivers’ age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers’ educational attainment. Results Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers’ education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trend<0.001). Adjusted mean sleep efficiency was 75.7% (SE=1.4) among children of caregivers
Owners of all types of real properties, especially owners and occupants of big city downtown properties, have a high investment in the educational quality of the local labor force, and should encourage improvement even if it results in increased property taxes. Every real estate investment is "locked in" to the specific geographic location of the…
The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…
Kahl, A; Blandford, D H; Krueger, K; Zwick, D I
Serious problems have been identified in the prescribing of medications for elderly patients and use of prescription and nonprescription drugs by older persons. Overuse, underuse, and inappropriate use of drugs by the elderly have been widely documented, and the harmful consequences have been described. This paper reviews information concerning the need for action to improve health professionals' knowledge and skills with respect to drugs and the elderly and activities being undertaken by geriatric education centers (GECs) to enhance these capacities. Grant support for the centers from the Health Resources and Services Administration, a Public Health Service component agency, began in 1983. In fiscal year 1992 there are 31 centers operating in 26 States. The centers are multi-institutional and conduct four types of educational activities. These include review of pharmacological issues for multidisciplinary groups, specialized training for pharmacists, discipline-specific programs focusing on medication issues, and activities aimed at educating the public. Examples of the GECs' educational activities are given. PMID:1738807
Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.
In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…
Zirkel, Perry A.; And Others
This digest was designed to fill a gap in the legal literature and knowledge of educators; it was not intended to serve as an intensive or interpretive legal analysis. It provides a comprehensive and concise set of individual case summaries of United States Supreme Court cases decided by the Court as of December 1994. The cases were selected on…
In an era dominated by issues of school finance adequacy, it seems particularly important to provide evidence that, despite a number of claims to the contrary, educational resources are indeed positively related to improved student achievement. One of the hypotheses of this article is that expenditures per pupil must be disaggregated into more…
Baird, Katherine E.
Subsidies to higher education in the United States have long been guided by the belief that policy should encourage college attendance. In principle, if not always in practice, policy has for some time sought to accomplish this by addressing college affordability. General subsidies that keep tuition at public institutions low are coupled with…
Gregory, Gwendolyn H.
In 1981 the federal courts decided hundreds of cases involving schools relating to civil rights statutes, the First Amendment, the Fourth Amendment, and the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Lawsuits concerning the handicapped involved such issues as the costs of determining what is equal opportunity in education, full-time…
Sobe, Noah W.
This exploratory paper was prepared for a symposium held at the 2011 ISCHE conference in which participants were asked to envision future challenges in the historiography of education, to predict where the field was moving, and to imagine what innovations and new interests would arise in the subsequent 30 years. While the paper is playfully…
Drysdale, Diana A.; Modzeleski, William; Simons, Andre B.
On the third anniversary of the tragic shooting at Virginia Tech, the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Department of Education and the Federal Bureau of Investigation released this study of targeted violence incidents on U.S. campuses of higher learning. The three entities wanted to know how the prevalence of the incidents of targeted violence affect…
Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…
Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Ledley, T. S.
Today's students are increasingly aware of climate change and the relationship between climate change, energy use, society and sustainability. Scientific knowledge about these topics is advancing at a rapid pace, and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) include performance expectations about energy, sustainability and climate. If we intend to prepare this generation of students for their roles as the next generation of citizens, scientists, and professionals of all sorts, what knowledge, skills and habits of mind will be important, and how do these occur in the NGSS? This presentation will outline these teaching targets, and will describe educator teaching practices and needs around climate and energy literacy dimensions, as derived from surveys and interviews of a group of educators grades 6-16. This presentation will also present examples of resources, including peer-reviewed resources from the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network collection which can contribute to achieving these newly emphasized learning desirata.
Jawoniyi, Oluwafunmilayo Ololade; Gormley, Kevin
Organ and tissue dysfunction and failure cause high mortality rates around the world. Tissue and organs transplantation is an established, cost-effective, life-saving treatment for patients with organ failure. However, there is a large gap between the need for and the supply of donor organs. Acute and critical care nurses have a central role in the organ donation process, from identifying and assessing potential donors and supporting their families to involvement in logistics. Nurses with an in-depth knowledge of donation understand its clinical and technical aspects as well as the moral and legal considerations. Nurses have a major role to play in tackling organ and tissue shortages. Such a role cannot be adequately performed if nurses are not fully educated about donation and transplant. Such education could be incorporated into mandatory training and completed by all nurses. PMID:26153810
Evans, Nina; Ziaian, Tahereh; Sawyer, Janet; Gillham, David
A pilot study was conducted in a regional university setting to promote awareness of the value of affective teaching and learning amongst staff and students. Academic staff and students from diverse disciplines at University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE) were recruited to the study. The research investigated…
Johns, Roe L., Ed.; And Others
Eleven articles on various aspects of educational finance comprise this document, volume two of the NEFP series. Volume one of this series deals with educational needs, volume three with educational planning and finance, and volume four with the impact of educational finance programs. In general, the material in this volume treats education as a…
Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:26164820
Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari
Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…
Entrepreneurship education is and will likely continue to be affected by various societal, technological, educational, labor force, management, ideological, family, and institutional trends. In the area of the economy, these trends include a rise of middle-class society, the integration of the national economy, and the integration of the national…
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Sport Education Model ("SEM") on amotivated students affect and needs satisfaction. 78 amotivated students from an original pool of 1,176 students enrolled in one of 32 physical education classes. Classes were randomly assigned to either the "SEM" (N = 16)or traditional class (N = 16).…
British schools have been positioned by recent educational policy discourses as sites of innovation and transformation in new technological contexts, but more recent concerns about well-being suggest a more "affective turn" in educational policy-making. This article provides an analysis of a project which has explored the ways in which schools are…